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1.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203971

RESUMO

Medicinal plants have been traditionally used to treat cancer in Ethiopia. However, very few studies have reported the in vitro anticancer activities of medicinal plants that are collected from different agro-ecological zones of Ethiopia. Hence, the main aim of this study was to screen the cytotoxic activities of 80% methanol extracts of 22 plants against human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), as well as human breast (MCF-7), lung (A427), bladder (RT-4), and cervical (SiSo) cancer cell lines. Active extracts were further screened against human large cell lung carcinoma (LCLC-103H), pancreatic cancer (DAN-G), ovarian cancer (A2780), and squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus (KYSE-70) by using the crystal violet cell proliferation assay, while the vitality of the acute myeloid leukemia (HL-60) and histiocytic lymphoma (U-937) cell lines was monitored in the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) microtiter assay. Euphorbia schimperiana, Acokanthera schimperi, Kniphofia foliosa, and Kalanchoe petitiana exhibited potent antiproliferative activity against A427, RT-4, MCF-7, and SiSo cell lines, with IC50 values ranging from 1.85 ± 0.44 to 17.8 ± 2.31 µg/mL. Furthermore, these four extracts also showed potent antiproliferative activities against LCLC-103H, DAN-G, A2780, KYSE-70, HL-60, and U-937 cell lines, with IC50 values ranging from 0.086 to 27.06 ± 10.8 µg/mL. Hence, further studies focusing on bio-assay-guided isolation and structural elucidation of active cytotoxic compounds from these plants are warranted.


Assuntos
Medicina Tradicional Africana/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Plantas Medicinais/química , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Etiópia , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Extratos Vegetais/química
2.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204654

RESUMO

Vanilla (Vanilla planifolia) is a precious natural flavoring that is commonly used throughout the world. In the past, all vanilla used in Taiwan was imported; however, recent breakthroughs in cultivation and processing technology have allowed Taiwan to produce its own supply of vanilla. In this study, headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with GC-FID and GC-MS was used to analyze the volatile components of vanilla from different origins produced in Taiwan under different cultivation and processing conditions. The results of our study revealed that when comparing different harvest maturities, the composition diversity and total volatile content were both higher when the pods were matured for more than 38 weeks. When comparing different killing conditions, we observed that the highest vanillin percentage was present after vanilla pods were killed three times in 65 °C treatments for 1 min each. From the experiment examining the addition of different strains, the PCA results revealed that the volatiles of vanilla that was processed with Dekkera bruxellensis and Bacillus subtilis was clearly distinguished from which obtained by processing with the other strains. Vanilla processed with B. subtilis contained 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, and this was not detected in other vanillas. Finally, when comparing the vanillin percentage from seven different regions in Taiwan, vanilla percentage from Taitung and Taoyuan Longtan were the highest.


Assuntos
Vanilla/química , Vanilla/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Agricultura/métodos , Benzaldeídos/química , Benzaldeídos/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Gasosa/métodos , Aromatizantes/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Taiwan , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
3.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206657

RESUMO

Invasive plant species (IAS), with their numerous negative ecological, health, and economic impacts, represent one of the greatest conservation challenges in the world. Reducing the negative impacts and potentially exploiting the biomass of these plant species can significantly contribute to sustainable management, protect biodiversity, and create a healthy environment. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional potential, phytochemical status, and antioxidant capacity of nine alien invasive plant species: Abutilon theophrasti, Amaranthus retroflexus, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Datura stramonium, Erigeron annuus, Galinsoga ciliata, Reynoutria japonica, Solidago gigantea, and Sorghum halepense. Multivariate statistical methods such as cluster and PCA were performed to determine possible connections and correlations among selected IAS depending on the phytochemical content. According to the obtained results, R. japonica was notable with the highest content of vitamin C (38.46 mg/100 g FW); while E. annuus (1365.92 mg GAE/100 g FW) showed the highest values of total polyphenolic compounds. A. retroflexus was characterized by the highest content of total chlorophylls (0.26 mg/g) and antioxidant capacity (2221.97 µmol TE/kg). Therefore, it can be concluded that the selected IAS represent nutrient-rich plant material with significant potential for the recovering of bioactive compounds.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Espécies Introduzidas , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Extratos Vegetais , Plantas/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química
4.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198992

RESUMO

Wet coffee processing generates a large amount of coffee pulp waste that is mostly disposed of in the processing units. To reduce this waste and the associated environmental burden, an alternative strategy would be to exploit the coffee pulp to produce a durable and stable consumable product. Accordingly, a puree produced from Robusta coffee pulp was investigated in relation to its physicochemical and sensory properties. After thermal and chemical stabilization, the obtained puree (pH 3.6) was found to exhibit a multimodal particle size distribution, shear-thinning behavior, and lower discoloration, as well as an antioxidant capacity of 87.9 µmolTE/gDM. The flavor of the puree was examined by sensory evaluation and the corresponding analyses of aroma-active volatile compounds, as determined using aroma extract dilution analyses (AEDA) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O). The puree was characterized by dominant fruity (4.4), floral (3.4), citrusy (3.3) and hay-like (3.3) odor impressions. The aroma-active compounds were predominantly aldehydes, acids, and lactones, whereby (E)-ß-damascenone, geraniol, 4-methylphenol, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethylfuran-2(5H)-one, and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde exhibited the highest flavor dilution (FD) factor (1024), thereby indicating their high impact on the overall aroma of the puree. This study demonstrates an approach to stabilize coffee pulp to produce a sweet, fruity puree with comparable physical properties to other fruit purees and that can be used as a new and versatile flavoring ingredient for various food applications.


Assuntos
Café/química , Odorantes/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Café/classificação , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Estrutura Molecular , Olfatometria , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
5.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209556

RESUMO

Vitis vinifera represents an important and renowned source of compounds with significant biological activity. Wines and winery bioproducts, such as grape pomace, skins, and seeds, are rich in bioactive compounds against a wide range of human pathogens, including bacteria, fungi, and viruses. However, little is known about the biological properties of vine leaves. The aim of this study was the evaluation of phenolic composition and antiviral activity of Vitis vinifera leaf extract against two human viruses: the Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and the pandemic and currently widespread severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). About 40 phenolic compounds were identified in the extract by HPLC-MS/MS analysis: most of them were quercetin derivatives, others included derivatives of luteolin, kaempferol, apigenin, isorhamnetin, myricetin, chrysoeriol, biochanin, isookanin, and scutellarein. Leaf extract was able to inhibit both HSV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 replication in the early stages of infection by directly blocking the proteins enriched on the viral surface, at a very low concentration of 10 µg/mL. These results are very promising and highlight how natural extracts could be used in the design of antiviral drugs and the development of future vaccines.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Herpesvirus Humano 1/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitis/química , Células A549 , Animais , Produtos Biológicos/análise , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Células Vero
6.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205105

RESUMO

The Late Neolithic palafitte site, Ustie na Drim, in the northern part of Lake Ohrid (North Macedonia), excavated in 1962, offered ceramic fragments of large, flat, elongated pans. These artifacts could be dated by relative chronology to roughly around 5200-5000 BC. According to their shape and technological traits, the ceramic pans were probably used for baking. The attached materials on the surface of studied pan fragments were sampled for consequent chemical and microscopical analyses (i.e., analyses of starch, phytoliths, and microscopic animal remains). An immunological method revealed the presence of pork proteins in samples. The presence of organic residues of animal origin was, moreover, confirmed by the detection of cholesterol using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Analysis of detected microscopic botanical objects revealed starch grains of several plants (i.e., oak, cattail, and grasses). An interesting find was the hair of a beetle larva, which could be interpreted contextually as the khapra beetle, a pest of grain and flour. Based on our data, we suppose that the ceramic pans from Ustie na Drim were used for the preparation of meals containing meat from common livestock in combination with cereals and wild plants.


Assuntos
Cerâmica/análise , Alimentos/história , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Proteínas/análise , Animais , Arqueologia , Cerâmica/história , Culinária/história , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , História Antiga , Extratos Vegetais/história , Proteínas/história , República da Macedônia do Norte , Suínos
7.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 62(3): 73-78, 2021.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219099

RESUMO

The main component of the Mustard and Horseradish extracts, which are used as natural food additives in Japan, is allyl isothiocyanate (AITC). The determination of AITC using GC-FID is the official method employed in the quality control assessments for these products. In this method, a commercially available AITC reagent is used as a calibrant. However, 1H-quantitative NMR (qNMR) analysis revealed that the AITC reagents contain impurity. Therefore, we examined the GC-FID and HPLC-refractive index detector (LC-RID) method based on relative molar sensitivities (RMSs) to high-purity single reference (SR). The RMSs of AITC/SR under the GC-FID and LC-RID conditions were accurately determined using qNMR. The AITC in two types of food additives was quantified using qNMR, SR GC-FID, and SR LC-RID methods. Both SR GC-FID and SR LC-RID showed good agreement within 2% with the AITC content determined by direct qNMR.


Assuntos
Armoracia , Mostardeira , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Isotiocianatos , Japão , Dente Molar/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise
8.
Food Chem ; 362: 130169, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34102509

RESUMO

Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are produced during protein glycation and associated with diabetic complications. Peanut skin is rich in procyanidins, which may be used as an inhibitor of glycation. This study evaluated the potential anti-glycation effect of peanut skin extract (PSE) and dissected the underlying mechanism. PSE could effectively inhibit the formation of AGEs in BSA-Glc and BSA-MGO/GO models, with 44%, 37% and 82% lower IC50 values than the positive control (AG), respectively. The inhibitory effect of PSE on BSA glycation might be ascribed to its binding interaction with BSA, attenuated formation of early glycation products and trapping of reactive dicarbonyl compounds. Notably, PSE showed a remarkably stronger inhibitory effect on Amadori products than AG. Furthermore, three new types of PSE-MGO adducts were formed as identified by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. These findings suggest that PSE may serve as an inhibitor of glycation and provide new insights into its application.


Assuntos
Arachis/química , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Frutosamina/química , Glucose/química , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/antagonistas & inibidores , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Proantocianidinas/análise , Proantocianidinas/química , Aldeído Pirúvico/química , Soroalbumina Bovina/química
9.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073499

RESUMO

The chemical composition of the hydroethanolic extracts (60% v/v) from the aerial parts of Thymus marschallianus Willd (TM) and Thymus seravschanicus Klokov (TS) from Southern Kazakhstan flora was analyzed together with their hexane fractions. Determination of antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activities of both extracts was also performed. RP-HPLC/PDA and HPLC/ESI-QTOF-MS showed that there were some differences between the composition of both extracts. The most characteristic components of TM were rosmarinic acid, protocatechuic acid, luteolin 7-O-glucoside, and apigenin 7-O-glucuronide, while protocatechuic acid, luteolin 7-O-glucoside, luteolin 7-O-glucuronide, and eriodictyol predominated in TS. The content of polyplenols was higher in TS than in TM. The GC-MS analysis of the volatile fraction of both examined extracts revealed the presence of thymol and carvacrol. Additionally, sesquiterpenoids, fatty acids, and their ethyl esters were found in TM, and fatty acid methyl esters in TS. The antioxidant activity of both extracts was similar. The antibacterial activity of TS extract was somewhat higher than TM, while antifungal activity was the same. TS extract was the most active against Helicobacter pylori ATCC 43504 with MIC (minimal inhibitory concentration) = 0.625 mg/mL, exerting a bactericidal effect. The obtained data provide novel information about the phytochemistry of both thyme species and suggest new potential application of TS as a source of bioactive compounds, especially with anti-H. pylori activity.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Thymus (Planta)/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Etanol , Ácidos Graxos/química , Helicobacter pylori/efeitos dos fármacos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Cazaquistão , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/química
10.
Food Chem ; 362: 130199, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091167

RESUMO

Crocins in commercial liquid saffron extracts (Saffr'activ®) were identified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a diode array detector (DAD) and mass spectrometry (MS). The impact of storage on the qualities of the saffron extract were studied with HPLC-DAD-MS by exposing trans-4-GG crocin to environmental factors. Light and temperature induced degradation after only one week. Trans-4-GG crocin was totally hydrolyzed when stored at 60 °C and exposed to light. A quick and reliable method using HPLC-DAD was then developed to improve quantification of crocins in commercial liquid saffron extracts. An internal standard quantification method that uses a response factor, corrected with the molecular weight of each crocin, improved results for old saffron extracts.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Crocus/química , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Ar , Carotenoides/química , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Luz , Extratos Vegetais/química , Vitamina A/análogos & derivados , Vitamina A/química
11.
J Food Sci ; 86(7): 3159-3175, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34176120

RESUMO

Effects of extrusion with varying barrel temperature, moisture content, and screw speed on hempseed oil cake were studied for the first time. Extrusion at lower moisture (30%) and higher screw speed (300 rpm) significantly increased the proportion of free polyphenols, flavonoids, and phenylpropionamide content, and α -glucosidase and acetylcholinesterase inhibition activities. Full factorial design confirmed the three-way interactions among all extrusion parameters for all chemical assays with the bound phenolic fraction, total flavonoid content, and DPPH inhibition activity of the free phenolic fraction. HPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS analysis tentatively identified 26 phenylpropionamides, and the contents of N-trans-caffeoyltyramine (66.26 µg/g) and total phenylpropionamides (85.77 µg/g) were significantly increased after extrusion at the lower moisture and higher screw speed extrusion conditions. The higher α -glucosidase inhibition activity at higher screw speed could be due to the N-trans-caffeoyltyramine (r = 0.99, p < 0.01), while the AChE inhibition activity appeared to be influenced more by the cannabisins A-C, M (r > 0.8, p < 0.01). PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Hempseed oil cake is a byproduct of oil extraction, with high protein and high fiber contents. The results of this research could be used directly in food industry to improve the nutritional and commercial value of hempseed oil cake by extrusion technology.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cannabis/química , Flavonoides/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Óleos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Polifenóis/análise , Antioxidantes/química
12.
Molecules ; 26(10)2021 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065743

RESUMO

Dietary plant polyphenols are natural bioactive compounds that are increasingly attracting the attention of food scientists and nutritionists because of their nutraceutical properties. In fact, many studies have shown that polyphenol-rich diets have protective effects against most chronic diseases. However, these health benefits are strongly related to both polyphenol content and bioavailability, which in turn depend on their origin, food matrix, processing, digestion, and cellular metabolism. Although most fruits and vegetables are valuable sources of polyphenols, they are not usually consumed raw. Instead, they go through some processing steps, either industrially or domestically (e.g., cooling, heating, drying, fermentation, etc.), that affect their content, bioaccessibility, and bioavailability. This review summarizes the status of knowledge on the possible (positive or negative) effects of commonly used food-processing techniques on phenolic compound content and bioavailability in fruits and vegetables. These effects depend on the plant type and applied processing parameters (type, duration, media, and intensity). This review attempts to shed light on the importance of more comprehensive dietary guidelines that consider the recommendations of processing parameters to take full advantage of phenolic compounds toward healthier foods.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Polifenóis/análise , Polifenóis/farmacocinética , Disponibilidade Biológica , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Política Nutricional , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacocinética
13.
J Chromatogr A ; 1647: 462153, 2021 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957349

RESUMO

Pittosporum angustifolium, known as gumbi gumbi, is a native Australian plant, which has traditionally been used as an Aboriginal medicine. This study investigates the effect of different solvents and extractive fermentation on the content and natural products composition of Pittosporum angustifolium extracts, and compares their antioxidant activity, in vitro α-amylase inhibition, and anti-inflammatory properties. Anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts was determined by measuring the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production. Extracts were characterised with FTIR-ATR spectroscopy, and screened for antioxidant activities and α-amylase inhibitory activity via High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC)-Effect-directed analysis (EDA) with direct bioautography. HPTLC combined with chemical derivatization and bioassays was used for EDA screening. The results show that lactic acid fermentation of gumbi gumbi leaves boosts the antioxidant activity in extracts by increasing the total phenolic content, but does not affect (increase or decrease) α-amylase inhibitory activity or nitrogen scavenging/anti-inflammatory activity. Analysis of the ATR-FTIR spectra from the band at RF = 0.85 that inhibits α-amylase, suggests that fatty acid esters are responsible for the enzyme inhibition; both saturated fatty acid esters in unfermented extracts and unsaturated fatty acid esters in fermented extracts. The ATR-FTIR spectra of the polyphenolics in fermented extracts (RF = 0.15-0.20) suggests the presence of soluble lignin fragments (i.e. lignins depolymerized into monomers and oligomers during the fermentation process).


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Rosales/química , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bioensaio , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada , Fermentação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores
14.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6683877, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33981771

RESUMO

Since the intake of fruits and vegetables displays important effects on the incidence of several chronic diseases in humans, consumers' attention worldwide is focused on the identification of functional foods. In this sense, Ugni molinae (murtilla or murta fruit) is an important source of molecules with a strong antioxidant capacity that is widely used as a medicinal plant in Southern Argentina-Chile. Research on murtilla berries showed that this fruit and its leaves can be an excellent source of polyphenols and bioactive compounds with antibacterial and antioxidant capacity. This review is aimed at providing valuable information and discussing the available literature focused on four principal points: (i) fruit quality and plant physiology, (ii) compound content with bioactive properties, (iii) health properties for consumers of the fruit and leaves, and (iv) challenges for future research. Based on these four points, we propose that murtilla fruit can be a potential ingredient for new functional food products.


Assuntos
Frutas , Myrtaceae , Extratos Vegetais , Antioxidantes/química , Argentina , Chile , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Alimento Funcional , Myrtaceae/química , Myrtaceae/metabolismo , Odorantes , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
15.
Molecules ; 26(5)2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806424

RESUMO

The free online trading of herbal mixtures useful for various purposes facilitates the circulation of dangerous herbs or plant parts. This is the case, for example, of the illegal trade in seeds of Peganum harmala (Pgh), which contain alkaloids capable of inhibiting monoamine oxidase (MAO) and are therefore used in hallucinogenic preparations, such as the psychedelic drink ayahuasca. The precise identification of these seeds and their distinction from other very similar but not dangerous seeds are necessary for forensic purposes and represents an advance in avoiding the adulteration of mixtures. In this work, we show the qualitative identification of Pgh seeds by optical and electron microscopy and the parallel development of a real-time qPCR test, which reveals, in a species-specific manner, the presence of Pgh DNA up to quantities lower than 1 pg. In addition to the species specificity and high sensitivity, the reaction accurately quantifies the presence of seeds or parts of seeds of Pgh in complex herbal mixtures, thus giving an indication of the danger or otherwise of the product.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/análise , DNA de Plantas/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/análise , Peganum/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Sementes/química , Alcaloides/toxicidade , DNA de Plantas/genética , Suplementos Nutricionais/toxicidade , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/toxicidade , Peganum/classificação , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
16.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 8868941, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33791075

RESUMO

Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide, and approximately 87% of cases are attributed to ischemia. The main factors that cause ischemic stroke include excitotoxicity, energy metabolism disorder, Ca+ overload, oxidative damage, apoptosis, autophagy, and inflammation. However, no effective drug is currently available for the comprehensive treatment of ischemic stroke in clinical applications; thus, there is an urgent need to find and develop comprehensive and effective drugs to treat postischemic stroke. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has unique advantages in treating ischemic stroke, with overall regulatory effects at multiple levels and on multiple targets. Many researchers have studied the effective components of TCMs and have achieved undeniable results. This paper reviews studies on the anticerebral ischemia effects of TCM monomers such as tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), dl-3-n-butylphthalide (NBP), ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1), tanshinone IIA (TSA), gastrodin (Gas), and baicalin (BA) as well as effective extracts such as Ginkgo biloba extract (EGB). Research on the anticerebral ischemia effects of TCMs has focused mostly on their antioxidative stress, antiapoptotic, anti-inflammatory, proangiogenic, and proneurogenic effects. However, the research on the use of TCM to treat ischemic stroke remains incompletely characterized. Thus, we summarized and considered this topic from the perspective of pharmacokinetics, pharmacological effects, and mechanistic research, and we have provided a reference basis for future research and development on anticerebral ischemia TCM drugs.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacocinética , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , AVC Isquêmico/tratamento farmacológico , AVC Isquêmico/genética , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Animais , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Humanos , Metaboloma , Terapia de Alvo Molecular
17.
Molecules ; 26(6)2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802805

RESUMO

Red mature calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa were collected from 16 different locations in Meghalaya, India. Samples were processed using shade drying (SD) and tray drying (TD). NMR spectroscopy was used to assess the metabolic composition of the calyces. In this study, 18 polar metabolites were assigned using 1D and 2D NMR spectra, and 10 of them were quantified. Proximate analysis showed that the TD method is more efficient at reducing moisture and maintaining the ash content of the Hibiscus biomass. NMR metabolomics indicates that the metabolite composition significantly differs between SD and TD samples and is more stable in TD plant processing. The differences in post-harvest drying has a greater impact on the metabolite composition of Hibiscus than the plant location.


Assuntos
Dessecação/métodos , Flores/química , Hibiscus/química , Metaboloma , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ácido Acético/análise , Betaína/análise , Citratos/análise , Correlação de Dados , Fumaratos/análise , Índia , Lipídeos/análise , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Metabolômica , Metanol/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Análise de Componente Principal , Ácido Succínico/análise , Açúcares/análise , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/análise
18.
Molecules ; 26(5)2021 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800018

RESUMO

Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl.) Marchand (PH) trees are endemic to the tropical region of South America, mostly Brazil. Antibacterial, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, anxiolytic, antidepressant and anti-hyperlipidemic/anti-hypercholesterolemic effects were reported for its resinous exudate Protiumheptaphyllum resin (PHR). This work aims to provide a qualitative and quantitative consistent chemical profiling of the major constituents of this resin and two extracts enriched in acid (acidic triterpene concentrated extract, ATCE) and neutral triterpenes (α and ß-amyrin concentrated extract, AMCE). GC-MS/GC-FID was used for volatile terpene fraction, a validated GC-MS method was developed for quantification of neutral α and ß-amyrin and HPLC-APCI HRMS2 was used for acidic triterpenes analysis. The chemical investigation reported 29 molecules, including 14 volatile terpenes, 6 neutral triterpenes and 11 acid triterpenes. The most abundant compounds were α-amyrin (251.28 g kg-1, 123.98 g kg-1 and 556.82 g kg-1 in PHR, ATCE and AMCE, respectively), ß-amyrin (172.66 g kg-1, 95.39 g kg-1 and 385.58 g kg-1 in PHR, ATCE and AMCE, respectively), 3-oxo-tirucalla-7,24-dien-21-oic acid (80.64 g kg-1, 157.10 g kg-1 and 15.31 g kg-1 in PHR, ATCE and AMCE, respectively) and 3α-hydroxy-tirucalla-8,24-dien-21-oic acid (77.71 g kg-1, 130.40 g kg-1 and 11.64 g kg-1 in PHR, ATCE and AMCE, respectively). Results showed specific enrichment of acidic and neutral triterpenoids in the two respective extracts.


Assuntos
Burseraceae/química , Resinas Vegetais/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Triterpenos Pentacíclicos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Terpenos/análise , Triterpenos/análise , Triterpenos/química
19.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6687589, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33855081

RESUMO

The aim of this work is to evaluate the antitumor effect mediated by the proteasome inhibitors of Inula viscosa extracts on skin carcinogenesis. Female Swiss albino mice were divided into five groups depending on the combination of skin cancer-inducing 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and extract of Inula viscosa treatments. Histology of the affected skin and measurement of proteasome activity were performed to demonstrate the effect of Inula viscosa on mice. The identification of the molecules responsible for this inhibitory activity was carried out through the docking studies. The results showed that Inula viscosa extracts inhibit the development of papilloma in mice. Therefore, the best chemopreventive action of Inula viscosa was observed on mice in which extract treatment was performed before and after the induction of skin carcinogenesis. It was revealed that the ingestion of extracts Inula viscosa delays the formation of skin papillomas in animals and simultaneously decreases the size and number of papillomas, which is also reflected on the skin histology of the mice treated. Structure-activity relationship information obtained from component of Inula viscosa particularly tomentosin, inuviscolide, and isocosticacid demonstrated that distinct bonding modes in ß 1, ß 2, and ß 5 subunits determine its selectivity and potent inhibition for ß 5 subunit.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Inula/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , 9,10-Dimetil-1,2-benzantraceno , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Células CACO-2 , Quimotripsina/metabolismo , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Papiloma/tratamento farmacológico , Papiloma/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacocinética , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteassoma/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteassoma/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Testes de Toxicidade
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(7)2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807157

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a growing concern in modern society, and effective drugs for its treatment are lacking. Uncaria rhynchophylla (UR) and its main alkaloids have been studied to treat neurodegenerative diseases such as AD. This study aimed to uncover the key components and mechanism of the anti-AD effect of UR alkaloids through a network pharmacology approach. The analysis identified 10 alkaloids from UR based on HPLC that corresponded to 90 anti-AD targets. A potential alkaloid target-AD target network indicated that corynoxine, corynantheine, isorhynchophylline, dihydrocorynatheine, and isocorynoxeine are likely to become key components for AD treatment. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis revealed the Alzheimers disease (hsa05010) was the pathway most significantly enriched in alkaloids against AD. Further analysis revealed that 28 out of 90 targets were significantly correlated with Aß and tau pathology. These targets were validated using a Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) dataset. Molecular docking studies were carried out to verify the binding of corynoxine and corynantheine to core targets related to Aß and tau pathology. In addition, the cholinergic synapse (hsa04725) and dopaminergic synapse (hsa04728) pathways were significantly enriched. Our findings indicate that UR alkaloids directly exert an AD treatment effect by acting on multiple pathological processes in AD.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/farmacologia , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Alcaloides/análise , Alcaloides/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Humanos , Indóis/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Compostos de Espiro/farmacologia , Uncaria/química
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