Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 238
Filtrar
1.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0278836, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36662732

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Air pollution contains a mixture of different pollutants from multiple sources. However, the interaction of these pollutants with other environmental exposures, as well as their harmful effects on children under five in tropical countries, is not well known. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to characterize the external exposome (ambient and indoor exposures) and its contribution to clinical respiratory and early biological effects in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort study will be conducted on children under five (n = 500) with a one-year follow-up. Enrolled children will be followed monthly (phone call) and at months 6 and 12 (in person) post-enrolment with upper and lower Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) examinations, asthma development, asthma control, and genotoxic damage. The asthma diagnosis will be pediatric pulmonologist-based and a standardized protocol will be used. Exposure, effect, and susceptibility biomarkers will be measured on buccal cells samples. For environmental exposures PM2.5 will be sampled, and questionnaires, geographic information, dispersion models and Land Use Regression models for PM2.5 and NO2 will be used. Different statistical methods that include Bayesian and machine learning techniques will be used for the ambient and indoor exposures-and outcomes. This study was approved by the ethics committee at Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana. EXPECTED STUDY OUTCOMES/FINDINGS: To estimate i) The toxic effect of particulate matter transcending the approach based on pollutant concentration levels; ii) The risk of developing an upper and lower ARI, based on different exposure windows; iii) A baseline of early biological damage in children under five, and describe its progression after a one-year follow-up; and iv) How physical and chemical PM2.5 characteristics influence toxicity and children's health.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Asma , Poluentes Ambientais , Expossoma , Humanos , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Teorema de Bayes , Mucosa Bucal/química , Poluição do Ar/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Asma/epidemiologia
2.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 2279, 2022 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36471295

RESUMO

Non-pharmacological interventions (e.g., stay-at-home orders, school closures, physical distancing) implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic are expected to have modified routines and lifestyles, eventually impacting key exposome parameters, including, among others, physical activity, diet and cleaning habits. The objectives were to describe the exposomic profile of the general Cypriot population and compliance to the population-wide measures implemented during March-May 2020 to lower the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, and to simulate the population-wide measures' effect on social contacts and SARS-CoV-2 spread. A survey was conducted in March-May 2020 capturing different exposome parameters, e.g., individual characteristics, lifestyle/habits, time spent and contacts at home/work/elsewhere. We described the exposome parameters and their correlations. In an exposome-wide association analysis, we used the number of hours spent at home as an indicator of compliance to the measures. We generated synthetic human proximity networks, before and during the measures using the dynamic-[Formula: see text]1 model and simulated SARS-CoV-2 transmission (i.e., to identify possible places where higher transmission/number of cases could originate from) on the networks with a dynamic Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered model. Overall, 594 respondents were included in the analysis (mean age 45.7 years, > 50% in very good health and communicating daily with friends/family via phone/online). The median number of contacts at home and at work decreased during the measures (from 3 to 2 and from 12 to 0, respectively) and the hours spent at home increased, indicating compliance with the measures. Increased time spent at home during the measures was associated with time spent at work before the measures (ß= -0.87, 95% CI [-1.21,-0.53]) as well as with being retired vs employed (ß= 2.32, 95% CI [1.70, 2.93]). The temporal network analysis indicated that most cases originated at work, while the synthetic human proximity networks adequately reproduced the observed SARS-CoV-2 spread. Exposome approaches (i.e., holistic characterization of the spatiotemporal variation of multiple exposures) would aid the comprehensive description of population-wide measures' impact and explore how behaviors and networks may shape SARS-CoV-2 transmission.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Expossoma , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , COVID-19/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemias , Chipre/epidemiologia
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 21615, 2022 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36517625

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown certain exposure factors (such as lifestyle and metabolism) are associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) events. However, the application of the exposome theoretical frame and the extent to which the exposome domain can modulate the risk of CRC remain unknown. Our study aimed to construct valid exposome measurements and examine the relationship between exposome counts and the risk of CRC. This study included 335,370 individuals in the UK Biobank. We used exploratory factor analysis to identify a valid construct of exposome factors. We then summed the exposome counts within each domain. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals of CRC risk related to the exposome factors and counts. During an 8.69 year median follow-up, 10,702 CRC cases were identified. Five domains were extracted from 12 variables, including ecosystem, lifestyle, tobacco and alcohol use, social economics, and social support. The Cox model results showed that the ecosystem was positively related to the reduced CRC risk (HR = 0.970; 95% CI 0.952-0.989). Similar results were also found among the domains of healthy lifestyles (HR = 0. 889; 95% CI 0.871-0.907), and no tobacco and alcohol use (HR = 0.892; 95% CI 0.876-0.909). The disadvantageous social economic (HR = 1.081; 95% CI 1.058-1.105) and insufficient social support domains (HR = 1.036; 95% CI 1.017-1.056) were associated with an increased risk of CRC. Similar risk trends were also observed across the exposome count groups with CRC incidence. Our findings suggest that certain exposure domains are related to the incidence of CRC. Ecosystem, lifestyle, and social factors can be incorporated into prediction models to identify individuals at high risk of CRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Expossoma , Humanos , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco , Ecossistema , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Incidência
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36554627

RESUMO

Genetic and exposomal factors contribute to the development of human aging. For example, genetic polymorphisms and exposure to environmental factors (air pollution, tobacco smoke, etc.) influence lung and skin aging traits. For prevention purposes it is highly desirable to know the extent to which each category of the exposome and genetic factors contribute to their development. Estimating such extents, however, is methodologically challenging, mainly because the predictors are often highly correlated. Tackling this challenge, this article proposes to use weighted risk scores to assess combined effects of categories of such predictors, and a measure of relative importance to quantify their relative contribution. The risk score weights are determined via regularized regression and the relative contributions are estimated by the proportion of explained variance in linear regression. This approach is applied to data from a cohort of elderly Caucasian women investigated in 2007-2010 by estimating the relative contribution of genetic and exposomal factors to skin and lung aging. Overall, the models explain 17% (95% CI: [9%, 28%]) of the outcome's variance for skin aging and 23% ([11%, 34%]) for lung function parameters. For both aging traits, genetic factors make up the largest contribution. The proposed approach enables us to quantify and rank contributions of categories of exposomal and genetic factors to human aging traits and facilitates risk assessment related to common human diseases in general. Obtained rankings can aid political decision making, for example, by prioritizing protective measures such as limit values for certain exposures.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Exposição Ambiental , Expossoma , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Envelhecimento/genética , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
5.
Clin Transl Med ; 12(11): e1100, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36336785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Viral infection is a major cause of morbidity in children with mitochondrial disease (MtD). As a result, families with children with MtD are highly adherent to risk mitigation behaviours (RMBs) advised by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention during the COVID-19 pandemic that can modulate infection risk. METHODS: Deep serologic phenotyping of viral infections was performed via home-based sampling by combining SARS-CoV-2 serologic testing and phage display immunoprecipitation and sequencing. Samples were collected approximately 1 year apart (October 2020 to April 2021 and October 2021 to March 2022) on households containing a child with MtD. RESULTS: In contrast to our first collection in 2020-2021, SARS-CoV-2 antibody profiles for all participants in 2021-2022 were marked by greater isotype diversity and the appearance of neutralizing antibodies. Besides SARS-CoV-2, households (N = 15) were exposed to >38 different respiratory and gastrointestinal viruses during the study, averaging five viral infections per child with MtD. Regarding clinical outcomes, children with MtD (N = 17) experienced 34 episodes of illness resulting in 6 hospitalizations, with some children experiencing multiple episodes. Neurologic events following illness were recorded in five patients. Infections were identified via clinical testing in only seven cases. Viral exposome profiles were consistent with clinical testing and even identified infections not captured by clinical testing. CONCLUSIONS: Despite reported adherence to RMBs during the COVID-19 pandemic by families with a child with MtD, viral infection was pervasive. Not all infections resulted in illness in the child with MtD, suggesting that some were subclinical or asymptomatic. However, selected children with MtD did experience neurologic events. Our studies emphasize that viral infections are inexorable, emphasizing the need for further understanding of host-pathogen interactions through broad serologic surveillance.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Expossoma , Doenças Mitocondriais , Viroses , Estados Unidos , Criança , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemias
6.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 2097, 2022 11 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36384521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Racial inequities in maternal mortality in the U.S. continue to be stark. METHODS: The 2015-2018, 4-year total population, county-level, pregnancy-related mortality ratio (PRM; deaths per 100,000 live births; National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), restricted use mortality file) was linked with the Public Health Exposome (PHE). Using data reduction techniques, 1591 variables were extracted from over 62,000 variables for use in this analysis, providing information on the relationships between PRM and the social, health and health care, natural, and built environments. Graph theoretical algorithms and Bayesian analysis were applied to PHE/PRM linked data to identify latent networks. RESULTS: PHE variables most strongly correlated with total population PRM were years of potential life lost and overall life expectancy. Population-level indicators of PRM were overall poverty, smoking, lack of exercise, heat, and lack of adequate access to food. CONCLUSIONS: In this high-dimensional analysis, overall life expectancy, poverty indicators, and health behaviors were found to be the strongest predictors of pregnancy-related mortality. This provides strong evidence that maternal death is part of a broader constellation of both similar and unique health behaviors, social determinants and environmental exposures as other causes of death.


Assuntos
Expossoma , Saúde Pública , Gravidez , Feminino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Teorema de Bayes , Mortalidade Materna , Expectativa de Vida
7.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 7024, 2022 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36411288

RESUMO

Environmental exposures during early life play a critical role in life-course health, yet the molecular phenotypes underlying environmental effects on health are poorly understood. In the Human Early Life Exposome (HELIX) project, a multi-centre cohort of 1301 mother-child pairs, we associate individual exposomes consisting of >100 chemical, outdoor, social and lifestyle exposures assessed in pregnancy and childhood, with multi-omics profiles (methylome, transcriptome, proteins and metabolites) in childhood. We identify 1170 associations, 249 in pregnancy and 921 in childhood, which reveal potential biological responses and sources of exposure. Pregnancy exposures, including maternal smoking, cadmium and molybdenum, are predominantly associated with child DNA methylation changes. In contrast, childhood exposures are associated with features across all omics layers, most frequently the serum metabolome, revealing signatures for diet, toxic chemical compounds, essential trace elements, and weather conditions, among others. Our comprehensive and unique resource of all associations ( https://helixomics.isglobal.org/ ) will serve to guide future investigation into the biological imprints of the early life exposome.


Assuntos
Expossoma , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Metaboloma , Transcriptoma
8.
Hum Genomics ; 16(1): 54, 2022 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36348440

RESUMO

Age-related diseases account for almost half of all diseases among adults worldwide, and their incidence is substantially affected by the exposome, which is the sum of all exogenous and endogenous environmental exposures and the human body's response to these exposures throughout the entire lifespan. Herein, we perform a comprehensive review of the epidemiological literature to determine the key elements of the exposome that affect the development of age-related diseases and the roles of aging hallmarks in this process. We find that most exposure assessments in previous aging studies have used a reductionist approach, whereby the effect of only a single environmental factor or a specific class of environmental factors on the development of age-related diseases has been examined. As such, there is a lack of a holistic and unbiased understanding of the effect of multiple environmental factors on the development of age-related diseases. To address this, we propose several research strategies based on an exposomic framework that could advance our understanding-in particular, from a mechanistic perspective-of how environmental factors affect the development of age-related diseases. We discuss the statistical methods and other methods that have been used in exposome-wide association studies, with a particular focus on multiomics technologies. We also address future challenges and opportunities in the realm of multidisciplinary approaches and genome-exposome epidemiology. Furthermore, we provide perspectives on precise public health services for vulnerable populations, public communications, the integration of risk exposure information, and the bench-to-bedside translation of research on age-related diseases.


Assuntos
Expossoma , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Envelhecimento/genética
10.
Environ Health Perspect ; 130(11): 116001, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36350665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposome research aims to describe and understand the extent to which all the exposures in human environments may affect our health over the lifetime. However, the way in which humans interact with their environment is socially patterned. Failing to account for social factors in research exploring the exposome may underestimate the magnitude of the effect of exposures or mask inequalities in the distribution of both exposures and outcomes. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to describe the extent to which social factors appear in the exposome literature, the manner in which they are used in empirical analyses and statistical modeling, and the way in which they are considered in the overall scientific approach. METHODS: We conducted a scoping review of the literature using three databases (PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science) up to January 2022. We grouped studies based on the way in which the social variables were used in the analyses and quantified the type and frequency of social variables mentioned in the articles. We also qualitatively described the scientific approach used by authors to integrate social variables. RESULTS: We screened 1,001 records, and 73 studies were included in the analysis. Fifty-five (∼75%) used social variables as exposures or confounders or both, and a wide array of social variables were represented in the articles. Individual-level social variables were more often found, especially education and race/ethnicity, as well as neighborhood-level deprivation indices. Half of the studies used a hypothesis-free approach and the other half, a hypothesis-driven approach. However, in the latter group, of 35 studies, only 8 reported and discussed at least one possible social mechanism underlying the relationship observed between the social variable and the outcome. DISCUSSION: Social factors in exposome research should be considered in a more systematic way, considering their role in structuring both the specific external and the internal exposome. Doing so could help to understand the mechanisms of construction and, potentially, alleviate social inequalities in health and mitigate the emergence of new ones. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP11015.


Assuntos
Expossoma , Humanos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Características de Residência , PubMed
11.
Front Public Health ; 10: 973000, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36211706

RESUMO

Climate change is an anthropogenic phenomenon that is alarming scientists and non-scientists alike. The emission of greenhouse gases is causing the temperature of the earth to rise and this increase is accompanied by a multitude of climate change-induced environmental exposures with potential health impacts. Tracking human exposure has been a major research interest of scientists worldwide. This has led to the development of exposome studies that examine internal and external individual exposures over their lifetime and correlate them to health. The monitoring of health has also benefited from significant technological advances in the field of "omics" technologies that analyze physiological changes on the nucleic acid, protein, and metabolism levels, among others. In this review, we discuss various climate change-induced environmental exposures and their potential health implications. We also highlight the potential integration of the technological advancements in the fields of exposome tracking, climate monitoring, and omics technologies shedding light on important questions that need to be answered.


Assuntos
Expossoma , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Ácidos Nucleicos , Mudança Climática , Humanos , Incerteza
12.
Joint Bone Spine ; 89(6): 105455, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35964886

RESUMO

The exposome integrates the variety and accumulation of exposures (external and internal) to which an individual is submitted to from conception to death. Exposome may therefore be a useful tool for understanding the diversity of these factors and their role in the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Life is perceived as a continuum of cumulative changes, with key periods of disruption (e.g. birth, adolescence, pregnancy, prolonged treatment). The combination of these changes and the external signals that cause them constitute an individual's exposome, which is constantly changing and expanding throughout life. Thus, measuring the exposome requires specific tools and approaches as well as a global perspective. RA, a complex, heterogeneous, pro-inflammatory autoimmune disease with a genetic component and for which a large number of environmental factors have already been incriminated is an appropriate field of application for the exposome. The aim of this review is to define the exposome concept, outline the different analytic tools available for its study and finally apply them to the field of RA.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , Expossoma , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Artrite Reumatoide/genética
13.
Allergy ; 77(11): 3199-3216, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35976185

RESUMO

Humans inhale, ingest, and touch thousands of fungi each day. The ubiquity and diversity of the fungal kingdom, reflected by its complex taxonomy, are in sharp contrast with our scarce knowledge about its distribution, pathogenic effects, and effective interventions at the environmental and individual levels. Here, we present an overview of salient features of fungi as permanent players of the human exposome and key determinants of human health, through the lens of fungal allergy and other fungal hypersensitivity reactions. Improved understanding of the fungal exposome sheds new light on the epidemiology of fungal-related hypersensitivity diseases, their immunological substratum, the currently available methods, and biomarkers for environmental and medical fungi. Unmet needs are described and potential approaches are highlighted as perspectives.


Assuntos
Expossoma , Hipersensibilidade , Humanos , Biomarcadores
14.
Environ Res ; 214(Pt 3): 113981, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35952739

RESUMO

Silicone wristbands act as passive environmental samplers capable of detecting and measuring concentrations of a variety of chemicals. They offer a noninvasive method to collect complex exposure data in large-scale epidemiological studies. We evaluated the inter-method reliability of silicone wristbands and urinary biomarkers in the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study. A subset of study participants (n = 96) provided a urine sample and wore a silicone wristband for 7 days at approximately 12 gestational weeks. Women were instructed to wear the wristbands during all their normal activities. Concentrations of urinary compounds and metabolites in the urine and parent compounds in wristbands were compared. High detection rates were observed for triphenyl phosphate (76.0%) and benzophenone (78.1%) in wristbands, although the distribution of corresponding urinary concentrations of chemicals did not differ according to whether chemicals were detected or not detected in wristbands. While detected among only 8.3% of wristbands, median urinary triclosan concentrations were higher among those with triclosan detected in wristbands (9.04 ng/mL) than without (0.16 ng/mL). For most chemicals slight to fair agreement was observed across exposure assessment methods, potentially due to low rates of detection in the wristbands for chemicals where observed urinary concentrations were relatively low as compared to background concentrations in the general population. Our findings support the growing body of research in support of deploying silicone wristbands as an important exposure assessment tool.


Assuntos
Expossoma , Retardadores de Chama , Triclosan , Biomarcadores , Estudos de Coortes , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Feminino , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Humanos , Gravidez , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Silicones/química
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(16)2022 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36012346

RESUMO

Due to its preferred habitats in the environment, the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has become a realistic target organism for pollutants, including manufactured nanoparticles. In the laboratory, the invertebrate animal model represents a cost-effective tool to investigate the molecular mechanisms of the biological response to nanomaterials. With an estimated number of 22,000 coding genes and short life span of 2-3 weeks, the small worm is a giant when it comes to characterization of molecular pathways, long-term low dose pollutant effects and vulnerable age-groups. Here, we review (i) flows of manufactured nanomaterials and exposition of C. elegans in the environment, (ii) the track record of C. elegans in biomedical research, and (iii) its potential to contribute to the investigation of the exposome and bridge nanotoxicology between higher organisms, including humans. The role of C. elegans in the one health concept is taken one step further by proposing methods to sample wild nematodes and their molecular characterization by single worm proteomics.


Assuntos
Expossoma , Nematoides , Saúde Única , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Nematoides/genética
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(14)2022 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35886959

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract that encompass two main phenotypes, namely Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. These conditions occur in genetically predisposed individuals in response to environmental factors. Epigenetics, acting by DNA methylation, post-translational histones modifications or by non-coding RNAs, could explain how the exposome (or all environmental influences over the life course, from conception to death) could influence the gene expression to contribute to intestinal inflammation. We performed a scoping search using Medline to identify all the elements of the exposome that may play a role in intestinal inflammation through epigenetic modifications, as well as the underlying mechanisms. The environmental factors epigenetically influencing the occurrence of intestinal inflammation are the maternal lifestyle (mainly diet, the occurrence of infection during pregnancy and smoking); breastfeeding; microbiota; diet (including a low-fiber diet, high-fat diet and deficiency in micronutrients); smoking habits, vitamin D and drugs (e.g., IBD treatments, antibiotics and probiotics). Influenced by both microbiota and diet, short-chain fatty acids are gut microbiota-derived metabolites resulting from the anaerobic fermentation of non-digestible dietary fibers, playing an epigenetically mediated role in the integrity of the epithelial barrier and in the defense against invading microorganisms. Although the impact of some environmental factors has been identified, the exposome-induced epimutations in IBD remain a largely underexplored field. How these environmental exposures induce epigenetic modifications (in terms of duration, frequency and the timing at which they occur) and how other environmental factors associated with IBD modulate epigenetics deserve to be further investigated.


Assuntos
Expossoma , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Animais , Epigenoma , Inflamação/genética , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/epidemiologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/genética , Modelos Animais
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35886395

RESUMO

The evolution of the Exposome concept revolutionised the research in exposure assessment and epidemiology by introducing the need for a more holistic approach on the exploration of the relationship between the environment and disease. At the same time, further and more dramatic changes have also occurred on the working environment, adding to the already existing dynamic nature of it. Natural Language Processing (NLP) refers to a collection of methods for identifying, reading, extracting and untimely transforming large collections of language. In this work, we aim to give an overview of how NLP has successfully been applied thus far in Exposome research. METHODS: We conduct a literature search on PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science for scientific articles published between 2011 and 2021. We use both quantitative and qualitative methods to screen papers and provide insights into the inclusion and exclusion criteria. We outline our approach for article selection and provide an overview of our findings. This is followed by a more detailed insight into selected articles. RESULTS: Overall, 6420 articles were screened for the suitability of this review, where we review 37 articles in depth. Finally, we discuss future avenues of research and outline challenges in existing work. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that (i) there has been an increase in articles published that focus on applying NLP to exposure and epidemiology research, (ii) most work uses existing NLP tools and (iii) traditional machine learning is the most popular approach.


Assuntos
Expossoma , Processamento de Linguagem Natural , Aprendizado de Máquina , Narração , PubMed
19.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 79(9): 857-868, 2022 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35857297

RESUMO

Importance: Although hypothesis-driven research has identified several factors associated with psychosis, this one-exposure-to-one-outcome approach fails to embrace the multiplicity of exposures. Systematic approaches, similar to agnostic genome-wide analyses, are needed to identify genuine signals. Objective: To systematically investigate nongenetic correlates of psychotic experiences through data-driven agnostic analyses and genetically informed approaches to evaluate associations. Design, Setting, Participants: This cohort study analyzed data from the UK Biobank Mental Health Survey from January 1 to June 1, 2021. An exposome-wide association study was performed in 2 equal-sized split discovery and replication data sets. Variables associated with psychotic experiences in the exposome-wide analysis were tested in a multivariable model. For the variables associated with psychotic experiences in the final multivariable model, the single-nucleotide variant-based heritability and genetic overlap with psychotic experiences using linkage disequilibrium score regression were estimated, and mendelian randomization (MR) approaches were applied to test potential causality. The significant associations observed in 1-sample MR analyses were further tested in multiple sensitivity tests, including collider-correction MR, 2-sample MR, and multivariable MR analyses. Exposures: After quality control based on a priori criteria, 247 environmental, lifestyle, behavioral, and economic variables. Main Outcomes and Measures: Psychotic experiences. Results: The study included 155 247 participants (87 896 [57%] female; mean [SD] age, 55.94 [7.74] years). In the discovery data set, 162 variables (66%) were associated with psychotic experiences. Of these, 148 (91%) were replicated. The multivariable analysis identified 36 variables that were associated with psychotic experiences. Of these, 28 had significant genetic overlap with psychotic experiences. One-sample MR analyses revealed forward associations with 3 variables and reverse associations with 3. Forward associations with ever having experienced sexual assault and pleiotropy of risk-taking behavior and reverse associations without pleiotropy of experiencing a physically violent crime as well as cannabis use and the reverse association with pleiotropy of worrying too long after embarrassment were confirmed in sensitivity tests. Thus, associations with psychotic experiences were found with both well-studied and unexplored multiple correlated variables. For several variables, the direction of the association was reversed in the final multivariable and MR analyses. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this study underscore the need for systematic approaches and triangulation of evidence to build a knowledge base from ever-growing observational data to guide population-level prevention strategies for psychosis.


Assuntos
Expossoma , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
20.
Front Public Health ; 10: 871140, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35774568

RESUMO

Developmental age is particularly vulnerable to impacts of environmental exposures. Until recent years, the field of environment and child health has predominantly relied on the study of single exposure-health effect relationships. The exposome is an emerging concept in epidemiology, encompassing the totality of the exposures experienced by an individual throughout life and their changes over time. This innovative approach provides a risk profile instead of individual predictors. Exposome research may contribute to better understand the complex relationships between environmental exposures and childhood respiratory health, in order to implement prevention strategies and mitigate adverse health outcomes across the life span. Indeed, an accurate assessment of the exposome needs several measurements as well as different technologies. High-throughput "omics" technologies may be promising tools to integrate a wide range of exposures. However, analyzing large and complex datasets requires the development of advanced statistical tools. This narrative review summarizes the current knowledge on exposome-based approaches in pediatric respiratory health. Further, it explores practical implementation, associated evidence gaps, research limitations and future research perspectives.


Assuntos
Expossoma , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Humanos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...