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1.
Chemosphere ; 263: 128041, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854013

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are environmental pollutants that represent a serious threat to the health of humans and ecosystems. The effects of plant root and artificial root exudates (ARE) on the biodegradation of phenanthrene (PHE) and their impact on soil bacterial community structure was the focus of this work using four treatments for 180 days. Treatments included; control treatment (CK), low concentration of ARE (AREL), high concentration of ARE (AREH), and planting Koelreuteria paniculata saplings (KOE). The diversity and composition of soil bacterial community were analyzed using high-throughput sequencing. The results showed that KOE treatments had the most significant effect on the biodegradation of PHE compared to controls. ARE treatments had the similar effects on the biodegradation of PHE in soil with high efficiency in AREH than AREL. Both KOE and ARE treatments reduced diversity of bacterial community but increased the abundance of PAHs degrading bacterial populations within representative phyla, including Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. During the study, the total bacterial OTUs showed the number of unique genus types initially increased, then lowered in the later stages of the incubation process. Specific bacterial populations enriched by the treatments and supported by the exudates seemed to determine the biodegradation of PHE and not the overall bacterial diversity.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Exsudatos de Plantas/metabolismo , Sapindaceae/microbiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Exsudatos e Transudatos/metabolismo , Fenantrenos/química , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Características de Residência , Solo/química
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(10): e19320, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150067

RESUMO

Pleural effusion (PE) remains insurmountable challenge and public health problem, requiring novel noninvasive biomarkers for accurate diagnosis. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical significance of apolipoprotein E (Apo-E) in PE, in order to determine its potential use as a diagnostic biomarker for malignant PE (MPE).PE samples were obtained from 127 patients and the etiology of PE was determined by multiple diagnostic techniques. Apo-E levels were then measured in the pleural fluid samples.58 PE patients were diagnosed with tumors, while 69 were tumor-free. Apo-E levels in MPE patients were significantly higher than those with benign PE (BPE) (P < .05). An Apo-E cut-off of 69.96 ng/mL yielded sensitivity and specificity of 79.31% and 73.91% respectively for MPE detection. The area under the curve for Apo-E was 0.793 (95% confidence interval: 0.712 to 0.860), which was smaller than that of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) (Z = 2.081, P<.05). In addition, the combination of Apo-E and CEA detection yielded a higher sensitivity of 87.90% and specificity of 95.65% in diagnosing MPE.In conclusion, Apo-E levels in PE may be a potential biomarker for the detection of MPE. The combined detection of Apo-E and CEA could improve the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for MPE. These findings provide a simple and convenient method for clinical screening and detection of PE.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteínas E/metabolismo , Derrame Pleural Maligno/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Exsudatos e Transudatos/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Derrame Pleural Maligno/metabolismo , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
3.
Respir Investig ; 58(5): 367-375, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32107195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculous pleural effusions (TBEs) and parapneumonic pleural effusion (PPEs) have similar clinical presentations and fluid biochemistry. A pleural biopsy is usually required to diagnose TBE but complete fluid evacuation may not be necessary, contrasting with complicated PPE (CPPE). A point-of-care test that distinguishes between TBE and CPPE enables the appropriate procedures to be performed during the initial diagnostic thoracentesis. Lactate is a metabolic product measurable by a blood-gas analyzer. This study measured pleural fluid (Pf) lactate levels in TBE and compared them with those in PPE/CPPE. We hypothesized that Pf lactate would be significantly higher in PPE because of active metabolic activities than in TBE which is driven by delayed hypersensitivity. METHODS: All patients undergoing an initial diagnostic thoracentesis over 18 months with Pf lactate measured using a calibrated point-of-care blood gas analyzer were assessed. RESULTS: The diagnoses of the enrolled patients (n = 170) included TBE (n = 49), PPE (n = 47), malignancy (n = 63), and transudate (n = 11). Pf lactate level in TBE, median 3.70 (inter-quartile range 2.65-4.90) mmol/l, was significantly lower than in PPE and CPPE. In the subgroup of TBE and CPPE patients whose initial Pf pH and glucose could suggest either condition, Pf lactate was significantly higher in those with CPPE. Pf lactate (cutoff ≥7.25 mmol/l) had a sensitivity of 79.3%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100%, and negative predictive value 89.1% for discriminating CPPE from TBE (area under the curve 0.947, p < 0.001, 95% confidence interval 0.89-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: Point-of-care Pf lactate measurements may have practical value in early separation of TBE or CPPE during initial thoracentesis, and warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Exsudatos e Transudatos/metabolismo , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Pleura/metabolismo , Derrame Pleural/diagnóstico , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Toracentese/métodos , Tuberculose Pleural/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
4.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 201(12): 1545-1553, 2020 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069085

RESUMO

Rationale: Parapneumonic effusions have a wide clinical spectrum. The majority settle with conservative management but some progress to complex collections requiring intervention. For decades, physicians have relied on pleural fluid pH to determine the need for chest tube drainage despite a lack of prospective validation and no ability to predict the requirement for fibrinolytics or thoracic surgery.Objectives: To study the ability of suPAR (soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor), a potential biomarker of pleural fluid loculation, to predict the need for invasive management compared with conventional fluid biomarkers (pH, glucose, and lactate dehydrogenase) in parapneumonic effusions.Methods: Patients presenting with pleural effusions were prospectively recruited to an observational study with biological samples stored at presentation. Pleural fluid and serum suPAR levels were measured using the suPARnostic double-monoclonal antibody sandwich ELISA on 93 patients with parapneumonic effusions and 47 control subjects (benign and malignant effusions).Measurements and Main Results: Pleural suPAR levels were significantly higher in effusions that were loculated versus nonloculated parapneumonic effusions (median, 132 ng/ml vs. 22 ng/ml; P < 0.001). Pleural suPAR could more accurately predict the subsequent insertion of a chest tube with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.93 (95% confidence interval, 0.89-0.98) compared with pleural pH (AUC 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.73-0.90). suPAR was superior to the combination of conventional pleural biomarkers (pH, glucose, and lactate dehydrogenase) when predicting the referral for intrapleural fibrinolysis or thoracic surgery (AUC 0.92 vs. 0.76).Conclusions: Raised pleural suPAR was predictive of patients receiving more invasive management of parapneumonic effusions and added value to conventional biomarkers. These results need validation in a prospective multicenter trial.


Assuntos
Tubos Torácicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Derrame Pleural/metabolismo , Receptores de Ativador de Plasminogênio Tipo Uroquinase/metabolismo , Toracentese/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Torácicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Tratamento Conservador , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Exsudatos e Transudatos/metabolismo , Feminino , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutrófilos , Derrame Pleural/etiologia , Derrame Pleural/terapia , Derrame Pleural Maligno/metabolismo , Pneumonia/complicações , Prognóstico , Proteínas/metabolismo , Receptores de Ativador de Plasminogênio Tipo Uroquinase/sangue
5.
Biochem Med (Zagreb) ; 30(1): 010502, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839720

RESUMO

Extravascular body fluids (EBF) analysis can provide useful information in the differential diagnosis of conditions that caused their accumulation. Their unique nature and particular requirements accompanying EBF analysis need to be recognized in order to minimize possible negative implications on patient safety. This recommendation was prepared by the members of the Working group for extravascular body fluid samples (WG EBFS). It is designed to address the total testing process and clinical significance of tests used in EBF analysis. The recommendation begins with a chapter addressing validation of methods used in EBF analysis, and continues with specific recommendations for serous fluids analysis. It is organized in sections referring to the preanalytical, analytical and postanalytical phase with specific recommendations presented in boxes. Its main goal is to assist in the attainment of national harmonization of serous fluid analysis and ultimately improve patient safety and healthcare outcomes. This recommendation is intended to all laboratory professionals performing EBF analysis and healthcare professionals involved in EBF collection and processing. Cytological and microbiological evaluations of EBF are beyond the scope of this document.


Assuntos
Líquidos Corporais/química , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/normas , Líquidos Corporais/metabolismo , Exsudatos e Transudatos/química , Exsudatos e Transudatos/metabolismo , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Segurança do Paciente , Derrame Pleural/diagnóstico , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde , Sociedades Médicas , Manejo de Espécimes/normas
6.
J Plant Physiol ; 243: 153057, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675630

RESUMO

Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are extensively used as biofertilizers to improve the soil nutrition for a variety of crop plants. The plant-PGPR interaction, with special reference to chemical signalling molecules is not understood clearly, unlike other beneficial plant-microbe interactions. Chemo-attraction of a PGPR from soil microbial pool towards a plant could be dependent on some of the molecules in the plant root exudates (REs), similar to the beneficial association of legume-rhizobia. In this study, a few functional properties of PGPR like growth, chemotaxis, and biofilm formation by two PGPR strains viz., Bacillus sonorensis RS4 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa RP2 were assessed in the presence of groundnut REs. Functional properties of both the strains were significantly influenced by the REs in a strain-dependent manner. Metabolite profiling of the REs from PGPR-bacterized (RS4 or RP2) and non-bacterized seedlings was performed with GC-MS/MS after 12 and 24 days of growth. A total of 75 metabolites were detected in groundnut REs. Threonine and glyoxylic oxime acid were detected in RP2-bacterized REs, while serine, pentanoic acid, glucopyranoside, tartaric acid, and 2-pyrrolidinone were detected in REs of seedlings bacterized with RP2 and RS4. The results suggested that the PGPR induced distinct variations in the REs. Identification of the interaction-specific metabolites will be useful to develop effective PGPR based bio-formulations for better PGPR colonization and improving crop yields.


Assuntos
Arachis/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fisiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Arachis/microbiologia , Bacillus , Cromatografia Gasosa , Exsudatos e Transudatos/metabolismo , Análise Multivariada , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
7.
Int J Parasitol ; 49(13-14): 999-1003, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726058

RESUMO

Plant root exudates are compositionally diverse, plastic and adaptive. Ethylene signalling influences the attraction of plant parasitic nematodes, presumably through the modulation of root exudate composition. Understanding this pathway could lead to new sources of crop parasite resistance. Here we used Virus-Induced Gene Silencing to knock down the expression of two Ethylene Response Factor (ERF) genes, ERF-E2 and ERF-E3, in tomato. Root exudates were significantly more attractive to the PPNs Meloidogyne incognita and Globodera pallida following knockdown of ERF-E2, which had no impact on the attraction of Meloidogyne javanica. Knockdown of ERF-E3 had no impact on the attraction of Meloidogyne or Globodera spp. Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry analysis revealed major changes in root exudate composition relative to controls. However, these changes did not alter the attraction of rhizosphere microbes Bacillus subtilis or Agrobacterium tumefaciens. This study further supports the potential of engineering plant root exudate for parasite control, through the modulation of plant genes.


Assuntos
Fatores Biológicos/análise , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Etilenos/metabolismo , Exsudatos e Transudatos/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Exsudatos e Transudatos/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/parasitologia , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Tylenchoidea/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(20)2019 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614900

RESUMO

Thrombin is an essential procoagulant and profibrotic mediator. However, its implication in tuberculous pleural effusion (TBPE) remains unknown. The effusion thrombin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels were measured among transudative pleural effusion (TPE, n = 22) and TBPE (n = 24) patients. Pleural fibrosis, identified as radiological residual pleural thickening (RPT) and shadowing, was measured at 12-month follow-up. Moreover, in vivo and in vitro effects of thrombin on PAI-1 expression and mesothelial-mesenchymal transition (MMT) were assessed. We demonstrated the effusion thrombin levels were significantly higher in TBPE than TPE, especially greater in TBPE patients with RPT > 10mm than those without, and correlated positively with PAI-1 and pleural fibrosis area. In carbon black/bleomycin-treated mice, knockdown of protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) markedly downregulated α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and fibronectin, and attenuated pleural fibrosis. In pleural mesothelial cells (PMCs), thrombin concentration-dependently increased PAI-1, α-SMA, and collagen I expression. Specifically, Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra (MTBRa) induced thrombin production by PMCs via upregulating tissue factor and prothrombin, and PAR-1 silencing considerably abrogated MTBRa-stimulated PAI-1 expression and MMT. Consistently, prothrombin/PAR-1 expression was evident in the pleural mesothelium of TBPE patients. Conclusively, thrombin upregulates PAI-1 and MMT and may contribute to tuberculous pleural fibrosis. Thrombin/PAR-1 inhibition may confer potential therapy for pleural fibrosis.


Assuntos
Inibidor 1 de Ativador de Plasminogênio/metabolismo , Pleura/patologia , Receptor PAR-1/metabolismo , Trombina/metabolismo , Tuberculose/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Exsudatos e Transudatos/metabolismo , Feminino , Fibrose , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Mesoderma/efeitos dos fármacos , Mesoderma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Derrame Pleural/metabolismo , Derrame Pleural/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Tuberculose/patologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Respir Med ; 157: 7-13, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454675

RESUMO

A chylothorax, also known as chylous pleural effusion, is an uncommon cause of pleural effusion with a wide differential diagnosis characterized by the accumulation of bacteriostatic chyle in the pleural space. The pleural fluid will have either or both triglycerides >110 mg/dL and the presence of chylomicrons. It may be encountered following a surgical intervention, usually in the chest, or underlying disease process. Management of a chylothorax requires a multidisciplinary approach employing medical therapy and possibly surgical intervention for post-operative patients and patients who have failed medical therapy. In this review, we aim to discuss the anatomy, fluid characteristics, etiology, and approach to the diagnosis of a chylothorax.


Assuntos
Quilotórax/etiologia , Derrame Pleural/patologia , Ducto Torácico/lesões , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Quilotórax/diagnóstico por imagem , Quilotórax/terapia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Exsudatos e Transudatos/química , Exsudatos e Transudatos/citologia , Exsudatos e Transudatos/metabolismo , Humanos , Linfografia/métodos , Linfocintigrafia/métodos , Octreotida/uso terapêutico , Período Pós-Operatório , Radiografia Torácica/métodos , Sucção/métodos , Toracentese/métodos , Ducto Torácico/diagnóstico por imagem , Ducto Torácico/fisiopatologia , Ducto Torácico/cirurgia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Triglicerídeos/análise
10.
Plant Sci ; 284: 108-116, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084863

RESUMO

Cannabinoids are terpenophenolic compounds produced by Cannabis sativa L., which accumulate in storage cavities of glandular trichomes as a part of the exudates. We investigated if tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase and cannabidiolic acid synthase, which are involved in the last step of cannabinoid biosynthesis, are also secreted into Cannabis trichome exudates. The exudates were collected by microsuction from storage cavities of Cannabis glandular trichomes and were subjected for proteomic and metabolomic analyses. The catalytic activity of the exudates was documented by cannabigerolic acid biotransformation studies under hydrophobic conditions. Electrophoretic separations revealed protein bands at ˜65 kDa, which were further identified as tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase and cannabidiolic acid synthase. The accumulation of the enzymes in trichome exudates increased substantially during the flowering period in the drug-type Cannabis plants. The content of cannabinoids increased significantly after incubating hexane-diluted trichome exudates with cannabigerolic acid. In this study, we showed that Cannabis glandular trichomes secrete and accumulate cannabinoid synthases in storage cavities, and the enzymes able to convert cannabigerolic acid under hydrophobic trichome-mimicking conditions. Metabolite profiling of the exudates revealed compounds with hydrophilic, osmoprotective and amphiphilic properties, which may play a role in providing a necessary aqueous microenvironment, which enables enzyme solubility and biocatalysis under hydrophobic conditions of glandular trichomes.


Assuntos
Canabinoides/metabolismo , Cannabis/metabolismo , Oxirredutases Intramoleculares/metabolismo , Tricomas/metabolismo , Exsudatos e Transudatos/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Osmorregulação
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(14): e14979, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30946324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Soluble mesothelin-related peptide (SMRP) is a widely studied tumor marker for diagnosing malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). This study discussed the diagnostic value of SMRPs in pleural effusion (PE) for MPM. METHODS: Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane library system were systematically searched on the data of SMRPs in PE for MPM diagnosis. Pooled diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and symmetric receiver operating characteristic curve were calculated. RESULTS: Thirteen studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and a total of 3359 cases including 759 MPM cases, 1061 non-MM (malignant mesothelioma) malignant PE, and 1539 benign PE were brought into this meta-analysis. The pooled results of SMRPs in PE for diagnosing MPM were as follows: sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, and diagnostic odds ratio were 0.68 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.64-0.72), 0.91 (95% CI: 0.86-0.94), 7.8 (95% CI: 5.0-12.0), 0.35 (95% CI: 0.31-0.40), and 22 (95% CI: 14-35), respectively. The area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) was 0.75 (95% CI: 0.72-0.80). Subgroup analyzes revealed that the AUC of cohort group using histological diagnosis could be improved to 0.86 (95% CI: 0.83, 0.89). The Deek's funnel plot asymmetry test showed no publication bias. CONCLUSION: Although the sensitivity of SMRPs was low, PE-SMRPs can be a good indicator of the existence of MPM.


Assuntos
Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Mesotelioma/metabolismo , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/metabolismo , Derrame Pleural/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Exsudatos e Transudatos/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Mesotelioma/diagnóstico , Mesotelioma/patologia , Derrame Pleural/diagnóstico , Derrame Pleural/patologia , Derrame Pleural Maligno/diagnóstico , Derrame Pleural Maligno/metabolismo , Derrame Pleural Maligno/patologia , Neoplasias Pleurais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pleurais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pleurais/patologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
12.
J Exp Med ; 216(5): 1061-1070, 2019 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975894

RESUMO

Liquid biopsies from cancer patients have the potential to improve diagnosis and prognosis. The assessment of surrogate markers of tumor progression in circulating extracellular vesicles could be a powerful non-invasive approach in this setting. We have characterized extracellular vesicles purified from the lymphatic drainage also known as exudative seroma (ES) of stage III melanoma patients obtained after lymphadenectomy. Proteomic analysis showed that seroma-derived exosomes are enriched in proteins resembling melanoma progression. In addition, we found that the BRAFV600E mutation can be detected in ES-derived extracellular vesicles and its detection correlated with patients at risk of relapse.


Assuntos
Progressão da Doença , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Exsudatos e Transudatos/metabolismo , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/metabolismo , Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Seroma/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Estudos de Coortes , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Drenagem , Exossomos/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Melanoma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteômica/métodos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia
13.
J Exp Med ; 216(5): 1091-1107, 2019 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975896

RESUMO

Liquid biopsies allow monitoring of cancer progression and detection of relapse, but reliable biomarkers in melanoma are lacking. Because secreted factors preferentially drain to lymphatic vessels before dilution in the blood, we hypothesized that lymph should be vastly enriched in cancer biomarkers. We characterized postoperative lymphatic exudate and plasma of metastatic melanoma patients after lymphadenectomy and found a dramatic enrichment in lymphatic exudate of tumor-derived factors and especially extracellular vesicles containing melanoma-associated proteins and miRNAs, with unique protein signatures reflecting early versus advanced metastatic spread. Furthermore, lymphatic exudate was enriched in memory T cells, including tumor-reactive CD137+ and stem cell-like types. In mice, lymph vessels were the major route of extracellular vesicle transport from tumors to the systemic circulation. We suggest that lymphatic exudate provides a rich source of tumor-derived factors for enabling the discovery of novel biomarkers that may reflect disease stage and therapeutic response.


Assuntos
Exsudatos e Transudatos/metabolismo , Linfa/metabolismo , Vasos Linfáticos/metabolismo , Melanoma/sangue , Melanoma/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/sangue , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citocinas/análise , Exossomos/metabolismo , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Humanos , Excisão de Linfonodo , Metástase Linfática , Melanoma/secundário , Melanoma/cirurgia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , MicroRNAs/análise , Proteômica/métodos , Proteínas S100/análise , Neoplasias Cutâneas/secundário , Neoplasias Cutâneas/cirurgia
14.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 213(2): 473-481, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30995101

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE. The objective of this article is to define the clinical significance of asymmetric ductal ectasia by a review of literature and to describe the imaging findings. CONCLUSION. Asymmetric ductal ectasia has a significant risk for malignancy and high-risk lesions. The findings on conventional imaging may be subtle and easily overlooked. Asymmetric ductal ectasia should be included in the search pattern during image interpretation. Tissue sampling is usually warranted. Ultrasound is critical in identifying ductal abnormalities to guide biopsy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Mamárias/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Mamárias/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/patologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Dilatação Patológica , Exsudatos e Transudatos/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Mamografia , Mamilos/metabolismo , Ultrassonografia Mamária
15.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 276(7): 1889-1895, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30919059

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Some studies have demonstrated that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of otitis media with effusion (OME) in animal models. However, the levels of VEGF and its receptors in adult OME have not been clarified. Our study was designed to detect the levels of VEGF and its receptors in adult OME and explore their relationship with effusion types, duration and prognosis of OME. METHODS: 61 patients with secretory otitis media were enrolled including 21 males and 40 females, with an average age of 54.7 ± 17.5 years. The middle-ear effusions were collected by tympanocentesis or myringotomy. The protein concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and messenger RNA by real-time quantitative PCR. RESULTS: VEGF level was higher in AOME group, but not correlated with the recurrence of OME. VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 levels were lower in recurrent group compared with non-recurrent group. VEGFR2 level was higher in serous effusions than mucoid effusions. VEGF messenger RNA was positively correlated both with HIF-1α and MUC5B. CONCLUSIONS: VEGF and its receptors function to induce the production of middle-ear effusions (MEEs) at acute stage of OME rather than chronic or recurrent stage, which is mainly mediated by HIF-1α pathway. The formation of mucoid effusions is associated with MUC5B and VEGFR2, but not with duration and recurrence of OME.


Assuntos
Exsudatos e Transudatos/metabolismo , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Mucina-5B/metabolismo , Otite Média com Derrame , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Correlação de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Otite Média com Derrame/diagnóstico , Otite Média com Derrame/metabolismo , Otite Média com Derrame/fisiopatologia , Gravidade do Paciente , Prognóstico , Recidiva , Timpanocentese/métodos
16.
J Diabetes Res ; 2019: 2695436, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30775384

RESUMO

Objectives: Chronic foot ulceration is a severe complication of diabetes, driving morbidity and mortality. The aim of our study was to identify novel biomarkers of impaired wound healing in diabetic foot ulcers. Methods: 109 patients with neuropathic diabetic foot ulcers and 30 burn victims otherwise healthy participated. Antibody-coated glass slide arrays were used to determine the levels of 80 human cytokines in pooled plasma or pooled wound exudate of diabetic foot ulcers with rapidly healing (RH, n = 12) and matched nonhealing (NH, n = 12) patients. Potential biomarkers were confirmed in an independent cohort by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: Protein array profiling identified 27 proteins or 15 proteins significantly altered in protein profiling of pooled plasma or pooled wound exudate of 12 RH patients compared with 12 matched NH patients, respectively. In an independent cohort, quantitative ELISA validation confirmed a decrease in MCP-2 and ENA-78 levels in NH patients versus RH patients or burn victims. After adjusting for the traditional risk factors (sex, age, body mass index, fasting plasma glucose, ulcer area, HbA1C, diabetes duration, hyperlipidemia, and antibiotic therapy), only wound exudate level of ENA-78 remained having a significant association with an increased odds ratio (OR) for wound healing by binary logistic regression analysis (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Decreased wound exudate ENA-78 was independently associated with wound healing of patients with diabetic foot. Exudate ENA-78 level is implicated as a novel predictor of wound healing in patients with diabetic foot ulcers.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CXCL5/metabolismo , Pé Diabético/metabolismo , Exsudatos e Transudatos/metabolismo , Cicatrização/fisiologia , Idoso , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Quimiocina CXCL5/sangue , Pé Diabético/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Eur Radiol ; 29(7): 3847-3853, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30715587

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the incidence of, clinical outcome of, and risk factors for perirenal subcapsular fluid collections in extremely preterm infants with acute kidney injury (AKI). METHODS: Extremely preterm infants with AKI who underwent renal ultrasonography (US) during neonatal intensive care unit stay were classified into two groups according to the presence of a perirenal subcapsular fluid collection at US. Clinical outcome was compared, and relevant data were analysed, including demographics and comorbidities of the infants, as well as maternal demographics. The risk factor of perirenal subcapsular fluid in infants with AKI was tested with univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: A perirenal subcapsular fluid collection was detected in 7 of 56 (13%) extremely preterm infants with AKI (male to female ratio, 5:2; mean gestational age, 23.6 ± 1.4 weeks) and it appeared bilaterally in most cases (86%, 6/7). The mortality rate was higher in infants with perirenal subcapsular fluid collections and AKI (86%, 6/7) than with AKI alone (35%, 17/49) (p = 0.015). Infants with perirenal subcapsular fluid collections and AKI were of a lower gestational age, and more frequently showed episodes of intestinal perforation, use of medication having potential to impair renal function, and a history of maternal chorioamnionitis (p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed a significantly higher risk for perirenal subcapsular fluid collections in extremely preterm infants who were treated with anti-fungal agents (OR, 13.2 (95% CI: 1.5, 119.4); p = 0.022). CONCLUSIONS: Although a perirenal subcapsular fluid collection occurred in a small proportion of extremely preterm infants with AKI, its presence was associated with high mortality. The use of anti-fungal agents was an independent risk factor for a perirenal subcapsular fluid collection. KEY POINTS: • A perirenal subcapsular fluid collection may occur in association with acute kidney injury. • A perirenal subcapsular fluid collection has a grave prognostic implication in extremely preterm infants. • The use of anti-fungal agent might be associated with perirenal subscapular fluid collections in critically ill extremely preterm infants with AKI.


Assuntos
Exsudatos e Transudatos/metabolismo , Lesão Renal Aguda/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesão Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Creatinina/sangue , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Ultrassonografia/métodos
18.
Biomark Med ; 13(3): 167-174, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30605352

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between CXCL-6 levels in wound exudates and healing of diabetic foot ulcers (DFU). MATERIALS & METHODS: One hundred patients with neuropathic DFU were recruited. Wound exudate CXCL-6 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Patients were followed for 24 weeks and divided into rapidly healing and nonhealing groups. RESULTS: Compared with the NH group, the mean CXCL-6 levels in the wound exudates of the rapidly healing group were significantly higher. After adjusting for traditional risk factors, wound exudate CXCL-6 levels were still significantly associated with wound healing. CONCLUSION: CXCL6 is an independent predictor of wound healing in DFU patients and may be a potentially novel therapeutic target for the treatment of DFU.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Quimiocina CXCL6/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Pé Diabético/metabolismo , Exsudatos e Transudatos/metabolismo , Cicatrização/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pé Diabético/etiologia , Pé Diabético/terapia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(4): 1271-1286, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30170125

RESUMO

This review discusses in vivo airway aspects of plasma exudation in relation to current views on epithelial permeability and epithelial regeneration in health and disease. Microvascular-epithelial exudation of bulk plasma proteins characteristically occurs in asthmatic patients, being especially pronounced in those with severe and exacerbating asthma. Healthy human and guinea pig airways challenged by noninjurious histamine-leukotriene-type autacoids also respond through prompt mucosal exudation of nonsieved plasma macromolecules. Contrary to current beliefs, epithelial permeability in the opposite direction (ie, absorption of inhaled molecules) has not been increased in patients with asthma and allergic rhinitis or in acutely exuding healthy airways. A slightly increased subepithelial hydrostatic pressure produces such unidirectional outward perviousness to macromolecules. Lack of increased absorption permeability in asthmatic patients can further be reconciled with occurrence of epithelial shedding, leaving small patches of denuded basement membrane. Counteracting escalating barrier breaks, plasma exudation promptly covers the denuded patches. Here it creates and sustains a biologically active barrier involving a neutrophil-rich, fibrin-fibronectin net. Furthermore, in the plasma-derived milieu, all epithelial cell types bordering the denuded patch dedifferentiate and migrate from all sides to cover the denuded basement membrane. However, this speedy epithelial regeneration can come at a cost. Guinea pig in vivo studies demonstrate that patches of epithelial denudation regeneration are exudation hot spots evoking asthma-like features, including recruitment/activation of granulocytes, proliferation of fibrocytes/smooth muscle cells, and basement membrane thickening. In conclusion, nonsieved plasma macromolecules can operate on the intact airway mucosa as potent components of first-line innate immunity responses. Exuded plasma also takes center stage in epithelial regeneration. When exaggerated, epithelial regeneration can contribute to the inception and development of asthma.


Assuntos
Asma/metabolismo , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular/fisiologia , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Plasma/metabolismo , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo , Animais , Asma/imunologia , Exsudatos e Transudatos/imunologia , Exsudatos e Transudatos/metabolismo , Humanos , Plasma/imunologia , Regeneração/fisiologia , Mucosa Respiratória/imunologia
20.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 103(9): 1342-1346, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30467129

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A), the predictive role of different qualitative findings of choroidal neovascularisations (CNV) in assessing the status of exudative age-related macular degeneration (eAMD) and to develop a potential model to predict the CNV activity. METHODS: Retrospective review of the multimodal imaging records of patients with eAMD obtained during treatment for type 1 or type 2 CNV. The qualitative analysis of CNVs on OCT angiograms assessed the presence or absence of tiny branching vessels, loops, peripheral anastomotic arcades and choriocapillaris hypointense halo. These findings were then correlated with those of structural OCT scans. A score forecast was built and validated. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-six eAMD eyes were enrolled in the study. Exudation was observed in 90 eyes (71%) on structural OCT. The qualitative OCT-A analysis revealed: tiny branching vessels in 82.5% of the cases, vascular loops in 81.7%, peripheral anastomotic arcades in 66.7% and choriocapillaris hypointense halo in 54.8%. In the univariate analysis, each OCT-A parameter showed a statistically significant correlation with exudation on structural OCT (p<0.001). The overall analysis demonstrated a sensitivity of 96.7% and a positive predictive value of 87.9%. In the multivariate analysis, a model with four criteria predicted an exudative lesion in 97.6% of cases and one with two criteria (tiny branching vessels and peripheral anastomotic arcades) in 71.2%. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of tiny branching vessels and a peripheral anastomotic arcade appears to predict the lesion activity with a good accuracy and the model based on four criteria enables optimal decisions regarding retreatment in eAMD.


Assuntos
Neovascularização de Coroide/diagnóstico , Angiofluoresceinografia/métodos , Degeneração Macular/diagnóstico , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neovascularização de Coroide/patologia , Exsudatos e Transudatos/metabolismo , Humanos , Degeneração Macular/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Vasos Retinianos/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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