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Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254479, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355910


Abstract Earias vittellaFabricius, 1794 (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera) is deliberated to be one of the most destructive pests of cotton and okra vegetation in the world including Asia. The pest has established resistance to various synthetic insecticides. The use of bio-pesticide is one of the unconventional approaches to develop a vigorous ecosystem without harming non- target pests and beneficial natural insect fauna. In the present study, the toxicity levels of Citrullus colocynthis seed extract have been evaluated against the populations of E. vittellaunder standardized laboratory conditions. The toxic effects of C. colocynthis on development periods, protein contents and esterase activity of the life stages of E. vittella were also evaluated. The toxicity levels of methanol, ethanol, hexane, water and profenofos were evaluated on the 1st instar larvae of E. vittella. LC30 and LC80 concentrations exhibited the effectiveness of methanol-based C. colocynthis seed extract against 1st instar larvae of E. vitella. The enhanced larval and pupal periods were revealed in treated samples during the comparison with untreated samples. The intrinsic rate of increase, net reproductive rate in the LC30 and LC80 concentrations exposed larvae remained less than the control treatment. Fecundity, the esterase activity and protein contents were declined in LC30 and LC80 treated samples as compared to the control. The present findings suggest that C. colosynthis extracts based botanical insecticides are beneficial, ecosystem sustainable and can be integrated with insect management programs from environment safety perspective.

Resumo Earias vittella Fabricius, 1794 (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera) é considerada uma das pragas mais destrutivas de algodão e quiabo no mundo, incluindo a Ásia. Essa praga estabeleceu resistência a vários inseticidas sintéticos. O uso de biopesticidas é uma das abordagens não convencionais para desenvolver um ecossistema saudável sem prejudicar as pragas não alvo e a fauna natural benéfica de insetos. No presente estudo, os níveis de toxicidade do extrato de semente de Citrullus colocynthis foram avaliados nas populações de E. vittella em condições de laboratório padronizadas. Os efeitos tóxicos de C. colocynthis nos períodos de desenvolvimento, conteúdo de proteína e atividade esterase das fases de vida de E. vittella também foram avaliados. Os níveis de toxicidade de metanol, etanol, hexano, água e profenofós foram avaliados em larvas de 1º instar de E. vittella. As concentrações de LC30 e LC80 apresentaram eficácia do extrato de sementes de C. colocynthis à base de metanol contra larvas de 1º instar de E. vittella. Os períodos larval e pupal aumentados foram revelados nas amostras tratadas durante a comparação com as amostras não tratadas. A taxa intrínseca de aumento e a taxa reprodutiva líquida nas concentrações de larvas expostas LC30 e LC80 permaneceram menores do que o tratamento controle. A fecundidade, a atividade da esterase e o conteúdo de proteína diminuíram nas amostras tratadas com LC30 e LC80 em comparação com o controle. As presentes descobertas sugerem que os extratos de C. colocynthis à base de inseticidas botânicos são benéficos, sustentáveis ​​para o ecossistema e podem ser integrados com programas de manejo de insetos do ponto de vista da segurança ambiental.

Animais , Citrullus colocynthis , Inseticidas , Mariposas , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ecossistema , Larva
Food Chem ; 398: 133871, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35964562


Natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) coupled with ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) was evaluated as extraction techniques for bioactive compounds from apple pomace. Seven natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) with different molar ratios were explored as green extraction solvents to evaluate extraction efficiency in terms of total flavonoid content (TFC), total phenolic content (TPC), lipid peroxidation inhibition (LBI) and antioxidant potential. The solvents which performed better than conventional solvent were DES1 (Choline chloride: glycerol (1:2)), DES2 (Choline chloride: lactic acid (1:3)) and DES5 ((Choline chloride: citric acid (1:1)). These solvents were further evaluated for optimisation of processing parameters in UAE-DES. The maximum TPC value was achieved using sonication time 40 min, water 30 %, solid/liquid ratio 1:30, temperature 40 °C, acoustic intensity 83.2 W/cm2 and duty cycle 75 %. HPLC of optimised extract was utilised for quantification of polyphenol compounds showing quercetin as main compound followed by chlorogenic acid, gallic acid, phloretin, phloridizin and rutin.

Malus , Colina , Solventes Eutéticos Profundos , Fenóis , Extratos Vegetais , Solventes
Food Chem ; 398: 133921, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35969988


Nano-phytosomes are lipid-based nano-carriers and rapidly growing technology for products containing phytochemicals. In this study, pomegranate peel extract (PPE) loaded nanophytosomes (NP) were prepared with phosphatidylcholine (PC) based on thin layer hydration method. The characterization of NP such as entrapment efficiency (EE), particle size, poly-dispersity index (PDI), ζ-potential and microstructural properties was studied and in vitro bioaccessibility and storage stability of bioactive properties were investigated. The highest EE was determined as 94.99 %, indicating a unique ability as nano-carrier. PPE-loaded NPs showed good characteristics, such as lower PDI values (<0.5), lower particle size (166.70-144.40 nm), and spherical shape of microstructure. All NP complexes showed significant bioaccessibility with TPC, CUPRAC, and ABTS values >50 % in the intestinal medium. The lowest TPC and color difference (ΔE) during 28 days of storage were found at 4 °C, although all NP samples showed better stability at all storage temperatures up to 21 days.

Romã (Fruta) , Tamanho da Partícula , Fosfatidilcolinas/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Extratos Vegetais/química
Food Chem ; 398: 133910, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35973296


Riboflavin (Rf), an externally supplied nutrient, is highly photosensitive, and should be protected from sunlight once used in food and pharmaceutical manufacturing. The applications of encapsulated Rf have recently developed due to their therapeutic properties. In this study, the use of green silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized by Rosa damascena mill L. extract to control the encapsulation efficiency of Rf in potato starch was demonstrated for the first time. Starch/Rf, Starch/AgNPs/Rf and Starch/AgNPs nanocapsules were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared, field emission scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and brunauer-Emmett-Teller techniques. The obtained results showed that the presence of AgNPs reduces Rf nanocapsules size (from 340 to 327 nm), increases the encapsulation efficiency (21.14 ± 0.62 to 92.52 ± 1.32 %) and improves the thermal stability, antibacterial and antioxidant activities. Moreover, UV-vis spectroscopy demonstrated the stronger association of AgNPs/Rf and AgNPs/Rf/Starch nanocapsules with BSA under physiological conditions.

Nanopartículas Metálicas , Nanocápsulas , Solanum tuberosum , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/química , Riboflavina , Prata/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Amido , Difração de Raios X
Food Chem ; 398: 133923, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35987005


This study aimed to characterize a novel antimicrobial peptide (AMP) obtained from Moringa oleifera seed protein hydrolysates. Cell membrane chromatography and live bacteria adsorption were combined into a single step to efficiently isolate the active fraction of the AMP. Five peptides were identified by LC-MS/MS, among which the MCNDCGA peptide (termed MOp3) showed the greatest inhibitory effect against Staphylococcus aureus [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC): 2 mg/mL]. MOp3 was identified as a hydrophobic anionic AMP rich in ß-sheet structures with negligible hemolytic activity at 2.0 × MIC. MOp3 had good tolerance to salt solutions at 5 % and pH range 6.0-8.0, but was sensitive to high temperatures (>100 °C) and acid protease. Microscopic observation further revealed that MOp3 induced irreversible damage onto the cell membrane of S. aureus and interacted with dihydrofolate reductase and DNA gyrase by hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interaction. These findings highlight the potential application of a new antimicrobial agent against S. aureus in the food industry.

Moringa oleifera , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análise , Adsorção , Peptídeos Antimicrobianos , Cromatografia Líquida , Moringa oleifera/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sementes/química , Staphylococcus aureus , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
Food Chem ; 398: 133853, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35988412


Plant-based phenolic extracts have gained significant attention in the food industry due to their antimicrobial and health-promoting effects. However, their usage is limited because of poor water solubility and instability during processing. Therefore, encapsulation of phenolics with a suitable carrier system is essential for overcoming these problems and increasing their application in food products. In this study, encapsulated phenolic extracts were used for the first time in vacuum impregnation (VI). For this purpose, different phenolic extracts (cinnamon, turmeric, pomegranate peel) were obtained from the plant source. PPE was selected because it has the highest total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, and antimicrobial activity against Botrytis cinerea. Then, PPE was encapsulated with different emulsifiers (T80, GMO, IN, WPI, and LEC). After the characterization and stability studies were performed, PPE encapsulated with T80 was used to produce a functional strawberry snack by VI technology. The results showed that the diffusion rate of EPPE was significantly increased compared to the control and PPE-VI group. EPPE-enriched strawberries were the preferred snack with high-quality characteristics.

Fragaria , Antioxidantes , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais , Tecnologia , Vácuo
Food Chem ; 399: 133948, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35994855


M. oleifera known as "miracle tree" is increasingly used in nutraceuticals for the reported health effects and nutritional value of its leaves. This study presents the first metabolome profiling of M. oleifera leaves of African origin using different solvent polarities via HR-UPLC/MS based molecular networking followed by multivariate data analyses for samples classification. 119 Chemicals were characterized in both positive and negative modes belonging to 8 classes viz. phenolic acids, flavonoids, peptides, fatty acids/amides, sulfolipids, glucosinolates and carotenoids. New metabolites i.e., polyphenolics, fatty acids, in addition to a new class of sulfolipids were annotated for the first time in Moringa leaves. In vitro anti-inflammatory and anti-aging bioassays of the leaf extracts were assessed and in correlation to their metabolite profile via multivariate data analyses. Kaempferol, quercetin and apigenin-O/C-glycosides, fatty acyl amides and carotenoids appeared crucial for biological activities and leaves origin discrimination.

Moringa oleifera , Amidas , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Quimiometria , Ácidos Graxos , Metaboloma , Moringa oleifera/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química
Food Chem ; 399: 133946, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35998491


Genotype, growth stages, and moisture regimes affect polyphenols as beneficial compounds in rapeseed with edible and medicinal properties. The aims of this study were to assess the effects of tissue, genotype background and moisture on growth, pigment composition, phenolic acids, flavonoids, antioxidant, and antiglycation activities in rapeseed. Treatments included two moisture regimes (10% field capacity as drought-treated and 30% field capacity as control), tissue (leaf, flower and seed), and 12 rapeseed genotypes. The range of loss in growth traits under drought compared with control was between 23% and 47%. Drought reduced number of leaves, leaf area, fresh and dry weights by 23%, 31%, 37%, and 36%, respectively whilst increased chlorophylls, carotenoids, total pigment, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and antioxidant activities. Analysis for antiglycation properties in two genotypes (G01 and G08) which accumulated higher phenolic compounds showed that higher antiglycation property was associated with higher epicatechin, and caffeic, and syringic acids. Flower extracts showed higher phenolics than leaf and seed suggesting flowering stage is a preferred timing to harvest a higher polyphenols from rapeseed. Overall, our results demonstrated role of specific polyphenols in antiglycation activities and the importance of growth stage and genotype in attaining higher polyphenols and antioxidants that affect edible and medicinal values of rapeseed under water limited conditions.

Brassica napus , Brassica rapa , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Brassica napus/genética , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia
Food Chem ; 399: 133974, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35998493


In this research, two sequential Dendrobium officinale water extracts (WDOE and WDOP1) were shown to significantly ameliorate type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM) in a mouse model. WDOP1 was identified as a glucomannan with a backbone of 1,4-linked Manp and 1,4-linked Glcp and an average molecular weight of 731 kDa. We also found that both WDOE and WDOP1 could significantly alleviate glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, oxidative stress injury, serum lipid metabolism disturbances, and histopathological damage in T2DM mice. In addition, we demonstrated that WDOE and WDOP1 reversed gut dysbiosis by reshaping the microbiota spectrum in T2DM mice. It should be emphasized that both Dendrobium officinale extracts afforded beneficial effects in T2DM mice comparable to metformin, despite differences in examined dosages. In conclusion, we demonstrated that Dendrobium officinale derivatives have potential as T2DM management nutraceuticals.

Dendrobium , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia
Food Chem ; 399: 133969, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36007443


Bloodroot (Haemodorum spicatum) is an Australian native bulb plant yielding red pigment. This study aimed to characterize the phenolic and carotenoid profiles of the 80% ethanol extract of the H. spicatum bulb by HPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS and HPLC-DAD. Results revealed the relatively low total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the bulb extract with the maximum absorbance at 477 nm. Only 2 carotenoids (lutein and capsanthin) were detected at relatively low levels in the extract. A total of 40 phenolic compounds were tentatively identified, including 5 phenolic acids, 13 flavonoids and 22 other phenolic compounds, where 35 were reported for the first time in H. spicatum, together with 3 previously reported phenylphenalenones, haemodorol, haemoxiphidone and 2,5,6-trimethoxy-9-phenyl-1H-phenalen-1-one, and 2 oxabenzochrysenones, 5-hydroxy-2-methoxy-1H-naphtho[2,1,8-mna]xanthen-1-one and 5-hydroxy-1H-naphtho[2,1,8-mna]xanthen-1-one. This study provided the most comprehensive phenolic and carotenoid profiles of H. spicatum up to date.

Etanol , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Austrália , Carotenoides/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
Food Chem ; 399: 133999, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36037688


Melastoma dodecandrum Lour. (MDL) extracts have shown potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, suggesting MDL might be a good source of α-glucosidase inhibitors. The aim of the study was to identify compounds in MDL extracts with α-glucosidase inhibitory activities and evaluate their effect on postprandial blood glucose as well as elucidating the underlying mechanisms of inhibition. A total of 34 polyphenols were identified in MDL fruits, among which 10 anthocyanins and three proanthocyanidin derivatives were discovered for the first time. Dosing mice with MDL extracts (100 mg/kg body weight, by gavage) was associated with a significantly decrease in postprandial blood glucose concentrations after oral administration of maltose. The most potent α-glucosidase inhibitor was identified as casuarictin (IC50 of 0.21 µg/mL). Casuarictin bound competitively to α-glucosidase, occupying not only the catalytic site but also forming strong hydrogen bonds with α-glucosidase residues. Therefore, casuarictin derived from MDL fruits might be used as novel α-glucosidase inhibitor in functional foods or other dietary products.

Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases , Melastomataceae , Animais , Antocianinas , Glicemia/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Melastomataceae/metabolismo , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/química , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo
Food Chem ; 399: 133978, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36007441


The occurrence of the DFD defect shortens microbiological stability and reduces consumer acceptance of meat. The effect of a chokeberry leaf extract (ChLE) addition at concentrations of 0.01 %, 0.05 % and 0.1 % on the sensory and physicochemical properties of burgers prepared from DFD meat during refrigerated storage under vacuum for 10 days was assessed. The pH, water activity, texture, colour, degree of lipid oxidation, and content of α-tocopherol were measured. The extract at concentrations of 0.05 % and 0.1 % significantly influenced lower levels of lipid oxidation and higher content of α-tocopherol on each tested period. Moreover, these concentrations had a beneficial effect on the instrumental and sensory evaluation of texture parameters and on overall quality. It was concluded that the addition of 0.1 % extract was the most beneficial over the entire 10-day storage period. In summary, use of ChLE may reduce the loss of raw meat caused by DFD defect.

Produtos da Carne , Extratos Vegetais , Carne Vermelha , Animais , Bovinos , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Lipídeos , Produtos da Carne/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , alfa-Tocoferol
Food Chem ; 399: 133941, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36007445


A deep eutectic system (DESys) is formed when a hydrogen bond acceptor (HBA) is processed with polysaccharide (hydrogen bond donor, HBD) containing plant substance in water to dissolve, extract, and recover the polysaccharide directly, instead of using a traditional deep eutectic solvent (DES). The extraction efficiency is enhanced by the direct formation of the DESys, in a mechanochemical extraction (MCE) system. Key factors affecting the extraction efficiency were systematically studied and optimized. The effects of the DESys on the structure and physicochemical properties of polysaccharides were studied by several analytical techniques. The findings demonstrated that the direct DESys formation extraction efficiency was superior than that of traditional extraction methods while retaining physicochemical properties of polysaccharides. Moreover, the composition of polysaccharides extracted with this method is different from that obtained by conventional methods. The recovery and purification process of polysaccharides is simplified by eliminating the need for an additional HBD.

Solventes Eutéticos Profundos , Extratos Vegetais , Polissacarídeos , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas , Solventes/química
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247360, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350301


Abstract Excessive intake of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as, diclofenac sodium (DS) may lead to toxicity in the rats. In this work, we aimed to examine the protective impact of lentil extract (LE) and folic acid (FA) on the hematological markers, the kidney tissue oxidative stress and the renal function against diclofenac sodium (DS) in male albino rats. The rats (120-150 g) were divided into four equal groups randomly, the first group kept as the untreated control. The second group was administrated with DS (11.6 mg/kg b.wt. orally once/day). The third group was received DS+FA (11.6 mg/kg b.wt.+76.9 microgram/kg b.wt.) orally once/day. The fourth group was treated with DS+LE (11.6 mg/kg b.wt.+500 mg/kg b.wt.) orally once/day. After four weeks, the results revealed that DS produced a significant decrease in the values of red blood cells (RBCs), hemoglobin concentration (Hb), hematocrit (HCT) and white blood cells (WBCs). On the other hand, there was a significant increase in the platelets count. Also, DS induced a renal deterioration; this was evidenced by the significant increase in the serum levels of urea, creatinine, uric acid, Na, Ca, Mg as well as the nitric oxide (NO) level in the kidney tissue. Also, there were a significant reduction in the serum levels of potassium (K) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in the kidney homogenates. Moreover, the findings in the rats treated by DS+LE or DS+FA showed a potential protection on the hematological markers, oxidative stress in the kidney tissue and the renal function disturbed by DS. LE and FA could play a potent role for the prevention the adverse hematological, the kidney tissue oxidative stress and the renal dysfunction caused by DS via their anti-oxidative and bioactive phytochemicals.

Resumo A ingestão excessiva de anti-inflamatórios não esteroidais, como o diclofenaco de sódio (DS), pode causar toxicidade em ratos. Neste trabalho, objetivamos examinar o impacto protetor do extrato de lentilha (LE) e ácido fólico (AF) em marcadores hematológicos, no estresse oxidativo do tecido renal e na função renal contra o diclofenaco de sódio (DS) em ratos albinos machos. Os ratos (120-150 g) foram divididos em quatro grupos iguais aleatoriamente, sendo o primeiro grupo mantido como controle não tratado. O segundo grupo foi administrado com DS (11,6 mg / kg de peso corporal por via oral uma vez / dia). O terceiro grupo recebeu DS + FA (76,9 mg / kg de peso corporal por via oral uma vez / dia). O quarto grupo foi tratado com DS + LE (500 mg / kg de peso corporal por via oral uma vez / dia). Após quatro semanas, os resultados revelaram que o DS produziu uma diminuição significativa nos valores de glóbulos vermelhos (RBCs), concentração de hemoglobina (Hb), hematócrito (HCT) e glóbulos brancos (WBCs). Por outro lado, houve um aumento significativo na contagem de plaquetas. Além disso, o DS induziu uma deterioração renal; isso foi evidenciado pelo aumento significativo dos níveis séricos de ureia, creatinina, ácido úrico, Na, Ca, Mg e também do nível de óxido nítrico no tecido renal. Além disso, houve uma redução significativa nos níveis séricos de potássio (K) e glutationa reduzida (GSH) nos homogenatos renais. Além disso, os achados nos ratos tratados com DS + LE ou DS + FA mostraram uma proteção potencial sobre os marcadores hematológicos, estresse oxidativo no tecido renal e função renal perturbada pelo DS. LE e AF podem desempenhar um papel potente na prevenção do estresse hematológico adverso, do estresse oxidativo do tecido renal e da disfunção renal causada pelo DS por meio de seus fitoquímicos antioxidantes e bioativos.

Animais , Ratos , Diclofenaco/toxicidade , Lens (Planta) , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Ácido Fólico , Antioxidantes
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e243332, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345537


Abstract The present study was aimed to manifest the antibacterial and antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of Salix alba L. against seven Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens e.g. Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus (1), S. aureus (2), Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli (1), E. coli (2) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae and three fungal isolates from the air such as Aspergillus terreus, A. ornatus, and Rhizopus stolonifer. Two different serotypes of S. aureus and E. coli were used. The agar well-diffusion method results showed the dose-dependent response of plant extracts against bacterial and fungal strains while some organisms were found resistant e.g. E. coli (1), S. sonnei, A. terreus and R. stolonifer. The highest antibacterial activity was recorded at 17.000±1.732 mm from 100 mg/mL of leaves methanolic extracts against S. pyogenes while the activity of most of the pathogens decreased after 24 h of incubation. The highest antifungal activity was reported at 11.833±1.0 mm against A. ornatus at 50 mg/mL after 48 h of the incubation period. These experimental findings endorse the use of S. alba in ethnopharmacological formulations and suggest the use of methanolic extracts of the said plant to develop drugs to control the proliferation of resistant disease causing pathogenic microbes.

Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo manifestar a atividade antibacteriana e antifúngica de extratos metanólicos de Salix alba L. contra sete patógenos bacterianos Gram-positivos e Gram-negativos. Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus (1), S. aureus (2), Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli (1), E. coli (2) e Neisseria gonorrhoeae e três isolados de fungos do ar, como Aspergillus terreus, A. ornatus, e Rhizopus stolonifer. Dois sorotipos diferentes de S. aureus e E. coli foram usados. Os resultados do método de difusão em ágar mostraram a resposta dependente da dose de extratos de plantas contra cepas de bactérias e fungos, enquanto alguns organismos foram considerados resistentes, e.g. E. coli (1), S. sonnei, A. terreus e R. stolonifer. A maior atividade antibacteriana foi registrada em 17.000 ± 1.732 de 100 mg/mL de extratos metanólicos de folhas contra S. pyogenes, enquanto a atividade da maioria dos patógenos diminuiu após 24 h de incubação. A maior atividade antifúngica foi relatada em 11,833 ± 1,0 contra A. ornatus a 50 mg/mL após 48 h do período de incubação. Esses achados experimentais endossam o uso de S. alba em formulações etnofarmacológicas e sugerem o uso de extratos metanólicos da referida planta para o desenvolvimento de fármacos que controlem a proliferação de doenças resistentes que causam micróbios patogênicos.

Salix , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Aspergillus , Rhizopus , Staphylococcus aureus , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Metanol , Escherichia coli , Antibacterianos/farmacologia
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247190, 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345532


Abstract The present study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential and inhibitory effect ofCannabis sativa and Morus nigra against lipid peroxidation in goat brain and liver homogenates. The formation of free radicals, highly reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) is a normal metabolic process for cellular signaling and countering the antigens. However, they may cause serious damage if they produced at amplified tolls. In addition, metabolic disorders also serve as sources of these reactive species. Although the issue can be addressed through supplements and other phytochemicals. In this study, two plant species were evaluated for their biological potential by employing a spectrum of antioxidant assays. The antioxidant activity was performed by lipid peroxidation assay. The water extract prepared from leaves of Cannabis sativa and Morus nigra showed significant (P<0.05) inhibition as compared to control i.e., 522.6±0.06 and 659.97±0.03 µg/mL against iron-induced lipid peroxidation in goat brain homogenate while the inhibitions were 273.54±0.04 and 309.18±0.05 µg/mL against nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation of the brain. The iron and nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation was also significantly inhibited by leaf extracts of Cannabis sativa and Morus nigra in liver homogenates such as 230.63±0.52 and 326.91±0.01 µg/mL (iron-induced) while 300.47±0.07 and 300.47±0.07 µg/mL (nitroprusside induced), respectively. The extracts of Cannabis sativa extract showed promising activity (96.04±0.060%) against DPPH radicals while Morus nigra showed a moderate activity (34.11±0.120%). The results suggest that different accessions ofCannabis sativa and Morus nigra are a potential source of antioxidants and have a therapeutic effect against disease induced by oxidative stress and hence can be used for novel drug discovery and development.

Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial antioxidante e o efeito inibitório de Cannabis sativa e Morus nigra contra a peroxidação lipídica em homogenatos de cérebro e fígado de cabras. A formação de radicais livres, espécies altamente reativas de oxigênio (ROS) e espécies reativas de nitrogênio (RNS), é um processo metabólico normal para sinalização celular e combate aos antígenos. No entanto, eles podem causar sérios danos se forem produzidos em portagens ampliadas. Além disso, distúrbios metabólicos também servem como fontes dessas espécies reativas, embora o problema possa ser resolvido por meio de suplementos e outros fitoquímicos. Neste estudo, duas espécies de plantas foram avaliadas quanto ao seu potencial biológico, empregando um espectro de ensaios antioxidantes. A atividade antioxidante foi realizada por ensaio de peroxidação lipídica. O extrato de água preparado a partir de folhas de Cannabis sativa e Morus nigra mostrou inibição significativa (P < 0,05) em comparação com o controle, ou seja, 522,6 ± 0,06 e 659,97 ± 0,03 µg / mL contra peroxidação lipídica induzida por ferro em homogenato de cérebro de cabra, enquanto as inibições foram 273,54 ± 0,04 e 309,18 ± 0,05 µg / mL contra a peroxidação lipídica do cérebro induzida por nitroprussiato. A peroxidação lipídica induzida por ferro e nitroprussiato também foi significativamente inibida por extratos de folhas de Cannabis sativa e Morus nigra em homogenatos de fígado, como 230,63 ± 0,52 e 326,91 ± 0,01 µg / mL (induzida por ferro), enquanto 300,47 ± 0,07 e 300,47 ± 0,07 µg / mL (induzida por nitroprussiato), respectivamente. Os extratos do extrato de Cannabis sativa apresentaram atividade promissora (96,04 ± 0,060%) contra os radicais DPPH enquanto Morus nigra apresentou atividade moderada (34,11 ± 0,120%). Os resultados sugerem que diferentes acessos de Cannabis sativa e Morus nigra são uma fonte potencial de antioxidantes e têm efeito terapêutico contra doenças induzidas por estresse oxidativo e, portanto, podem ser usados ​​para a descoberta e desenvolvimento de novos medicamentos.

Animais , Cannabis , Morus , Encéfalo , Cabras , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Fígado , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249536, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345531


Abstract Seaweeds are a major marine resource that can be explored to develop novel pharmaceutical molecules. The present study showed the presence of unique bioactive components in the petroleum ether extract (PEE) and methanolic extract (ME) of Sargassum tenerrimum. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis suggested that the PEE of S. tenerrimum contained antibacterial biomolecules: hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester, 17-pentatriacontene, dasycarpidan-1-methanol, and acetate (ester). However, the ME of S. tenerrimum exhibited better antibacterial effect than the PEE due to the presence of the bioactive compounds 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, diisooctyl ester, tetratetracontane, 1-docosene, 1,2-benzenediol, and benzoic acid. Thus, promising antibacterial molecules can be isolated from S. tenerrimum for better therapeutic use.

Resumo As algas marinhas são um importante recurso marinho que pode ser explorado para desenvolver novas moléculas farmacêuticas. O presente estudo mostrou a presença de componentes bioativos únicos no extrato etéreo de petróleo (PEE) e no extrato metanólico (ME) de Sargassum tenerrimum. A análise por cromatografia gasosa-espectrometria de massa sugeriu que o PEE de S. tenerrimum continha biomoléculas antibacterianas: ácido hexadecanoico, éster metílico, 17-pentatriaconteno, dasycarpidan-1-metanol e acetato (éster). Entretanto, o ME de S. tenerrimum exibiu melhor efeito antibacteriano do que o PEE devido à presença dos compostos bioativos ácido 1,2-benzenodicarboxílico, éster diisooctil, tetratetracontano, 1-docosene, 1,2-benzoenodiol e ácido benzoico. Assim, moléculas antibacterianas promissoras podem ser isoladas de S. tenerrimum para melhor uso terapêutico.

Sargassum , Arábia Saudita , Extratos Vegetais , Oceano Índico , Antibacterianos/farmacologia
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245585, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339413


Abstract Many soil microorganisms' i.e., bacteria and fungi produce secondary metabolites called antibiotics. These are used for the treatment of some of the bacterial, fungal and protozoal diseases of humans. There is a need for isolation of a broad spectrum of antibiotics from microorganisms due to the emergence of antibiotic resistance. In the present study two antibiotic producing bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae and Bacillus cereus were isolated from pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry of Hattar, Haripur Pakistan. Total 10 waste samples were collected from different industries (Marble, Ghee, Soap, Mineral, Steel, Poultry Feed, Pharmaceutical, Qarshi, Cosmetic and Glass). Thirty-three bacterial strains were isolated from industrial wastes of these ten different industries. Fourteen out of thirty-three bacterial strains exhibited antimicrobial activities against at least one of the test microbes considered in this study including Escherchia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi. The bacteria were isolated by standard serial dilution spread plate technique. Morphological characterization of the isolates was done by Gram staining. Nine bacterial isolates out of fourteen were initially identified as B. cereus and five as K. pneumoniae through biochemical characterization. The antibacterial activities were tested by well diffusion method. Maximum number of antibiotic producing bacteria were isolated from pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry based on the results of primary screening, the most potential isolates S9, S19, S20, S22 and S23 were selected for secondary screening. The maximum activity against E. coli and S. aureus was recorded by bacterial isolate S19 i.e zones of inhibition of 6.5mm and 9mm while S20 showed 7.5mm and 6mm zones respectively. Molecular identification was carried out on the basis of 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Finally, the isolates were identified as B. cereus accession number LC538271and K. pneumoniae accession number MT078679. Analysis of bacterial extract S20 through GC-MS indicated the presence of 8 compounds of diverse nature and structure. Present study suggests that wastes of pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry may have antibiotic producing bacteria. These bacteria could be utilized for the production of antibiotics. B. cereus and K. pneumoniae isolated from wastes of poultry feed and pharmaceutical industries have the potential to produce antibiotics and could be used to control the microbial growth.

Resumo Muitos microrganismos do solo, ou seja, bactérias e fungos produzem metabólitos secundários chamados antibióticos. Eles são usados ​​para tratamento de algumas doenças bacterianas, fúngicas e protozoárias em humanos. Há necessidade de isolamento de um amplo espectro de antibióticos de microrganismos devido ao surgimento de resistência aos antibióticos. No presente estudo, duas bactérias produtoras de antibióticos, Klebsiella pneumoniae e Bacillus cereus, foram isoladas da indústria farmacêutica e de ração avícola de Hattar, Haripur, Paquistão. Um total de 10 amostras de resíduos foi coletado de diferentes indústrias (mármore, ghee, sabão, mineral, aço, ração para aves, farmacêutica, Qarshi, cosmética e vidro). Trinta e três cepas bacterianas foram isoladas de resíduos industriais dessas dez diferentes indústrias. Quatorze das 33 cepas bacterianas exibiram atividades antimicrobianas contra pelo menos um dos micróbios de teste considerados neste estudo, incluindo Escherchia coli, Staphylococcus aureus e Salmonella typhi. As bactérias foram isoladas pela técnica de placa de diluição em série padrão. A caracterização morfológica dos isolados foi feita por coloração de gram. Nove isolados bacterianos de 14 foram inicialmente identificados como B. cereus e cinco como K. pneumoniae por meio de caracterização bioquímica. As atividades antibacterianas foram testadas pelo método de difusão em poço. O número máximo de bactérias produtoras de antibióticos foi isolado da indústria farmacêutica e de ração avícola com base nos resultados da triagem primária, os isolados mais potenciais S9, S19, S20, S22 e S23 foram selecionados para a triagem secundária. A atividade máxima contra E. coli e S. aureus foi registrada pelo isolado bacteriano S19, ou seja, zonas de inibição de 6,5 mm e 9 mm, enquanto S20 mostrou zonas de 7,5 mm e 6 mm, respectivamente. A identificação molecular foi realizada com base na análise da sequência 16S rRNA. Finalmente, os isolados foram identificados como B. cereus número de acesso LC538271 e K. pneumoniae número de acesso MT078679. A análise do extrato bacteriano S20 por meio de GC-MS indicou a presença de oito compostos de natureza e estrutura diversas. O presente estudo sugere que resíduos da indústria farmacêutica e de ração para aves podem conter bactérias produtoras de antibióticos. Essas bactérias podem ser utilizadas para a produção de antibióticos B. cereus e K. pneumoniae isolados de resíduos de rações de aves e indústrias farmacêuticas têm potencial para produzir antibióticos e podem ser usados ​​para controlar o crescimento microbiano.

Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus , Resíduos Industriais , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Extratos Vegetais , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Escherichia coli , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Antibacterianos/farmacologia
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e236649, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339379


Abstract Croton argyrophylloides Muell. Arg., from the Euphorbiaceae family, popularly known as marmeleiro prateado or sacatinga, is a plant from the Caatinga biome commonly found in Brazil's northeastern region. The present study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the species. The phytochemical study was performed through qualitative analysis of chemical constituents and quantitative determination of the total phenol content through the Folin-Ciocalteu test. The qualitative and quantitative antioxidant tests were performed using the DPPH method (2.2 diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazil) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by microdilution in 96-well plates. The ethanolic extract of the leaves of C. argyrophylloides manifested antioxidant action in the quantitative DPPH test with a significant bioactivity of 84.70 AAO% in 500 µg/mL, with an EC50 of 236.79. The content of total phenolic compounds was 946.06 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g of sample, and total flavonoids was 58.11 mg of quercetin equivalents/g of sample, the result obtained for FRAP was 15294.44 µM Trolox/g of sample and ABTS was 718 μM Trolox of sample. The prospecting of the chemical constituents of the leaves of C. argyrophylloides revealed the presence of the main compounds that manifests the antioxidant activity and it was proven by the DPPH method that there is antioxidant activity in the analyzed sample, in addition to demonstrating a significant content of phenolic compounds and total flavonoid content in the species, which corroborates the antioxidant activity of the plant sample. The leaf extracts presented growth inhibition halos of 10 and 12 mm upon Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923.

Resumo Croton argyrophylloides Muell. Arg., pertencente à família Euphorbiaceae, conhecida popularmente como marmeleiro prateado e sacatinga, é um vegetal do bioma caatinga comumente encontrado no Nordeste do Brasil. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a atividade antioxidante da espécie. O estudo fitoquímico foi realizado por meio de análise qualitativa dos constituintes químicos e determinação quantitativa do teor de fenóis totais pelo teste de Folin-Ciocalteu. Os testes antioxidantes qualitativos e quantitativos foram realizados pelo método do DPPH (2,2 difenil-1- picril-hidrazila) e redução do ferro (FRAP). A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) foi determinada por microdiluição em placas de 96 poços. O extrato etanólico das folhas de C. argyrophylloides apresentou ação antioxidante no teste DPPH quantitativo com uma significativa bioatividade de 84.70 AAO% em 500 µg/mL, apresentando um CE50 de 236.79. O teor de compostos fenólicos totais, foi de 946,06 mg equivalentes de ácido gálico/g de amostra, e de flavonoides totais de 58,11 mg equivalentes de quercetina/g da amostra, o valor encontrado para FRAP foi de 15294,44 µM Trolox/g da amostra e de ABTS foi 718 μM Trolox da amostra. A prospecção dos constituintes químicos das folhas de C. argyrophylloides revelou a presença dos principais compostos que caracterizam a atividade antioxidante e foi possível comprovar pelo método de DPPH que há atividade antioxidante na amostra analisada, além de demonstrar um resultado significativo de teor de compostos fenólicos e teor de flavonoides totais na espécie e o que corrobora com a atividade antioxidante da amostra vegetal. Os extratos das folhas apresentaram halos de inibição de crescimento de 10 e 12mm frente a Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923.

Euphorbiaceae , Croton , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e240842, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339375


Abstract This research aimed to investigate various mosquitocidal activities of Chenopodium botrys whole- plant n-hexane extract against Culex quinquefasciatus. The extract showed remarkable larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus. During the larvicidal and pupicidal activities, the 24-hour lethal concentration (LC50) of extract against 2nd instar larvae, 4th instar larvae and pupae were 324.6, 495.6 and 950.8 ppm, respectively. During the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) bottle bioassay for adulticidal activity, the median knockdown times (KDT50) at 1.25% concentration was 123.4 minutes. During the filter paper impregnation bioassay for adulticidal activity, the KDT50 value at 0.138 mg/cm2 concentration was 48.6 minutes. The extract was fractionated into 14 fractions through silica gel column chromatography which were then combined into six fractions on the basis of similar retention factor (Rf) value. These fractions were screened for adulticidal activity by applying CDC bottle bioassay. The fraction obtained through 60:40 to 50:50% n-hexanes-chloroform mobile phase with 0.5 Rf value showed 100% adulticidal activity at 0.2% concentration. During oviposition deterrent activity, the highest concentration (1000 ppm) showed 71.3 ± 4.4% effective repellence and 0.6 ± 0.1 oviposition activity index. During adult emergence inhibition activity, the median emergence inhibition (EI50) value was 312.3 ppm. From the outcome of the present investigation, it is concluded that the n-hexane extract of C. botrys whole- plant possesses strong larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus.

Resumo Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo investigar várias atividades mosquitocidas do extrato n-hexano de planta inteira de Chenopodium botrys contra Culex quinquefasciatus. O extrato mostrou atividades larvicida, pupicida, adulticida, dissuasora de oviposição e inibidora da emergência de adultos contra a Cx. quinquefasciatus. Durante as atividades larvicida e pupicida, a concentração letal de 24 horas (CL50) do extrato contra larvas de 2º estádio, larvas de 4º estádio e pupa foi de 324,6, 495,6 e 950,8 ppm, respectivamente. Durante o bioensaio com frasco do CDC (Centros para Controle e Prevenção de Doenças) para adulticida, o tempo médio de desativação (KDT50) na concentração de 1,25% foi de 123,4 minutos. Durante o bioensaio de impregnação com papel de filtro para a atividade adulticida do extrato, o valor KDT50 na concentração de 0,138 mg / cm2 foi de 48,6 minutos. O extrato foi fracionado em 14 frações através de cromatografia em coluna de gel de sílica que foram então combinadas em seis frações com base em um valor de fator de retenção (Rf) semelhante. Essas frações foram selecionadas quanto à atividade adulticida por meio da aplicação do bioensaio com garrafa do CDC. A fração obtida através da fase móvel de n-hexanos-clorofórmio 60:40% a 50:50% com valor de 0,5 Rf apresentou atividade adulticida de 100% na concentração de 0,2%. Durante a atividade de dissuasão da oviposição, a maior concentração de extrato (1000 ppm) apresentou repelência efetiva de 71,3 ± 4,4% e índice de atividade de oviposição de 0,6 ± 0,1. Durante a atividade de inibição da emergência de adultos, o valor médio de inibição da emergência (EI50) foi de 312,3 ppm. A partir do resultado da presente investigação, conclui-se que o extrato de n-hexano da planta inteira de C. botrys possui fortes atividades larvicida, pupicida, adulticida, dissuasora da oviposição e inibidora da emergência de adultos contra a Cx. quinquefasciatus.

Animais , Culex , Chenopodium , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta , Hexanos , Larva