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1.
Food Chem ; 303: 125400, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470275

RESUMO

Siraitia grosvenorii fruit (SGF) has been used as a natural sweetener and traditional medicine in China for more than two centuries. This study evaluated the effect of SGF extract supplementation (0.5%, 1%, and 2%) on the chemical, microbial and sensory properties of probiotic yogurt. The antioxidant, angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitory (ACE-I) and antibacterial bioactivities were determined. SGF extract supplementation improved some of the chemical and physicochemical characteristics. Probiotic yogurt with the fruit extract had significantly more Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus bulgaricus, whereas there was no significant effect on the number of Streptococcus thermophiles. The bioactivities were significantly increased by SGF extract supplementation. Probiotic yogurt with 2% SGF extract showed the highest antioxidant, ACE-I, and antibacterial activities, whereas the one with 1% SGF extract conferred the highest sensory attributes score. Overall, SGF extract offers a promising option as a dietary supplement to produce novel dairy products that have high nutritional and bioactivity values.


Assuntos
Cucurbitaceae/química , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Probióticos/análise , Iogurte/microbiologia , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , China , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Lactobacillus casei/genética , Lactobacillus casei/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactobacillus casei/isolamento & purificação , Lactobacillus delbrueckii/genética , Lactobacillus delbrueckii/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactobacillus delbrueckii/isolamento & purificação , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Paladar , Iogurte/análise
2.
Food Chem ; 302: 125366, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442705

RESUMO

Sambucus nigra is one of the richest sources of anthocyanins and other polyphenols being used industrially as a source of antioxidants, colorants, and bioactives. Although cultivars can influence elderberry composition, no study has addressed the effect of harvesting year on elderberries composition and bioactivity. The composition of the main Portuguese cultivars, "Sabugueiro", "Sabugueira" and "Bastardeira", were evaluated during three consecutive years. Harvesting year had a stronger influence on the chemical composition than cultivars, including total sugars, anthocyanins, and phenolic compounds, being related to the different climatic conditions, especially water status. "Bastardeira" was the best cultivar concerning total soluble solids, anthocyanins, polyphenols, and antioxidant activity, but containing a lower total free sugar content compared to "Sabugueiro". The results obtained in this study provide novel information from a nutritional perspective and for breeding programs aiming to select cultivars with enhanced levels of health-promoting compounds or for other industrial applications of elderberries.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/análise , Frutas/química , Fenóis/análise , Sambucus/química , Agricultura , Antioxidantes/análise , Ácido Oleanólico/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/análise , Portugal , Sambucus nigra/química , Especificidade da Espécie , Triterpenos/análise
3.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(3): e20190676, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618414

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to optimize a maceration condition of cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.). A circumscribed central composite experimental design was applied in this work. Temperature and time were varied from 40-80 °C and 30-90 min, respectively. The three responses (i.e., extraction yield, cannabidiol content, and Δ9- tetrahydrocannabinol content) were predicted by computer software. The yield was high when cannabis was macerated using ethanol at high temperature and long duration time. While cannabidiol and Δ9- tetrahydrocannabinol content was high when macerating at a low heating temperature and short duration time. The optimal condition provided the simultaneous high of cannabidiol and Δ9- tetrahydrocannabinol content was 40 °C for 30 min. The prediction was accurate due to low percent error. This optimal condition could be used as a guide for maceration of cannabis to obtain the extract containing a high content of cannabidiol and Δ9- tetrahydrocannabinol.


Assuntos
Canabidiol/análise , Cannabis/química , Dronabinol/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Dronabinol/análise , Métodos , Temperatura Ambiente , Fatores de Tempo
4.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(14): 3064-3069, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602854

RESUMO

This project is to investigate chemical compositions from the roots of Erythrina corallodendron. Through the methods of silica gel,ODS,Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and preparative HPLC,15 compounds were isolated from the 95% ethanol extract of the roots of E. corallodendron. Based on spectroscopic techniques,the structures of these compounds were identified as 10,11-dioxoerythraline( 1),erythrinine( 2),erythraline( 3),11-methoxyerythraline( 4),cristanines B( 5),erythratine( 6),erysotrine( 7),medioresinol( 8),( ±)-ficusesquilignan A( 9),( +)-pinoresinol( 10),nicotinic acid( 11),dibutyl phthalate( 12),vanillic acid( 13),3-hydroxy-1-( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1-propanone( 14),and syringic acid( 15). Compounds 8-10 are isolated from genus Erythrina for the first time and all compounds are isolated from E. corallodendron for the first time. Furthermore,this paper screened the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the compounds using models of liver microsomal oxidation inhibition and MTT.


Assuntos
Erythrina/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Raízes de Plantas/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Microssomos Hepáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/análise
5.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(15): 6778-6787, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The international marketing of native Brazilian fruits may benefit from research into discrimination between plants with particular properties. Plants with certain characteristics have strong potential for use in agroindustry and for the development of new processed products. In the current study, 12 uvaia plants (Eugenia pyriformis Cambess), native to Brazil, were geographically discriminated by chemometric methods, using nutritional composition, physicochemical characterization, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant capacity data. RESULTS: Uvaia fruits presented good nutritional value, with a high moisture and carbohydrate content. All fruits presented a pH value lower than 4, being classified as highly acidic, and the total soluble solids (°Brix) ranged between 2.90 and 9.80. Some plants had a higher vitamin C content, and all the plants had a high bioactive compound content (phenolic and flavonoids) and antioxidant capacity in 1,1-difenil-2-picrilhidrazil (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Hydroethanolic solution was the best extraction solvent tested when compared with water and ethanol. Using principal component analysis, it was possible to discriminate among the plants in five different groups; however, just one group was responsible for higher antioxidant compound content. CONCLUSION: In this work, 12 native uvaia plants were discriminated by their geographical origin using a chemometric approach. Genetic improvement based on natural selection could be accomplished with some of the plants to improve the quality of uvaia pulp and to develop new cultivars. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Eugenia/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Brasil , Análise Discriminante , Eugenia/classificação , Flavonoides/análise , Frutas/química , Frutas/classificação , Geografia , Valor Nutritivo , Fenóis/análise , Análise de Componente Principal
6.
J Food Sci ; 84(9): 2490-2498, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408211

RESUMO

The main objective of this work is to develop and characterize novel bio-based sensor as intelligent food packaging film to monitor quality changes in fresh chicken meat. Chitosan (CS) and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) were used as polymer matrices for immobilization of pH sensitive color indicators. Generally considered as a food waste, blueberry (BP) and red grape skin pomace (RP) extracts were used as indicators at total phenolic content (TPC) of 0.06, 0.13, and 0.25 w/v for BP, and 0.006, 0.012, and 0.02 w/v for RP-based films. Color, mechanical, and intelligent material properties were determined. CS films were more elastic than CMC, while no significant changes in mechanical properties occurred after the addition of both extracts at all concentrations. Notable and eye recognizable color changes in dry films were seen. It was the most significant in the pH range from 4 to 7. For CMC-based films, color changed from violet to pink for BP extracts and from red to pink for RP extracts. For CS films, the changes were less significant. The color taint and intensity changed toward green in blueberry-based films and to orange in grape seed extract-based films. Significant color changes were observed after 46 hr in application tests on fresh chicken meat. This was correlated to pH changes of meat above 6 that was one of the parameters considered as an indication of spoilage. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This work provides interesting data to food industry. It offers an idea and possibility of managing food waste from fruits and vegetables industry that makes problems and costs when needed to be disposed in a proper manner. Moreover, there is the possibility of producing novel kind of food packaging materials that could be used in order to check the end of food shelf-life in an inexpensive and natural way. Additional value lies in the fact that materials and procedures could be considered as sustainable.


Assuntos
Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/química , Corantes de Alimentos/análise , Embalagem de Alimentos/instrumentação , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Polímeros/química , Verduras/química , Vitis/química , Resíduos/análise , Carboximetilcelulose Sódica/química , Quitosana/química , Cor , Frutas/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Fenóis/análise
7.
Environ Pollut ; 254(Pt A): 112948, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377333

RESUMO

Large-scale synoptic conditions are able to transport considerable amounts of airborne particles over entire continents by creating substantial air mass movement. This phenomenon is observed in Europe in relation to highly allergenic ragweed (Ambrosia L.) pollen grains that are transported from populations in Central Europe (mainly the Pannonian Plain and Balkans) to the North. The path taken by atmospheric ragweed pollen often passes through the highly industrialised mining region of Silesia in Southern Poland, considered to be one of the most polluted areas in the EU. It is hypothesized that chemical air pollutants released over Silesia could become mixed with biological material and be transported to less polluted regions further North. We analysed levels of air pollution during episodes of long-distance transport (LDT) of ragweed pollen to Poland. Results show that, concomitantly with pollen, the concentration of air pollutants with potential health-risk, i.e. SO2, and PM10, have also significantly increased (by 104% and 37%, respectively) in the receptor area (Western Poland). Chemical transport modelling (EMEP) and air mass back-trajectory analysis (HYSPLIT) showed that potential sources of PM10 include Silesia, as well as mineral dust from the Ukrainian steppe and the Sahara Desert. In addition, atmospheric concentrations of other allergenic biological particles, i.e. Alternaria Nees ex Fr. spores, also increased markedly (by 115%) during LDT episodes. We suggest that the LDT episodes of ragweed pollen over Europe are not a "one-component" phenomenon, but are often related to elevated levels of chemical air pollutants and other biotic and abiotic components (fungal spores and desert dust).


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Antígenos de Plantas/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Esporos Fúngicos , Movimentos do Ar , Alérgenos/análise , Ambrosia , Península Balcânica , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Minerais/análise , Polônia , Pólen/química
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(37): 10306-10312, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464431

RESUMO

Conjugated linolenic acids (CLnAs) are natural phytochemicals with known and potential bioactivities in mammals. Established CLnA sources are limited to a few common fruit seeds, notably pomegranate seeds and cherry pits, and the search for alternatives is impeded in part by cumbersome methods for reliable measurement. We investigated CLnA contents in lower value fruit seeds with a recently available facile mass spectrometry method, solvent-mediated chemical ionization, enabling and quantitative analysis. We report for the first time the detection of CLnAs in cantaloupe and honeydew seeds at levels of 2 mg CLnA/g seed kernel. Based on the combined waste stream for these muskmelons of about 1.4 billion pounds in the USA annually, we estimate that the available CLnAs amount to 37.5 tons, similar to cherry pits. Our results suggest the potentially enhanced economic value of a specific class of bioactives that may be extracted from discarded food processing waste.


Assuntos
Cucurbitaceae/química , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Sementes/química , Resíduos/análise , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados/isolamento & purificação , Espectrometria de Massas , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(29): 8074-8084, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299152

RESUMO

Consumers often malign conventional curing agents while concomitantly accepting the natural forms of the same constituents in numerous food products. This paradox ostensibly exceeds all other food-related controversies to date and likely contributes to the rapid expansion of meat products that utilize natural nitrate derivatives. While there is high demand for these products, a fundamental lack of understanding regarding the safety and chemical implications of curing agents, whether derived from synthetic or natural sources, continues to persist. This manuscript elucidates the variations among curing preparations with particular emphasis pertaining to the associated safety, chemical, and regulatory ramifications encompassing these product categories.


Assuntos
Rotulagem de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Produtos da Carne/análise , Nitratos/análise , Nitritos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Plantas/química , Animais , Aditivos Alimentares/efeitos adversos , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Rotulagem de Alimentos/normas , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Nitratos/efeitos adversos , Nitritos/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(28): 7869-7879, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287296

RESUMO

Carnitine, a dietary quaternary amine mainly from red meat, is metabolized to trimethylamine (TMA) by gut microbiota and subsequently oxidized to trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) by host hepatic enzymes, flavin monooxygenases (FMOs). The objective of this study aims to investigate the effects of flavonoids from oolong tea and citrus peels on reducing TMAO formation and protecting vascular inflammation in carnitine-feeding mice. The results showed that mice treated with 1.3% carnitine in drinking water significantly (p < 0.05) increased the plasma levels of TMAO compared to control group, whereas the plasma TMAO was remarkedly reduced by flavonoids used. Meanwhile, these dietary phenolic compounds significantly (p < 0.05) decreased hepatic FMO3 mRNA levels compared to carnitine only group. Additionally, oolong tea extract decreased mRNA levels of vascular inflammatory markers such as tissue necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and E-selectin. Polymethoxyflavones significantly lowered the expression of VCAM-1 and showed a decreasing trend in TNF-α and E-selectin mRNA expression compared to the carnitine group. Genus-level analysis of the gut microbiota in the cecum showed that these dietary phenolic compounds induced an increase in the relative abundances of Bacteroides. Oolong tea extract-treated group up-regulated Lactobacillus genus, compared to the carnitine only group. Administration of polymethoxyflavones increased Akkermansia in mice.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Camellia sinensis/química , Carnitina/metabolismo , Citrus/química , Flavonas/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Biotransformação/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Flavonas/análise , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Humanos , Metilaminas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/genética , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/metabolismo
11.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(13): 2792-2798, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359692

RESUMO

In this experiment,the gradation analysis method was used to evaluate the quality of different pieces of Gardeniae Fructus through the extraction rate difference and the difference analysis of the main components in the extract. In this experiment cold-dip and hot-dip methods were used to compare the yield of Gardeniae Fructus extract and the content of chemical constituents with water,25%,50%,75% and 95% ethanol fractions. By weighted calculation,the optimal extraction method of Gardeniae Fructus was determined,and this was verified by practical application. RESULTS:: showed that for the water-soluble extract,cold dip method was better than the hot dip method; and for alcohol-soluble extract,75% ethanol under cold dip method was best. The verification results showed that water-soluble extracts under cold dip methods could be used to significantly distinguish the raw Gardeniae Fructus( GF) and processed( stir-baked) GF( GFP) collected from the market. Meanwhile,this method could be also used to distinguish the same batch of GF,GFP and carbonized GF( GFC) with significant differences,respectively( P<0. 05). Ethanol-soluble extract can be used to clearly distinguish GFP and GFC pieces in the same batch( P<0. 05). The results of content determination showed that the variation coefficient of components in GF processed products was higher than that in extracts,and the content of hydroxygeniposide was the most significant component between GF and its processed products. It is suggested that the method of water-soluble extract of GF and the determination of the content of gardoside should be combined together to evaluate the quality of GF and its heat processed products.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Frutas/química , Gardenia/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise
12.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(12): 2544-2551, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359722

RESUMO

Thirty-two batches of cultivated and wild Glycyrrhiza uralensis were obtained from three geographical regions. Comparative study of water characteristic components of G. uralensis from three geographical origins was conducted by PCA,OPLS-DA chemical pattern recognition combined with LC-TOF/MS and muti-component analysis. The similarity of fingerprints of 32 batches of medicinal materials ranged from 0. 903 to 0. 999. Patterns recognition could be used to distinguish cultivated G. uralensis in Gansu and Xinjiang areas from cultivated and wild plants in Inner Mongolia. Then a total of thirty-one common constituents were identified by LC-TOF/MS analysis coupled with standard compounds information. The contents of four flavonoid glycosides and five saponins were determinated by HPLC and compared using One-way ANOVA. The results showed that there was no significant difference in the contents of 5 triterpenoid saponins among the three regions,but the contents of 4 flavonoid saponins showed the trend of Inner Mongolia >Gansu≈Xinjiang( P<0. 05). In the same Inner Mongolia region,the contents of 4 flavonoid glycosides and 5 triterpenoid saponins in wild plant was significantly higher than that in cultivated plants( P<0. 01). In addition,the contents of liquiritin,isoliquiritin,licorice-saponin A_3,22ß-acetoxyl-glycyrrhizic acid and uralsaponin B in Gansu and Xinjiang were obviously lower than those in Inner Mongolia,but the contents of glycyrrhizic acid,the main component of G. uralensis,were not different in the three geographical regions. In Inner Mongolia,the contents of liquiritin,isoliquiritin,licorice-saponin A_3,licorice-saponin G_2 and glycyrrhizic acid in wild plants were significantly higher than those in cultivated plants. In conclusion,qualitative/quantitative analysis of multi-index components combined with pattern recognition could effectively evaluate the quality of cultivated and wild licorice in different regions. It was helpful for us to understand the reality of licorice in different regions,and provided scientific basis for the development and comprehensive utilization of licorice resources.


Assuntos
Glycyrrhiza uralensis/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise , China , Geografia , Ácido Glicirrízico/análise , Saponinas/análise , Água
13.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 153, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rhus trilobata Nutt. (Anacardiaceae) (RHTR) is a plant of Mexico that is traditionally used as an alternative treatment for several types of cancer. However, the phytochemical composition and potential toxicity of this plant have not been evaluated to support its therapeutic use. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the biological activity of RHTR against colorectal adenocarcinoma cells, determine its possible acute toxicity, and analyze its phytochemical composition. METHODS: The traditional preparation was performed by decoction of stems in distilled water (aqueous extract, AE), and flavonoids were concentrated with C18-cartridges and ethyl acetate (flavonoid fraction, FF). The biological activity was evaluated by MTT viability curves and the TUNEL assay in colorectal adenocarcinoma (CACO-2), ovarian epithelium (CHO-K1) and lung/bronchus epithelium (BEAS-2B) cells. The toxicological effect was determined in female BALB/c mice after 24 h and 14 days of intraperitoneal administration of 200 mg/kg AE and FF, respectively. Later, the animals were sacrificed for histopathological observation of organs and sera obtained by retro-orbital bleeding for biochemical marker analysis. Finally, the phytochemical characterization of AE and FF was conducted by UPLC-MSE. RESULTS: In the MTT assays, AE and FF at 5 and 18 µg/mL decreased the viability of CACO-2 cells compared with cells treated with vehicle or normal cells (p ≤ 0.05, ANOVA), with changes in cell morphology and the induction of apoptosis. Anatomical and histological analysis of organs did not reveal important pathological lesions at the time of assessment. Additionally, biochemical markers remained normal and showed no differences from those of the control group after 24 h and 14 days of treatment (p ≤ 0.05, ANOVA). Finally, UPLC-MSE analysis revealed 173 compounds in AE-RHTR, primarily flavonoids, fatty acids and phenolic acids. The most abundant compounds in AE and FF were quercetin and myricetin derivates (glycosides), methyl gallate, epigallocatechin-3-cinnamate, ß-PGG, fisetin and margaric acid, which might be related to the anticancer properties of RHTR. CONCLUSION: RHTR exhibits biological activity against cancer cells and does not present adverse toxicological effects during its in vivo administration, supporting its traditional use.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/análise , Rhus/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/análise , Células CHO , Células CACO-2 , Cricetulus , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Feminino , Flavonoides/análise , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , México , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Polifenóis/análise , Rhus/toxicidade
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(25): 25526-25537, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267399

RESUMO

This study aimed to examine the production and consumption patterns of the tarhana as a green food product and its content in terms of health value in the socio-economic framework by comparing urban and rural households. To be able to assess the tarhana's health value, the addition of antioxidative parameters was analysed. We obtained the data as a result of a two-part study. The first part of the research included a structured survey conducted between September and December 2015. In the second part, three types of tarhana samples evaluated in terms of their antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content as extractable, hydrolysable, and bioaccessible phenolics to support the claim that homemade tarhana offers higher nutritional potential and healthier content than commercially produced tarhana. Organic and additive-free homemade tarhana samples have great antioxidative potential, also depending on the content and the production pattern. The results of the antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content analyses, and their bioaccessibility revealed that non-fermented homemade tarhana and cranberry-added tarhana stand out, according to production process and content. Our findings showed that participants mostly produced the tarhana at home. In cases where they could not produce it themselves, they supplied it from their family and friends. This result showed us that participants preferred homemade tarhana over industrial tarhana sold in markets. Rural areas mostly consumed tarhana for its economic value. However, tarhana consumption did not decrease in cities. Only the consumption mode and the times have changed.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Vaccinium macrocarpon/química , Antioxidantes/química , Fermentação , Humanos , Fenóis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Fatores Socioeconômicos
15.
J Food Sci ; 84(8): 2199-2208, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313316

RESUMO

Bioactive anthocyanins from aqueous extracts of muscadine grape pomace were concentrated using osmotic distillation (OD) and direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) using polypropylene (PP) and poly(ethylene chlorotrifluoroethylene) (ECTFE) membranes. The driving force for OD is created by using a high concentration brine solution while the driving force for DCMD is generated by elevating the feed temperature relative to the permeate temperature. The brine concentration used was 4 M. The lowest fluxes were obtained for OD. Given the temperature sensitive nature of anthocyanins, the maximum temperature difference during DCMD was limited to 30 °C. The feed temperature was 40 °C and the permeate at 10 °C. Consequently, the maximum flux during DCMD was also limited. A combination of OD and DCMD was found to give the highest fluxes. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and HPLC-electrospray mass spectrometry were used to identify and quantify anthocyanins, cyanidin-3,5-O-diglucoside, delphinidin-3,5-O-diglucoside, petunidin-3,5-O-diglucoside, peonidin-3,5-O-diglucoside, and malvidin-3,5-O-diglucoside. The results obtained here suggest that, though water fluxes for DI water feed streams for PP and ECTFE membrane were similar, the fluxes obtained for the two membranes when using muscadine pomace extracts were different. Concentration factors of close to 3 was obtained for anthocyanins. Membranes also showed slightly different performance in the concentration process. Membrane surfaces were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy. The results suggest that adsorption of these anthocyanins on the membrane surface lead to performance differences. In an actual operation, selection of an appropriate membrane and regeneration of the membrane will be important for optimized performance. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Anthocyanins are valuable therapeutic compounds, which are found in the solid residue left following fruit juice pressing. However, recovery and concentration of these therapeutic compounds remains challenging due to their stability. Here, a novel membrane-based unit operation has been investigated in order to concentrate the anthocyanins that have been extracted into aqueous solutions. The unit operation investigated here use mild processing conditions. Insights into the factors that need to be considered when optimizing of the unit operation for commercialization are discussed.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/isolamento & purificação , Destilação/métodos , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Vitis/química , Resíduos/análise , Adsorção , Antocianinas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Destilação/instrumentação , Manipulação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Espectrometria de Massas , Osmose , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Temperatura Ambiente
16.
Food Chem ; 299: 125094, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301529

RESUMO

The jaggery-making process involves various thermo-chemical treatments of sugarcane juice. As jaggery making is a traditional practice, knowledge about the use of different chemicals in the process is transferred from generation to generation without much scientific understanding. Phosphoric acid is one of the chemicals commonly used in this process. We have investigated its effect through systematic experiments. The addition of acid causes inversion of sucrose, which beyond a certain point is not desirable for good quality jaggery. In the correct proportions, however, phosphoric acid improves the colour and texture of jaggery and helps in the formation of smaller sized crystals. Reducing sugars formed due to inversion hinder crystal growth, resulting in relatively small crystals. In our experiments, the average crystal size reduced from 22.22 µm to 14.34 µm. Acid-treatedjaggery was found to equilibrate at higher moisture. A comparison with normal jaggery is thus provided for its keeping quality.


Assuntos
Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/métodos , Ácidos Fosfóricos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Saccharum/química , Cor , Cristalização , Flavonoides/química , Monossacarídeos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Polifenóis/química
17.
J Food Sci ; 84(8): 2337-2346, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294468

RESUMO

Unopened flower buds of Capparis spinosa L. (capers), generally used in the Mediterranean area as food flavoring, are known to be a good source of bioactive compounds. The aim of this work was to evaluate the nutraceutical value of salt-fermented capers collected from different areas of Pantelleria Island (Italy), testing their methylglyoxal and glyoxal trapping capacity and antioxidant activity by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), [2,2-azinobis(3-ethylben- zothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] diammonium salt (ABTS), and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. Hydrophilic extracts were also characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry. Among 24 detected compounds, several flavonol derivatives and glucosinolates were identified. The levels of kaempferol and quercetin derivatives varied considerably among the five accessions considered (6.46 to 267.93 and 22.39 to 367.14 mg kaempferol and quercetin equivalent /g fresh weight, respectively), with kaempferol derivatives more representative than quercetin ones. Person's coefficient indicated a high correlation between total phenolic content and anti-DPPH radical capacity (R2 = 0.665), as well as between total flavonoid content and antioxidant capacity (by ORAC assay; R2 = 0.888) and between total flavonoid content and glyoxal and methylglyoxal trapping capacity (R2 = 0.918). Results indicate that capers from Pantelleria Island represent a rich source of bioactive compounds with potential nutraceutical relevance. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The findings of this study highlight the health benefits of Pantelleria capers consumption due to their composition in antioxidants and their biological properties (antiradical and alpha-dicarbonyls trapping) correlated with the development of a high number of chronic-degenerative diseases. These results are also important for the agricultural and commercial sectors involved in the production of capers from Pantelleria, which received the Protected Geographical Indications recognition.


Assuntos
Capparis/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Glucosinolatos/análise , Itália , Quempferóis/análise , Fenóis/análise , Quercetina/análise , Sementes/química
18.
J Chromatogr A ; 1603: 216-230, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277949

RESUMO

Immobilization of biomaterials developed rapidly due to the great promise in improving their stability, activity and even selectivity. In this review, the immobilization strategies of biomaterials, including physical adsorption, encapsulation, covalent attachment, cross-linking and affinity linkage, were briefly introduced. Then, the major emphasis was focused on the reported various types of immobilized biomaterials, including proteins, enzymes, cell membrane and artificial membrane, living cells, carbohydrates and bacteria, used in the herbal analysis for bioactive compound screening, drug-target interaction evaluation and chiral separation. In addition, a series of carrier materials applied in biomaterials immobilization, such as magnetic nanoparticles, metal-organic frameworks, silica capillary column, cellulose filter paper, cell membrane chromatography, immobilized artificial membrane chromatography and hollow fiber, were also discussed. Perspectives on further applications of immobilized biomaterials in herbal analysis were finally presented.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Adsorção , Enzimas Imobilizadas/química , Membranas Artificiais , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química
19.
Microbiol Res ; 223-225: 110-119, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178043

RESUMO

Nutrient deficiency in soil is one of the limiting factors responsible for stunted growth and poor flowering/fruiting of crops which result in decline in overall agricultural productivity. However, one important strategy to overcome the problem of nutrient deficiency and to avoid use of chemical fertilizers is the use of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Paenibacillus lentimorbus NRRL B-30488 (hereafter B-30488), an efficient PGPR has been reported to have various plant growth promoting traits that help crops to mitigate various environmental stresses. Therefore, the present work was designed to examine the application of B-30488 on chickpea growth under nutrient stress condition. Plants inoculated with B-30488 showed positive modulation in physio-biochemical behaviour and mineral nutrient uptake for better growth and development. Alteration in gene expression and metabolic profile under nutrient stress condition in chickpea also supported the stress amelioration capability of B-30488. Principal component analysis statistically proved that improved growth performance of chickpea plants under nutrient stress was mainly due to B-30488 induced modulation of metabolic pathways. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study for analysis of growth promotion and stress alleviation in chickpea plants subjected to nutrient stress in presence of PGPR B-30488.


Assuntos
Cicer/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cicer/metabolismo , Cicer/microbiologia , Nutrientes , Paenibacillus/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Agricultura , Antioxidantes , Cicer/citologia , Produtos Agrícolas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Hidroponia , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Nutrientes/química , Estresse Oxidativo , Pigmentos Biológicos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Raízes de Plantas/citologia , Prolina/análise , Solo/química , Estresse Fisiológico , Açúcares/análise
20.
Planta Med ; 85(9-10): 766-773, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167297

RESUMO

Osteoporosis is a clinical condition characterized by low bone strength that leads to an increased risk of fracture. Strategies for the treatment of osteoporosis involve inhibition of bone resorption by osteoclasts and an increase of bone formation by osteoblasts. Here, we identified the extract derived from the stem part of Edgeworthia papyrifera that enhanced differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells to osteoblast-like cells and inhibited osteoclast differentiation of RAW 264.7 cells in vitro. In support of our observation, rutin and daphnoretin, which were previously reported to inhibit osteoclast differentiation, were identified in E. papyrifera extract. In an animal model of osteoporosis, the ovariectomy-induced increases in bone resorption biomarkers such as pyridinoline and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase were significantly reduced by E. papyrifera extract administration at 25.6 and 48.1%, respectively. Furthermore, the ovariectomy-induced bone loss in animal models of osteoporosis was significantly prevented by the administration of E. papyrifera in our study. Taking these observations into account, we suggest that E. papyrifera is an interesting candidate for further exploration as an anti-osteoporotic agent.


Assuntos
Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Thymelaeaceae/química , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/urina , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Reabsorção Óssea/tratamento farmacológico , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Modelos Animais , Osteoporose/etiologia , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Células RAW 264.7 , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
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