Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 623
Filtrar
1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110923, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800210

RESUMO

Many studies have reported that exposure to ambient air pollution has adverse effects on health. However, there are little researches to explore the relationship between ambient air pollution and chronic sinusitis (CS). From January 1 2015 to December 31 2018, a time-series study were carried out to investigate the acute adverse roles of six criteria ambient air pollutants (fine particulate matter [PM2.5], inhalable particulate matter [PM10], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], sulfur dioxide [SO2], ozone [O3], and carbon monoxide [CO]) in hospital outpatients with CS in Xinxiang, China. Then, an over-dispersed Poisson generalized additive model was utilized to analyzed the relationships. In total, 183,943 hospital outpatient cases of CS were identified during the study period. We found that a 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, and CO corresponded to 0.48% (95% confidence interval: 0.22-0.74%), 0.33% (0.16-0.50%), 0.88% (0.13-1.62%), 1.98% (1.31-2.64%), and 0.05% (0.03-0.07%) increments, respectively, in CS outpatients on the current day. The young group (<15 years of age) was more susceptible than the adult or elderly groups. These results suggested that outdoor air pollutants might increase CS outpatient, especially among youth in Xinxiang. Precautions and protective measures should be strengthened to reduce the air pollution level in the future.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição por Inalação/estatística & dados numéricos , Sinusite/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , China/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Sinusite/induzido quimicamente , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Adulto Jovem
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237100, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760159

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cobalt exposure is known to cause adverse effects on health. A major use of cobalt is in the manufacture of hard metal. Exposure can lead to asthma, hard metal lung disease, contact allergy and increased risk of cancer. Cobalt is mainly absorbed from the pulmonary tract, however penetration through skin may occur. The relationships between exposure to inhalable cobalt in air and on skin and the uptake in blood and urine will be investigated, as well as the association between dermal symptoms and dermal exposure. METHODS: Cobalt exposure in 71 workers in hard metal production facilities was measured as inhalable cobalt in the breathing zone and cobalt found on skin with acid wash. Uptake of cobalt was determined with concentrations in blood and urine. Correlations between exposure and uptake were analysed. RESULTS: Inhalable cobalt in air and cobalt in blood and urine showed rank correlations with coefficients 0.40 and 0.25. Cobalt on skin and uptake in blood and urine presented correlation coefficients of 0.36 and 0.17. Multiple linear regression of cobalt in air and on skin with cobalt in blood showed regression coefficients with cobalt in blood (ß = 203 p < 0.0010, and ß = 0.010, p = 0.0040) and with cobalt in urine (ß = 5779, p = 0.0010, and ß = 0.10, p = 0.60). CONCLUSIONS: Our data presents statistically significant correlations between exposure to cobalt in air with uptake of cobalt in blood and urine. Cobalt on skin was statistically significant with cobalt in blood but not with urine.


Assuntos
Cobalto/sangue , Intoxicação por Metais Pesados/epidemiologia , Exposição por Inalação/estatística & dados numéricos , Metalurgia/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/sangue , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/urina , Cobalto/urina , Feminino , Intoxicação por Metais Pesados/sangue , Intoxicação por Metais Pesados/urina , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pele/metabolismo , Suécia
3.
J Water Health ; 18(4): 533-544, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833679

RESUMO

This study aimed to understand the exposure levels of trihalomethanes (THMs) in an indoor swimming pool and calculate the risks of exposure to THMs, based on the presence of each THM species, of children swimmers aged 6-17, in Beijing, China. We obtained exposure factors for the children through questionnaires and measured THM concentrations through laboratory tests, and we combined the results with an exposure model to calculate the risks, with consideration of different exposure routes (oral ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption). In terms of exposure factors for the swimmers aged 6-17, the average body weight, exposure duration, exposure frequency, swimming time, shower time, changing time, warm-up exercise and rest time, skin surface area and ingestion rate of pool water were 40.46 kg, 2.70 years, 96 events/year, 64.03 min/event, 17.04 min/event, 15.31 min/event, 12.71 min/event, 1.37 m2 and 48.93 ml/event, respectively. The THM concentrations in swimming pool water, shower water, swimming pool air and locker room air were 67.17 µg/L, 12.64 µg/L, 358.66 µg/m3 and 40.98 µg/m3, respectively. The average cancer risk of THMs was 5.44 × 10-6, which is an unacceptable risk according to the United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Guidelines. The average hazard index was 0.007, i.e., less than 1, indicating that the noncancer risk was acceptable. Chloroform (TCM) was the main substance in four species of THMs and inhalation exposure was the main exposure pathway. The risk of cancer and noncancer from inhalation exposure to THMs accounts for 97-99% of the total risk. As a result, the disease control authorities and administrative department should pay attention to the health and safety of swimming facilities and, at the same time, establish standards for THMs in the air through further research.


Assuntos
Exposição por Inalação/estatística & dados numéricos , Piscinas , Trialometanos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Clorofórmio , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Natação
4.
Chemosphere ; 260: 127451, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673876

RESUMO

This study aims to calculate deposition of PM2.5 -bound hazardous metals in different organs after inhalation of particulate matter for the Delhi (India), and to estimate risks to organs following inhalation. Bio-accessible fractions of three PM-associated carcinogenic metals (As, Pb &Cd) were calculated using the metal values in simulated lung fluids. Depositions of metals in different organs were calculated using an integrated model consists of HRT and PBPK models. The calculation indicates that the major or significant deposition of metal Pb occurs in tissues, such as bone, muscle and blood. Most of the depositions of Cd happens in lung whereas most of the depositions of As happens in lung, muscle and skin. Most of the deposition of studied metals was found in lung (45% for arsenic and 70% for cadmium of their bio -dissolved contents). The following order of depositions of metals in different tissues were found (from highest deposition to smallest deposition): As: Lung > muscle = liver; Pb: bone > blood > muscle; Cd: lung > intestine. The combined exposures of PM2.5 and its associated metals were found to give interaction-based hazard index greater than 1 for several months of the year, indicating a chance of health risk. Hazard quotient (HQ) <1 was seen for ingestion and dermal pathways, indicating no cause of concern. Findings indicate the need for doing periodic monitoring and estimating deposition doses and exposure risks of PM-associated metals to lungs and other organs for protecting human health.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Exposição por Inalação/estatística & dados numéricos , Metais/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Arsênico/análise , Fenômenos Biofísicos , Cádmio , Humanos , Índia , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Pulmão/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Estações do Ano
5.
PLoS Med ; 17(6): e1003141, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555635

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To date, few studies have investigated the causal relationship between mortality and long-term exposure to a low level of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We studied 242,320 registered deaths in Queensland between January 1, 1998, and December 31, 2013, with satellite-retrieved annual average PM2.5 concentrations to each postcode. A variant of difference-in-differences (DID) approach was used to investigate the association of long-term PM2.5 exposure with total mortality and cause-specific (cardiovascular, respiratory, and non-accidental) mortality. We observed 217,510 non-accidental deaths, 133,661 cardiovascular deaths, and 30,748 respiratory deaths in Queensland during the study period. The annual average PM2.5 concentrations ranged from 1.6 to 9.0 µg/m3, which were well below the current World Health Organization (WHO) annual standard (10 µg/m3). Long-term exposure to PM2.5 was associated with increased total mortality and cause-specific mortality. For each 1 µg/m3 increase in annual PM2.5, we found a 2.02% (95% CI 1.41%-2.63%; p < 0.01) increase in total mortality. Higher effect estimates were observed in Brisbane than those in Queensland for all types of mortality. A major limitation of our study is that the DID design is under the assumption that no predictors other than seasonal temperature exhibit different spatial-temporal variations in relation to PM2.5 exposure. However, if this assumption is violated (e.g., socioeconomic status [SES] and outdoor physical activities), the DID design is still subject to confounding. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to PM2.5 was associated with total, non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality in Queensland, Australia, where PM2.5 levels were measured well below the WHO air quality standard.


Assuntos
Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Mortalidade , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Queensland/epidemiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(26): 14642-14644, 2020 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522870

RESUMO

To prevent the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), some types of public spaces have been shut down while others remain open. These decisions constitute a judgment about the relative danger and benefits of those locations. Using mobility data from a large sample of smartphones, nationally representative consumer preference surveys, and economic statistics, we measure the relative transmission reduction benefit and social cost of closing 26 categories of US locations. Our categories include types of shops, entertainments, and service providers. We rank categories by their trade-off of social benefits and transmission risk via dominance across 13 dimensions of risk and importance and through composite indexes. We find that, from February to March 2020, there were larger declines in visits to locations that our measures indicate should be closed first.


Assuntos
Comportamento , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Exposição por Inalação/prevenção & controle , Modelos Estatísticos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Primária/estatística & dados numéricos , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos , Espaços Confinados , Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Busca de Comunicante/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Custos e Análise de Custo , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/estatística & dados numéricos , Museus , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Prevenção Primária/economia , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Quarentena/economia , Quarentena/métodos , Medição de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Smartphone/estatística & dados numéricos , Instalações Esportivas e Recreacionais , Estados Unidos
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(26): 14857-14863, 2020 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527856

RESUMO

Various mitigation measures have been implemented to fight the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, including widely adopted social distancing and mandated face covering. However, assessing the effectiveness of those intervention practices hinges on the understanding of virus transmission, which remains uncertain. Here we show that airborne transmission is highly virulent and represents the dominant route to spread the disease. By analyzing the trend and mitigation measures in Wuhan, China, Italy, and New York City, from January 23 to May 9, 2020, we illustrate that the impacts of mitigation measures are discernable from the trends of the pandemic. Our analysis reveals that the difference with and without mandated face covering represents the determinant in shaping the pandemic trends in the three epicenters. This protective measure alone significantly reduced the number of infections, that is, by over 78,000 in Italy from April 6 to May 9 and over 66,000 in New York City from April 17 to May 9. Other mitigation measures, such as social distancing implemented in the United States, are insufficient by themselves in protecting the public. We conclude that wearing of face masks in public corresponds to the most effective means to prevent interhuman transmission, and this inexpensive practice, in conjunction with simultaneous social distancing, quarantine, and contact tracing, represents the most likely fighting opportunity to stop the COVID-19 pandemic. Our work also highlights the fact that sound science is essential in decision-making for the current and future public health pandemics.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição por Inalação/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/classificação , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/prevenção & controle , Máscaras/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Prevenção Primária/estatística & dados numéricos , Quarentena/métodos , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
8.
J Environ Radioact ; 218: 106233, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421570

RESUMO

The Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accidents following the March 11, 2011 Tohoku earthquake, and subsequent tsunami released radioactive materials into the atmosphere and caused significant public health concerns, particularly thyroid cancers in children. However, the lack of measurement data for atmospheric concentrations of 131I has caused persistent and widespread uncertainty. This study estimated the maximum potential thyroid doses of inhaled 131I in the early post-accident phase between March 12 and 23, 2011 by using the hourly measured data of the 137Cs concentrations at 101 suspended particulate matter (SPM) monitoring sites, a new multi-model ensemble (MME) method of simulating 137Cs concentrations using two Atmospheric Transport and Deposition Models (ATDMs), the 131I/137Cs ratio obtained from measurement data analysis, and the internal exposure model. Based on the measurements, the maximum potential thyroid doses were estimated at 3.1-160 mSv at 5 sites in the Fukushima-Hamadori area for 1-year-old children assumed to remain outdoors, whereas they were less than 4.3 mSv at the other sites in the base case of the 131I/137Cs ratio. The spatial distribution of the maximum potential of early inhalation doses was estimated by using the MME and measurements. The inhalation thyroid doses in the evacuation scenarios were compared to the estimates reported by previous studies. The results of the present study were almost congruent with the outcomes of previous investigations except for thyroid doses contributed by highly contaminated plumes on March 12 and 15. The sensitivity analysis for the 131I/137Cs ratio indicated that these plumes carried the potential to significantly increase the thyroid doses of residents.


Assuntos
Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Radioisótopos do Iodo/análise , Doses de Radiação , Monitoramento de Radiação , Radioisótopos de Césio , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Exposição por Inalação/estatística & dados numéricos , Japão
9.
Chemosphere ; 256: 127058, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450353

RESUMO

Size-segregated samples of airborne particulate matter were collected at the coal-burning homes of the Hutou high lung cancer epidemic village and a comparison site Xize village of the Xuanwei County, Yuanan Province, by an Anderson Cascade Impact Sampler in winter and spring to study the toxicological characteristics of different-sized particles. The DNA damage caused by the water-soluble fractions of these size-segregated particles was analyzed by the plasmid scission assay, and the trace element compositions were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. The DNA damage rate from the airborne particles in the high lung cancer incidence area was higher than that in Xize village. The different-sized particles have highly varying DNA damage rates, with the values being greater in the small size range than in the large size range. The particle-induced DNA damage rates had a significantly positive correlation with total water-soluble trace elements. Further analysis of the individual elements indicated that the water-soluble heavy metals Zn, Cu, Cd, Rb, Cs, and Sb had a positive correlation with the particle-induced DNA damage, implying that these water-soluble heavy metals played an important role in the DNA damage. The Sr had a negative correlation with the particle-induced DNA damage, suggesting that the water-soluble Sr might counter DNA damage. The mass concentrations of the total and individual water-soluble trace elements were mostly enriched in the small particle size ranges, thus implying the indoor airborne particles in the small size ranges would have a higher health risk.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Carvão Mineral/análise , Exposição por Inalação/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , China/epidemiologia , Dano ao DNA , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Estações do Ano , Oligoelementos/análise
10.
Chemosphere ; 254: 126797, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334252

RESUMO

The multidimensional characteristics and temporal dynamics of environmental risks have stimulated a social-scientific approach towards air pollution issues in recent decades. It's now widely acknowledged that air pollution has an ineligible influence on the psychological wellbeing of citizens beyond its well-established physical impact. We explored how fine particulate matter (PM2.5), an essential air pollutant associated with morbidity and mortality, interacted with aspects of risk perception to influence citizen's mental stress level. Questionnaire data from 508 Nanjing citizens in China were collected across four seasons within an 18-month period. We found no evidence that mental stress was directly influenced by real-time PM2.5 exposure. However, path analysis revealed that mental stress was subjected to the indirect influence of physical symptoms (ß = 0.076, p = 0.11), by increasing perceived effect on health and increasing attribution to indoor pollution sources (ß = 0.038, p = 0.005). Indoor attribution of PM2.5 pollution was associated with perceived familiarity with risk (ß = -0.095, p = 0.033), whereas outdoor attribution was associated with perceived control of risk (ß = 0.091, p = 0.041). Public risk acceptable rate (PRAR) decreased as PM2.5 concentration increased. In females, but not males, greater trust for government was associated with the increased acceptance of PM2.5 (Year2017: ß = -0.19, p = 0.003; Year2022: ß = -0.21, p < 0.001). Using psychological statistical methods, our study implied that air pollution has a substantial association with psychological wellbeing in various ways, which might provide some references for public healthcare and risk communication.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição por Inalação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , China/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Material Particulado/análise , Estações do Ano , Adulto Jovem
11.
Chemosphere ; 244: 125537, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050337

RESUMO

Understanding exposure to air pollution during extreme events such as fire emergencies is critical for assessing their potential health impacts. However, air pollution emergencies often affect places without a network of air quality monitoring and characterising exposure retrospectively is methodologically challenging due to the complex behaviour of smoke and other air pollutants. Here we test the potential of roof cavity (attic) dust to act as a robust household-level exposure proxy, using a major air pollution event associated with a coal mine fire in the Latrobe Valley, Australia, as an illustrative study. To assess the relationship between roof cavity dust composition and mine fire exposure, we analysed the elemental and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon composition of roof cavity dust (<150µm) from 39 homes along a gradient of exposure to the mine fire plume. These homes were grouped into 12 zones along this exposure gradient: eight zones across Morwell, where mine fire impacts were greatest, and four in other Latrobe Valley towns at increasing distance from the fire. We identified two elements-barium and magnesium-as 'chemical markers' that show a clear and theoretically grounded relationship with the brown coal mine fire plume exposure. This relationship is robust to the influence of plausible confounders and contrasts with other, non-mine fire related elements, which showed distinct and varied distributional patterns. We conclude that targeted components of roof cavity dust can be a useful empirical marker of household exposure to severe air pollution events and their use could support epidemiological studies by providing spatially-resolved exposure estimates post-event.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/estatística & dados numéricos , Poeira/análise , Exposição por Inalação/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Austrália , Cidades , Carvão Mineral/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Mineração , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fumaça/análise
12.
Chemosphere ; 246: 125731, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918083

RESUMO

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and the majority of them have been proved to be detrimental to human health. The hazardous VOCs were studied very insufficiently in China, despite the enormous emissions of VOCs. In this study, the concentrations and sources of 17 hazardous VOCs reported in literature were reviewed, based on which the health effects were assessed. In-depth survey indicated that benzene and toluene had the highest concentrations in eastern China (confined to the study regions reviewed, same for the other geographic generalization), which however showed significant declines. The southern China featured high levels of trichloroethylene. Dichloromethane and chloroform were observed to be concentrated in northern China. The distributions of 1,2-dichloropropane and tetrachloroethylene were homogeneous across the country. Basically consistent with the spatial patterns of ozone, the summertime formaldehyde exhibited higher levels in eastern and northern China, and increased continuously. While transportation served as the largest source of benzene and toluene, industrial emissions and secondary formation were the predominant contributors of halogenated hydrocarbons and aldehydes (formaldehyde and acetaldehyde), respectively. The chronic non-cancer effects of inhalation exposure to the hazardous VOCs were insignificant, however the probabilities of developing cancers by inhaling the hazardous VOCs in ambient air of China were quite high. Formaldehyde was identified as the primary carcinogenic VOC in the atmosphere of most regions. The striking results, especially the high inhalation cancer risks, alerted us that the emission controls of hazardous VOCs were urgent in China, which must be grounded upon full understanding of their occurrence, presence and health effects.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Aldeídos , Atmosfera , Benzeno , China , Formaldeído , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/estatística & dados numéricos , Ozônio , Tolueno
13.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 224: 113436, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978732

RESUMO

The bioaccessibility of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) via inhalation has rarely been studied, as indicated by the literature. There is no model to calculate the SVOC bioaccessibility following inhalation, and measurement data have focused on only a few polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the particle phase. The present work developed a mechanistic model to address the mass transfer of inhaled SVOCs among the gas, particle and mucus phases in the human respiratory tract. The model considers (1) the SVOC partitioning between the gas and particle phases as well as between the gas and mucus phases and (2) the deposition of gas- and particle-phase SVOCs in the mucus of the respiratory tract. Based on the model, the inhalation bioaccessibility for 72 SVOCs was calculated. The SVOCs were measured in French dwellings at the nationwide scale, and their median concentrations in both the gas and particle phases were used for the bioaccessibility calculations. The results show that the inhalation bioaccessibility varies considerably from one compound to another, e.g., between 0.62 and 1.00 for phthalates, between 0.71 and 0.79 for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), between 0.48 and 0.56 for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), between 0.48 and 1.00 for different chemical families of pesticides and between 0.48 and 0.90 for PAHs.


Assuntos
Bioacumulação/fisiologia , Exposição por Inalação/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Biológicos , Sistema Respiratório , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Monitoramento Ambiental , Éteres Difenil Halogenados , Humanos , Praguicidas , Ácidos Ftálicos , Bifenilos Policlorados , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos
14.
Am J Epidemiol ; 189(6): 602-612, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907517

RESUMO

Numerous studies have indicated that ambient particulate matter is closely associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, yet the evidence for its association with renal disease remains underrecognized. We aimed to estimate the association between long-term exposure to fine particulate matter, defined as particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5), and mortality from renal failure (RF) among participants in the Elderly Health Service Cohort in Hong Kong, China, from 1998 to 2010. PM2.5 concentration at the residential address of each participant was estimated based on a satellite-based spatiotemporal model. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate risks of overall RF and cause-specific mortality associated with PM2.5. After excluding 5,373 subjects without information on residential address or relevant covariates, we included 61,447 participants in data analyses. We identified 443 RF deaths during the 10 years of follow-up. For an interquartile-range increase in PM2.5 concentration (3.22 µg/m3), hazard ratios for RF mortality were 1.23 (95% confidence interval: 1.06, 1.43) among all cohort participants and 1.42 (95% confidence interval: 1.16, 1.74) among patients with chronic kidney disease. Long-term exposure to atmospheric PM2.5 might be an important risk factor for RF mortality in the elderly, especially among persons with existing renal diseases.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição por Inalação/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado/análise , Insuficiência Renal/mortalidade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
15.
Chemosphere ; 244: 125447, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805459

RESUMO

In this study, personal exposure to benzene, toluene and xylene as important VOC species of incomplete combustion are assessed, considering the ventilation condition of the rural kitchens throughout the seasons. Annual mean total BTX levels were 148.51, 76.98, 34.91 and 13.34 µgm-3 for the rural kitchens with openness of <25%, 25-50%, 50-75% and >75% respectively. Overall annual mean concentration of benzene, toluene and xylene level was found to be 52.35, 8.85 and 7.23 µgm-3 respectively. Annual mean total BTX was found across the openness of the kitchens to be 68.43 µgm-3. There was no significant interaction between the independent variables 'openness' and 'season' explaining pollution exposure variability. Openness of the kitchens was the only significant predictor for BTX exposure concentration variation. Average daily dose (ADD) analysis showed median value of 1.439 × 10-3 mg/kg-day with 95% certainty range from 9.04 × 10-4 mg/kg-day to 2.220 × 10-3 mg/kg-day. Hazard index (HI) indicates no significant risk of non-carcinogenic effect from the exposure to benzene, toluene and xylene. In ADD and all non-cancerous risk estimates (HQ of benzene, toluene, xylene), exposure time emerges as the single most contributor whereas, annual average pollutant exposure is the second most risk contributor in all the cases. Lifetime cancer risk of benzene exceeded the acceptable level indicating probable cancer risk and inhalation unit risk alone contributes above 75%; exposure time came after with 16.3% contribution.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis/análise , Culinária , Exposição por Inalação/estatística & dados numéricos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Benzeno/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Medição de Risco , População Rural , Estações do Ano , Tolueno/análise , Xilenos/análise
16.
Indoor Air ; 30(2): 284-293, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814168

RESUMO

Chlorine-based disinfectants protect pool water from pathogen contamination but produce potentially harmful halogenated disinfection by-products (DBPs). This study characterized the bioaccumulation and elimination of exhaled DBPs post-swimming and investigated changes in exhaled breath profiles associated with chlorinated pool exposure. Nineteen participants provided alveolar-enriched breath samples prior to and 5, 90, 300, 510, and 600 minutes post-swimming. Known DBPs associated with chlorinated water were quantitated by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Two distinct exhaled DBP elimination profiles were observed. Most participants (84%) reported peak concentrations immediately post-swimming that reduced exponentially. A sub-group exhibited a previously unobserved and delayed washout profile with peak levels at 90 minutes post-exposure. Metabolomic investigations tentatively identified two candidate biomarkers associated with swimming pool exposure, demonstrating an upregulation in the hours after exposure. These data demonstrated a hitherto undescribed exhaled DBP elimination profile in a small number of participants which contrasts previous findings of uniform accumulation and exponential elimination. This sub-group which exhibited delayed peak-exhaled concentrations suggests the uptake, processing, and immediate elimination of DBPs are not ubiquitous across individuals as previously understood. Additionally, non-targeted metabolomics highlighted extended buildup of compounds tentatively associated with swimming in a chlorinated pool environment that may indicate airway responses to DBP exposure.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/estatística & dados numéricos , Desinfetantes/análise , Exposição por Inalação/estatística & dados numéricos , Piscinas , Natação , Biomarcadores , Cloro/análise , Desinfecção/métodos , Expiração , Halogenação , Humanos , Trialometanos/análise
17.
Indoor Air ; 30(1): 24-30, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539172

RESUMO

Household air pollution (HAP) is estimated to be an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but little clinical evidence exists and collecting biomarkers of disease risk is difficult in low-resource settings. Among 54 Nicaraguan women with woodburning cookstoves, we evaluated cross-sectional associations between 48-hour measures of HAP (eg, fine particulate matter, PM2.5 ) and C-reactive protein (CRP) via dried blood spots; secondary analyses included seven additional biomarkers of systemic injury and inflammation. We conducted sub-studies to calculate the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) in biomarkers collected over four consecutive days in Nicaragua and to assess the validity of measuring biomarkers in dried blood by calculating the correlation with paired venous-drawn samples in Colorado. Measures of HAP were associated with CRP (eg, a 25% increase in indoor PM2.5 was associated with a 7.4% increase in CRP [95% confidence interval: 0.7, 14.5]). Most of the variability in CRP concentrations over the 4-day period was between-person (ICC: 0.88), and CRP concentrations were highly correlated between paired dried blood and venous-drawn serum (Spearman ρ = .96). Results for secondary biomarkers were primarily consistent with null associations, and the sub-study ICCs and correlations were lower. Assessing CRP via dried blood spots provides a feasible approach to elucidate the association between HAP and cardiovascular disease risk.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/estatística & dados numéricos , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Exposição por Inalação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Poluição do Ar , Biomarcadores/sangue , Colorado , Culinária/métodos , Culinária/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nicarágua
18.
Indoor Air ; 30(1): 108-116, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608493

RESUMO

Exposure to particulate contaminants can cause serious adverse health effects. Deposition on the facial mucosa is an important path of exposure, but it is difficult to conduct direct dose measurement on real human subjects. In this study, we propose an in vitro method to assess the administered doses of micron-sized particles on the eyes and lips in which computed tomographic scanning and three-dimensional printing were used to create a model that includes a face, oropharynx, trachea, the first five generations of bronchi, and lung volume. This realistic model of a face and airway was exposed to monodispersed fluorescent particles released from an incoming jet. The administered dose of particles deposited upon the eyes and lips, as quantified by fluorescence intensity, was determined via a standard wiping protocol. The results show that, in this scenario, the administered doses normalized by source were 2.15%, 1.02%, 0.88%, 2.13%, and 1.55% for 0.6-, 1.0-, 2.0-, 3.0-, and 5.0-µm particles, respectively. The administered dose of large particles on the mucosa within a given exposure time has great significance. Moreover, the lips suffer a much greater risk of exposure than the eyes and account for more than 80% of total facial mucosa deposition. Our study provides a fast and economical method to assess the administered dose on the facial mucosa on an individual basis.


Assuntos
Exposição por Inalação/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Aerossóis , Brônquios , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Face , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/estatística & dados numéricos , Pulmão , Modelos Biológicos , Membrana Mucosa , Tamanho da Partícula , Impressão Tridimensional
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 702: 135056, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731128

RESUMO

Limited researches are available on seasonal variation of inhalation exposure of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and its cancer risk assessment in China. We recruited 20 fresh postgraduates and measured outdoor and indoor (dormitories, offices and laboratories) daily PM2.5 concentrations in four seasons (seven consecutive days in every season) during 2014 -2015, calculated daily potential doses of personal exposure to total Benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentration (BaPeq) in the microenvironments based on the total BaPeq and the time-activity patterns, and estimated incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) using Monte Carlo method. Daily average concentrations of PM2.5-bound ∑PAHs on the campus ranked from high to low were winter, autumn, spring, summer in the dormitories and offices. Daily average concentration of PM2.5-bound ∑PAHs were higher in indoor environments than outdoor in the same season, except for that of PM2.5-bound ∑PAHs in laboratories in the winter. Median values of ILCR in both sexes from high to low were winter (men vs. women: 5.35e-9 vs. 4.96e-9), spring (3.71e-9 vs. 4.00e-9), autumn (2.92e-9 vs. 3.02e-9), summer (1.71e-9 vs. 1.87e-9). Indoor and outdoor PM2.5-bound PAHs concentrations showed seasonal and spatial variations. The ILCR value for PM2.5-bound PAHs was higher in women than in men.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Exposição por Inalação/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Estações do Ano
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 698: 134229, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505341

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the environment are of significant concerns due to their high toxicity to human health. PAHs measurements at limited air quality monitoring stations alone are insufficient to gain a complete understanding of ambient levels and public exposure of PAHs in China. This study simulated the concentrations of PAHs in China, identified the source contributions, and estimated the health risks. Anthropogenic emissions of 16 priority PAHs directly associated with health risks were generated from the global high-resolution PKU-FUEL-2007 inventory. Open biomass burning emissions were generated from the Fire Inventory from NCAR (FINN). PAHs concentrations in January, April, July, and October 2013 were simulated using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model after incorporation of chemistry, partitioning, and deposition of PAHs. Predicted PAHs were in good agreement with seasonal and annual averaged observations from previous studies. The surface concentrations of 16-PAHs were higher in winter, with population weight average of 0.8 µg/m3 and peak value of 2.0 µg/m3 in urban areas in the North China Plain (NCP) and the Yangtze River Delta (YRD). Summer and spring exhibited lower concentrations of approximately 0.2 µg/m3 in most areas. The most important sources to PAHs were biomass burning and coal combustion in winter and industrial processes and oil and gas activities in summer. The cancer risk due to inhalation exposure of naphthalene (NAPH) and seven carcinogenic PAHs was significant, with the incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) of >5 × 10-4 in many urban and industrial areas. Exposure to PAHs was estimated to result in 15,198 excess lifetime cancer cases in China. Oil and gas burning associated with transport, residential and commercial activities were major contributors to ILCR in China. Coal combustion was predominant in Shanxi but less important in other regions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Exposição por Inalação/estatística & dados numéricos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , China , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Medição de Risco , Emissões de Veículos/análise
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA