Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 7.167
Filtrar
1.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237583, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804936

RESUMO

Identification and quantification of plant flavonoids are critical to pharmacokinetic study and pharmaceutical quality control due to their distinct pharmacological functions. Here we report on a novel plant flavonoid electrochemical sensor for sensitive and selective detection of dihydromyricetin (DMY) based on double- layered membranes consisting of gold nanoparticles (Au) anchored on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Both rGO-Au and MIPs membranes were directly formed on GCE via in-situ electrochemical reduction and polymerization processes step by step. The compositions, morphologies, and electrochemical properties of membranes were investigated with X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FTIR), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) combined with various electrochemical methods. The fabricated electrochemical sensor labeled as GCE│rGO-Au/MIPs exhibited excellent performance in determining of DMY under optimal experimental conditions. A wide linear detection range (LDR) ranges from 2.0×10-8 to 1.0×10-4 M together with a low limit of detection (LOD) of 1.2×10-8 M (S/N = 3) were achieved. Moreover, the electrochemical sensor was employed to determine DMY in real samples with satisfactory results.


Assuntos
Carbono/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/instrumentação , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonóis/análise , Grafite/química , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Eletrodos , Ouro , Limite de Detecção , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Impressão Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Polímeros/síntese química , Polímeros/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Difração de Raios X
2.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(8): 929-939, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759551

RESUMO

Glucosylceramide (GlcCer), a major sphingolipid in plants and fungi, is known to have food functions, such as preventing intestinal impairment and enhancing the moisture content of skin. This study investigated the influence of fermentation on the composition and function of lipophilic components containing GlcCer in plant-based foods; we compared the effects of ethanol extracts from sake rice (SR) and sake lees (SL) on colon impairment in mice. GlcCer and ceramide (Cer) levels in SL were much higher than those in SR, and GlcCer in SL contained 9-methyl-trans-4,trans-8-sphingadienine as a fungi-specific sphingoid base. 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) treatment markedly increased the formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and the levels of TNF-α and lipid oxidation in mice colons. However, dietary SR or SL significantly suppressed these DMH-induced changes, and SR demonstrated stronger effects than SL. In addition, dietary SR or SL suppressed the expression of apoptotic and anti-apoptotic proteins induced by DMH treatment. This study suggests that SR or SL intake could reduce colon ACF formation via the suppression of inflammation and oxidation-induced cell cycle disturbances. When compared to SR, the weaked effects of SL rich in GlcCer may be the result of the changes in sphingolipid composition (sphingoid base and Cer) and differences in the concentration of other bioactive compounds produced or digested during fermentation.


Assuntos
Focos de Criptas Aberrantes/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias do Colo/prevenção & controle , Glucosilceramidas/análise , Glucosilceramidas/farmacologia , Oryza/química , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Vinho/análise , Focos de Criptas Aberrantes/metabolismo , Focos de Criptas Aberrantes/patologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Apoptose , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Etanol , Feminino , Fermentação , Glucosilceramidas/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
3.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 55(9): 813-819, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602767

RESUMO

The use of vegetable waste and its screening for potential cytotoxicity is of utmost importance to ensure its safe use in the feed industry for fish and other animals. We evaluated aqueous and ethanolic extracts of cooked Araucaria angustifolia seed coats. The Stiasny index for the aqueous and ethanolic extracts was 2.87% ± 0.03% and 60.53% ± 4.79%, respectively. Condensed tannins were 11-fold higher in the ethanolic extract than the aqueous extract. The flavonoid and polyphenol contents were 1.7- and 1.8-fold higher in the ethanolic extract than in the aqueous extract, respectively. The 36 h EC50 for brine shrimp hatchability was 300.32 µg/mL for the aqueous extract, and 76.60 µg/mL for the ethanolic extract. The 24 h LC50 was 1405.96 µg/mL for the aqueous extract, and it was 356.32 µg/mL for the ethanolic extract. The aqueous extract was nontoxic to A. salina nauplii, and therefore, it can be used as a possible food additive in fish feed. The results also demonstrated that the different solvents used in the extraction affected the yield and the total phenolic, total flavonoid, and condensed tannin content. Further in vivo and cell line cytotoxicity testing is recommended to substantiate these findings.


Assuntos
Araucaria/química , Artemia , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Sementes/química , Ração Animal , Animais , Antioxidantes/análise , Artemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Artemia/fisiologia , Culinária , Flavonoides/análise , Dose Letal Mediana , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/análise , Solventes/química , Taninos/análise , Testes de Toxicidade
4.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(7): 1670-1675, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32489048

RESUMO

Developing high-quality standard is useful for promoting the quality of traditional Chinese medicine injections, which could be evaluated by establishing the comprehensive quality control method. A method for simultaneous determination of salvianolic acid B, rosmarinic acid and lithospermic acid in Salvianolate for Injection was developed for quantitative analysis of multi-components with single-marker(QAMS). ZORBAX Eclipse Plus C_(18) chromatographic column was adopted, with 0.1% phosphoric acid and acetonitrile as mobile phase. The flow rate was set at 1 mL·min~(-1). The column temperature was set at 20 ℃, and the detection wavelength was 286 nm. Salvianolic acid B was used as internal reference. The relative correction factors of rosmarinic acid and lithospermic acid(f_(s/i)) were 0.58 and 0.94, respectively. About 85% of substances in Salvianolate for Injection were quantified by the established QAMS method. The analysis of different batches of intermediates and preparations during four years showed that the contents of salvianolic acid B were 77.1%-81.5% in intermediates and 70.5%-80.1% in preparations; The total content of rosmarinic acid and lithospermic acid was about 6%. The ratio of rosmarinic acid to lithospermic acid was(3.4∶1-10∶1) and(2.5∶1-5∶1), respectively, which showed that the ratio was more stable in preparation. The QAMS method established is feasible for comprehensive quality control of multiple components of in Salvianolate for Injection.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
5.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234435, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574221

RESUMO

This study was designed to investigate the antioxidant properties of the extracts and subfractions of various polarities from Clerodendrum cyrtophyllum Turcz leaves and the related phenolic compound profiles. The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) showed the most potent radical-scavenging activity for DPPH radicals, ABTS radicals, and superoxide anion (O2·-) radicals as well as the highest reducing power of the fractions tested; the n-butyl alcohol fraction (BAF) was the most effective in scavenging hydroxyl radical (OH·), and the dichloromethane fraction (DMF) exhibited the highest ferrous ion chelating activity. Twelve phenolic components were identified from the EAF of C. cyrtophyllum. Additionally, acteoside (1) was found to be a major component (0.803 g, 0.54%) and show DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities with IC50 values of 79.65±3.4 and 23.00±1.5 µg/ml, indicating it is principally responsible for the significant total antioxidant effect of C. cyrtophyllum. Our work offers a theoretical basis for further utilization of C. cyrtophyllum as a potential source of natural, green antioxidants derived from plants.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Clerodendrum/química , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Glucosídeos/análise , Glucosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Radical Hidroxila/metabolismo , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Superóxidos/metabolismo
6.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127284, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563913

RESUMO

The exposition of mate (Ilex Paraguariensis A. St.-Hil.) to As and Cd was investigated in plants derived from young mini-cuttings. Mate plants were cultivated in a closed soilless system, composed of coarse sand as substrate and flood fertirrigation. Plantlets were fertirrigated with nutritive solution and As and Cd solutions were added to the nutritive solution in the final concentration of 8 and 17 mg L-1 (As) and of 17 and 33 mg L-1 (Cd) during 14 days. Results show that stem diameter and Dickson quality index (DQI) variables could not be used as a potential indicator of accumulation of As and Cd. The shoot height, number of leaves and chlorophyll index are variables easy and quick to measure and they can be used as parameters to evaluate the stress caused in mate plants cultivation in a closed soilless system. The highest concentration of As and Cd was in roots of plants. Beyond the roots, As and Cd also can be translocated to the leaves achieving high concentrations. In addition, leaves from the treated mate plants were submitted to a hot infusion extraction in order to simulate the traditional beverage and As and Cd were determined in the infusion. Regarding to the infusion procedure, considerable As and Cd amounts were extracted from the leaves leading to conclude that this way of consumption can be an important source of toxic elements for the human diet.


Assuntos
Arsênico/toxicidade , Cádmio/farmacocinética , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Ilex paraguariensis/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/química , Cádmio/toxicidade , Exposição Dietética , Poluentes Ambientais/farmacocinética , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Chás de Ervas , Distribuição Tecidual
7.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233094, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392267

RESUMO

Sweet corn juice is becoming increasingly popular in China. In order to provide valuable health-related information to consumers, the nutritional and physicochemical characteristics of raw and boiled purple sweet corn juices were herein investigated. Sugars, antinutrients, total free phenols, anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity were analyzed by conventional chemical methods. The viscosity and stability of juices were determined by Ubbelohde viscosity meter and centrifugation, respectively. Boiling process could elevate viscosity, stability and sugar content, and reduce antinutrients, total free phenols, anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity in corn juice. In addition, short time boiling efficiently reduced the degradation of anthocyanins during subsequent refrigeration. The content of amino acids, vitamin B1/B2 and E were detected by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry was used for the analysis of fatty acids and aroma compounds. Several aroma compounds not previously reported in corn were identified, including 1-heptanol, 2-methyl-2-butenal, (Z)-3-nonen-1-ol, 3-ethyl-2-methyl-1,3-hexadiene, and 2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)phenol. Interestingly, the boiling process had no apparent effect on the amino acids profile, but it caused a 45.8% loss of fatty acids in the juice by promoting the retention of fatty acids in the corn residue. These results provide detailed information that could be used for increasing consumers' knowledge of sweet corn juice, further development of sweet corn juice by food producers, and maize breeding programs.


Assuntos
Zea mays/química , Aldeídos/análise , Aminoácidos/análise , Antocianinas/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Heptanol/análise , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Riboflavina/análise , Tiamina/análise
8.
Food Chem ; 326: 126940, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413751

RESUMO

Silverskin, the main coffee roasting by-product, is rich in fiber, protein and antioxidants. Its protein fraction was studied regarding total, protein and non-protein nitrogen content. Amino acids were analysed after automated on-line derivatization. The method showed to be precise (<6.9%) and accurate (recoveries using a certified reference material and spiked blanks: 90-102%; for spiked samples: 73-113%). The real protein content of silverskin was 12%. One quarter of the total nitrogen corresponded to the non-protein fraction. All essential amino acids were present in the free form, except methionine. Regarding total amino acids, aspartic and glutamic acids (9-10 mg/g) were the major compounds. Branched chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine and valine) were also present in substantial amounts (5-8 mg/g), as well as proline and arginine (~5 mg/g). Concluding, silverskin is a source of amino acids with relevance for the improvement of cognitive and physical performances.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/análise , Coffea/química , Nitrogênio/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Resíduos/análise , Aminoácidos de Cadeia Ramificada/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Sementes
9.
Phytomedicine ; 71: 153221, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32447246

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: STW 5 is a fixed herbal combination containing extracts from nine medicinal plants: bitter candytuft, greater celandine, garden angelica roots, lemon balm leaves, peppermint leaves, caraway fruits, licorice roots, chamomile flowers, and milk thistle fruit. STW 5 is a clinically proven treatment for functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome. PURPOSE: Using a static in vitro method, we simulated oral, gastric, and small intestinal digestion and analyzed the metabolic profile changes by UHPLC-HRMS to determine the impact of oro-gastro-intestinal digestion on STW 5 constituents. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: STW 5 was incubated according to the InfoGest consensus method. Samples of each digestive phase were analyzed by UHPLC-HRMS in ESI positive and negative modes. After data processing, background subtraction, and normalization, the peak areas of detectable compounds were compared to untreated reference samples and recovery ratios were calculated to monitor the metabolic profile of STW 5 during simulated digestion. RESULTS: Although the levels of some constituents were reduced, we did not observe complete degradation of any of the constituents of STW 5 upon in vitro digestion. We did not detect any new metabolites beyond increased levels of caffeic acid and liquiritigenin due to degradation of progenitor compounds. Changes observed in intestinal bioaccessibility ratios were mainly a result of isomerization, hydrolysis, protein binding, and low water solubility. CONCLUSION: The majority of STW 5 constituents are stable towards simulated in vitro digestion and can reach the colon to interact with gut microbiota if they remain unabsorbed in the upper intestinal tract.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacocinética , Preparações de Plantas/análise , Preparações de Plantas/farmacocinética , Disponibilidade Biológica , Digestão , Suco Gástrico , Técnicas In Vitro , Intestino Delgado , Metaboloma , Extratos Vegetais/análise
10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(20): 25785-25793, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356055

RESUMO

According to the global survey, Iran, China, India, and USA are leading producers of pomegranate. Among them, India tops the chart as the highest producer of pomegranate, cultivating 1.14 million tons per annum. Peels cover 50% weight of whole pomegranate fruit and are mostly discarded as waste. This enormous peel waste has innumerable health benefits. Pomegranate peel (PP) constitutes various antioxidants, anthocyanins, and polyphenols such as ellagic acid, pectin, gallic acid, and many others which can be extracted. A detailed process for sequential extraction, with zero discharge, of such valuable chemicals from biorefinery point of view is developed in this study. Major products considered for extraction include ellagic acid (EA), lignin, and pectin. Also, the total phenolic content (TPC) and total reducing sugar (TRS) content are found in the intermediate stages. The percent yield of the products EA, lignin, and pectin is 10%, 13%, and 19% with respect to the weight of pomegranate peels (PP) processed. For the first time, a sequential extraction of products with its detailed process flow diagram, process inventory, and life cycle assessment (LCA) of PP biorefinery is presented. The global warming potential of the PP biorefinery is found to be 4505.8 kg CO2 eq. per ton of PP processed. The intense hydrolysis step contributed majorly to the overall GWP indicator.


Assuntos
Frutas/química , Lythraceae , Antioxidantes , China , Índia , Irã (Geográfico) , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Romã (Fruta)
11.
Food Chem ; 321: 126723, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276143

RESUMO

A precise and unambiguous quantitative strategy for six biogenic amines in dry fermented mutton sausage with liquid chromatography tandem quadrupole Orbitrap mass spectrometry was developed to investigate the inhibitory effects of star anise, amomum tsao-ko, clove, cassia, fennel, bay leaf, and nutmeg on the accumulation of biogenic amines. Compared the data-dependent MS2 fragmentation (dd-MS2), variable data-independent acquisition (vDIA), and multiplex data-independent acquisition (mDIA), and the mDIA acquisition mode was selected for further analysis. The LODs and LOQs were 0.9-1.5 µg kg-1 and 2.9-5.0 µg kg-1. The maximum inhibition of spice on tryptamine, putrescine, spermidine, 2-phenylethylamine, tyrosamine, and histamine were 21.8%, 19.3%, 27.5%, 24.6%, 18.7% and 24.4%, which revealed that the accumulation of BAs was significantly inhibited by spice extracts, while cassia and fennel extracts showed the best effect. Thus, the established method can provide a better reference for dry fermented mutton sausage quality, safety and trade analysis.


Assuntos
Aminas Biogênicas/análise , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/análise , Produtos da Carne , Especiarias , Aminas Biogênicas/metabolismo , Cassia/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fermentação , Foeniculum , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Histamina/metabolismo , Produtos da Carne/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Carne Vermelha/análise , Especiarias/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
12.
J Food Sci ; 85(4): 936-946, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249417

RESUMO

The effectiveness of plant extracts (0.05% rosemary and 0.08% oregano) to extend shelf life of bison strip loin steaks in terms of color stability and consumer acceptability was studied. Steaks treated with oregano presented lower oxygen consumption, higher metmyoglobin-reducing activity (MRA), decreased lipid oxidation, and provided a stable red color with less discoloration during the retail display period than the control and rosemary treated steaks (P < 0.05). Results from consumer sensory evaluation indicated that treated steaks under study were not significantly different from the control (P > 0.05) based on palatability attributes and acceptability. However, rosemary treated steaks were more desirable and palatable than their oregano counterparts (P < 0.05). Overall, plant extracts, particularly oregano, can improve color stability of bison steaks due to its antioxidants properties and ability to increase MRA capacity in fresh bison meat without posing any negative impact on its sensory attributes. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study will provide valuable information to the bison meat industry on how to offer a more consistent and acceptable product (in terms of palatability and color) to consumers using plant-based natural antioxidants, without diminishing the palatability of their products. This technology can offer two more days of shelf life in retail overwrap packaging, consequently, opening the possibility for the bison industry to expand its market with a potential to reduce retail losses due to poor color stability and early browning (that is, stock out, markdowns, and waste due to expired display life).


Assuntos
Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Conservantes de Alimentos/análise , Carne/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes/análise , Bison , Cor , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Metamioglobina/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/química , Origanum/química , Oxirredução , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/análise
13.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(6): 1286-1296, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32320024

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The low intake of dietary fiber compared to recommended amounts has been referred to as the dietary fiber gap. The addition of fiber to snack foods could favorably alter gut microbiota and help individuals meet intake recommendations. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to examine the effect of low- and moderate-dose fiber-containing snack bars, comprising mainly chicory root inulin-type fructans (ITF), on gut microbiota in healthy adults with habitual low dietary fiber intake using 16S ribosomal RNA-based approaches. METHODS: In 2 separate 4-wk, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trials, 50 healthy adults with low dietary fiber intake were randomly assigned to receive isocaloric snack bars of either moderate-dose fiber (7 g/d) or control in Trial 1 (n = 25) or low-dose fiber (3 g/d) or control in Trial 2 (n = 25), with 4-wk washout periods. Fecal microbiota composition and inferred function, fecal SCFA concentration, gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, dietary intake, and quality of life were measured. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the moderate-dose group showed significant differences across multiple microbial taxa, most notably an increased relative abundance of the Bifidobacterium genus from (mean ± SEM) 5.3% ± 5.9% to 18.7% ± 15.0%. With low-dose ITF, significant increases in Bifidobacterium were no longer present after correction for multiple comparisons but targeted analysis with qPCR showed a significant increase in Bifidobacterium. Predictive functional profiling identified changes in predicted function after intake of the moderate- but not the low-dose bar. Fecal SCFAs were affected by time but not treatment. There were no between-group differences in GI symptoms. Importantly, fiber intake increased significantly with the moderate- and low-dose bars. CONCLUSIONS: In healthy adults, adding 3 or 7 g ITF to snack bars increased Bifidobacterium, a beneficial member of the gut microbial community. The addition of ITF to food products could help reduce the dietary fiber gap prevalent in modern life.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03042494.


Assuntos
Chicória/química , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Inulina/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Chicória/metabolismo , Estudos Cross-Over , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inulina/análise , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Lanches , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Food Sci ; 85(5): 1500-1512, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267966

RESUMO

Olive pomace is considered a solid by-product and a rich source of valuable compounds such as polyphenols, flavonoids with antioxidant properties, and proteins. Nonthermal technologies, which cause alterations to cell permeability, are being explored to assist conventional recovery techniques. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of pulsed electric fields (PEF) and high pressure (HP) on improved recovery yield of the high-added-value compounds or to shorten the extraction time of these compounds. Olive pomace (Tsounati cv) was pretreated with PEF (1.0 to 6.5 kV/cm, 0.9 to 51.1 kJ/kg, and 15 µs pulse width) or HP (200 to 600 MPa and 0 to 40 min). Evaluation of the intracellular compounds extracted via solid-liquid extraction (50% ethanol-water solution) was performed. More intense PEF and HP conditions resulted in a significant increase of the phenolic concentration up to 91.6% and 71.8%, respectively. The increased antioxidant capacity of each extract was correlated to phenolic compound concentration. The protein concentration that was achieved with PEF pretreatment was doubled; however, HP-pretreated extracts reached 88.1% higher yield than untreated for pressures up to 200 MPa. HP and PEF pretreatment decreased extraction completion time t98 (needed time to recover the equal amount of phenolics and proteins of untreated after 60 min of conventional extraction) to 12 min and lower than 1 min, respectively. To conclude, both pretreatments are effective in improving the conventional extraction process for increased yield recovery of high-added-value compounds from olive pomace.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Olea/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Resíduos/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Eletricidade , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Manipulação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Frutas/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Polifenóis/análise , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação
15.
Food Chem ; 318: 126512, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135418

RESUMO

E Se tea, prepared from the leaves of Malus toringoides (Rehd.) Hughes, is a traditional beverage, but there is little known about its chemical substances. This paper is aimed to investigate the chemical composition, antioxidant, and cytoprotective activities of the extract and fractions from E Se tea. Sixteen compounds were characterized by UHPLC-ESI-HRMS/MS. Phloridzin was the main compound, especially in ethyl acetate fraction (EAF). Moreover, EAF had the highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents with 197.54 ± 7.52 mg gallic acid equivalents/g extract and 85.94 ± 5.39 mg rutin equivalents/g extract, respectively, and exhibited the strongest antioxidant capacity (DPPH: IC50 = 54.91 ± 3.38 µg/mL; ABTS: IC50 = 98.08 ± 6.92 µg/mL). Different fractions of E Se tea, especially EAF, significantly inhibited intracellular ROS generation, reduced cell apoptosis, and decreased oxidative stress damage in H2O2-induced HepG-2 cells. Therefore, the obtained results highlight that E Se tea is a promising source for functional beverage or nutritional foods.


Assuntos
Malus/química , Fenóis/análise , Chás de Ervas/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonoides/análise , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
16.
J Food Sci ; 85(4): 1132-1139, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144797

RESUMO

Delphinidin-3-rutinoside, a high-value of anthocyanin, was isolated and purified by ionic liquid (IL)-modified countercurrent chromatography (CCC) from waste peel of eggplant (Solanum melongena), one of the most common vegetables consumed all around the world. Different conventional CCC and IL-CCC solvent systems were evaluated in respect of partition coefficient (K), separation factor (α), and stationary phase retention factor (Sf ) to separate polar target and other components. Basic solvent system, kind of ILs, and amount of ILs were systematically optimized by totally K-targeted strategy, which drastically reduced the experimental effort. Finally, a novel CCC two-phase solvent system (methyl tert-butyl ether-butanol-acetonitrile-1% trifluoroacetic acid water-1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C4 MIM][PF6 ]) [2:4:1:5:0.2; v/v/v/v/v]) was successfully established and applied. The baseline separation of target fraction was obtained in one cycle process. The purity of delphinidin-3-rutinoside was over 99%. Moreover, the distribution behavior of different kinds of ILs in biphasic solvent system and the removal method of ILs were explored. The results showed that hydrophobic IL significantly improved the partition of polar anthocyanin in organic solvent system, thereby the separation resolution and stationary phase retention through introducing intermolecular forces. This IL-modified CCC strategy may be applied for the separation of other anthocyanins from variety of natural food resources and waste.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/isolamento & purificação , Distribuição Contracorrente/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Solanum melongena/química , Resíduos/análise , Antocianinas/análise , Distribuição Contracorrente/instrumentação , Frutas/química , Líquidos Iônicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise
17.
Food Chem ; 320: 126651, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220709

RESUMO

Ziziphi Spinosae Folium, the leaf of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. Var. spinosa (Bunge) Hu ex H. F. Chou (LZJS), is currently used as a healthy tea in China. This study evaluated the chemical components and antioxidant activities of LZJS flavonoid (LZJSF) and fermented LZJSF (FLZJSF) using human intestinal bacteria (HIB) through dynamic fermentation. Eighteen flavonoids were simultaneously identified in LZJSF using UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-MS method, nine of which were targeted for a HIB metabolism study. Seven small phenolic acids were identified in FLZJSF. Not only at chemical level but also at PC12 cell level, FLZJSF samples fermented for 4 and 6 h showed significant positive correlation between their activities and flavonoid aglycones, which were transformed from LZJSF. However, FLZJSF samples (8 h and longer time) mainly contained phenolic acids and indicated weak activities. Thus, LZJSF was found to result in increased antioxidant activity and could be commercially utilized as a novel functional food.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/microbiologia , Flavonoides/análise , Ziziphus/metabolismo , Adulto , Animais , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Feminino , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Masculino , Células PC12 , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Ratos , Ziziphus/química
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222674

RESUMO

The pyridine nucleotides nicotineamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotineamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) are conserved coenzymes across all domains of life, and are involved in more than 200 different hydride transfer reactions supporting essential catabolic and anabolic functions. The intracellular levels of these metabolites, and the ratio of their oxidized to reduced forms regulate an extensive network of reactions ranging beyond metabolism. Hence, monitoring their intracellular levels provides information about, but not limited to, the metabolic state of a cell or tissue. Interconversion between oxidized and reduced forms, varying pH liability and varying intracellular concentrations of the different species leaves absolute quantification of the pyridine nucleotides analytically challenging. These polar metabolites are poorly retained on conventional reverseed-phase stationary phases without ion-pair reagents that contaminates the LC-system. Herein we demonstrate that zwitterionic HILIC-tandem mass spectroemtry can be applied to successfully resolve the pyridine nucleotides in biological extracts in a fast, robust and highly sensitive way. The presented method applies isotope dilution to compensate potential loss of these labile metabolites and is validated for low, medium and high biomass samples of two popular biological model systems; Escherichia coli and the human cell line JJN-3. High stability and rapid sample preparation without solvent removal allows for long sequence runs, making this method ideal for high-throughput analysis of biological extracts.


Assuntos
Isótopos/análise , Nucleotídeos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Piridinas/análise , Nucleotídeos de Adenina/química , Linhagem Celular , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Escherichia coli , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , NAD/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
19.
J Food Sci ; 85(4): 1045-1059, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112435

RESUMO

Highland barley brewer's spent grain (BSG), being China's brewing industry's major by-product is the focus of current research. The aim of the present study was to scrutinize the effects of ultrasound and heat pretreatments on enzymatic hydrolysis of highland barley BSG protein hydrolysates (HBSGPH) and evaluate the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis time on the antioxidant activity of hydrolysates by Alcalase. Different ultrasonic waves (40 and 50 kHz) and heat pretreatment temperatures (50 and 100 °C) were chosen and the pretreatment time was 15, 30, and 60 min. The obtained results revealed that the ultrasound pretreatment of highland barley BSG protein at 40 and 50 kHz has significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced about 57 and 67% of oxygen radical absorption capacity of obtained hydrolysate over the untreated substrate. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhdrazl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (DRSA) 28%, metal chelating activity (MCA) 54%, superoxide radical scavenging activity (SRSA) 18%, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (HRSA) 25% of HBSGPH at 50 kHz were also improved (P < 0.05) significantly. HBSGPH from heat treatment at 100 °C showed no SRSA and HRSA scavenging activities but improved significantly (P < 0.05) about 27% ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay values. In the present work, the resultant HBSGPH had stronger antioxidant properties with ultrasound pretreatment at 50 kHz and the enzymatic hydrolysis after 4 hr was facilitating the enzymatic release of antioxidant peptides from HBSGPH. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Highland barley BSG is attracting toward natural food products due to its potent natural antioxidants to overcome the risk of diseases and are beneficial for human health.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Hordeum/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise , China , Manipulação de Alimentos , Hidrólise , Hidrolisados de Proteína/química , Subtilisinas/química , Ultrassom , Resíduos/análise
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050157

RESUMO

Dendrobium nobile is an important medicinal food beneficial for human health, well known for polysaccharides and dendrobine. For fast, accurate, and comprehensive comparison of its quality, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprinting method was constructed. Firstly, spring frost stressed D. nobile herb was observed for assessment. Decreased leaf thickness, chlorophyll, and drying rate, and increased free-proline indicated heavy damages on growth. But, the content of polysaccharides increased significantly in during-frost (DF), and dropped significantly in after-frost (AF). The content of dendrobine accumulated significantly in AF. Then, low similarity among HPLC fingerprints of before-frost (BF), DF, and AF, and 75.82% of significantly variant peaks indicated the changing of much more components. Especially, some less-polar components increased significantly in DF, but not in AF. Moreover, the highest suppression rates (SRs) to A549 lung cancer cells were up to 33.08% in DF, but only 15.63% and 12.12% in BF and AF. After association analysis, eleven less-polar components were found to be significantly and positively correlated to SRs under relatively high concentration. The result shows that frost stress not only causes damages to plant growth, but also promotes the accumulation of some health-beneficial bioactive metabolites. HPLC based fingerprinting method shows good applicability on quality evaluation and bioactivity correlation analysis of complexed agricultural products.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Dendrobium/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Células A549 , Alcaloides/análise , Antineoplásicos/análise , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Gasosa , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Polissacarídeos/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Metabolismo Secundário
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA