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1.
Gene ; 806: 145921, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454033

RESUMO

Maoto, a traditional Japanese medicine (Kampo), is widely used to treat upper respiratory tract infections, including influenza virus infection. Although maoto is known to inhibit pro-inflammatory responses in a rodent model of acute inflammation, its underlying mechanism remains to be determined. In this study, we investigated the involvement of immune responses and noradrenergic function in the inhibitory action of maoto. In a mouse model of polyI:C-induced acute inflammation, maoto was administered orally in conjunction with intraperitoneal injection of PolyI:C (6 mg/kg), and blood was collected after 2 h for measurement of plasma cytokines by ELISA. Maoto significantly decreased PolyI:C-induced TNF-α levels and increased IL-10 production. Neither pretreatment with IL-10 neutralizing antibodies nor T-cell deficiency using nude mice modified the inhibitory effect of maoto, indicating that the anti-inflammatory effects of maoto are independent of IL-10 and T cells. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of maoto on PolyI:C-induced TNF-α production were not observed in ex vivo splenocytes, suggesting that maoto does not act directly on inflammatory cells. Lastly, pretreatment with a ß-adrenergic receptor antagonist partially cancelled the anti-inflammatory effects of maoto. Collectively, these results suggest that maoto mediates its anti-inflammatory effects via ß-adrenergic receptors in vivo.


Assuntos
Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Interleucina-10/genética , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta/genética , Administração Oral , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Efedrina/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Interleucina-10/agonistas , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Japão , Masculino , Medicina Kampo/métodos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Poli I-C/administração & dosagem , Poli I-C/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/patologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
2.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e210219, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1253954

RESUMO

Aim: This study evaluated the chemical composition of Lippia thymoides (Lt) essential oil and its antimicrobial activity against fungal strains of Candida albicans (Ca) and Gram-negative bacteria Prevotella intermedia (Pi) and Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn). Methods: Lt essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation apparatus with a modified Clevenger extension. The chemical analysis was analyzed by gas phase chromatography and mass spectrometry on Shimadzu QP 2010 plus. Sample sensitivity evaluation was performed by ABHb-inoculum and culture plates were developed with triphenyltetrazolium chloride, also Fn and Pi samples analysis were in anaerobic environment and Ca sample analysis was performed in aerobic environment. The minimum inhibitory concentration (CIM) was determinated by microdilution in eppendorfs tubes. Results: The chemical analysis showed that Thymol (59,91%) is the main compound found in Lt essential oil, also other antifungal and antimicrobial agents were present γ-terpinene (8.16%), p-cymene (7.29%) and ß-caryophyllene (4.49%), Thymol is a central ingredient of many medicinal plants and has a potent fungicidal, bactericidal and antioxidant activity, it has been previously shown to have anti-inflammatory activity against Periodontal Disease (PD) cause can reduces prostanoids, interleukins, leukotrienes levels in periodontium. CIM result Pi was 6.5 µg/mL, Fn was 1.5 µg/mL and Ca was 0.19 µg/mL. Conclusion: The antimicrobial activity of L. thymoides, through the compound Thymol, has been shown promising potential against gram-negative periodontopathogenic bacteria and fungi whose therapeutic arsenal is still very restricted


Assuntos
Periodontite , Óleos Voláteis , Extratos Vegetais , Lippia , Microbiota , Antifúngicos
3.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 24(9): 1283-1288, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531338

RESUMO

Background: In recent literatures, much attention has been given to natural products for their health benefits. Aims: In this study, the objective was to measure the efficacy of the ginger-honey-chocolate mixture as the remineralization effect has been shown in the literature previously and to evaluate the individual contributions of this mixture; ginger, natural honey, bitter chocolate separately on remineralization of initial enamel caries lesion. Materials and Methods: All specimens were divided into eight groups as: Ginger (Arifoglu®, Turkey) in powder form, (n = 8); Ginger-Honey-Chocolate (n = 8); Natural honey (Balparmak Plateau Blossom Honey®, Turkey) (n = 9); Bitter chocolate (Nestlé®, Switzerland) (n = 8); MI Paste (GC, Japan) (n = 8); Paradontax (Sensodyne, Glaxosmithklein, USA) (n = 9); Pronamel (Sensodyne, Glaxosmithklein, USA) (n = 9); Control (n = 9) groups. Samples were carried out five pH cycles along 7 days at 37°C for each group. During pH cycling, blocks were put in a demineralization (6 h) and a remineralization solution (18 h). The treatment consisted of 1 min. interaction of enamel surfaces with agent/deionized slurries (1:3 w/w) on a daily basis. The surface microhardness (SMH) was determined before and after pH cycling with a Digital Micro-Vickers Hardness Tester (Wilson Wolpert; Europe BV, 401 MVD, Netherlands). Mineral changes were determined by using FluoreCam® and recovery values were calculated as SMHR% and FΔ%, respectively. Results: All groups showed an enhanced remineralization. There was no significant difference in terms of FΔ% (F = 1.223, P = 0.304) and SMHR% (F = 0.709, P = 0.664) between all groups. Conclusion: The herbals (ginger, honey, and bitter chocolate) examined in this study gave promising results with a high remineralization potential.


Assuntos
Chocolate , Cárie Dentária , Gengibre , Mel , Cariostáticos , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Fluoretos , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Remineralização Dentária , Cremes Dentais
4.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500624

RESUMO

This study investigated the effect of natural antioxidants inherent to beetroot (Beta vulgaris var. Vulgaris) on the ageing of environmentally friendly plastics. Certain properties were examined in this context, comprising thermal, mechanical, and morphological properties. A visual evaluation of relevant changes in the given polymers (polylactide and polycaprolactone) was conducted during an ageing test in a UV chamber (45 °C, 70% humidity) for 720 h. The films were prepared by a casting process, in which samples with the extract of beetroot were additionally incorporated in a common filler (bentonite), this serving as a carrier for the extract. The results showed the effect of the incorporated antioxidant, which was added to stabilize the biodegradable films. Its efficiency during the ageing test in the polymers tended to exceed or be comparable to that of the reference sample.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Beta vulgaris/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Poliésteres/química , Bentonita/química , Plásticos/química , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Verduras/química
5.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500636

RESUMO

The African pumpkin (Momordica balsamina) contains bioactive phenolic compounds that may assist in reducing oxidative stress in the human body. The leaves are mainly consumed after boiling in water for a specific time; this hydrothermal process and conditions of the gastrointestinal tract may affect the presence and bioactivity of phenolics either positively or negatively. In this study, the effects of hydrothermal processing (boiling) and in vitro simulated human digestion on the phenolic composition, bioaccessibility and bioactivity in African pumpkin were investigated in comparison with those of spinach (Spinacia oleracea). A high-resolution ultra-performance liquid chromatography, coupled with diode array detection, quadrupole time-of-flight and mass spectrometer (UPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS) was used to profile phenolic metabolites. Metabolites such as 3-caffeoylquinic acid, 5-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid were highly concentrated in the boiled vegetable extracts compared to the raw undigested and all digested samples. The majority of African pumpkin and spinach extracts (non-digested and digested) protected Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), (mouse fibroblast) L929 and human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells from 2,2'-Azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced oxidative damage. From these results, the consumption of boiled African pumpkin leaves, as well as spinach, could be encouraged, as bioactive metabolites present may reduce oxidative stress in the body.


Assuntos
Cucurbita/química , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Momordica/química , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Células CACO-2 , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Flavonoides/química , Humanos , Camundongos , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/química , Ácido Quínico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Quínico/química , Spinacia oleracea/química , Verduras/química
6.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500648

RESUMO

Ethanol extracts of two types of pepper (sweet and hot) were separated into fractions with increasing lipophilicity. After drying the extracts and fractions, their chemical composition, anti-radical activity in the DPPH radical system, and cytotoxic activity against PC-3 and HTC-116 cells were determined. A detailed qualitative analysis of the fractions was performed with the LC-QTOF-MS method. It was found that the chemical composition of pepper fractions did not always reflect their biological activity. The highest antiradical activity was detected in the fraction eluted with 40% methanol from sweet pepper. The highest total content of phenolic compounds was found in an analogous fraction from hot pepper, and this fraction showed the strongest cytotoxic effect on the PC-3 tumour line. The LC-MS analysis identified 53 compounds, six of which were present only in sweet pepper and four only in hot pepper. The unique chemical composition of the extracts was found to modulate their biological activity, which can only be verified experimentally.


Assuntos
Capsicum/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Antioxidantes/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Fenóis/química , Piper nigrum/química , Verduras/química
7.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500650

RESUMO

Recent increased interest in seaweed is motivated by attention generated in their bioactive components that have potential applications in the functional food and nutraceutical industries. In the present study, nutritional composition, metabolite profiles, phytochemical screening and physicochemical properties of freeze-dried brown seaweed, Sargassum polycystum were evaluated. Results showed that the S. polycystum had protein content of 8.65 ± 1.06%, lipid of 3.42 ± 0.01%, carbohydrate of 36.55 ± 1.09% and total dietary fibre content of 2.75 ± 0.58% on dry weight basis. The mineral content of S. polycystum including Na, K, Ca, Mg Fe, Se and Mn were 8876.45 ± 0.47, 1711.05 ± 0.07, 1079.75 ± 0.30, 213.85 ± 0.02, 277.6 ± 0.12, 4.70 ± 0.00 and 4.45 ± 0.00 mg 100/g DW, respectively. Total carotenoid, chlorophyll a and b content in S. polycystum were detected at 45.28 ± 1.77, 141.98 ± 1.18 and 111.29 µg/g respectively. The total amino acid content was 74.90 ± 1.45%. The study revealed various secondary metabolites and major constituents of S. polycystum fibre to include fucose, mannose, galactose, xylose and rhamnose. The metabolites extracted from the seaweeds comprised n-hexadecanoic acid, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono(2-ethylhexyl) ester, benzenepropanoic acid, 3,5-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-hydroxy- methyl ester, 1-dodecanol, 3,7,11-trimethyl-, which were the most abundant. The physicochemical properties of S. polycystum such as water-holding and swelling capacity were comparable to several commercial fibre-rich products. In conclusion, results of this study indicate that S. polycystum is a potential candidate as functional food sources for human consumption and its cultivation needs to be encouraged.


Assuntos
Nutrientes/química , Feófitas/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Sargassum/química , Alga Marinha/química , Antioxidantes/química , Carotenoides/química , Clorofila A/química , Fibras na Dieta , Humanos , Malásia , Minerais/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Verduras/química
8.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 348, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496958

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Papaver decaisnei Hochst. & Steud. Ex Elkan and Papaver glaucum Boiss. & Hausskn. growing wild in Northern Iraq have been historically used for medicinal purposes. In this study, both species were evaluated for their alkaloid content and antimicrobial activities. RESULTS: Alkaloids were extracted and isolated by preparative thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Identification was carried out by comparing spectral data (UV and 1H-NMR) and TLC Rf values with those of authentic samples. Two alkaloids, proapaorphine-type mecambrine and aporphine-type roemerine were isolated from P. decaisnei. Two benzylisoquinoline type alkaloids papaverine (major alkaloid) and palaudine as well as aporphine-type N-methylasimilobine have been obtained in P. glaucum. Both P. glaucum and P. decaisnei extracts revealed strong antimicrobial activity on Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212. Collectively these results indicate that P. glaucum and P. decaisnei are promising sources of alkaloids that could further be investigated for medicinal purposes.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Anti-Infecciosos , Papaver , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
9.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 5520059, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484562

RESUMO

Due to the increase of stress-related memory impairment accompanying with the COVID-19 pandemic and financial crisis, the prevention of cognitive decline induced by stress has gained much attention. Based on the evidence that an anthocyanin-rich mulberry milk demonstrated the cognitive enhancing effect, we hypothesized that it should be able to enhance memory in working-age volunteers who are exposed to working stress. This study is an open-label, two-arm randomized study. Both men and women volunteers at age between 18 and 60 years old were randomly assigned to consume the tested product either 1 or 2 servings daily for 6 weeks. All subjects were assessed for cortisol, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), monoamine oxidase (MAO), monoamine oxidase type A (MAO-A), and monoamine oxidase type B (MAO-B) in saliva, and their working memory was determined both at baseline and at a 6-week period. The results showed that the working memory of subjects in both groups was enhanced at the end of the study period together with the reduction of saliva cortisol. The suppression of AChE, MAO, and MAO-A was also observed in subjects who consumed the tested product 2 servings daily. Therefore, we suggest the memory enhancing effect of an anthocyanin-rich mulberry milk. The possible mechanism may occur primarily via the suppression of cortisol. In addition, the high dose of mulberry milk also suppresses AChE, MAO, and MAO-A.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/farmacologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/efeitos dos fármacos , Morus , Estresse Ocupacional , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Acetilcolinesterase/efeitos dos fármacos , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Adulto , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monoaminoxidase/efeitos dos fármacos , Monoaminoxidase/metabolismo , Morus/química
10.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e245585, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495157

RESUMO

Many soil microorganisms' i.e., bacteria and fungi produce secondary metabolites called antibiotics. These are used for the treatment of some of the bacterial, fungal and protozoal diseases of humans. There is a need for isolation of a broad spectrum of antibiotics from microorganisms due to the emergence of antibiotic resistance. In the present study two antibiotic producing bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae and Bacillus cereus were isolated from pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry of Hattar, Haripur Pakistan. Total 10 waste samples were collected from different industries (Marble, Ghee, Soap, Mineral, Steel, Poultry Feed, Pharmaceutical, Qarshi, Cosmetic and Glass). Thirty-three bacterial strains were isolated from industrial wastes of these ten different industries. Fourteen out of thirty-three bacterial strains exhibited antimicrobial activities against at least one of the test microbes considered in this study including Escherchia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi. The bacteria were isolated by standard serial dilution spread plate technique. Morphological characterization of the isolates was done by Gram staining. Nine bacterial isolates out of fourteen were initially identified as B. cereus and five as K. pneumoniae through biochemical characterization. The antibacterial activities were tested by well diffusion method. Maximum number of antibiotic producing bacteria were isolated from pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry based on the results of primary screening, the most potential isolates S9, S19, S20, S22 and S23 were selected for secondary screening. The maximum activity against E. coli and S. aureus was recorded by bacterial isolate S19 i.e zones of inhibition of 6.5mm and 9mm while S20 showed 7.5mm and 6mm zones respectively. Molecular identification was carried out on the basis of 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Finally, the isolates were identified as B. cereus accession number LC538271and K. pneumoniae accession number MT078679. Analysis of bacterial extract S20 through GC-MS indicated the presence of 8 compounds of diverse nature and structure. Present study suggests that wastes of pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry may have antibiotic producing bacteria. These bacteria could be utilized for the production of antibiotics. B. cereus and K. pneumoniae isolated from wastes of poultry feed and pharmaceutical industries have the potential to produce antibiotics and could be used to control the microbial growth.


Assuntos
Resíduos Industriais , Staphylococcus aureus , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais , RNA Ribossômico 16S
11.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246230, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495158

RESUMO

Dengue fever vectored by the mosquito Aedes aegypti is one of the most rapidly spreading insect-borne diseases. Current reliance of dengue vector control is mostly on chemical insecticides. Growing insecticide resistance in the primary mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, limits the effectiveness of vector control through chemical insecticides. These chemical insecticides also have negative environmental impacts on animals, plants and human health. Myco-biocontrol agents are naturally occurring organisms and are found to be less damaging to the environment as compared to chemical insecticides. In the present study, entomopathogenic potential of local strains of fungi isolated from soil was assessed for the control of dengue vector. Local fungal isolates presents better alternative to introducing a foreign biocontrol strain, as they may be better adapted to environmental conditions of the area to survive and may have more entomopathogenic efficacy against target organism. Larvicidal efficacy of Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium proliferatum was evaluated against Aedes aegypti. Local strains of F. equiseti (MK371718) and F. proliferatum (MK371715) were isolated from the soil of Changa Manga Forest, Pakistan by using insect bait method. Larvicidal activity of two Fusarium spp. was tested against forth instar larvae of A. aegypti in the laboratory, using concentrations 105, 106, 107 and 108 conidia /ml. LC50 values for F. equiseti after 24h, 48h, 72h and 96h of exposure were recorded as 3.8x 108, 2.9x107, 2.0x107, and 7.1x106 conidia /ml respectively while LC50 values for F. proliferatum were recorded as 1.21x108, 9.6x107, 4.2x107, 2.6x107 conidia /ml respectively after 24h, 48h, 72h and 96h of exposure. The results indicate that among two fungal strains F. equiseti was found to be more effective in terms of its larvicidal activity than F. proliferatum against larvae of A. aegypti.


Assuntos
Aedes , Fusarium , Inseticidas , Animais , Florestas , Humanos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Larva , Mosquitos Vetores , Paquistão , Extratos Vegetais , Solo
12.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e248063, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495162

RESUMO

Persea lingue Ness is a tree species that lives mainly in temperate forests of south-central Chile. Its leaves are used in ethnomedicine, the fruit is a drupe similar to that of the avocado and has not been studied. The aim of this study was to determine the cytotoxicity in leukemia cell and antibacterial activity, along with some chemical content characteristics of P. lingue fruit and leaf extracts. The antibacterial activity was determined by the inhibition of bacterial growth in liquid medium assay against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The leukemia cell lines Kasumi-1 and Jurkat were used to evaluate the cytotoxic activity by using propidium iodide and AlamarBlue assays. Total phenolic, flavonoid, condensed tannin, alkaloid and lipid contents were evaluated in the fruit and in the leaf extracts. The antioxidant activity of both extracts were also elavaluated. Leaf extract presented the highest content of total phenols, condensed tannins and flavonoids, and also the highest antioxidant activity. While the fruit extract has a higher amount of lipids and alkaloids and the high antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus megaterium and Micrococcus luteus. The leaf extract only showed activity against M. luteus. Concerning the cytotoxic activity, only the fruit extract showed cytotoxicity against the cell lines Jurkat and Kasumi-1. P. lingue fruit extract is a potential source of biologically active molecules for the development of new drugs to be used in some types of leukemia, as well as antibacterial agent.


Assuntos
Lauraceae , Persea , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Frutas , Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Bactérias Gram-Positivas , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
13.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(4): e20200443, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495202

RESUMO

Phytochemical studies of Cespedesia spathulata (Ochnaceae) leaves using 1H, 13C NMR, and GC-MS have led to the isolation of some metabolites identified for the first time in these species such as cathechin, epicatechin, vitexin, orientin, 6''-O-acetyl-vitexin, sitosterol, stigmasterol, phytol, 4,5-dihydrovomifoliol and a mixture of aliphatic methyl esters, together with ochnaflavone, which was previously isolated from this plant. The modulating activity of some fractions and compounds from Cespedesia spathulata towards tyrosinase enzyme was assayed by spectroscopic and theoretical means/experiments. The dichloromethane fraction (133 µg mL-1) and ochnaflavone (333 µM) inhibited tyrosinase activity by 20 % and 2.0 %, respectively, whereas the ethyl acetate fraction (666 µg mL-1) and ±catechins (catechin and epicatechin - 800 µM) activated it by 104 % and 384 %, respectively. Quantum chemical calculations suggested that catechin and epicatechin are better activators than L-DOPA by interacting with Cu (II) ions. Molecular docking results suggested that hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions are the main binding forces between each tyrosinase activator and the amino acid residues inside the active protein binding pocket.


Assuntos
Ochnaceae , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta
14.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(4): e20200721, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495203

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of the jambolan (Syzigium cumini L.) peel and leaves extract added in pectin based edible coating onto color changes, mass loss and ß-carotene retention of minimally processed papaya during storage at 5 ±2 °C for 9 days. Leaves and peels were crushed in water in solid:liquid ratio, 1:1.5 and 1:2.0 and filtrered to obtain vegetable extracts. After, aqueous solutions were prepared adding 2% of pectin and 5% of extract. The mass loss increasing in all treatments evaluated in this work, being that in the final of 9 days of storage, control and P2 (peel 2%) treatment presented the highest loss, 6.23 and 10.12% respectively. The L1.5 (leaf 1.5%) treatment was the one presented the lowest percentage of mass loss (3.8%). The values of () of the control samples reduced significantly during the storage period, reaching 21% of reduction after 9 days. Coating with vegetable extract from jambolan peel and leaf reduced the loss of ß-carotene in minimally processed papaya during the storage, being that the treatment P1.5 provided the highest retention value of the compound. The results demonstrated that the studied coating set with extracts (peel and leaves) of jambolan, was efficient to preserve the color, the mass loss and the ß-carotene content of the minimally processed papaya.


Assuntos
Carica , Filmes Comestíveis , Pectinas , Extratos Vegetais , Verduras , beta Caroteno/análise
15.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 18(1): 60, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503541

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of creatine supplementation for improvements in exercise performance. Few studies, however, have examined the effects of phosphocreatine supplementation on exercise performance. Furthermore, while polyphenols have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, little is known regarding the influence of polyphenol supplementation on muscular strength, power, and endurance. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of 28 days of supplementation with phosphocreatine disodium salts plus blueberry extract (PCDSB), creatine monohydrate (CM), and placebo on measures of muscular strength, power, and endurance. METHODS: Thirty-three men were randomly assigned to consume either PCDSB, CM, or placebo for 28 days. Peak torque (PT), average power (AP), and percent decline for peak torque (PT%) and average power (AP%) were assessed from a fatigue test consisting of 50 maximal, unilateral, isokinetic leg extensions at 180°·s- 1 before and after the 28 days of supplementation. Individual responses were assessed to examine the proportion of subjects that exceeded a minimal important difference (MID). RESULTS: The results demonstrated significant (p < 0.05) improvements in PT for the PCDSB and CM groups from pre- (99.90 ± 22.47 N·m and 99.95 ± 22.50 N·m, respectively) to post-supplementation (119.22 ± 29.87 N·m and 111.97 ± 24.50 N·m, respectively), but no significant (p = 0.112) change for the placebo group. The PCDSB and CM groups also exhibited significant improvements in AP from pre- (140.18 ± 32.08 W and 143.42 ± 33.84 W, respectively) to post-supplementation (170.12 ± 42.68 W and 159.78 ± 31.20 W, respectively), but no significant (p = 0.279) change for the placebo group. A significantly (p < 0.05) greater proportion of subjects in the PCDSB group exceeded the MID for PT compared to the placebo group, but there were no significant (p > 0.05) differences in the proportion of subjects exceeding the MID between the CM and placebo groups or between the CM and PCDSB groups. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicated that for the group mean responses, 28 days of supplementation with both PCDSB and CM resulted in increases in PT and AP. The PCDSB, however, may have an advantage over CM when compared to the placebo group for the proportion of individuals that respond favorably to supplementation with meaningful increases in muscular strength.


Assuntos
Força Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfocreatina/farmacologia , Resistência Física/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/química , Creatina , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Masculino , Torque , Adulto Jovem
16.
Parasite ; 28: 64, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468311

RESUMO

This study evaluated the in vitro anthelmintic activity of a liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) root aqueous extract and of glycyrrhetinic acid at 30, 10, 5, 1, and 0.5 mg/mL against sheep gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs), using the egg hatch test (EHT), the larval development test (LDT), and the larval migration inhibition test (LMIT). The compounds were applied on a mixture of GIN eggs and larvae, mainly Trichostrongylus spp. and Teladorsagia/Ostertagia spp. Cytotoxicity assays were also performed. In the EHT, both candidates showed significant concentration-dependent efficacy and were significantly more effective (p < 0.001) at the highest concentrations (30 and 10 mg/mL) than the lowest ones. In the LDT, only G. glabra showed a concentration-dependent effect (R2 = 0.924), but glycyrrhetinic acid (R2 = 0.910) had significantly higher efficacy than G. glabra root extract. Moreover, the efficacy of glycyrrhetinic acid at 30, 10, and 5 mg/mL was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than at lower concentrations. In the LMIT, G. glabra showed concentration-dependent efficacy (R2 = 0.971), while considerably reduced efficacy was observed for glycyrrhetinic acid (R2 = 0.855) at the lowest concentrations. These data suggest that the two compounds may have different mechanisms of action. In the LMIT, the 50% lethal concentration (LC50) of glycyrrhetinic acid (~5.12 mg/mL) was > 2.0-fold lower when compared to G. glabra (12.25 mg/mL). Analysis and previous findings indicated low toxicity for both compounds. The results obtained encourage in vivo studies aimed at evaluating the potential use of the tested compounds as natural de-wormers in ruminants.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Ácido Glicirretínico , Glycyrrhiza , Nematoides , Doenças dos Ovinos , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Ácido Glicirretínico/farmacologia , Ácido Glicirretínico/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Ruminantes , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico
17.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(suppl 3): e20201351, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468491

RESUMO

Obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus development and is characterized by an abnormal expansion of adipose tissue and low-grade chronic inflammation that contribute to insulin resistance. Although there are multiple treatments, most therapies can produce undesirable side effects and therefore, new and effective treatments with fewer side effects are necessary. Previously, we demonstrated that a natural extract from the leaves of Eucalyptus tereticornis (OBE100) has anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities. The major compounds identified in OBE100 were three pentacyclic triterpenoids, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, and ursolic acid lactone. Triterpenoids have shown multiples biological activities. This current study compared the biological effect produced by OBE100 with five different reconstituted mixtures of these triterpenoids. Different cell lines were used to evaluate cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species production, inflammatory cytokine expression, glucose uptake induction, leptin and adiponectin expression, and lipid accumulation. OBE100 treatment was the most efficacious and none of the formulated triterpenoid mixtures significantly improved on this. Moreover, OBE100 was less toxic and reduced reactive oxygen species production. Our study showed that the proven beneficial properties of triterpenoids may be enhanced due to the interaction with minor secondary metabolites present in the natural extract improving their anti-inflammatory properties.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Eucalyptus , Resistência à Insulina , Triterpenos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Triterpenos/farmacologia
18.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e242439, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468507

RESUMO

Plinia cauliflora (Mart.) Kausel, popularly known as jabuticaba, is rich in polyphenols. Phenolic compounds exhibit several biological properties, which reflect on biomarkers such as biochemical parameters. In the present study, we evaluated the plasmatic levels of glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and uric acid of Chinese hamsters fed for 45 days with a regular diet or cholesterol-enriched diet supplemented with a liquid extract obtained from P. cauliflora fruits residues standardized in ellagic acid and total phenolic compounds. The results showed that the concentrated extract obtained from jabuticaba residues increased the glycemia of animals fed with a regular diet and reduced the plasmatic uric acid levels of animals fed with a cholesterol-enriched diet. Since hyperuricemia is considered to be a significant risk factor of metabolic disorders and the principal pathological basis of gout, the liquid extract from P. cauliflora fruits residues would be a promising candidate as a novel hypouricaemic agent for further investigation.


Assuntos
Frutas , Myrtaceae , Animais , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Fenóis , Extratos Vegetais
19.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246980, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468522

RESUMO

The study was aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of Zizyphus oxyphyla leaves methanolic (ZOX-LME), on serum liver, kidney and hematology along with other serum parameters in Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxicated rabbits. Experimental animals were divided into five groups, six rabbits in each. These were: group NC (normal control), group, TC (toxic control) and group ST i.e. silymarine administered group at dose rate (50) mg/kg body weight (BW). Group ET1 and group ET2 treated with (ZOX-LME) at dose 200 mg/kg BW and 400 mg/kg BW. CCl4 administration caused significant (P> 0.05) impairment in serum liver enzymes, blood factors and other serum indices. Treatment with (ZOX-LME) significantly (P<0.05) reduced and normalized the levels of serum alanine transaminase (ALT) aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and hematological indices. Also significant (P< 0.05) reduction was observed in creatinine, urea, uric acid, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and albumin and glucose concentrations. The altered levels of lipid profile and serum electrolytes (Ca, Mg, Cl, Na, K, and P) were significantly (P<0.05) change toward normal levels with (ZOX-LME) feeding. In addition (ZOX-LME) ingestion caused significant improvement in GSH, GST and CAT levels, while reducing the TBARS levels, exhibited antioxidant capacity. Also (ZOX-LME) showed increase inhibition against percent scavenging of 2, 2-diphenile-1-picrylehydrazyle (DPPH) free radical. Significant (P<0.05) normalizing effects were observed with high dose 400 mg/kg BW of (ZOX-LME and were equivalent to silymarine administered groups. The histological study of liver supported the hepatoprotective and renal curative activity of (ZOX-LME).


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Ziziphus , Animais , Antioxidantes , Biomarcadores , Rim , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Coelhos
20.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e248022, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468531

RESUMO

Previous studies have suggested that arsenic crosses the placenta and affects the fetus development. The study under consideration aims to show comparative ameliorative effect of Moringa oleifera leaf and flower extracts against sodium arsenate induced fetus toxicity of mice. Pregnant mice (N=44) were kept in lab and divided into eleven group from (A to K) and were orally administered the doses 6 mg/kg, 12 mg/kg for sodium arsenate, 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg for Moringa oleifera leaf extracts (MOLE) and 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg for Moringa oleifera flower extracts (MOFE) comparing with control. The investigation revealed evident reduction in the fetuses weight, hind limb, fore limb, tail and snout length, crown rump and head circumferences well as malformations in tail, feet, arms, legs, skin and eyes in the negative control group (only administered with sodium arsenate). Co-administration of sodium arsenate with MOLE and MOFE ameliorate the reversed effect of sodium arsenate on the shape, length, body weight and DNA damage of fetus significantly at 95% confidence interval. However, Moringa oleifera leaf extract showed more significant results in comparison to Moringa oleifera flower extract. Hence concluded that Moringa oleifera leaf extract ameliorated the embryo toxic effects of sodium arsenate and can be used against environmental teratogens.


Assuntos
Moringa oleifera , Animais , Arseniatos , Dano ao DNA , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta
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