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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4692, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943624

RESUMO

Hemicelluloses, a family of heterogeneous polysaccharides with complex molecular structures, constitute a fundamental component of lignocellulosic biomass. However, the contribution of each hemicellulose type to the mechanical properties of secondary plant cell walls remains elusive. Here we homogeneously incorporate different combinations of extracted and purified hemicelluloses (xylans and glucomannans) from softwood and hardwood species into self-assembled networks during cellulose biosynthesis in a bacterial model, without altering the morphology and the crystallinity of the cellulose bundles. These composite hydrogels can be therefore envisioned as models of secondary plant cell walls prior to lignification. The incorporated hemicelluloses exhibit both a rigid phase having close interactions with cellulose, together with a flexible phase contributing to the multiscale architecture of the bacterial cellulose hydrogels. The wood hemicelluloses exhibit distinct biomechanical contributions, with glucomannans increasing the elastic modulus in compression, and xylans contributing to a dramatic increase of the elongation at break under tension. These diverging effects cannot be explained solely from the nature of their direct interactions with cellulose, but can be related to the distinct molecular structure of wood xylans and mannans, the multiphase architecture of the hydrogels and the aggregative effects amongst hemicellulose-coated fibrils. Our study contributes to understanding the specific roles of wood xylans and glucomannans in the biomechanical integrity of secondary cell walls in tension and compression and has significance for the development of lignocellulosic materials with controlled assembly and tailored mechanical properties.


Assuntos
Parede Celular/química , Celulose/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Madeira/química , Configuração de Carboidratos , Sequência de Carboidratos , Catárticos/química , Citoesqueleto/química , Hidrogéis/química , Mananas , Xilanos/química
2.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 5015-5024, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Despite being a rare disease, melanoma is considered the most dangerous skin cancer due to its highly invasive and aggressive nature, and still requires for more effective treatments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro anti-melanoma potential of Ephedranthus pisocarpus R.E.Fr. (Annonaceae), a popular Brazilian plant with medicinal properties. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Initially, the ethanolic extract (EtOH) was obtained from E. pisocarpus leaves and later partitioned using increasing polarity solvents. The anti-melanoma potential of E. pisocarpus was assessed by spectrophotometry and its cytotoxicity determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and confocal microscopy. RESULTS: We demonstrated that the EtOH extract and fractions from E. pisocarpus had a moderate photoprotective action (FPS 3.0-5.0) against UVA radiation. Interestingly, the dichloromethane fraction presented higher anti-melanoma activity against B16-F10 (IC50=46.8 µg/ml) and SK-MEL-28 cells (IC50=40.1 µg/ml) and lesser toxicity on normal cells. Additionally, our study reported that spathulenol, one of the major constituents from E. pisocarpus, acts through an apoptosis-dependent mechanism in SK-MEL-28 cells. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated, for the first time, the in vitro anti-melanoma potential of E. pisocarpus against melanoma cells.


Assuntos
Annonaceae/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Brasil , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Hemólise , Humanos , Melanoma Experimental , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
3.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 5201-5210, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) leaves are popular as a tea infusion in Asia and their main active ingredients are flavonoids. The present study aimed to explore the anticancer properties of flavonoids isolated from persimmon leaves (PLF). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated the in vitro anti-proliferative activity of PLF against several human cancer cell lines. Apoptosis and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by PLF were accessed using high-content analysis with florescent staining. The ability of PLF to scavenge free radicals was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. RESULTS: PLF demonstrated significant inhibition of proliferation of liver, breast, and colorectal cancer cells in vitro. PLF induced apoptosis and increased intracellular ROS levels in HCT116 (colorectal cancer) and HepG2 (liver cancer) cells. In addition, PLF showed strong free radical scavenging ability. CONCLUSION: The anti-proliferation activity of PLF against cancer cells was related to the induction of apoptosis and oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Diospyros/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0231612, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810139

RESUMO

The recent focus is on the analysis of biological activities of extracts from thirteen folk medicinal plants from arid and semi-arid zones of Balochistan, Pakistan. Only a small proportion of them have been scientifically analyzed. Therefore the present investigation explores the biochemical and bioactive potential of different plant parts. Superoxide dismutase was detected maximum in Fagonia indica, (184.7±5.17 units/g), ascorbate peroxidase in Tribulus pentandrus (947.5±12.5 units/g), catalase and peroxidase were higher in Peganum harmala (555.0±5.0 and 2597.8±0.4 units/g, respectively). Maximum esterase and α-amylase activity was found in Zygophyllum fabago (14.3±0.44 and 140±18.8 mg/g, respectively). Flavonoid content was high in T. pentandrus (666.1±49 µg/ml). The highest total phenolic content and tannin was revealed in F. olivieri (72125±425 and 37050±1900 µM/g, respectively). The highest value of ascorbic acid was depicted in F. bruguieri (F.b.N) (448±1.5 µg/g). Total soluble proteins and reducing sugars were detected higher in P. harmala (372.3±54 and 5.9±0.1 mg/g, respectively). The maximum total antioxidant capacity was depicted in Tetraena simplex (16.9±0.01 µM/g). The highest value of lycopene and total carotenoids exhibited in T. terrestris (7.44±0.2 and 35.5±0.0 mg/g, respectively). Chlorophyll contents were found maximum in T. pentandrus var. pterophorus (549.1±9.9, 154.3±10, and 703.4±20.2 ug/g, respectively). All taxa exhibited anti-inflammatory activity and anti-diabetic potential. Z. eurypterum seeds exhibited the highest anti-inflammatory potential (96%), along with other taxa indicated (96-76%) activity when compared with the standard drug diclofenac sodium (79%). Seeds of T. pentandrus (85%) exhibited the highest anti-diabetic activity. The other taxa also exhibited inhibitory activity of α-amylase ranging from (85-69%) compared with Metformin (67%) standard drug. Phytochemical screening revealed that selected taxa proved to be the potential source of natural antioxidants and could further be explored for in-vivo studies and utilized in pharmaceutical industries as potent therapeutic agents validating their ethno-pharmacological uses.


Assuntos
Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Paquistão , Fenóis/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Plantas Medicinais/química
5.
J Chromatogr A ; 1626: 461370, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797849

RESUMO

Betacyanins, natural plant pigments, from Iresine herbstii Hook. ex Lindl. leaf extract were separated for the first time by high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) in a highly polar solvent system composed of PrOH-ACN-(NH4)2SO4satd.soln-H2O (1.0:0.5:1.2:1.0; v/v/v/v) in the tail-to-head mode. The flow rate of the mobile phase was 2.0 ml/min and the column rotation speed was 860 rpm. The retention of the stationary phase was 81.0%. For the identification of separated betacyanins in the crude extract and in the HSCCC fractions, as well as for the molecular formulas and multi-step fragmentation pattern elucidation, liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry and high-resolution ion-trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry were performed. The innovative application of the HSCCC system for fractionation of the betacyanins present in I. herbstii leaves enabled effective separation as well as preconcentration of the pigments for further low- and high-resolution LC-MS/MS analysis. HSCCC separation enabled identification of 22 betacyanins, of which 18 had not been detected previously in the leaves of I. herbstii, and four of these betacyanins (sinapoyl-gomphrenin and coumaroyl-gomphrenin as well as their epimers) were identified for the first time in the Iresine genus.


Assuntos
Amaranthaceae/química , Betacianinas/análise , Distribuição Contracorrente/métodos , Solventes/química , Amaranthaceae/metabolismo , Betacianinas/isolamento & purificação , Betacianinas/normas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/normas , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Padrões de Referência , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/normas
6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236633, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785249

RESUMO

The induction of general plant defense responses following the perception of external elicitors is now regarded as the first level of the plant immune response. Depending on the involvement or not of these molecules in pathogenicity, this induction of defense is called either Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern (PAMP) Triggered Immunity or Pattern Triggered Immunity-both abbreviated to PTI. Because PTI is assumed to be a widespread and stable form of resistance to infection, understanding the mechanisms driving it becomes a major goal for the sustainable management of plant-pathogen interactions. However, the induction of PTI is complex. Our hypotheses are that (i) the recognition by the plant of PAMPs vs non-PAMP elicitors leads to specific defense profiles and (ii) the responses specifically induced by PAMPs target critical life history traits of the pathogen that produced them. We thus analyzed, using a metabolomic approach coupled with transcriptomic and hormonal analyses, the defense profiles induced in potato foliage treated with either a Concentrated Culture Filtrate (CCF) from Phytophthora infestans or two non-PAMP preparations, ß-aminobutyric acid (BABA) and an Ulva spp. Extract, used separately. Each elicitor induced specific defense profiles. CCF up-regulated sesquiterpenes but down-regulated sterols and phenols, notably α-chaconine, caffeoyl quinic acid and rutin, which decreased spore production of P. infestans in vitro. CCF thus induces both defense and counter-defense responses. By contrast, the Ulva extract triggered the synthesis of a large-spectrum of antimicrobial compounds through the phenylpropanoid/flavonoid pathways, while BABA targeted the primary metabolism. Hence, PTI can be regarded as a heterogeneous set of general and pathogen-specific responses triggered by the molecular signatures of each elicitor, rather than as a uniform, non-specific and broad-spectrum set of general defense reactions.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Imunidade Vegetal/imunologia , Solanum tuberosum/imunologia , Aminobutiratos/farmacologia , Resistência à Doença/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/biossíntese , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Fenóis/metabolismo , Phytophthora infestans/imunologia , Phytophthora infestans/patogenicidade , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Imunidade Vegetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Sesquiterpenos/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solanum tuberosum/microbiologia , Esteróis/metabolismo , Ulva/química
7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236879, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790676

RESUMO

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a progressive pathological condition associated with proliferation of prostatic tissues, prostate enlargement, and lower-urinary tract symptoms. However, the mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of BPH is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of a combination of Stauntonia hexaphylla and Cornus officinalis (SC extract) on a testosterone propionate (TP)-induced BPH model. The effect of SC extract was examined in a TP-induced human prostate adenocarcinoma cell line. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 6) for in vivo experiments. To induce BPH, all rats, except those in the control group, were administered daily with subcutaneous injections of TP (5 mg/kg) and orally treated with appropriate phosphate buffered saline/drugs (finasteride/saw palmetto/SC extract) for 4 consecutive weeks. SC extract significantly downregulated the androgen receptor (AR), prostate specific antigen (PSA), and 5α-reductase type 2 in TP-induced BPH in vitro. In in vivo experiments, SC extract significantly reduced prostate weight, size, serum testosterone, and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels. Histologically, SC extract markedly recovered TP-induced abnormalities and reduced prostatic hyperplasia, thereby improving the histo-architecture of TP-induced BPH rats. SC extract also significantly downregulated AR and PSA expression, as assayed using immunoblotting. Immunostaining revealed that SC extract markedly reduced the 5α-reductase type 2 and significantly downregulated the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen. In addition, immunoblotting of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family proteins indicated that SC extract significantly downregulated anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and markedly upregulated pro-apoptotic B cell lymphoma-associated X (Bax) expression. Furthermore, SC treatment significantly decreased the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, indicating induced prostate cell apoptosis in TP-induced BPH rats. Thus, our findings demonstrated that SC extract protects against BPH by inhibiting 5α-reductase type 2 and inducing prostate cell apoptosis. Therefore, SC extract might be useful in the clinical treatment of BPH.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Colestenona 5 alfa-Redutase/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Hiperplasia Prostática/prevenção & controle , Substâncias Protetoras/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de 5-alfa Redutase/química , Inibidores de 5-alfa Redutase/farmacologia , Inibidores de 5-alfa Redutase/uso terapêutico , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Colestenona 5 alfa-Redutase/metabolismo , Cornus/química , Cornus/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Hiperplasia Prostática/etiologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Ranunculales/química , Ranunculales/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Propionato de Testosterona/efeitos adversos
8.
J Chromatogr A ; 1628: 461446, 2020 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822985

RESUMO

Ionic liquids, as tuneable, highly soluble, non-flammable, non-volatile and reusable extractants, have attracted extensive attention in the extraction of flavonoids from plants. In the present work, novel dual-chain imidazolium-derived ionic liquids were synthesized by a simple and efficient method and characterized (NMR spectroscopy, thermal stability, viscosity, conductivity, and polarity). Then, the imidazolium ionic liquids with different cation were used in the microwave-assisted extraction of flavonoids from Pinus massoniana Lamb. The results showed that the ionic liquid [Bmbim]Br, with a relatively low viscosity, conductivity and π* as well as a relatively large ß, offered the best extraction efficiency and selectivity for flavonoids. Subsequently, the parameters of the extraction procedure for flavonoids were optimized as follows: extraction temperature of 80 °C, extraction time of 60 min, microwave power of 300 W, solid-liquid ratio of 1:20, and [Bmbim]Br solution concentration of 1.0 mol/L. The extraction yield of total flavonoids was 41.07 mg/g. Finally, a recovery method of the ionic liquid had been demonstrated, and the recovery rate of ionic liquid was 73.14%.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Líquidos Iônicos/síntese química , Cátions , Flavonoides/química , Micro-Ondas , Pinus/química , Extratos Vegetais/química
9.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237844, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32834013

RESUMO

The feasibility of the production of germinated rice extracts using indigenous rice from Southern Thailand, including Khemtong (KHT) and Khai Mod Rin (KMR) from a single location at the Pak Phanang River Basin in Nakhon Si Thammarat, was investigated. The nutritional composition and bioactivity of the germinated rice extracts from both cultivars were evaluated. Optimum germination time for both rices was 96 h, leading to the highest GABA, thiamine, free amino acid, total sugar, and α-amylase activity (p<0.05). Germinated KHT had a higher α-amylase activity than germinated KMR at all germination times. Mashing at 60°C/pH 5.5 rendered the extract with the highest GABA content (p<0.05) and desirable contents of other nutrients. In comparison with germinated Sungyod (local colored rice) and Jasmine (commercial Thai rice) extracts, KHT and KMR showed a higher scavenging activity against DPPH•, OH•, and H2O2 (p<0.05) with a comparable ABTS•+ inhibition. For metal chelation, reducing power and ACE inhibitory activity, the germinated Sungyod extract was greater than KHT/KMR. The results demonstrated the potential use of germinated local Thai rice for the production of functional beverages.


Assuntos
Germinação , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Oryza/química , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Aminoácidos/análise , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Estudos de Viabilidade , Flavonoides/análise , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Minerais/análise , Fenóis/análise , Ácido Fítico/análise , Picratos/química , Açúcares/análise , Tiamina/análise , Fatores de Tempo , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/análise
10.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237567, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797097

RESUMO

Distinct morphological MgO nanoparticles (MgONPs) were synthesized using biomasses of Saussurea costus roots. The biomass of two varieties of Saussurea costus (Qustal hindi and Qustal bahri) were used in the green synthesis of MgONPs. The physical and chemical features of nanoparticles were confirmed by spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The surface morphology of the obtained nanoparticles was detected at different magnifications by SEM and TEM microscopy and the size of nanoparticles were found to be 30 and 34 nm for Qustal hindi and Qustal bahri, respectively. The antimicrobial activity of the prepared MgONPs was screened against six pathogenic strains. The synthesized nanoparticles by Qustal bahri biomass exerted significant inhibition zones 15, 16, 18, 17, 14, and 10 mm against E. coli, P. aeruginosa, C. tropicalis and C. glabrata, S. aureus and B. subtilis as compared to those from Qustal hindi 12, 8 and 17 mm against B. subtilis, E. coli and C. tropicalis, respectively. MgONPs showed a potential cytotoxicity effect against MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. Cellular investigations of MgONPs revealed that the prepared nanoparticles by Qustal bahri exhibited high cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cancer cell lines. IC50 values in MCF-7 cells were found to be 67.3% and 52.1% for MgONPs of Saussurea costus biomasses, respectively. Also, the photocatalytic activity of MgONPs of each Saussurea costus variety was comparatively studied. They exhibited an enhanced photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue after UV irradiation for 1 h as 92% and 59% for those prepared by Qustal bahri and Qustal hindi, respectively. Outcome of results revealed that the biosynthesized MgONPs showed promising biomedical potentials.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Óxido de Magnésio/farmacologia , Azul de Metileno/química , Saussurea/química , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Antineoplásicos/química , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomassa , Catálise , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Química Verde , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Óxido de Magnésio/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Processos Fotoquímicos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Raízes de Plantas/química
11.
Med Hypotheses ; 143: 110150, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763660

RESUMO

COVID-19 due to the SARS-CoV-2 infection is a multi-systemic immune syndrome affecting mainly the lungs, oropharyngeal region, and other vascular endothelial beds. There are tremendous ongoing efforts for the aim of developing drugs against the COVID-19 syndrome-associated inflammation. However, currently no specific medicine is present for the absolute pharmacological cure of COVID-19 mucositis. The re-purposing/re-positioning of already existing drugs is a very important strategy for the management of ongoing pandemy since the development of a new drug needs decades. Apart from altering angiotensin signaling pathways, novel drug candidates for re-purposing comprise medications shall target COVID-19 pathobiology, including pharmaceutical formulations that antagonize proteinase-activated receptors (PARs), mainly PAR-1. Activation of the PAR-1, mediators and hormones impact on the hemostasis, endothelial activation, alveolar epithelial cells and mucosal inflammatory responses which are the essentials of the COVID-19 pathophysiology. In this context, Ankaferd hemostat (Ankaferd Blood Stopper, ABS) which is an already approved hemostatic agent affecting via vital erythroid aggregation and fibrinogen gamma could be a potential topical remedy for the mucosal management of COVID-19. ABS is a clinically safe and effective topical hemostatic agent of plant origin capable of exerting pleiotropic effects on the endothelial cells, angiogenesis, cell proliferation and vascular dynamics. ABS had been approved as a topically applied hemostatic agent for the management of post-surgical/dental bleedings and healing of infected inflammatory mucosal wounds. The anti-inflammatory and proteinase-activated receptor axis properties of ABS with a considerable amount of oestrogenic hormone presence highlight this unique topical hemostatic drug regarding the clinical re-positioning for COVID-19-associated mucositis. Topical ABS as a biological response modifier may lessen SARS-CoV-2 associated microthrombosis, endothelial dysfunction, oropharyngeal inflammation and mucosal lung damage. Moreover, PAR-1 inhibition ability of ABS might be helpful for reducing the initial virus propagation and mocasal spread of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Estrogênios/fisiologia , Hemostáticos/uso terapêutico , Mucosite/tratamento farmacológico , Pandemias , Fitoestrógenos/uso terapêutico , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Receptor PAR-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Administração Tópica , Distribuição por Idade , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/etiologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/fisiopatologia , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Estrogênios/agonistas , Hemostáticos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Mucosite/etiologia , Fitoestrógenos/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/química , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Receptor PAR-1/fisiologia , Estomatite/tratamento farmacológico , Estomatite/etiologia , Trombofilia/sangue , Trombofilia/etiologia
12.
Chemosphere ; 260: 127639, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758767

RESUMO

Lipids are biomolecules extracted from plant sources and plant residues and have a beneficial role in various food, nutrition and medical applications. Supercritical carbon-dioxide as an advanced high-pressure technology which increases the productivity and has negligible environmental impact is employed for the selective extraction of polar lipids from the lipid matrix in mango kernel for the first time. The process parameters affecting the extraction such as pressure, temperature and the flow rate of CO2 are ranged in the intervals of 30-50 MPa, 40-60 °C and 10-30 g min-1, respectively. Optimization using Box Behnken design obtained the highest yield of 3.38% at 40 °C, 50 MPa and 30 g min-1. The phosphorous content was evaluated to understand the behaviour of polar lipids extraction at higher pressures. The study showed the effect of process parameters having significant influence on polarity and solvating capacity of CO2 which enabled for the extraction of polar lipids adding value to the mango kernel converting waste into valuable industrial products. The economic evaluation estimates the return on investment of a plant processing 3000 tons of mango kernel per year to account net present value (NPV) almost five times higher than the investment expenses and the payback period is under 4 years.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/química , Fósforo/química , Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico , Análise Custo-Benefício , Lipídeos/química , Mangifera , Extratos Vegetais/química , Temperatura
13.
J Chromatogr A ; 1627: 461414, 2020 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823112

RESUMO

Various techniques have been evaluated for the extraction and cleanup of pesticides from environmental samples. In this work, a Selective Pressurized Liquid Extraction (SPLE) method for pesticides was developed using a Thermo Fisher Scientific Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE) system. This instrument was compared to the newly introduced (2017) extraction instrument, the Energized Dispersive Guided Extraction (EDGE) system, which combines Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE) and dispersive Solid Phase Extraction (dSPE). We first optimized the SPLE method using the ASE instrument for pesticide extraction from alfalfa leaves using layers of Florisil and graphitized carbon black (GCB) downstream of the leaf homogenate in the extraction cell (Layered ASE method). We then compared results obtained for alfalfa and citrus leaves with the Layered ASE method to those from a method in which the leaf homogenate and sorbents were mixed (Mixed ASE method) and to similar methods modified for use with EDGE (Layered EDGE and Mixed EDGE methods). The ASE and EDGE methods led to clear, colorless extracts with low residual lipid weight. No significant differences in residual lipid masses were observed between the methods. The UV-Vis spectra showed that Florisil removed a significant quantity of the light-absorbing chemicals, but that GCB was required to produce colorless extracts. Recoveries of spiked analytes into leaf homogenates were generally similar among methods, but in several cases, significantly higher recoveries were observed in ASE extracts. Nonetheless, no significant differences were observed among pesticide concentrations in field samples when calculated with the isotope dilution method in which labelled surrogates were added to samples before extraction. The extraction time with the ASE methods was ~45 minutes, which was ~4.5 times longer than with the EDGE methods. The EDGE methods used ~10 mL more solvent than the ASE methods. Based on these results, the EDGE is an acceptable extraction instrument and, for most compounds, the EDGE had a similar extraction efficiency to the ASE methods.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Química Analítica/métodos , Praguicidas/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Solventes/química , Lipídeos/química , Medicago sativa/química , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta
14.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 3983-3999, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606660

RESUMO

Introduction: In recent years, the use of cost-effective, multifunctional, environmentally friendly and simple prepared nanomaterials/nanoparticles have been emerged considerably. In this manner, different synthesizing methods were reported and optimized, but there is still lack of a comprehensive method with multifunctional properties. Materials and Methods: In this study, we aim to synthesis the copper oxide nanoparticles using Achillea millefolium leaf extracts for the first time. Catalytic activity was investigated by in situ azide alkyne cycloaddition click and also A3 coupling reaction, and optimized in terms of temperature, solvent, and time of the reaction. Furthermore, the photocatalytic activity of the synthesized nanoparticles was screened in terms of degradation methylene blue dye. Biological activity of the synthesized nanoparticles was evaluated in terms of antibacterial and anti-fungal assessments against Staphylococcus aureus, M. tuberculosis, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. mirabili, C. diphtheriae and S. pyogenes bacteria's and G. albicans, A. flavus, M. canis and G. glabrata fungus. In the next step, the biosynthesized CuO-NPs were screened by MTT and NTU assays. Results: Based on our knowledge, this is a comprehensive study on the catalytic and biological activity of copper oxide nanoparticles synthesizing from Achillea millefolium, which presents great and significant results (in both catalytic and biological activities) based on a simple and green procedure. Conclusion: Comprehensive biomedical and catalytic investigation of the biosynthesized CuO-NPs showed the mentioned method leads to synthesis of more eco-friendly nanoparticles. The in vitro studies showed promising and considerable results, and due to the great stability of these nanoparticles in a green media, effective biological activity considered as an advantageous.


Assuntos
Tecnologia Biomédica , Cobre/farmacologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Achillea/química , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Catálise , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Reação de Cicloadição , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/química , Solventes/química , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo , Difração de Raios X
15.
J Chromatogr A ; 1625: 461272, 2020 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709324

RESUMO

Trapping multiple dual mode (trapping MDM) is a preparative liquid-liquid chromatography (LLC) technique well-suited to difficult separations of intermediately-eluting components from similarly structured impurities. In this demonstrative study, a design approach for high process throughput is applied for the trapping MDM separation of a target component, nootkatone (NK), initially comprising 16.7% of an industrial side stream mixture with over 90 impurities. This design approach, previously developed and validated using ternary mixtures of model solutes, is applied to a complex real mixture for the first time. The approach consists of five steps: (1) determination of the maximum starting mixture concentration for feed preparation; (2) determination of the maximum flow rate for maintenance of the pre-set stationary phase fraction; (3) determination of the partition coefficients of the target and main impurities; (4) selection of step durations and number of cycles using an established short-cut method; (5) execution of the trapping MDM separation. The target, NK, was obtained along with a co-eluting component at 78.7% purity and 84.6% yield, demonstrating the effectiveness of trapping MDM for the separation of intermediately-eluting natural product target components from complex starting mixtures.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/química , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos/isolamento & purificação , Distribuição Contracorrente , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos/química , Reologia , Soluções , Solventes/química
16.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 4351-4362, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606682

RESUMO

Purpose: The present study synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using the aqueous extract of a traditional medicinal product consisting of an oleoresin (a combination of macromolecules of carbohydrates and proteins) exuded from the rhizome of the plant Ferula foetida (asafoetida gum) and evaluated its biological properties. Materials and Methods: The silver nanoparticles synthesized using asafoetida gum (As-AgNPs) were characterized using UV/Vis spectroscopy, fourier infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and EADX. The cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity As-AgNPs were evaluated against MCF-7 cell lines and selected microbial pathogens, respectively. Results: The synthesized silver nanoparticles were crystalline in nature with a spherical shape. The average particle size was 5.6-8.6 nm. The cytotoxicity of the synthesized As-AgNPs was evaluated against MCF-7 cell lines, and the As-AgNPs were found to be effective in inhibiting the multiplication of cancer cells. The As-AgNPs exhibited significant antimicrobial activity towards E. coli, K. pneumoniae and C. albicans. The MIC of the synthesized As-AgNPs was 7.80 µg/mL for E. coli ATCC 25922, Salmonella sp. WS50- and S. typhi; 15.60 µg/mL for S. typhimurium and S. aureus WS10, and 31.20 µg/mL for K. pneumoniae and S. aureus ATCC 43300-MRSA. In addition, MIC values of 15.60 µg/mL for C. albicans ATCC8436 and 31.20 µg/mL for C. krusei ATCC6258 were obtained. Conclusion: As asafoetida is a good traditional medicine, its involvement in the synthesis of AgNPs led the silver nanoparticles to exhibit good cytotoxic and antimicrobial effects.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Ferula/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Gomas Vegetais/química , Prata/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Forma Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tamanho da Partícula , Extratos Vegetais/química , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Difração de Raios X
17.
Food Chem ; 332: 127429, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645678

RESUMO

Thermal processing is a traditional method for processing hawthorn into food or medicine. In this study, the compositions of free and bound phenolic compounds in raw hawthorn were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry, and the effect of thermal processing on phenolics and antioxidant activity was determined. Among the phenolics identified in unheated hawthorn, 26 were soluble, while only 10 were insoluble-bound. Thermal processing caused a significant reduction in total soluble phenolics content, but an increase in total insoluble-bound phenolics (p < 0.05). Procyanidin B2 and epicatechin showed the largest decreases in content, and were not detected in well-cooked hawthorn. The antioxidant activity also clearly decreased, with the chlorogenic acid, procyanidin B2, hyperoside, and isoquercetin contents correlating significantly (p < 0.05) with antioxidant activity. In general, the effect of thermal processes on phenolics and antioxidant activity was dependent on the types of phenolics and processing conditions.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Crataegus/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Fenóis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida , Temperatura Alta , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
18.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236318, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726319

RESUMO

Lately, Drosophila has been favored as a model in sleep and circadian rhythm research due to its conserved mechanism and easily manageable operation. These studies have revealed the sophisticated parameters in whole-day sleep profiles of Drosophila, drawing connections between Drosophila sleep and human sleep. In this study, we tested several sleep deprivation protocols (mechanical shakes and light interruptions) on Drosophila and delineated their influences on Drosophila sleep. We applied a daytime light-deprivation protocol (DD) mimicking jet-lag to screen drugs that alleviate sleep deprivation. Characteristically, classical sleep-aid compounds exhibited different forms of influence: phenobarbital and pentobarbital modified total sleep time, while melatonin only shortened the latency to sleep. Such results construct the basis for further research on sleep benefits in other treatments in Drosophila. We screened seven herb extracts, and found very diverse results regarding their effect on sleep regulation. For instance, Panax notoginseng and Withania somnifera extracts displayed potent influence on total sleep time, while Melissa officinalis increased the number of sleep episodes. By comparing these treatments, we were able to rank drug potency in different aspects of sleep regulation. Notably, we also confirmed the presence of sleep difficulties in a Drosophila Alzheimer's disease (AD) model with an overexpression of human Abeta, and recognized clear differences between the portfolios of drug screening effects in AD flies and in the control group. Overall, potential drug candidates and receipts for sleep problems can be identified separately for normal and AD Drosophila populations, outlining Drosophila's potential in drug screening tests in other populations if combined with the use of other genetic disease tools.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Privação do Sono/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/tratamento farmacológico , Sono/fisiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/genética , Animais , Ritmo Circadiano/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Drosophila melanogaster/efeitos dos fármacos , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Melatonina/farmacologia , Mutação , Panax notoginseng/química , Fenobarbital/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Sono/genética , Privação do Sono/genética , Privação do Sono/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/genética , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/fisiopatologia , Withania/química
19.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236319, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726328

RESUMO

Jacaranda mimosifolia trees are grown in frost-free regions globally. The aim of this study was to evaluate the methanol crude extract and various fractions of increasing polarity of J. mimosifolia leaves for bioactive metabolites, as well as antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer activities. The anti-inflammatory potential of the various fractions of J. mimosifolia leaf extract was studied via the lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitory assay. Methanol crude extract (ME), derived fractions extracted with chloroform (CF) and ethyl acetate (EAF), and residual aqueous extract (AE) of dried J. mimosifolia leaves were assayed for polyphenolic compounds, their antioxidant, antimicrobial and lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitory activities, and anticancer properties. Polyphenolic compounds were determined via HPLC while phytochemicals (total phenolics, flavonoids, tannins and ortho-diphenol contents), antioxidant activities (DPPH, hydrogen peroxideperoxide, hydroxyl and superoxide radical anions) and LOX were measured via spectrophotometry. Methanol extracts and various fractions were evaluated for antibacterial activities against Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Antifungal potential of the fractions was tested against three species: Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium oxysporum. The highest values for total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), flavonols, tannins and ortho-diphenols were in the ME, followed by CF > EAF > AE. ME also had the highest antioxidant activity with EC50 values 48±1.3, 45±2.4, 42±1.3 and 46±1.3 µg/mL based on the DPPH, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical and superoxide radical assays, respectively. TPC and TFC showed a significant, strong and positive correlation with the values for each of these antioxidant activities. ME exhibited anti-inflammatory potential based on its LOX inhibitory activity (IC50 = 1.3 µg/mL). ME also had the maximum antibacterial and antifungal potential, followed by EAF > CF > AE. Furthermore, ME showed the strongest cytotoxic effect (EC50 = 10.7 and 17.3 µg/mL) against human hormone-dependent prostate carcinoma (LnCaP) and human lung carcinoma (LU-1) cell lines, respectively. Bioactive compounds present in leaf methanol extracts of J. mimosifolia were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fifteen compounds were identified including phenolic and alcoholic compounds, as well as fatty acids. Our results suggest that J. mimosifolia leaves are a good source of natural products with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties for potential therapeutic, nutraceutical and functional food applications.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bignoniaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Aspergillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Aspergillus/patogenicidade , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Citotoxinas/química , Citotoxinas/farmacologia , Humanos , Inibidores de Lipoxigenase/química , Inibidores de Lipoxigenase/farmacologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade
20.
Food Chem ; 332: 127408, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619944

RESUMO

A research was performed to determine and compare the physicochemical properties, chemical compositions and in vitro antioxidant activities of Paeonia lactiflora Pall seed oils with ultrasonic-assisted solvent extraction, pressing and supercritical fluid extraction. Paeonia lactiflora Pall seed oil contained a high percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids, especially oleic (31.62-32.88%) and α-linolenic acids (37.55-39.95%). The beneficial multiple dietary phytochemicals (tocopherol, phytosterols and squalene) and in vitro antioxidant activity were significantly influenced by the hull and processing method (P<0.05). However, higher tocopherol (596.67-738.76 mg/kg) and phytosterols (5775.01-6055.62 mg/kg) contents were found in supercritical fluid extraction oils. Additionally, ten individual polyphenols were quantified, and significantly influenced by the hull and processing method (P<0.05), with the content of benzoic acid and several individual flavonoids being the higher. According to the results, pressing might be the best process for extracting oil with a high number of polyphenols.


Assuntos
Paeonia/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/química , Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Fitosteróis/química , Fitosteróis/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Sonicação , Tocoferóis/química , Tocoferóis/isolamento & purificação
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