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2.
Breastfeed Med ; 15(8): 492-494, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32644841

RESUMO

Aim: The objective of our study was to determine whether the SARS-CoV-2-positive mothers transmit the virus to their hand-expressed colostrum. Methods: This is an observational prospective study that included pregnant women who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by PCR test on a nasopharyngeal swab at the moment of childbirth and who wanted to breastfeed their newborns. A colostrum sample was obtained from the mothers by manual self-extraction. To collect the samples, the mothers wore surgical masks, washed their hands with an 85% alcohol-based gel, and washed their breast with gauze that was saturated with soap and water. Results: We obtained seven colostrum samples from different mothers in the first hours postdelivery. SARS-CoV-2 was not detected in any of the colostrum samples obtained in our study. Conclusion: In our study, breast milk was not a source of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Hand expression (assuring that a mask is used and that appropriate hygienic measures are used for the hands and the breast), when direct breastfeeding is not possible, appears to be a safe way of feeding newborns of mothers with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Aleitamento Materno/métodos , Extração de Leite/métodos , Colostro/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Leite Humano/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Adulto , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia
3.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-47575

RESUMO

O Banco de Leite Humano do Hospital Regional Público de Gurupi, em Tocantins, concede entrevista para um jornal da região e fala sobre redobrar as regras de higiene para coleta de leite humano por causa da COVID-19.


Assuntos
Bancos de Leite , Leite Humano , Extração de Leite , Higiene dos Alimentos
4.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(4): 541-546, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578793

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: These recommendations aim to provide guidance on breastfeeding for mothers with suspected or confirmed Covid-19. METHODS: We performed a review of the recent medical literature on breastfeeding mothers with suspected or confirmed Covid-19, focusing on the neonatal period. RESULTS: We analyzed 20 recent publications on breastfeeding, Covid-19, and its transmission through breastmilk. We presented possible options for breastfeeding and their consequences for the mother and the child. CONCLUSION: All maternal decisions in relation to breastfeeding are justifiable since the infection by Covid-19 is still poorly known. However, puerperal women and their families must be very well informed to make a conscious choice based on the information available in the literature so far.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Betacoronavirus , Aleitamento Materno/efeitos adversos , Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Extração de Leite , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Mães/psicologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
5.
BJOG ; 127(11): 1324-1336, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early reports of COVID-19 in pregnancy described management by caesarean, strict isolation of the neonate and formula feeding. Is this practice justified? OBJECTIVE: To estimate the risk of the neonate becoming infected with SARS-CoV-2 by mode of delivery, type of infant feeding and mother-infant interaction. SEARCH STRATEGY: Two biomedical databases were searched between September 2019 and June 2020. SELECTION CRITERIA: Case reports or case series of pregnant women with confirmed COVID-19, where neonatal outcomes were reported. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Data were extracted on mode of delivery, infant infection status, infant feeding and mother-infant interaction. For reported infant infection, a critical analysis was performed to evaluate the likelihood of vertical transmission. MAIN RESULTS: Forty nine studies included information on mode of delivery and infant infection status for 655 women and 666 neonates. In all, 28/666 (4%) tested positive postnatally. Of babies born vaginally, 8/292 (2.7%) tested positivecompared with 20/374 (5.3%) born by Caesarean. Information on feeding and baby separation were often missing, but of reported breastfed babies 7/148 (4.7%) tested positive compared with 3/56 (5.3%) for reported formula fed ones. Of babies reported as nursed with their mother 4/107 (3.7%) tested positive, compared with 6/46 (13%) for those who were reported as isolated. CONCLUSIONS: Neonatal COVID-19 infection is uncommon, rarely symptomatic, and the rate of infection is no greater when the baby is born vaginally, breastfed or remains with the mother. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Risk of neonatal infection with COVID-19 by delivery route, infant feeding and mother-baby interaction.


Assuntos
Alimentação Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Fórmulas Infantis , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Extração de Leite , China/epidemiologia , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Leite Humano , Relações Mãe-Filho , Pandemias , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32410913

RESUMO

In January 2020, China reported a cluster of cases of pneumonia associated with a novel pathogenic coronavirus provisionally named Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2). Since then, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been reported in more than 180 countries with approximately 6.5 million known infections and more than 380,000 deaths attributed to this disease as of June 3rd , 2020 (Johns Hopkins University COVID map; https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/map.html) The majority of confirmed COVID-19 cases have been reported in adults, especially older individuals with co-morbidities. Children have had a relatively lower rate and a less serious course of infection as reported in the literature to date. One of the most vulnerable pediatric patient populations is cared for in the neonatal intensive care unit. There is limited data on the effect of COVID-19 in fetal life, and among neonates after birth. Therefore there is an urgent need for proactive preparation, and planning to combat COVID-19, as well as to safeguard patients, their families, and healthcare personnel. This review article is based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) current recommendations for COVID-19 and its adaptation to our local resources. The aim of this article is to provide basic consolidated guidance and checklists to clinicians in the neonatal intensive care units in key aspects of preparation needed to counter exposure or infection with COVID-19. We anticipate that CDC will continue to update their guidelines regarding COVID-19 as the situation evolves, and we recommend monitoring CDC's updates for the most current information.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Materno-Infantil , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Adulto , Aleitamento Materno , Extração de Leite , Defesa Civil , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Salas de Parto , Feminino , Higiene das Mãos/normas , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hospitais Urbanos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Serviços de Saúde Materno-Infantil/organização & administração , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribução , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/terapia , Visitas a Pacientes
7.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-47121

RESUMO

Com a situação de pandemia de coronavírus, a coleta domiciliar de leite materno sofreu uma queda de 35%. A situação é preocupante, pois muitos recém-nascidos internados na rede pública de saúde precisam desse alimento para sobreviver.


Assuntos
Leite Humano , Bancos de Leite/provisão & distribução , Aleitamento Materno , Promoção da Saúde , Pandemias , Extração de Leite , Betacoronavirus
8.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-47075

RESUMO

A Rede Brasileira de Bancos de Leite Humano - Fiocruz, baseada em discussões técnicas realizadas com profissionais do Ministério da Saúde do Brasil, da Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria (SBP); do Instituto Nacional de Saúde da Mulher, da Criança e do Adolescente Fernandes Figueira (IFF), do Instituto de Medicina Integrada Professor Fernando Figueira (IMIP); do Instituto de Saúde de São Paulo (IS-SP); da Associação Brasileira de Obstetrizes e Enfermeiros Obstetras (Abenfo) e da Rede Internacional em Defesa do Direito de Amamentar/International Baby Food Action Network (IBFAN), publica nota técnica sobre COVID-19 e Amamentação.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Infecções por Coronavirus , Betacoronavirus , Higiene , Leite Humano , Extração de Leite , Pneumonia Viral
9.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-47076

RESUMO

Em complementação à extensa revisão publicada pelas Comissões Nacionais Especializadas (CNE) da FEBRASGO em Assistência Pré-Natal e Doenças Infecto-Contagiosas,(1) a CNE em Aleitamento Materno, publica nótula complementar sobre COVID 19 e aleitamento materno.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Leite Humano , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças , Extração de Leite , Higiene , Pneumonia Viral , Pandemias
10.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-47077

RESUMO

Para orientar os médicos sobre como o aleitamento materno deverá ser conduzido nesse período da pandemia do novo coronavírus (Sars-Cov-2), a Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria (SBP) participou, em conjunto com outras instituições, da elaboração da Nota Técnica Nº 7/2020, do Ministério da Saúde. O texto traz orientações direcionadas ao Centro de Operações de Emergências para o Coronavírus (COE-Covid-19), a serem adotadas pelo Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) para a amamentação em eventuais contextos de transmissão de síndromes gripais.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Leite Humano , Extração de Leite , Higiene das Mãos , Higiene
12.
Pediatrics ; 145(4)2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32161111

RESUMO

The nutritional and immunologic properties of human milk, along with clear evidence of dose-dependent optimal health outcomes for both mothers and infants, provide a compelling rationale to support exclusive breastfeeding. US women increasingly intend to breastfeed exclusively for 6 months. Because establishing lactation can be challenging, exclusivity is often compromised in hopes of preventing feeding-related neonatal complications, potentially affecting the continuation and duration of breastfeeding. Risk factors for impaired lactogenesis are identifiable and common. Clinicians must be able to recognize normative patterns of exclusive breastfeeding in the first week while proactively identifying potential challenges. In this review, we provide new evidence from the past 10 years on the following topics relevant to exclusive breastfeeding: milk production and transfer, neonatal weight and output assessment, management of glucose and bilirubin, immune development and the microbiome, supplementation, and health system factors. We focus on the early days of exclusive breastfeeding in healthy newborns ≥35 weeks' gestation managed in the routine postpartum unit. With this evidence-based clinical review, we provide detailed guidance in identifying medical indications for early supplementation and can inform best practices for both birthing facilities and providers.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/métodos , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Lactação/fisiologia , Leite Humano/fisiologia , Algoritmos , Peso ao Nascer , Glicemia/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Extração de Leite/métodos , Colostro/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Humanos , Hiperbilirrubinemia/terapia , Recém-Nascido , Método Canguru , Transtornos da Lactação/etiologia , Microbiota/fisiologia , Leite Humano/química , Leite Humano/imunologia , Mães , Fototerapia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 105(3): 266-269, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296697

RESUMO

AIM: To determine the impact of the pumping regimes of women with preterm infants on the daily milk production, and on the short-term rate of milk synthesis during early lactation to support evidence-based recommendations for optimising milk production. METHODS: Mothers of preterm infants (n=25) recorded start time, finish time and expression volumes from every breast expression on days 10, 15-20 postpartum. RESULTS: Expressing more often than five times per day did not result in a significant increase in daily milk production. Milk volume per expression per breast increased for intervals between expressions of between 2and6 hours then reached a plateau when the interval between expression was 7 hours or longer. The short-term rate of milk synthesis decreased as the interval between expressions increased until about 7.5 hours at which point it begun to increase (p value associated with interval between expressions^2<0.001). CONCLUSION: The strong inverse association between the short-term rate of milk synthesis and the interval between expressions for intervals up to 7 hours suggest that the maximum interval between expressions should be 7 hours. Data suggest that, on average, the mothers should express at least five times a day to maximise daily milk production. Considering inter-individual variation, determination of an individual mother's maximum interval between expressions that does not compromise the short-term rate of milk synthesis will help to optimise daily milk production while minimising the demands on the mother's time.


Assuntos
Extração de Leite/métodos , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Lactação/metabolismo , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Mães , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos
15.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 511, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends that infants be exclusively breastfed until the age of six months. Breastfeeding is generally understood to mean the provision of human breastmilk to the infant by direct feeding at the breast, and interventions aimed at supporting exclusive breastfeeding are therefore targeted at this activity. However, breastfeeding is actually an umbrella term covering the provision of breastmilk to an infant by any means. Our population of interest is mothers who exclusively feed their infants indirectly using expressed breastmilk. Some research suggests that any expressing, and exclusively expressing in particular, can be a risk factor for early cessation of exclusive breastmilk provision, so we were interested to identify whether any specific support existed for exclusively expressing mothers outside of the context of premature infants and the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit setting. METHODS: A scoping review following the Joanna Briggs Institute approach was used to explore the phenomenon of formal and informal supports in the community for exclusively expressing mothers. Searches were run across academic databases and of government websites and infant feeding support organisations. Finally, an informal internet search was run using a simple search string. RESULTS: On analysis of results, there were no studies or articles that met the search criteria. An informal internet search linked us directly with websites and blogs that could be considered a form of support intervention. These informal results suggest that support material or programs could possibly exist in other modalities but we cannot find them in the context of this type of scoping review. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the search corroborated what we had suspected - that exclusively expressing mothers are not specifically supported by usual channels for new parents and that it is also difficult to find acknowledgement that exclusive expression exists. The absence of results demonstrates the relevance of this study: exclusively expressing mothers are an under-served population. If we wish to strive towards achievement of World Health Organization breastfeeding goals, exclusively expressing mothers require targeted support to assist in their infant feeding experience, and there is little formal evidence of it currently being provided.


Assuntos
Extração de Leite , Mães , Apoio Social , Aleitamento Materno , Feminino , Humanos
16.
Indian Pediatr ; 56(12): 1051-1052, 2019 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884438

RESUMO

Provision of expressed breast milk (EBM) to premature neonates poses a great challenge in extramural Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs). We conducted a questionnaire-based survey to identify the various challenges faced by the parents to provide EBM to their hospitalized premature infant. 40 preterm neonates (<34 wk gestation and <1500 g weight) planned to be started on EBM were included in the study. The median (range) duration after which EBM was received in NICU after the time it was asked for was 34.5 (13 to 40) hours, and it was received in a clean, sterile and covered container in only 8 (20%) cases. There were multiple hurdles in ensuring early availability of EBM in optimal condition. Sensitization and motivation of families regarding the importance of ensuring early administration of EBM to their prematurely delivered neonate may lead to substantial improvement in outcome of these neonates.


Assuntos
Extração de Leite , Cuidado do Lactente/métodos , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/fisiologia , Leite Humano , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Mães , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Int Breastfeed J ; 14: 45, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695726

RESUMO

Background: Chinese mothers of preterm infants often face obstacles to breastfeeding and commonly experience prolonged maternal-infant separation when their high-risk infants are hospitalized in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). This separation hinders mother-infant attachment and the establishment of breastfeeding. Currently, little is known about Chinese mothers' experiences breastfeeding their preterm infants, or their support needs. The aim of this study was to develop an understanding of mothers' experiences breastfeeding a hospitalized preterm infant and the support needed to establish a milk supply during the period separation from their infants. Methods: A qualitative descriptive study was conducted in Beijing in 2017. A total of 11 Chinese mothers were individually interviewed while separated from their infants. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. A thematic analysis involving a seven-step protocol identified key themes. Results: Mothers of preterm infants reported physically and mentally challenging breastfeeding experiences during the period they were separated from their babies. They viewed expressing breast milk as integral to their maternal role, even though some found expressing breastmilk exhausting. With little professional support available, the mothers depended upon nonprofessionals to establish breastfeeding. Conclusions: The study identified the difficulties mothers experienced establishing a milk supply while separated from their preterm infants, and the importance of access to health professional support.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Extração de Leite/psicologia , Criança Hospitalizada , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Mães/psicologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , China , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Entrevistas como Assunto , Gravidez
18.
Int Breastfeed J ; 14: 47, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708998

RESUMO

Background: Milk ejection characteristics remain consistent throughout 12 months of lactation in women who expressed breastmilk with an electric breast pump. In addition these characteristics appear to remain constant when women are breastfeeding or pumping suggesting that milk ejection is a robust physiological response. It is not known whether the stimulation of an infant at the breast in the early post partum period influences milk ejection patterns or whether this is a programmed event. However, as more data become available on the mechanisms involved in infant feeding, pumping patterns mimicking the infant more closely may provide enhanced results. The objective of this study was to compare milk ejection characteristics obtained when using a novel infant-derived pumping pattern with an established 2-phase pattern. Methods: A convenience sample of ten lactating mothers, 1 to 40 weeks of lactation with normal milk production were recruited in 2015. Each participated in two pumping sessions in which either a 2-phase pattern or infant-derived pattern were randomly assigned. Milk volume and milk ejection characteristics were recorded and the percentage of available milk removed (PAMR) was calculated. Statistical analysis used linear mixed effects modeling to determine any differences between breasts and pump patterns with the consideration of individual variability as a random effect. Results: The number of milk ejections and milk ejection characteristics did not differ between patterns. Milk volumes removed were 53.6 ± 28.5 ml (PAMR 58.2 ± 28.4) for the 2-phase pattern and and 54.2 ± 26.3 ml (PAMR 52.2 ± 22.3) for the infant derived pattern. Peak milk flow rates were positively associated with the available milk (p = 0.0003) and PAMR (p = 0.0001), as was the volume of milk removed during each milk ejection (p = 0.001 and p = 0.0001). Conclusion: An experimental pumping pattern designed to resemble infant sucking characteristics did not alter milk ejection characteristics or milk removal parameters compared with an established 2-phase pattern. Theses findings provide further evidence that milk ejection is a robust physiological response.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Extração de Leite/instrumentação , Ejeção Láctea/fisiologia , Adulto , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Vácuo
19.
Adv Neonatal Care ; 19(6): 441-451, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of pasteurized human donor milk has increased in recent years due to health benefits and rising number of infants who need pasteurized human donor milk. Little is known about milk donors' experiences or what contributes to their motivation to donate. PURPOSE: Using existing evidence and the theory of planned behavior as a guide, our purpose was to describe the personal and social aspects of mothers' milk donation to a milk bank in the Midwest United States. METHODS: A convenience sample of 50 current human milk donors enrolled in this cross-sectional descriptive study. The investigator-designed online survey consisted of open and closed questions based upon existing evidence and theory of planned behavior for assessing reasons for donation, beliefs about benefits and barriers, social support for donation, donation history, and current experiences. We used the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Survey to characterize general breastfeeding attitudes. Data analysis consisted of content analysis for narrative data and descriptive statistics for continuous and dichotomous variables. FINDINGS/RESULTS: Six themes represented experiences of discovering donation, reasons and motivations for donating, benefits and barriers to donation, confidence in donating, and support for donation. Practical and altruistic motivations for donation were prevalent. Confidence for donation was instilled by adequate milk supply, growth of the infant, and the milk bank process and professionalism. Support from others was universal. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Findings can inform education regarding human milk donation. Human milk banks may benefit from identified donation barriers to improve support for donors. IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH: Findings are being used for instrument development for research regarding women's intentions and donor behavior.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Barreiras de Comunicação , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Bancos de Leite/normas , Leite Humano , Doadores de Tecidos/psicologia , Adulto , Altruísmo , Extração de Leite/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Iowa , Motivação , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Melhoria de Qualidade , Autoimagem , Apoio Social , Doadores de Tecidos/educação
20.
Adv Neonatal Care ; 19(6): 452-459, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764133

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mother's own milk (MOM) is preferred when feeding preterm infants. When expressed mother's milk is stored and handled, there is a risk of bacterial contamination, decreased immunological activity, and less nutritional potential. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate current routines when handling MOM in Danish neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). METHODS: A survey was sent to all 17 NICUs in Denmark in which current practices regarding human milk handling, storage, and preparation were evaluated. Furthermore, one question sought to establish when mother's milk was believed to be colostrum. Respondents of the survey were neonatal nurses. RESULTS: All 17 units responded to the survey. Only 5 of 17 units answered that human colostrum was defined as milk from the first week after birth. Refrigerator storage time varied between 24 and 72 hours. In 6 of 17 units, parents were in charge of mixing milk and fortifier. Heating of human milk was done by using microwave ovens in 4 of 17 of the units. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: This national survey established that there is significant variability in the way mother's milk is handled. Some of the procedures performed may affect the quality of the milk. It is important to implement evidence-based practice regarding storage and handling of expressed mother's milk to ensure that the quality of the milk is the best possible alternative for all preterm infants. IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH: Prospective studies are needed to examine the association between handling of human milk and changes in composition and nutritional potential of the milk.


Assuntos
Alimentação Artificial , Extração de Leite/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Manipulação de Alimentos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Leite Humano , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Alimentação Artificial/métodos , Alimentação Artificial/normas , Dinamarca , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Manipulação de Alimentos/normas , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/organização & administração , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/normas , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Enfermeiras Neonatologistas/psicologia , Enfermeiras Neonatologistas/normas , Melhoria de Qualidade
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