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1.
Klin Lab Diagn ; 66(2): 95-98, 2021 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33734642

RESUMO

The purpose of this work was to show the effectiveness of the cytological method on a small number of observations, excluding all possible errors of the preanalytical stage. The paper presents several simple and easily reproducible algorithms for the cytological study of serous pleural effusions with small cellular content. On the example of 20 observations of the study of the cellular composition of serous exudates, a direct dependence of the research results on the preanalytical stage is shown. A complete study of effusion fluids in compliance with all stages of preanalytics and the use of modern methods of cytological diagnostics makes it possible to nullify the options for false-negative.


Assuntos
Líquidos Corporais , Derrame Pleural Maligno , Derrame Pleural , Líquido Ascítico , Exsudatos e Transudatos , Humanos
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(6): e24027, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578518

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disease with unknown etiology. It affects mainly the lungs, but it can affect almost any other organ. Nevertheless, pleural involvement with the development of pleural effusion is relatively rare. It is usually mild and responsive to treatment with systemic steroids. Here we present a case of rapidly recurring massive unilateral pleural effusion caused by sarcoidosis that was resistant to systemic steroids. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 55-year-old lady presented with shortness of breath of 2-months duration. No other respiratory symptoms were reported. On physical examination, there were signs of left-sided pleural effusion, splenomegaly, and inguinal lymph nodes. These findings were confirmed by chest x-ray showing massive pleural effusion. Work up of the effusion revealed an exudative effusion with lymphocyte predominance. Pan-computed tomography scan revealed multiple thoracic, abdominal and inguinal lymphadenopathy; additionally, a left-sided pleural effusion and an enlarged spleen; that contained variable hypodense nodular lesions. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography showed intense uptake in the spleen and the lymph nodes. Inguinal lymph node biopsy showed non-necrotizing granulomatous inflammation. Due to suspicion of malignancy, left medical thoracoscopy was done, and biopsy of the parietal pleura showed nonspecific inflammation without evidence of malignancy or tuberculosis. DIAGNOSIS: Sarcoidosis was diagnosed based on the finding of the non-necrotizing granulomatous inflammation with no evidence of malignancy or infection on several microbiological and pathological samples. INTERVENTIONS: The patient was treated with repeated pleural fluid drainage. Steroids failed to prevent pleural effusion recurrence. Surgical left side pleurodesis was eventually performed. OUTCOMES: At more than 1 year follow up, the patient showed no recurrence of pleural effusion or development of any other symptoms. LESSONS: Sarcoidosis may rarely present with massive pleural effusion, as this presentation is rare; it is imperative to rule out other causes of massive pleural effusion. Massive pleural effusion in sarcoidosis may be steroid-resistant. Pleurodesis may have a role in such a scenario.


Assuntos
Derrame Pleural/etiologia , Sarcoidose/complicações , Sarcoidose/patologia , Biópsia , Drenagem/métodos , Dispneia/etiologia , Exsudatos e Transudatos/citologia , Feminino , Humanos , Linfadenopatia/diagnóstico por imagem , Linfadenopatia/etiologia , Linfadenopatia/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pleura/cirurgia , Derrame Pleural/cirurgia , Pleurodese/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Radiografia Torácica/métodos , Recidiva , Sarcoidose/diagnóstico por imagem , Toracoscopia/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 176, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological and clinical features of patients with corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were well delineated. However, no researches described the patients complicated with pleural effusion (PE). In the present study, we aimed to clinically characterize the COVID-19 patients complicated with PE and to create a predictive model on the basis of PE and other clinical features to identify COVID-19 patients who may progress to critical condition. METHODS: This retrospective study examined 476 COVID-19 inpatients, involving 153 patients with PE and 323 without PE. The data on patients' past history, clinical features, physical checkup findings, laboratory results and chest computed tomography (CT) findings were collected and analyzed. LASSO regression analysis was employed to identify risk factors associated with the severity of COVID-19. RESULTS: Laboratory findings showed that patients with PE had higher levels of white blood cells, neutrophils, lactic dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein and D-dimer, and lower levels of lymphocytes, platelets, hemoglobin, partial pressure of oxygen and oxygen saturation. Meanwhile, patients with PE had higher incidence of severe or critical illness and mortality rate, and longer hospital stay time compared to their counterparts without pleural effusion. Moreover, LASSO regression analysis exhibited that pleural effusion, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), D-dimer and total bilirubin (TBIL) might be risk factors for critical COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Pleural effusion could serve as an indicator for severe inflammation and poor clinical outcomes, and might be a complementary risk factor for critical type of COVID-19.


Assuntos
/patologia , Derrame Pleural/patologia , Adulto , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , /fisiopatologia , China , Exsudatos e Transudatos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Derrame Pleural/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
4.
J Parasitol ; 107(1): 23-28, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33498082

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal nematode infection of small ruminants causes losses in livestock production. Plant compounds show promises as alternatives to commercial anthelmintics that have been exerting selective pressures that lead to the development of drug-resistant parasites. Soybean (Glycine max) is an economical value crop, with a higher protein content compared to other legumes. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the protease inhibitors exuded from the G. max mature seeds have anthelmintic activity against Haemonchus contortus. To obtain the soybean exudates (SEX), mature seeds were immersed in 100 mM sodium acetate buffer, pH 5.0, at 10 C, for 24 hr. Then the naturally released substances present in SEX were collected and exhaustively dialyzed (cutoff 12 kDa) against distilled water. The dialyzed seed exudates (SEXD) were heated at 100 C for 10 min and centrifuged (12,000 g, at 4 C for 15 min). The supernatant obtained was recovered and designated as the heat-treated exudate fraction (SEXDH). The protein content, protease inhibitor activity, and the effect of each fraction on H. contortus egg hatch rate were evaluated. The inhibition extent of SEX, SEXD, and SEXDH on H. contortus egg proteases was 31.1, 42.9, and 63.8%, respectively. Moreover, SEX, SEXD, and SEXDH inhibited the egg hatching with EC50 of 0.175, 0.175, and 0.241 mg ml-1, respectively. Among the commercial protease inhibitors tested, only EDTA and E-64 inhibited the H. contortus hatch rate (79.0 and 28.9%, respectively). We present evidence demonstrating that soybean exudate proteins can effectively inhibit H. contortus egg hatching. This bioactivity is displayed by thermostable proteins and provides evidence that protease inhibitors are a potential candidate for anthelmintic use.


Assuntos
Exsudatos e Transudatos/química , Haemonchus/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Sementes/química , Soja/química , Animais , Hemoncose/parasitologia , Hemoncose/veterinária , Haemonchus/enzimologia , Haemonchus/fisiologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Peptídeo Hidrolases/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores de Proteases/isolamento & purificação , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Proteínas de Soja/química
5.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 23(2): 323-334, 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33464270

RESUMO

The ocean contains ice nucleating substances (INSs), some of which can be emitted to the atmosphere where they can influence the formation and properties of clouds. A possible source of INSs in the ocean is exudates from sea-ice diatoms. Here we examine the concentrations and properties of INSs in supernatant samples from dense sea-ice diatom communities collected from Ross Sea and McMurdo Sound in the Antarctic. The median freezing temperatures of the samples ranged from approximately -17 to -22 °C. Based on our results and a comparison with results reported in the literature, the ice nucleating ability of exudates from sea-ice diatoms is likely not drastically different from the ice nucleating ability of exudates from temperate diatoms. The number of INSs per mass of DOC for the supernatant samples were lower than those reported previously for the sea surface microlayer and bulk sea water collected in the Arctic and Atlantic. The INSs in the supernatant sample collected from Ross Sea were not sensitive to temperatures up to 100 °C, were larger than 300 kDa, and were different from ice shaping and recrystallization inhibiting molecules present in the same sample. Possible candidates for these INSs include polysaccharide containing nanogels. The INSs in the supernatant sample collected from McMurdo Sound were sensitive to temperatures of 80 and 100 °C and were larger than 1000 kDa. Possible candidates for these INSs include protein containing nanogels.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas , Regiões Antárticas , Regiões Árticas , Exsudatos e Transudatos , Camada de Gelo
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 764: 144436, 2021 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401039

RESUMO

Root exudates could influence the bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), provide nutrients for soil microorganisms, and affect PAH biodegradation. However, it remains unclear how a bacterial community and its PAH-degrading genes play crucial roles in PAH biodegradation and respond to root exudates. In this study, a 32-day soil microcosm study was conducted to explore the impacts of artificial and actual root exudates on PAH degradation, degrading genes, and bacterial community structure. The results showed that 10-100 mg DOC/kg artificial and actual root exudates promoted the degradation of naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene in soils, and their percent removal increased initially and then decreased with the increasing root exudates. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis and 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing suggested that the artificial root exudates significantly promoted the Nocardioides and Arthrobacter genera, which may harbor the nidA gene (the representative PAH-degrading gene from Gram-positive bacteria). In contrast, actual root exudates significantly stimulated the Pseudomonas genus that may harbor the nahAc gene (the representative PAH-degrading gene from Gram-negative bacteria). The correlation analysis further indicated that the absolute abundance of PAH degraders and degrading genes had strong correlations with PAH degradation efficiency. Therefore, these findings suggest that root exudates enhanced PAH biodegradation probably due to increases in abundance of both PAH-degraders and their degrading genes.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Exsudatos e Transudatos/química , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
7.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (1): 22-26, 2021.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33395508

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of chemical pleurodesis with talc and trichloroacetic acid during thoracoscopy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thoracoscopy with pleural biopsy was performed in 355 (83.5%) out of 424 patients with pleural effusion. Pleurodesis was ensured by intraoperative insufflation of talc powder (n=135) and application of 33% trichloroacetic acid solution to parietal and visceral pleura (n=19) in patients with malignant (125), inflammatory (6), post-traumatic (4), tuberculous (3), pancreatogenic (8) and hepatogenic (8) effusions. Drainage tubes were removed if daily drainage output volume was less than 100 ml or complete lung inflation was observed. RESULTS: Post-pleurodesis drainage took 7.1±5.4 days. Two patients developed bumpy rashes that were initially interpreted as carcinomatosis. However, these rashes were later identified as tuberculosis. Retrospectively, these patients were not good candidates for pleurodesis. Pleurodesis with talc suppressed exudation in 89.6% of cases. Complications developed in 4 cases (3%): pneumonia (1) and pleural empyema (3). These complications were associated with a violation of technical procedure of pleurodesis, i.e. procedure in rigid lung, atelectasis (1) and bronchopleural fistula (2). Mean duration of drainage after trichloroacetic acid-induced pleurodesis was 7.9±6.7 days. This procedure was effective in 84.2% of cases, and there were no complications. There are no previous reports on the use of this pleurodesis technique in the literature. Mean duration of drainage after talc-induced pleurodesis was decreased up to 6.9±5.4 days in patients with malignant pleural effusion (p<0.05), after trichloroacetic acid-induced pleurodesis - up to 7.5±8.1 days (p>0.05) compared to patients without pleurodesis (9.1±11.2 days). CONCLUSION: Pleurodesis with talc or trichloroacetic acid during thoracoscopy is effective for pleural effusions following malignancies, liver, kidney and cardiac diseases with decompensation. Essential requirements are adequate lung inflation, no atelectasis and bronchopleural fistula.


Assuntos
Derrame Pleural , Pleurisia , Pleurodese/métodos , Soluções Esclerosantes , Talco , Ácido Tricloroacético , Administração Tópica , Exsudatos e Transudatos , Humanos , Derrame Pleural/diagnóstico , Derrame Pleural/etiologia , Derrame Pleural/terapia , Pleurisia/etiologia , Pleurisia/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Soluções Esclerosantes/administração & dosagem , Soluções Esclerosantes/efeitos adversos , Talco/administração & dosagem , Talco/efeitos adversos , Toracoscopia , Ácido Tricloroacético/administração & dosagem , Ácido Tricloroacético/efeitos adversos
8.
J Plant Res ; 134(1): 127-139, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33403567

RESUMO

The Swartzia species are commonly known as bloodwood due to the red exudate released from the stem after injury. This exudate has aroused great interest, and an integrative study is essential to describe it in detail. Thus, this work aimed to identify the red exudate's secreting-site in S. flaemingii and S. langsdorffii, and determine if it is a latex or a resin. Samples of the stem bark and the secondary xylem were prepared for histological analysis. Fresh exudates were dissolved in deuterated methanol and analyzed by 1H-NMR; other samples were resuspended in MeOH:H2O (9:1), partitioned with organic solvents and analyzed by direct infusion mass spectrometry. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were determined spectrophotometrically, and antioxidant capacity was determined using ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. The results showed that the exudate is a red latex produced by articulated laticifers located among the phloem cells. The latex is composed of sucrose, catechin glucosides, chlorophyll derivatives, and hederagenin-type saponins. Both samples of S. flaemingii and S. langsdorffii presented high amounts of phenolics and flavonoids, as well as a strong antioxidant capacity. The anatomical study showed that the secreting-site of the Swartzia red exudates were laticifers. This finding allows us to exclude other substances such as resin or oleoresin, generally produced by secretory cavities or ducts. Furthermore, since laticifers are rare in Fabaceae, this finding is significant, and represents an essential taxonomic feature. The showy red color is due to the large amounts of flavonoids. This latex probably has a protective role against microorganisms and photodamage. The bioactive potential of this exudate inspires further studies, which may boost the economic importance of Swartzia.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Antioxidantes , Exsudatos e Transudatos , Flavonoides , Látex , Floema , Extratos Vegetais
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 4, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397312

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) is the most common extrapulmonary manifestation and may have lasting effect on lung function. However conventional diagnostic tests for TPE register multiple limitations. This study estimates diagnostic efficacy of the interferon gamma release assay (IGRA: T-SPOT.TB) in TPE patients of different characteristics. METHODS: We performed a prospective, single-centre study including all suspected pleural effusion patients consecutively enrolled from June 2015 to October 2018. Through receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, technical cut-offs and the utility of T-SPOT on pleural fluid (PF) were determined and analysed. Logistic regression analysis was performed to obtain the independent risk factors for TPE, and evaluated the performance of the T-SPOT assay stratified by risk factors in comparison to ADA. RESULTS: A total of 601 individuals were consecutively recruited. The maximum spot-forming cells (SFCs) of early secretory antigenic target-6 (ESAT-6) and culture filtrate protein-10 (CFP-10) in the PF T-SPOT assay had the best diagnostic efficiency in our study, which was equal to ADA (0.885 vs 0.887, P = 0.957) and superior to peripheral blood (PB), with a sensitivity of 83.0% and a specificity of 83.1% (The cut-off value was 466 SFCs/106 mononuclear cells). Among the TPE patients with low ADA (< 40 IU/L), the sensitivity and specificity of PF T-SPOT were still 87.9 and 90.5%, respectively. The utility of ADA was negatively related to increasing age, but the PF T-SPOT test had a steady performance at all ages. Age (< 45 yrs.; odds ratio (OR) = 5.61, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.59-8.78; P < 0.001), gender (male; OR = 2.68, 95% CI 1.75-2.88; P < 0.001) and body mass index (BMI) (< 22; OR = 1.93, 95% CI 1.30-2.88; P = 0.001) were independently associated with the risk of TB by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Notably, when stratified by risk factor, the sensitivity of PF T-SPOT was superior to the sensitivity for ADA (76.5% vs. 23.5%, P = 0.016) and had noninferior specificity (84.4% vs. 96.9%, P = 0.370). CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the PF T-SPOT assay can effectively discriminate TPE patients whose ADA is lower than 40 IU/L and is superior to ADA in unconventional TPE patients (age ≥ 45 yrs., female or BMI ≥ 22). The PF T-SPOT assay is an excellent choice to supplement ADA to diagnose TPE.


Assuntos
Adenosina Desaminase/análise , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Testes de Liberação de Interferon-gama/métodos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Derrame Pleural/diagnóstico , Derrame Pleural/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pleural/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pleural/epidemiologia , Adenosina Desaminase/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Pequim/epidemiologia , Exsudatos e Transudatos/química , Exsudatos e Transudatos/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Derrame Pleural/microbiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Escarro/química , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pleural/microbiologia
10.
J Integr Med ; 19(2): 185-190, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33349611

RESUMO

After one-month of oral treatment with traditional Chinese medicine decoction, without using other drugs, the lung inflammatory exudate, pulmonary fibrosis and quality of life of a 61-year-old female patient with corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were significantly improved. No recurrence or deterioration of the patient's condition was found within seven weeks of treatment and follow-up, and no adverse events occurred, indicating that oral Chinese medicine decoction was able to improve the pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in a patient recovering from COVID-19, but further research is still needed.


Assuntos
/complicações , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Fitoterapia , Fibrose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Exsudatos e Transudatos , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/etiologia , Pulmão/patologia , Magnoliopsida , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fibrose Pulmonar/etiologia
11.
Chemosphere ; 263: 128041, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854013

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are environmental pollutants that represent a serious threat to the health of humans and ecosystems. The effects of plant root and artificial root exudates (ARE) on the biodegradation of phenanthrene (PHE) and their impact on soil bacterial community structure was the focus of this work using four treatments for 180 days. Treatments included; control treatment (CK), low concentration of ARE (AREL), high concentration of ARE (AREH), and planting Koelreuteria paniculata saplings (KOE). The diversity and composition of soil bacterial community were analyzed using high-throughput sequencing. The results showed that KOE treatments had the most significant effect on the biodegradation of PHE compared to controls. ARE treatments had the similar effects on the biodegradation of PHE in soil with high efficiency in AREH than AREL. Both KOE and ARE treatments reduced diversity of bacterial community but increased the abundance of PAHs degrading bacterial populations within representative phyla, including Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. During the study, the total bacterial OTUs showed the number of unique genus types initially increased, then lowered in the later stages of the incubation process. Specific bacterial populations enriched by the treatments and supported by the exudates seemed to determine the biodegradation of PHE and not the overall bacterial diversity.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Exsudatos de Plantas/metabolismo , Sapindaceae/microbiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Exsudatos e Transudatos/metabolismo , Fenantrenos/química , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Características de Residência , Solo/química
12.
J Cosmet Dermatol ; 20(2): 372-380, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350028

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The emergence of COVID-19 has become a global health emergency. The transmissibility of the disease is of great interest to healthcare workers and scientists alike. The primary route of transmission is via respiratory droplets, but viral RNA has also been found in feces and body fluids such as urine, serum, and semen. So far, there has been no report on whether SARS-CoV-2 is present in the exudates of cutaneous lesions. This study was designed to investigate whether SARS-CoV-2 can be found in the pressure injury exudates in patients with severe COVID-19 infections. METHODS: 46 critically ill COVID-19 patients who were admitted to the ICU of the Sino-French New City Branch of Tongji Hospital in Wuhan between February 4 and April 12 developed pressure injuries. 22 patients with pressure injuries had wound exudates. Wound and pharyngeal swabs of the 22 patients were collected and RT-PCRs were conducted to detect SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA. RESULTS: At the time of pressure injury, 5 patients still tested positive by pharyngeal swabs, the rest of the 17 patients tested negative. However, none of the wound exudate swabs from the participants tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that it is rather unlikely that COVID-19 can be transmitted via pressure injury exudates, but we still recommend standardized personal protective equipment, face shield and an additional pair of gloves when treating pressure injuries.


Assuntos
/virologia , Exsudatos e Transudatos/virologia , Lesão por Pressão/virologia , /isolamento & purificação , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
AIDS ; 35(1): 53-62, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33273183

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the cytokine and viral profiles of effusions and peripheral blood among patients diagnosed with HIV and Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus [KSHV, also known as human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8)]-associated conditions. DESIGN: Retrospective comparative study evaluating clinicopathologic findings in patients with HIV and KSHV-associated conditions presenting with an effusion between 2010 and 2018. METHODS: Paired peripheral blood and effusion samples collected at the time of pathological diagnosis of KSHV-associated conditions [Kaposi sarcoma, KSHV-associated multicentric Castleman disease (KSHV-MCD), primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), or KSHV-associated inflammatory cytokine syndrome (KICS)] were evaluated for disease-specific and compartment-specific (effusion vs. blood) characteristics. We assessed 12 cytokines, KSHV viral DNA (KSHV-VL), and Epstein--Barr virus (EBV) viral DNA (EBV-VL). RESULTS: Nine patients had PEL, five patients had KSHV-MCD, and eight patients met criteria for KICS; all but one patient had concurrent Kaposi sarcoma in addition to these conditions. PEL effusions had substantially higher levels of IL-13 (median 16.9 pg/ml; interquartile range 9.7--26.9 pg/ml) compared with KSHV-MCD (median <0.114 pg/ml; P = 0.0037) or KICS (median <0.114 pg/ml; P = 0.0003) effusions. IL-13 was also higher in PEL effusions as compared with serum (median <0.12 ng/ml; P = 0.007). KSHV-VL levels were significantly higher in PEL effusions as compared with KICS effusions (median 31 × 10 vs. 569 copies/million-cell equivalent; P = 0.0005) or KSHV-MCD effusions (median 231,884 copies/million-cell equivalent; P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: PEL effusions had a distinct profile as compared to other KSHV-associated diseases with regard to elevated IL-13 and KSHV-VL. These findings may provide insights into PEL pathogenesis and aid in diagnosis.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Herpesvirus Humano 8 , Interleucina-13/metabolismo , Linfoma de Efusão Primária , Sarcoma de Kaposi , Exsudatos e Transudatos , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/metabolismo , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Vestn Otorinolaringol ; 85(4): 16-23, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885631

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Otitis media with effusion (OME) accounts for 15-17% of the total number of recorded diseases of the middle ear. Surgical methods have become much more common. One of the factors affecting the tactics and effectiveness of treatment OME is the degree of viscosity of the effusion. Modern diagnostic methods do not allow to reliably identify cases of OME with high effusion viscosity. OBJECTIVE: To study the possibilities of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in the diagnosis of OME and a non-invasive study of effusion viscosity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An analysis of the results of the examination of 29 patients who underwent surgical treatment for OME - tympanostomy. A control group of 30 patients without middle ear pathology. The study used a spectral OCT with a non-contact probe designed specifically for studies of the structural middle ear. Quantitative analysis of the results using open source ImageJ. Objectification of the degree of viscosity of the effusion was carried out by means of viscometry. A comparative analysis of the intensity of the optical signal in the external auditory canal (EAC) and in the tympanic cavity (TC) was performed, as well as a comparison of the signal from viscous and fluid effusion. RESULTS: In all patients with OME, during the OCT study, an optical signal with a higher intensity was recorded in TC than in the EAC. In all cases, in the control group in the TC, an optical signal was recorded that was identical in intensity with the signal in the EAC. When measuring the degree of viscosity of the effusion, 17 cases of OME were characterized as effusion of a low degree of viscosity, 12 cases - effusion of extreme viscosity. When comparing the average intensity of the optical signal of the OCT images of viscous and liquid effusion, a statistically significant difference was revealed, p<0.001. DISCUSSION: OCT makes it possible to detect light scattering from large scatterers - cell structures characteristic of low viscosity effusion. In addition, OCT allows you to register an optical signal from small scatterers - high molecular weight structures that are present in large quantities in viscous effusion. A correlation was found between the intensity of the optical signal in the TC and the degree of viscosity of the middle ear effusion. CONCLUSIONS: Based on OCT data, it is possible to determine the indications for surgical treatment of OME by detecting viscous exudate.


Assuntos
Otite Média com Derrame/cirurgia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Orelha Média , Exsudatos e Transudatos , Humanos , Ventilação da Orelha Média
15.
Toxicon ; 186: 94-104, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781076

RESUMO

Clinical manifestations of envenomings by bites of the viperid snakes Bothrops asper and Daboia russelii show marked differences. Both venoms elicit the typical effects induced by viperid venoms (local tissue damage, bleeding, coagulopathies, shock). In addition, envenomings by D. russelii are characterized by a high incidence of acute kidney injury and by systemic capillary leak syndrome. The present investigation aimed to compare the local pathological and inflammatory events induced by the intramuscular injection of these venoms in a mouse model. B. asper venom induced stronger local hemorrhage, whereas D. russelii venom caused a higher extent of myonecrosis, and both venoms induced inflammation. Exudates collected from the site of tissue damage showed higher proteolytic activity in the case of samples from B. asper venom-treated mice. This activity was abrogated by antivenoms, indicating that it is the result of the action of venom proteinases. In addition, an increase in matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) over time was detected in exudates induced by both venoms. Proteome analysis of exudates revealed higher abundance of extracellular matrix (ECM)-derived protein fragments in samples collected from B. asper venom-injected mice, whereas those from D. russelii venom-injected animals had higher amounts of intracellular proteins. Analysis of the subproteome of inflammatory mediators in exudates showed various patterns of change over time. Some mediators peaked at 180 min and decreased afterwards, whereas others increased and remained elevated during the 360 min observation period. Interestingly, various mediators (MIP-1α, MIP-1ß, KC, MIP-2, GM-CSF, VEGF, and LIX) increased and then decreased in the case of B. asper venom, while they remained elevated at 360 min in the case of D. russelii venom. Our findings show that these venoms induce a different pattern of local tissue damage and suggest that the venom of D. russelii induces a more sustained inflammatory reaction, an observation that may have implications for the pathophysiology of envenomings.


Assuntos
Antivenenos/uso terapêutico , Bothrops , Venenos de Crotalídeos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Víbora de Russell , Mordeduras de Serpentes , Animais , Exsudatos e Transudatos , Hemorragia , Camundongos , Proteoma
16.
Chirurgia (Bucur) ; 115(3): 334-340, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614288

RESUMO

PURPOSE: to present our experience in the management of pathological nipple discharge using the procedure D.DL.DB: "ductoscopy" (D) coupled to "duct lavage" (DL) plus "duct brushing" (DB) for etiologic diagnosis. Also to compare the diagnosis obtained with D.DL.DB to the final histology. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Eighty-five patients with organic unilateral nipple discharge were enrolled in two Breast Units. 82 of 85 patients were investigated successfully with D.DL.DB. Results:: The final histological results were: papilloma 46.3%, duct ectasia 36.5%, breast cancer 8.5%, precancer lesions 4.9%, and mixed benign lesions 3.8%. Pyramidectomy and radical ductectomy were performed in 76 and 6 cases respectively. In 80% of the cases, DLDB cytology results were identical to the final histology. (Kappa=0;69 CI=[0.56 -0.82]. The sensitivity of D.DL.DB versus pathology, for cancer or precancer lesions was 81.8% (CI=0.59 -1) and the specificity was 97.1% (CI=0.93 -1). Using Koch scale, the concordance between the two methods D.DL.DB and surgery was high and the sensitivity was in the upper range regarding the literature (58% to 90%). CONCLUSION: Our experience confirms the high value of D.DL.DB in the management of organic nipple discharge.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Derrame Papilar , Mamilos , Endoscopia , Exsudatos e Transudatos , Humanos , Irrigação Terapêutica , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 218: 279-287, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621891

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study evaluated the risk and risk factors for exudative retinal detachment (ERD) in ocular inflammatory diseases. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: Patients with noninfectious ocular inflammation had been followed longitudinally between 1978 and 2007 at 4 US subspecialty uveitis centers. The main outcome measurements were occurrences of ERD and predictive factors. RESULTS: A total of 176 of 14,612 eyes with ocular inflammation presented with ERD. Among uveitis cases, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome (VKH) (odds ratio [OR] = 109), undifferentiated choroiditis (OR = 9.18), sympathetic ophthalmia (OR = 8.43), primary or secondary panuveitis (OR = 7.09), multifocal choroiditis with panuveitis (OR = 4.51), and "other" forms of posterior uveitis (OR = 16.9) were associated with a higher prevalence of ERD. Among the 9,209 uveitic or scleritic eyes initially free of ERD and followed, 137 incident ERD cases were observed over 28,949 eye-years at risk (incidence rate = 0.47% [0.40%-0.56%/eye-year]). VKH (HR = 13.2), sympathetic ophthalmia (HR = 5.82), undifferentiated choroiditis (HR = 6.03), primary or secondary panuveitis (HR = 4.21), and rheumatoid arthritis (HR = 3.30) were significantly associated with incident ERD. A significant dose-response relationship with the prevalence and incidence of ERD were observed for AC cells and vitreous cell activity. African Americans had significantly higher prevalence and incidence of ERD. CONCLUSIONS: Other ocular inflammatory conditions in addition to VKH syndrome and posterior scleritis were associated with increased risk of ERD, indicating that ERD does not necessarily dictate a diagnosis of VKH or posterior scleritis. In addition, the relationship between ERD and inflammatory severity factors implies that inflammation is a key predictive factor associated with developing ERD and requires early and vigorous control.


Assuntos
Corioidite/epidemiologia , Oftalmia Simpática/epidemiologia , Descolamento Retiniano/epidemiologia , Uveíte Posterior/epidemiologia , Síndrome Uveomeningoencefálica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Exsudatos e Transudatos , Feminino , Angiofluoresceinografia , Humanos , Incidência , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Descolamento Retiniano/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia
18.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (5): 42-48, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32500688

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the possibility of diagnosis of malignant pleural effusion using convolutional neural networks of facies images of pleural exudates obtained by the method of wedge-shaped dehydration. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We studied 163 images of pleural fluid facies obtained by wedge-shaped dehydration in patients with various pleural effusions (10 nosological groups). Recognition and analysis were carried out using convolutional neural network. The images were divided into two groups - malignant effusion (n=65; 40%) and other diseases (n=98; 60%). RESULTS: There were 131 photos selected for further investigation after pre-processing of images by eliminating defective ones, turning them into black and white format, cleaning of 'noise', cutting out the facies. Then the images were standardized. The method of rigid transformations with rotation for every 10 degrees was used. As a result, their number increased up to 4,585. Self-taught neural network analyzed the images of facies independently by separation of the fragments consisting of black and white dots and comparison of them with each other. Self-teaching and training of each neural network were ensured by random sampling of 80% of images from the initial sample. Then the remaining 20% of the images were used as a control sample to assess the possibilities of recognition pleural effusion cause. Four options of convolutional neural networks were used. An accuracy of cancer detection ranged from 82% to 95.6%, benign diseases - from 84% to 94.7%. The neural network with the highest sensitivity was chosen. CONCLUSION: Automated image analysis system of pleural effusion facies using convolutional neural network ensured an accuracy of diagnosis of malignant pleural effusion in 95,6% of cases and other diseases in 90% of cases. The method is simple, efficient, cheap and reagentless.


Assuntos
Exsudatos e Transudatos/diagnóstico por imagem , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Redes Neurais de Computação , Derrame Pleural Maligno/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
19.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(6)2020 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32570810

RESUMO

There is an ongoing worldwide coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). At present, confirmatory diagnosis is by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), typically taking several hours and requiring a molecular laboratory to perform. There is an urgent need for rapid, simplified, and cost-effective detection methods. We have developed and analytically validated a protocol for direct rapid extraction-free PCR (DIRECT-PCR) detection of SARS-CoV-2 without the need for nucleic acid purification. As few as six RNA copies per reaction of viral nucleocapsid (N) gene from respiratory samples such as sputum and nasal exudate can be detected directly using our one-step inhibitor-resistant assay. The performance of this assay was validated on a commercially available portable PCR thermocycler. Viral lysis, reverse transcription, amplification, and detection are achieved in a single-tube homogeneous reaction within 36 min. This minimizes hands-on time, reduces turnaround-time for sample-to-result, and obviates the need for RNA purification reagents. It could enable wider use of Covid-19 testing for diagnosis, screening, and research in countries and regions where laboratory capabilities are limiting.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , RNA Viral/análise , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Exsudatos e Transudatos/virologia , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Nucleocapsídeo/genética , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Escarro/virologia
20.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(17)2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591378

RESUMO

The number of sustainable agriculture techniques to improve pest management and environmental safety is rising, as biological control agents are used to enhance disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance in crops. Here, we investigated the capacity of the Photorhabdus luminescens secondary variant to react to plant root exudates and their behavior toward microorganisms in the rhizosphere. P. luminescens is known to live in symbiosis with entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) and to be highly pathogenic toward insects. The P. luminescens-EPN relationship has been widely studied, and this combination has been used as a biological control agent; however, not much attention has been paid to the putative lifestyle of P. luminescens in the rhizosphere. We performed transcriptome analysis to show how P. luminescens responds to plant root exudates. The analysis highlighted genes involved in chitin degradation, biofilm regulation, formation of flagella, and type VI secretion system. Furthermore, we provide evidence that P. luminescens can inhibit growth of phytopathogenic fungi. Finally, we demonstrated a specific interaction of P. luminescens with plant roots. Understanding the role and the function of this bacterium in the rhizosphere might accelerate the progress in biocontrol manipulation and elucidate the peculiar mechanisms adopted by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria in plant root interactions.IMPORTANCE Insect-pathogenic Photorhabdus luminescens bacteria are widely used in biocontrol strategies against pests. Very little is known about the life of these bacteria in the rhizosphere. Here, we show that P. luminescens can specifically react to and interact with plant roots. Understanding the adaptation of P. luminescens in the rhizosphere is highly important for the biotechnological application of entomopathogenic bacteria and could improve future sustainable pest management in agriculture.


Assuntos
Quimiotaxia , Photorhabdus/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Rizosfera , Agentes de Controle Biológico , Exsudatos e Transudatos/química , Fungos/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes Bacterianos , Photorhabdus/genética , RNA-Seq
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