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1.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(8): 901-908, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053530

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare the effect on proliferation of osteoblasts MC3T3-E1 between the concentrated growth factor extract (CGFe) and the platelet-rich fibrin extract (PRFe). METHODS: CGFe and PRFe were prepared. MC3T3-E1 was cultured in DMEM medium containing CGFe (10%, 20%, or 30%) and PRFe (10%, 20%, or 30%). The proliferation of MC3T3-E1 was detected by MTT assay at Day 1, 3, 5, and 7. ALP activity was detected by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining at Day 1, 3, 5, and 7, and mRNA expressions of Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and Osterix (Osx) were detected by quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) at Day 3 and 7. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, CGFe and PRFe promoted the proliferation of MC3T3-E1 at Day 1, 3, 5, and 7 (all P<0.05). Except for the first day, the proliferation activity in the CGFe group was higher than that in the PRFe group (all P<0.05). At Day 1, 3, 5, and 7, compared with the control group, the ALP activities in the CGFe group and the PRFe group were significantly increased (all P<0.05). Except for the first day, the ALP activity in the CGFe group was higher than that in the PRFe group (all P<0.05). At Day 3 and 7, compared with the control group, the mRNA expression levels of Osx and Runx2 in the CGFe group and the PRFe group were significantly increased (all P<0.05); compared with PRFe group, the mRNA expression level of Osx in the CGFe group was significantly higher than that in the PRFe group, and the mRNA expression level of Runx2 was significantly lower than that in the PRFe group (all P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: CGFe could promote the proliferation of MC3T3-E1 stronger than PRFe, which might be related to the increase of ALP activity and up-regulation of Osx expression.


Assuntos
Fibrina Rica em Plaquetas , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células , Osteoblastos , Extratos Vegetais
2.
Water Sci Technol ; 82(6): 1092-1101, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055399

RESUMO

With its advantages of ecological safety, environmental affinity, and high selectivity, allelopathic technology has been widely developed for algae inhibition. However, obtaining effective allelochemicals and realizing their mechanism are difficult. In this paper, a Chinese herbal medicine, namely, Rheum palmatum L. (Chinese rhubarb), was utilized as a source of allelopathic substances for the first time. Four units of rhubarb organic extracts were collected to study the inhibition of growth, photosynthesis, proteins, and algal toxin of Microcystis aeruginosa. Results showed that the ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and aqueous phases of the rhubarb extracts have notable inhibitory effects. After a 16-day treatment, the four extracts reduced M. aeruginosa by 64.1%, 59.3%, 61.9%, and 7.2% with disruption of algal photosynthesis and protein synthesis and reduction of algal toxin.


Assuntos
Microcystis , Rheum , Feromônios , Fotossíntese , Extratos Vegetais
3.
Water Sci Technol ; 82(6): 1102-1110, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055400

RESUMO

The cyanobacteria Microcystis flos-aquae can cause harmful algal blooms in waterbodies, which threaten the normal functioning of aquatic ecosystems and human health. Some plant extracts are considered as promising algaecides. In this study, the effects of ten plant extracts (Cinnamomum camphora, Ginkgo biloba, Firmiana platanifolia, Salix babylonica, Euphorbia humifusa, Erigeron annuus, Solidago canadensis, Alternanthera philoxeroides, Thalia dealbata and Eichhornia crassipes) against M. flos-aquae were investigated. The results showed that all ten plant extracts had a significant inhibitory effect on M. flos-aquae growth after 96 h (P < 0.01). The inhibition rates of S. babylonica, E. humifusa, S. canadensis and A. philoxeroides were over 70.00%. Furthermore, the E. humifusa extract had the best inhibitory effect on the photosynthesis of M. flos-aquae, with the effective quantum yield of photosystem II and maximal relative electron transport rate decreasing by 97.50% and 97.00%, respectively, after 96 h. Additionally, the E. humifusa extract was found to be non-toxic to non-target organisms such as Brachydanio rerio and Vallisneria spiralis within 96 h. This study contributes to the existing knowledge and data of freshwater cyanobacteria blooms, and provides insights for their control and the restoration of freshwater systems affected by cyanobacteria blooms.


Assuntos
Microcystis , Ecossistema , Fluorescência , Fotossíntese , Extratos Vegetais
4.
J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent ; 38(3): 238-246, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004721

RESUMO

Background: Controlling cariogenic biofilm formation by plant extracts could add to preventive strategies to dental caries. Objective: To evaluate in vitro the role of Aerva Sanguinolenta ethanolic extract on biofilm-induced microbial human enamel demineralization. Methodology: The prepared enamel sections of study group (SG), positive control group (PCG), and negative control group (NCG) were immersed in 2 ml of 0.2% ethanolic extract of A. sanguinolenta, 0.12% chlorhexidine, and distilled water, respectively, for 2 min before subjecting to closed batch culture technique utilizing mono- or dual-species culture media of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus. Quantification of biofilm and demineralization of enamel was performed by crystal violet (CV) assay and scanning electron microscope (SEM) attached to energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, respectively. Statistical Analysis: Two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test were used for analysis. Results: CV assay of biofilm recorded the highest and lowest optical absorbance value in NC3 (2.728660) and PC3 (0.364200), respectively. Thus, biofilm formation is highest in NCG and lowest among PCG. Surface roughness and porosity in enamel are greatest among NCG and lowest among SG as evident by SEM. Wt% of calcium (S3 47.7170) and phosphorus ion (S3 22.7330) was highest in SG, closely resembling that of B enamel (Ca = 41.9530, P = 19.6650). Wt% of oxygen is lowest in SG (S3 28.8920) and resembles baseline O2 (37.4950). Thus, the amount of biofilm formation is moderate and amount of demineralization of enamel is least among SGs. Conclusion: Enamel exposed to 2 ml of 0.2% solution of A. sanguinolenta for 2 min could fairly inhibit formation of biofilm and positively inhibit underlying demineralization in cariogenic environment.


Assuntos
Amaranthaceae , Cárie Dentária , Desmineralização do Dente/prevenção & controle , Biofilmes , Esmalte Dentário , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
5.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 140(10): 1251-1258, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999204

RESUMO

Natural materials such as crude drugs and foods are mixtures composed of various metabolites. Metabolic profiling is often used to identify possible correlations between a compound's metabolic profile and pharmacologic activity. Direct-injection electron ionization-mass spectrometry (DI-EI-MS) is a novel metabolomics method useful for characterizing biological materials. This review demonstrates the establishment of a DI-EI-MS method for metabolic profiling using several closely related lichen species: Cladonia krempelhuberi, C. gracilis, C. pseudogymnopoda, and C. ramulosa. The qualitative DI-EI-MS method was used to profile major and/or minor constituents in extracts of lichen samples. Each lichen sample could be distinguished by altering the DI-EI-MS electron energy and examining the resulting data using one-way analysis of variance. We also attempted to predict pharmacologic activity using DI-EI-MS metabolomics. Blueberry leaf extracts inhibited the proliferation of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) cells. Blueberry leaf extracts could be distinguished by principal component analysis based on the absolute intensity of characteristic fragment ions. Twenty cultivars were categorized into four species, and the most appropriate discriminative marker m/z value for identifying each cultivar was selected statistically. Components extracted based on DI-EI-MS analyses could be used to construct a model to predict ATL cell bioactivity. These data suggest that the novel DI-EI-MS metabolomics method is suitable for identifying species of natural materials and predicting their pharmacologic activity. This approach could enhance public health by facilitating evaluations of pharmacologic activity and functionality, leading to the elimination of counterfeit products.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/metabolismo , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/química , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/metabolismo , Líquens/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Previsões , Humanos , Leucemia-Linfoma de Células T do Adulto/patologia , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Metabolômica/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
6.
J Anal Toxicol ; 44(7): 734-740, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043985

RESUMO

The historical practice of brewing poppy tea for its opioid-like effects is reoccurring with modern-day substance users. We present four postmortem cases with toxicology results that serve as case studies for the potential hazards of poppy tea ingestion. There is limited information regarding the risks of this practice due to the variability of the morphine content of the opium exuded from the plant. While internet tea recipes offer guidance, differences in poppy cultivation, washing, and infusing time are some of the reasons why the beverage may contain inconsistent and clinically significant alkaloid concentrations for each preparation. Variability in opioid tolerance along with additional drugs taken will impact the overall degree of toxicity experienced from the opiates in the tea. Advancements in the genetic modification of the poppy plant could greatly alter the ratio of alkaloids seen in biological fluids and will be highly dependent on the source of the poppy product. The blood concentrations of free morphine and free codeine in cases 1-3 where the toxicity from the tea was considered the primary cause of death were 0.94 and 0.11 mg/L, 0.62 and 0.034 mg/L, and 0.16 and 0.010 mg/L, respectively. The urine concentrations of morphine and codeine were 13 and 0.94 mg/L in case 1 and 16 and 1.6 mg/L in case 2, respectively. The opium alkaloids thebaine and laudanosine were identified qualitatively by our routine organic base/neutral drug detection procedure.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas , Extratos Vegetais/envenenamento , Chás de Ervas , Analgésicos Opioides , Tolerância a Medicamentos , Humanos , Morfina , Papaver
7.
J Environ Qual ; 49(5): 1225-1235, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016458

RESUMO

Naturally occurring gaseous by-products of ruminant production-carbon dioxide (CO2 ), methane (CH4 ), and nitrous oxide (N2 O)-can negatively affect the environment. Along with enteric fermentation, manure on pasture is among the most significant contributors to non-CO2 emissions. Condensed tannins, a group of naturally occurring phenolic compounds, can alter the route of nutrient excretion and interact with microbes, suggesting they are a plausible feed additive for reducing excreta gas emissions. We evaluated how quebracho (Schinopsis balansae) tannin extract fed at 0, 15, 30, and 45 g kg-1 of dry matter (DM) within a roughage-based diet affected fecal gas emissions at multiple locations (College Station and Stephenville, TX) during two periods corresponding to winter and spring. During both periods, CO2 , CH4 , and N2 O fluxes were determined using the vented-static chamber methodology over 39 d, and cumulative emissions were calculated. A random coefficients model with animal nested within dietary treatment and period as the random factor was analyzed by location due to the presence of collinearity with soil parameters within periods. Daily CO2 flux was influenced by soil moisture and temperature (r = .34; P < .01), whereas CH4 and N2 O were associated with soil moisture. Cumulative gas production confirmed a dietary effect for CO2 and gross CO2 equivalent at the College Station site (P ≤ .001), demonstrating a linear reduction as quebracho inclusion increased. Variance partitioning indicated that dietary treatment and seasonal period likely influenced animal digestive and metabolic parameters. Within specific environments, quebracho supplementation may assist in reducing fecal gas emissions.


Assuntos
Proantocianidinas , Animais , Fezes , Gases , Metano , Extratos Vegetais
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21959, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871945

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is not only an important microvascular complication of diabetes but also the main cause of end-stage renal disease. Ginkgo biloba has a variety of biological activities and has been widely used in China to treat kidney diseases such as DN. This article aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of G biloba in patients affected with DN in the early stage. METHODS: This protocol follows the preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols and the recommendations of the Cochrane Collaboration Handbook. Seven electronic databases will be searched from inception to July 31, 2020. Two investigators will independently identify relevant randomized controlled trials, fetch data, and assess the risk of bias with tools provided by Cochrane. A comprehensive meta-analysis will be conducted with the Cochrane Collaboration software (Review Manager 5.3) for eligible and appropriate studies. Further, the evidence will be assessed with the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach. RESULTS: The results will be published in academic peer-reviewed journals, and the evidence gathered by this project will be dedicated to assessing the efficacy and safety of G biloba for DN patients in the early stage. CONCLUSION: This systematic review and meta-analysis will synthesize the available evidence to demonstrate the efficacy of G biloba in delaying the progression of patients with early DN. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: PROSPERO CRD42020166805.


Assuntos
Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Ginkgo biloba , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
9.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 40: 101214, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891290

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as a life-threatening disease is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that is accounted as global public health concern. Treatment of COVID-19 is primarily supportive and the role of antiviral agents is yet to be established. However, there are no specific anti-COVID-19 drugs and vaccine until now. This review focuses on traditional medicine such as medicinal plant extracts as promising approaches against COVID-19. Chinese, Indian and Iranian traditional medicine, suggests some herbs for prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of the diseases including COVID-19. Although, inhibition of viral replication is considered as general mechanism of herbal extracts, however some studies demonstrated that traditional herbal extracts can interact with key viral proteins which are associated with virus virulence. Chinese, Indian and Iranian traditional medicine, suggests some herbs for prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of the diseases including COVID-19. However the beneficial effects of these traditional medicines and their clinical trials remained to be known. Herein, we reviewed the latest updates on traditional medicines proposed for treatment of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Plantas Medicinais , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , China , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Índia , Irã (Geográfico) , Pandemias
10.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(16): 3938-3944, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893592

RESUMO

The aim of this paper was to observe the anti-inflammatory action and mechanism of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos extract and Lonicerae Flos extract in xylene-induced ear swelling experiment and lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-induced RAW264.7 cell inflammatory model. In vivo, xylene-induced mouse auricle swelling model was used to detect the auricle swelling degree and swelling inhibition rate of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos extract and Lonicerae Flos extract; the pathological changes of mice auricle were observed by hematoxylin eosin(HE) staining. In vitro, RAW264.7 inflammatory cell model was induced by LPS, where the cytotoxic effects of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos extract and Lonicerae Flos extract on RAW264.7 cells were detected by CCK-8 method; Griess method was used to detect the effect of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos extract and Lonicerae Flos extract on nitric oxide(NO) production, and ELISA method was used to detect the content of inflammatory factors interleukin-6(IL-6), IL-1ß, and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α). At last, Western blot was used to detect the protein changes of cyclooxygenase 1(COX1), COX2 and inducible nitric oxide synthetase(iNOS) for RAW264.7 cells. The results showed that both Lonicerae Japonicae Flos extract and Lonicerae Flos extract could significantly inhibit the degree of auricle swelling caused by xylene in mice and the inhibition rate was positively correlated with the drug dose. Furthermore, both of them could reduce the infiltration of lymphocytes and neutrophils in mouse ear tissues. For in vitro experiments, both Lonicerae Japonicae Flos extract and Lonicerae Flos extract inhibited NO secretion in RAW264.7 cells, down-regulated the release of IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α, and down-regulated iNOS protein and COX2, NF-κB p65 protein content. In conclusion, both Lonicerae Japonicae Flos extract and Lonicerae Flos extract have good anti-inflammatory effect, and the mechanism may be related with the inhibition of NF-κB signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Lonicera , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios , Lipopolissacarídeos , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(33): e21745, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872063

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer disease (AD) is a leading progressive neurodegenerative disease worldwide, but treating it is challenging in clinical practice. This review is aimed at evaluating the efficacy and safety of herbal medicine for treating AD. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will search for randomized controlled trials related to the effect and safety of herbal medicine for AD in the following databases: PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Excerpta Medica Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure database, Oriental Medicine Advanced Searching Integrated system, Korean Traditional Knowledge Portal, and Citation Information by National Institute for Informatics. The risk of bias will be evaluated using the Cochrane risk-of-bias assessment tool. After screening the studies, a meta-analysis will be performed. The primary outcome will be the Mini-Mental State Examination score. Secondary outcomes will consist of other scales for cognitive function and other aspects, such as behavioral and psychological symptoms and plasma levels of amyloid-ß. RESULTS: This study will provide the current status of evidence for herbal medicine to treat AD. CONCLUSION: The results of this review will determine the efficacy and safety of herbal medicine for AD. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not required, as this study is based on a review of published research. This review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and disseminated both electronically and in print. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Research Registry reviewregistry933.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Medicina Herbária , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4692, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943624

RESUMO

Hemicelluloses, a family of heterogeneous polysaccharides with complex molecular structures, constitute a fundamental component of lignocellulosic biomass. However, the contribution of each hemicellulose type to the mechanical properties of secondary plant cell walls remains elusive. Here we homogeneously incorporate different combinations of extracted and purified hemicelluloses (xylans and glucomannans) from softwood and hardwood species into self-assembled networks during cellulose biosynthesis in a bacterial model, without altering the morphology and the crystallinity of the cellulose bundles. These composite hydrogels can be therefore envisioned as models of secondary plant cell walls prior to lignification. The incorporated hemicelluloses exhibit both a rigid phase having close interactions with cellulose, together with a flexible phase contributing to the multiscale architecture of the bacterial cellulose hydrogels. The wood hemicelluloses exhibit distinct biomechanical contributions, with glucomannans increasing the elastic modulus in compression, and xylans contributing to a dramatic increase of the elongation at break under tension. These diverging effects cannot be explained solely from the nature of their direct interactions with cellulose, but can be related to the distinct molecular structure of wood xylans and mannans, the multiphase architecture of the hydrogels and the aggregative effects amongst hemicellulose-coated fibrils. Our study contributes to understanding the specific roles of wood xylans and glucomannans in the biomechanical integrity of secondary cell walls in tension and compression and has significance for the development of lignocellulosic materials with controlled assembly and tailored mechanical properties.


Assuntos
Parede Celular/química , Celulose/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Madeira/química , Configuração de Carboidratos , Sequência de Carboidratos , Catárticos/química , Citoesqueleto/química , Hidrogéis/química , Mananas , Xilanos/química
13.
Maturitas ; 140: 49-54, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972635

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of a 12-week course of 5%Pueraria mirifica gel and placebo gel on the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis, vaginal fungi, vaginal pH, vaginal health index (VHI), and genitourinary symptoms in postmenopausal women. STUDY DESIGN: In a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study (TCTR20160517002), 60 postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to a 12-week course of eitherP. mirifica gel or identical placebo gel. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Vaginal Nugent score, fungal culture, pH, VHI, and genitourinary symptoms were evaluated at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment. RESULTS: After 12 weeks of treatment, the proportion of participants with an abnormal Nugent score in the P. mirifica and the placebo groups were 6.7 % (2/30) and 23.3 % (7/30), respectively (p =  0.006). The mean changes in Nugent scores and VHI were significantly higher in the P. mirifica group (p <  0.05). There were no significant decreases in the prevalence of symptoms between the two groups after treatment (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: A 12-week course of treatment with 5 % P. mirifica vaginal gel in postmenopausal women with GSM has been proved to be effective in reducing indicators of bacterial vaginosis compared with placebo gel. Nevertheless, the effect on alleviating genital symptoms was not demonstrated.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Urogenitais Femininas/tratamento farmacológico , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Pueraria , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fitoterapia , Pós-Menopausa , Síndrome , Vagina/química , Vagina/efeitos dos fármacos , Cremes, Espumas e Géis Vaginais/uso terapêutico
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(38): e22228, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957363

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cancer is the second leading cause of death, and the burden of cancer continues to grow globally. Research on the efficacy of combined administration of herbal medicine and anticancer drugs is also increasing. SH003 is a new herbal medicine composed of Astragalus membranaceus, Angelica gigas, and Trichosanthes kirilowii. SH003 alone up to 4800 mg daily was found to be safe. Preclinical studies have shown SH003 to have a synergistic effect with coadministration of anticancer drugs. This study aimed to determine the maximum tolerated dose of SH003 combined with docetaxel in patients with lung or breast cancer. METHODS: This is an open-label, dose-escalation study to evaluate the safety of SH003 combined with docetaxel. Patients with lung or breast cancer will be recruited. The participants will be divided into 3 groups based on SH003 daily dose (2400, 3600, and 4800 mg); the medication will be taken orally for 21 days. The traditional 3 + 3 design will be adopted for the dose escalation. Dose-limiting toxicities are defined as grade 3 or 4 adverse events according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. The highest dose at which no more than 1 of the 6 patients experience dose-limiting toxicity will be determined as the maximum tolerated dose of SH003 combined with docetaxel. DISCUSSION: This study investigates the safety of SH003 when combined with docetaxel. The results of this study will provide a safe dose range for conducting therapeutic exploratory trials. TRIAL REGISTRATIONS: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04360317.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Docetaxel/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Ensaios Clínicos Fase I como Assunto , Humanos , Fitoterapia
16.
Planta Med ; 86(15): 1108-1117, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957145

RESUMO

Sigesbeckia orientalis, more commonly referred to as Herba Sigesbeckiae or Xi Xian Cao in traditional Chinese medicine and hy thiêm in traditional Vietnamese medicine, is used in China and Vietnam to treat inflammatory diseases such as arthritis, rheumatism, and joint pain. In initial investigations, the dichloromethane extract from the aerial parts of S. orientalis showed distinct inhibitory effects on the release of interleukin-8 in human neutrophils. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was the phytochemical investigation of the bioactive dichloromethane extract and the in vitro analysis of the effects of the isolated compounds on interleukin-8, interleukin-1ß, tumor necrosis factor-α, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 release, and surface expression of adhesion molecules (CD11a, CD11b, and CD62L) in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human neutrophils to identify the active principle(s). The separation of the bioactive dichloromethane extract using various chromatographic techniques led to the isolation of nine compounds. Their chemical structures were elucidated from nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry data. One diterpene, 17(13 → 14)-abeo-ent-3S*,13S*,16-trihydroxystrob-8(15)-ene, was identified as a new natural product. Three germacranolide sesquiterpene lactones inhibited interleukin-8 production with IC50 values between 1.6 and 6.3 µM, respectively, and tumor necrosis factor-α production with IC50 values between 0.9 and 3.3 µM, respectively. Furthermore, they significantly inhibited interleukin-1ß and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 production and diminished the effects of lipopolysaccharide on the surface expression of the adhesion molecules CD11a, CD11b, and CD62L. These findings support the traditional use of S. orientalis in the treatment of inflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios , Diterpenos , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , China , Humanos , Lactonas , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Vietnã
17.
DNA Cell Biol ; 39(10): 1779-1788, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865424

RESUMO

Today, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are candidates for various autoimmune disease treatments due to immunomodulatory activity in these cells. Much research has recently been done to improve the immunomodulatory activity of MSCs. Genetic variation is one of these methods. microRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that control most of the cell's biological activities. Recent studies have shown that miRNAs play a significant role in the regulation of MSC immunomodulatory activity. Pomegranate is a fruit that has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties and has been used for many years for therapeutic purposes. The objective of this research is to evaluate the immunoregulatory-related miRNAs level of adipose-derived MSCs (Ad-MSCs) obtained from adipose tissue in the presence or lack of pomegranate (Punica granatum) extract (PGE). Our results showed that miRNA-23 and miRNA-126 were upregulated by PGE treatment in MSCs, and in contrast, miRNA-21 and miRNA-155 were downregulated by PGE treatment in MSCs. In addition this research shows that PGE can downregulate the expression of PI3K\AKT1\NF-[Formula: see text]B in Ad-MSCs. Our bioinformatics data have shown that the target of these four miRNAs and the signaling pathways, in which these targets are involved, can play an important role in regulating the immunomodulation function of stem cells. In conclusion, PGE can inhibit the expression of PI3K\AKT1\NF-[Formula: see text]B genes involved in inflammatory pathways via miRNA-23 and miRNA-126 overexpression or miRNA-21 and miRNA-155 downregulation that plays a role in the pathways of immune modulation in Ad-MSCs. These results may provide insight into the mechanism underlying the regulation of the immunomodulatory activity of Ad-MSCs by PGE.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , MicroRNAs/genética , NF-kappa B/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Romã (Fruta)/química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
18.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 53(10): e10204, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901685

RESUMO

Several isatin derivatives have shown important biological activities, which have attracted interest from researchers. For this reason, the present study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of the isatin derivative (Z)-2-(5-chloro-2-oxoindolin-3-ylidene)-N-phenyl-hydrazinecarbothioamide (COPHCT) in mice. Three doses of this compound were tested: 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/kg. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed using the carrageenan-induced paw edema model and the zymosan-induced air pouch model. The evaluation of the antinociceptive effect was performed through the formalin test and the acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing test. The paw edema assay demonstrated that all doses of the compound showed a significant reduction of the edema in the second hour evaluated, but a better response was observed in the fourth hour. The zymosan-induced air pouch model indicated that the compound, in all doses, significantly reduced leukocyte migration and total protein concentration levels. In the formalin test, the doses 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/kg of COPHCT showed activity only in the second phase, with reduction in paw pain time of 73.61, 79.46, and 73.85%, respectively. The number of abdominal writhings decreased with the increasing dose, but only 5.0 mg/kg COPHCT exhibited a significant response, with a reduction of 24.88%. These results demonstrated the ability of this compound to interfere in the anti-inflammatory activity of edema, vascular permeability, and cell migration. In addition, its possible antinociceptive effect may be related to the dose used.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Isatina/farmacologia , Animais , Carragenina , Edema , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais
19.
Adv Clin Exp Med ; 29(9): 1101-1109, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32996724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Female inflorescences of hops (Humulus lupulus L.) are wildly used in the brewing industry. Hops have been also used for ages in folk medicine. Xanthohumol (XN) is a most abundant prenylated flavonoid present in hops. OBJECTIVES: To determine pharmacokinetic parameters and bioavailability of pure XN and XN given in prenylflavonoid extract obtained from spent hops (HOP). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty-six Wistar rats (28 females and 28 males) were administered with XN or HOP. Xanthohumol was administered either intravenously (iv.) (10 mg/kg) or orally (per os (p.o.)) (40, 100 and 200 mg/kg). Extract obtained from spent hops was administered p.o. and its doses were based on XN content (doses were equivalent to XN dose of 40, 100 and 200 mg/kg, respectively). After administration of XN or HOP serum, XN concentration was measured at different time points (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h). Non-compartmental analysis was used to assess the pharmacokinetics (PK) of XN in rats. RESULTS: The XN PK in rats after intravenous administration is characterized by extensive distribution followed by delayed elimination from the body. Enterohepatic recirculation is likely to play a role in XN PK. Some fraction of the orally administered XN reaches central compartment rapidly; however, the overall absorption is very limited and probably saturable. The formulation-dependent factors also play an important role in the bioavailability of the drug. Although the CMAX concentration was higher in female rats receiving XN orally comparing to males, the other pharmacokinetic parameters were unaffected by the rats' sex. CONCLUSIONS: The same doses of XN may be administered to male and female subjects, as its pharmacokinetics is not affected by sex.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais , Administração Intravenosa , Animais , Feminino , Flavonoides , Masculino , Propiofenonas , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
20.
Phytomedicine ; 78: 153296, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890913

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has extensively and rapidly spread in the world, causing an outbreak of acute infectious pneumonia. However, no specific antiviral drugs or vaccines can be used. Phillyrin (KD-1), a representative ingredient of Forsythia suspensa, possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and antiviral activities. However, little is known about the antiviral abilities and mechanism of KD-1 against SARS-CoV-2 and human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E). PURPOSE: The study was designed to investigate the antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities of KD-1 against the novel SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E and its potential effect in regulating host immune response in vitro. METHODS: The antiviral activities of KD-1 against SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E were assessed in Vero E6 cells using cytopathic effect and plaque-reduction assay. Proinflammatory cytokine expression levels upon infection with SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E infection in Huh-7 cells were measured by real-time quantitative PCR assays. Western blot assay was used to determine the protein expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65, p-NF-κB p65, IκBα, and p-IκBα in Huh-7 cells, which are the key targets of the NF-κB pathway. RESULTS: KD-1 could significantly inhibit SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E replication in vitro. KD-1 could also markedly reduce the production of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1ß, MCP-1, and IP-10) at the mRNA levels. Moreover, KD-1 could significantly reduce the protein expression of p-NF-κB p65, NF-κB p65, and p-IκBα, while increasing the expression of IκBα in Huh-7 cells. CONCLUSIONS: KD-1 could significantly inhibit virus proliferation in vitro, the up-regulated expression of proinflammatory cytokines induced by SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E by regulating the activity of the NF-кB signaling pathway. Our findings indicated that KD-1 protected against virus attack and can thus be used as a novel strategy for controlling the coronavirus disease 2019.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Coronavirus Humano 229E/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Animais , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Forsythia/química , Humanos , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Vero , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
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