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1.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 2561828, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30941359

RESUMO

The changes of brain metabolism in mice after injection of ginseng glycoproteins (GPr) were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry- (GC/MS-) based metabolomics platform. The relationship between sedative and hypnotic effects of ginseng glycoproteins and brain metabolism was discussed. Referring to pentobarbital sodium subthreshold test, we randomly divided 20 mice into two groups: control and ginseng glycoproteins group. The mice from the control group were treated with normal saline by i.p and GPr group were treated with 60 mg/kg of GPr by i.p. The results indicated that GPr could significantly improve the sleep quality of mice. Through multivariate statistical analysis, we found that there were 23 differential metabolites in whole brain tissues between the control group and the GPr group. The pathway analysis exhibited that GPr may be involved in the regulation of the pathway including purine metabolism, nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism, glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, arginine and proline metabolism, alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism, and steroid hormone biosynthesis. This work is helpful to understand the biochemical mechanism of GPr on promoting sleep and lay a foundation for further development of drugs for insomnia.


Assuntos
Glicoproteínas/farmacologia , Metabolômica/métodos , Panax/química , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Análise Discriminante , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Masculino , Metaboloma , Camundongos , Pentobarbital/farmacologia , Análise de Componente Principal , Extratos de Tecidos/química
2.
Mar Drugs ; 17(3)2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30866485

RESUMO

Recent animal studies found the potential of a collagen peptide derived from skate skin to have anti-obesity effects through the suppression of fat accumulation and regulation of lipid metabolism. However, no studies have yet been performed in humans. Here, this very first human randomized, placebo-controlled, and double-blinded study was designed to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of skate skin collagen peptides (SCP) for the reduction of body fat in overweight adults. Ninety healthy volunteers (17 men) aged 41.2 ± 10.4 years with a mean body mass index of 25.6 ± 1.9 kg/m² were assigned to the intervention group (IG), which received 2000 mg of SCP per day or to the control group (CG) given the placebo for 12 weeks and 81 (90%) participants completed the study. Changes in body fat were evaluated using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry as a primary efficacy endpoint. After 12 weeks of the trial, the percentage of body fat and body fat mass (kg) in IG were found to be significantly better than those of subjects in CG (-1.2% vs. 2.7%, p = 0.024 and -1.2 kg vs. 0.3 kg, p = 0.025). Application of SCP was well tolerated and no notable adverse effect was reported from both groups. These results suggest the beneficial potential of SCP in the reduction of body fat in overweight adults.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/uso terapêutico , Colágeno/uso terapêutico , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Adulto , Animais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/química , Índice de Massa Corporal , Colágeno/química , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeos/química , Pele/química , Extratos de Tecidos/química , Extratos de Tecidos/uso terapêutico
3.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 10(2): 433-441, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30595500

RESUMO

Understanding the mechanism of pathogen transmission is essential for the development of strategies to reduce arthropod-borne diseases. The pharmaco- and immunomodulatory properties of insect and acarine saliva play an essential role in the efficiency of pathogen transmission. The skin as the site where arthropod saliva and pathogens are inoculated - represents the key interface in vector-borne diseases. We identified tick molecules potentially involved in pathogen transmission, using micro-HPLC and mass spectrometry, followed by in vitro assays on human skin cells. Histone H4 isolated from Ixodes ricinus salivary gland extract was identified as a molecule with a dissociating effect on human primary fibroblasts. This histone might be involved in the formation of the feeding pool formed around the tick mouthparts and responsible of tissue necrosis in the vertebrate host. Thanks to its selective antimicrobial activity, it may also sterilize the feeding pool and facilitate transmission of pathogens such as Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ixodes/química , Doença de Lyme/transmissão , Glândulas Salivares/química , Extratos de Tecidos/farmacologia , Animais , Borrelia burgdorferi , Células Cultivadas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Feminino , Histonas/farmacologia , Humanos , Doença de Lyme/microbiologia , Espectrometria de Massas , Extratos de Tecidos/química
4.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1034: 102-109, 2018 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30193623

RESUMO

Infrared laser ablation microsampling was used with data-dependent acquisition (DDA) and ion mobility-enhanced data-independent acquisition (HDMSE) for mass spectrometry based bottom-up proteomics analysis of rat brain tissue. Results from HDMSE and DDA analyses of the 12 laser ablation sampled tissue sections showed that HDMSE consistently identified approximately seven times more peptides and four times more proteins than DDA. To evaluate the impact of ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) peak congestion on HDMSE and DDA analysis, whole tissue digests from rat brain were analyzed at six different UPLC separation times. Analogous to results from laser ablated samples, HDMSE analyses of whole tissue digests yielded about four times more proteins identified than DDA for all six UPLC separation times.


Assuntos
Química Encefálica , Raios Infravermelhos , Terapia a Laser , Extratos de Tecidos/química , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ratos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
5.
Food Funct ; 9(9): 4876-4887, 2018 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30160281

RESUMO

Freshwater clam (Corbicula fluminea) is a traditional liver-protective food in Asia. Recent studies have renewed attention on high cholesterol accumulation and dysregulated cholesterol synthesis in the liver as a critical factor in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In this study, we investigated the protective effects of freshwater clam extract (FCE) and its fat fraction (FCE oil) on high-fat, high-cholesterol and cholic acid (HFHC) diet-induced lean steatohepatitis in mice. Mice were fed a HFHC diet containing FCE or FCE oil for 6 weeks. FCE, but not FCE oil, feeding reduced liver injury as indicated by decreased plasma alanine aminotransferase activity. Liver total cholesterol accumulation was reduced after FCE and FCE oil treatment. Accumulation of squalene and desmosterol, the precursors of cholesterol, in the liver was reduced by FCE but not by FCE oil. The caspase-1 (p10) and interleukin (IL)-1ß (p17) protein expressions in the liver were suppressed by both FCE and FCE oil. Therefore, FCE may act as functional food that can reduce steatohepatitis and liver injury by reducing cholesterol accumulation, improving dysregulated cholesterol synthesis and attenuating inflammation.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Corbicula/química , Suplementos Nutricionais , Lipotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Fígado/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/prevenção & controle , Frutos do Mar/análise , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Produtos Biológicos/administração & dosagem , Produtos Biológicos/química , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Colesterol na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ácido Cólico/efeitos adversos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipotrópicos/administração & dosagem , Lipotrópicos/química , Fígado/imunologia , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/fisiopatologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Músculos/química , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/fisiopatologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Distribuição Aleatória , Extratos de Tecidos/administração & dosagem , Extratos de Tecidos/química , Extratos de Tecidos/uso terapêutico
6.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 129(3): 207-214, 2018 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30154281

RESUMO

Azumiobodo hoyamushi, a kinetoplastid flagellate, is the causative agent of soft tunic syndrome, an infectious disease of the edible ascidian Halocynthia roretzi. The flagellate is thought to invade the tunic matrix via a damaged area of the tunic on the siphon wall. We hypothesized that the flagellate locates the tunic entry site by a chemotactic response to soluble substances diffused from the host ascidians. To investigate this hypothesis, we examined whether the flagellate shows a chemotactic response to tissue extracts (tunic and other tissues) from the host ascidian H. roretzi. We tested extracts from 5 tissues as well as hemolymph. Only the tunic extract showed significant positive chemotactic activity, and the activity decreased with increasing dilution. Furthermore, autoclaved tunic extract, extracts from diseased individuals, and extract from the styelid ascidian Styela clava also had chemotactic activity, although the activities were lower than that of tunic extract from healthy H. roretzi. Ultrafiltration of the tunic extract through a 3 kDa cutoff membrane completely abrogated the activity; the ultrafiltration retentate still showed activity. Thus, the soluble factors that attract the flagellate are present exclusively in the tunic extract, and the chemotactic factors are larger than 3 kDa. Our experiments also suggested that the tunic extract contains both heat-stable and heat-labile factors. We conclude that the flagellate locates the tunic entry site by chemotaxis toward soluble factors that diffuse from a damaged area of the tunic on the siphon wall.


Assuntos
Kinetoplastida/efeitos dos fármacos , Kinetoplastida/fisiologia , Extratos de Tecidos/química , Urocordados/química , Urocordados/parasitologia , Animais , Quimiotaxia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Humanos , Tegumento Comum
7.
Viruses ; 10(7)2018 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30036960

RESUMO

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus is one the most important and wide spread tick-borne viruses. Very little is known about the transmission from the tick and the early aspects of pathogenesis. Here, we generate human cutaneous antigen presenting cells-dermal dendritic cells and Langerhans cells-from umbilical cord progenitor cells. In order to mimic the environment created during tick feeding, tick salivary gland extract was generated from semi-engorged Hyalomma marginatum ticks. Our findings indicate that human dermal dendritic cells and Langerhans cells are susceptible and permissive to Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus infection, however, to different degrees. Infection leads to cell activation and cytokine/chemokine secretion, although these responses vary between the different cell types. Hyalomma marginatum salivary gland extract had minimal effect on cell responses, with some synergy with viral infection with respect to cytokine secretion. However, salivary gland extract appeared to inhibit antigen presenting cells (APCs) migration. Based on the findings here we hypothesize that human dermal dendritic cells and Langerhans cells serve as early target cells. Rather affecting Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus replication, tick saliva likely immunomodulates and inhibits migration of these APCs from the feeding site.


Assuntos
Células Dendríticas/virologia , Ixodidae/química , Células de Langerhans/virologia , Saliva/química , Extratos de Tecidos/química , Animais , Ensaios de Migração Celular , Movimento Celular , Quimiocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Vírus da Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia-Congo , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/imunologia , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/imunologia , Ixodidae/virologia , Células de Langerhans/imunologia , Glândulas Salivares/química , Pele/citologia , Pele/imunologia
8.
Ecohealth ; 15(3): 619-626, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29922961

RESUMO

In Brazil, although a large number of animals are used in traditional medicine (at least 354 species), information about their biological activities is scarce. In this context, the objective of this study was to evaluate the bactericidal potential of zootherapeutic by-products from animals used in Brazilian traditional medicine and discuss the ecological and cultural consequences of such practices. The species analyzed were: Tupinambis merianae (skin), Iguana iguana (skin and body fat), Crotalus durissus (skin and body fat), Boa constrictor (skin), Euphractus sexcinctus (body fat) and Coendou prehensilis (quills). Experiments were performed with standard clinical strains of Escherichia coli (EC-ATCC10536) and Staphylococcus aureus (SA-ATCC 25923). For the microbiological assay, the zootherapeutics were evaluated using serial microdilutions. The results indicate that none of the samples possess inhibitory activity against standard bacterial strains. The in vitro ineffectiveness of the analyzed products demonstrate a necessity for new pharmacological research that encompass a large number of species of medicinal animals as well as highlight the importance of zootherapy in the context of plans for animal conservation.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos de Tecidos/química , Extratos de Tecidos/farmacologia , Vertebrados , Animais , Brasil , Humanos
9.
Ann Parasitol ; 64(1): 13-20, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29716181

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to determine the immunostimulatory effect of antigens from saline extract of the medicinal leech on the morphometric parameters of the body and major immunogenic organs of rats. Wild-type female rats were administered medicinal leech saline extract antigens intraperitoneally two weeks before and two weeks after mating (in total four injections). The offspring were examined, as were the mothers after feeding the offspring, at 1, 15, 30, 60 days after birth. The morphometric parameters of the animals were recorded. The animals were then decapitated under anesthesia and subjected to the following tests: morphometric parameters of immunogenic organs (spleen and thymus), total white blood cell count, red blood cell count, hemoglobin, color index and leukocyte formula. In addition, the absorption activity of neutrophils was examined: phagocyte index, phagocyte number, phagocytic capacity of the blood, the number of active phagocytes. From day 1, the medicinal leech antigens were associated with increased numbers of white blood cells and red blood cells, elevated hemoglobin level, increased absorption activity of neutrophils; however, the colour index remained in the normal range. These changes indicate that the antigens found in the saliva of medicinal leeches have an immune-stimulating influence on leucopoiesis, erythropoiesis and morphogenesis.


Assuntos
Antígenos/farmacologia , Sanguessugas/química , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Feminino , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Ratos , Extratos de Tecidos/química
10.
Can J Diabetes ; 42(5): 525-532.e4, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29803627

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) play a key role in the development of foot complications in people with diabetes. Skin autofluorescence (AF) might noninvasively determine tissue accumulation of AGEs. This study evaluated the association between skin AF and AGE contents in the deep tissues of those with diabetes and the further consequences of such contents. METHODS: Between September 2014 and September 2015, we studied 33 patients, with and without diabetes, who had received lower-limb amputations. Skin AF was measured. Artery, nerve and skin were harvested during surgery. AGE contents were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry and were located by immunohistochemistry staining. Inflammatory cells were also located by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: Values of skin AF and AGE contents in artery, nerve and skin in patients with diabetes were higher than those in healthy patients. Skin AF was strongly affected by AGE contents in these tissues. AGE contents in various tissues were strongly correlated with each other. Differing AGEs were deposited in similar manners in the same tissues and were accompanied by inflammatory cells. CONCLUSIONS: AGE contents were strongly correlated with each other and were accompanied by inflammatory cells. Skin AF measurement could provide information about the systemic accumulation of AGEs.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/patologia , Extratos de Tecidos/metabolismo , Adulto , Artérias/química , Artérias/metabolismo , Artérias/patologia , Doenças Assintomáticas , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico por imagem , Diabetes Mellitus/patologia , Feminino , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/análise , Humanos , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Fibras Nervosas/química , Fibras Nervosas/metabolismo , Fibras Nervosas/patologia , Imagem Óptica , Pele/química , Pele/diagnóstico por imagem , Extratos de Tecidos/química
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(13): E2980-E2987, 2018 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29507209

RESUMO

Phenotypic heterogeneity is commonly observed in diseased tissue, specifically in tumors. Multimodal imaging technologies can reveal tissue heterogeneity noninvasively in vivo, enabling imaging-based profiling of receptors, metabolism, morphology, or function on a macroscopic scale. In contrast, in vitro multiomics, immunohistochemistry, or histology techniques accurately characterize these heterogeneities in the cellular and subcellular scales in a more comprehensive but ex vivo manner. The complementary in vivo and ex vivo information would provide an enormous potential to better characterize a disease. However, this requires spatially accurate coregistration of these data by image-driven sampling as well as fast sample-preparation methods. Here, a unique image-guided milling machine and workflow for precise extraction of tissue samples from small laboratory animals or excised organs has been developed and evaluated. The samples can be delineated on tomographic images as volumes of interest and can be extracted with a spatial accuracy better than 0.25 mm. The samples remain cooled throughout the procedure to ensure metabolic stability, a precondition for accurate in vitro analysis.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Túbulos Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Miocárdio/química , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Extratos de Tecidos/isolamento & purificação , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Animais , Feminino , Heterogeneidade Genética , Genômica , Túbulos Renais/química , Túbulos Renais/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Proteômica , RNA/genética , RNA/isolamento & purificação , RNA/metabolismo , Extratos de Tecidos/química
12.
Bioanalysis ; 10(5): 279-289, 2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29494212

RESUMO

AIM: Lipid mediators (LMs) are broadly defined as a class of bioactive lipophilic molecules that regulate cell-to-cell communication events with many having a strong correlation with various human diseases and conditions. LMs are usually analyzed with  LC-MS, but their numerous isomers greatly complicate the measurements with essentially identical fragmentation spectra and LC separations are not always sufficient for distinguishing the features. Results/methodology: In this work, we characterized LMs using ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) coupled with MS (IMS-MS). The collision cross-sections and m/z values from the IMS and MS analyses displayed distinct trend lines. Specifically, the structural trend lines for sodiated LMs originating from docosahexaenoic acid had the smallest collision cross-section values in relation to m/z, while those from linoleic acid had the largest. LC-IMS-MS analyses were also performed on LMs in flu infected mouse tissue samples. These multidimensional studies were able to assess known LMs while also detecting new species. CONCLUSION: Adding IMS separations to conventional LC-MS analyses show great utility for enabling better identification and characterization of LMs in complex biological samples.


Assuntos
Ácido Araquidônico/química , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/química , Espectrometria de Mobilidade Iônica , Ácido Linoleico/química , Espectrometria de Massas , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Isomerismo , Pulmão/virologia , Camundongos , Extratos de Tecidos/química
13.
Bioanalysis ; 10(5): 307-319, 2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29494215

RESUMO

Lipid function and importance in disease are being rediscovered due to modern advancements in chemical analysis. RP-UPLC-TOF-MSE is now the lipidomics tool of choice and can provide the demanded specificity for detecting the great diversity of the lipidome. It can offer simplicity, rapidity, robustness and high throughputness, without the need for further optimization in current sample preparation protocols. This method can cover the major lipid categories with the ability to detect several corresponding subclasses. It can deliver adequate information for deciphering fatty chain length, unsaturation and regioisomerism. It has enabled the detection of a vast number of lipids, of which more than 250 are reported here. These lipids were detected from applications in a variety of biological matrices and species.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Lipídeos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/química , Humanos , Camundongos , Plasma/química , Ratos , Soro/química , Extratos de Tecidos/química
14.
Mar Drugs ; 16(2)2018 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29364843

RESUMO

Cnidarian toxic products, particularly peptide toxins, constitute a promising target for biomedicine research. Indeed, cnidarians are considered as the largest phylum of generally toxic animals. However, research on peptides and toxins of sea anemones is still limited. Moreover, most of the toxins from sea anemones have been discovered by classical purification approaches. Recently, high-throughput methodologies have been used for this purpose but in other Phyla. Hence, the present work was focused on the proteomic analyses of whole-body extract from the unexplored sea anemone Bunodactis verrucosa. The proteomic analyses applied were based on two methods: two-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with MALDI-TOF/TOF and shotgun proteomic approach. In total, 413 proteins were identified, but only eight proteins were identified from gel-based analyses. Such proteins are mainly involved in basal metabolism and biosynthesis of antibiotics as the most relevant pathways. In addition, some putative toxins including metalloproteinases and neurotoxins were also identified. These findings reinforce the significance of the production of antimicrobial compounds and toxins by sea anemones, which play a significant role in defense and feeding. In general, the present study provides the first proteome map of the sea anemone B. verrucosa stablishing a reference for future studies in the discovery of new compounds.


Assuntos
Proteômica , Anêmonas-do-Mar/genética , Animais , Biologia Computacional , Ontologia Genética , Metaloproteases/biossíntese , Metaloproteases/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Neurotoxinas/biossíntese , Neurotoxinas/química , Peptídeos/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Extratos de Tecidos/química
15.
Molecules ; 23(1)2018 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29361715

RESUMO

Ethanol extract (EE) from Periplaneta americana (PA) is the main ingredient of Kangfuxin, which is a popular traditional chinese medicine (TCM) and has long been used for the clinical treatment of burns, wounds and ulcers. We compared the wound-healing activities of three extracts of PA using cutaneous wound-healing in mice as the bioactivity model. These three extracts were EE, total polysaccharide and total protein. We also tracked bioactive fractions in the EE by organic reagent extraction, column chromatography and HPLC. Seven compounds were successfully identified from the water elution fraction of the EE of PA using UPLC-MS. Among these compounds, four compounds (P2, P3, P4, P5(1)) were first reported in PA. Some of these compounds have been previously reported to have various pharmacological activities that could contribute to the high wound-healing activity of PA.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Insetos/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Extratos de Tecidos/química , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Etanol , Proteínas de Insetos/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Camundongos , Periplaneta , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Solventes , Extratos de Tecidos/isolamento & purificação
16.
Nat Prod Res ; 32(5): 568-571, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28403652

RESUMO

In vitro anti-tumour and anti-radical activities of the acetone extract of the freshwater sponge Ochridaspongia rotunda were the subject of this study. The extract was found to be highly cytotoxic to human lung tumour cell line A-549 reaching IC50 value of 5.01 ± 0.21 µg/mL. Indeed, it displayed only 2-fold less anti-tumour activity than doxorubicin (IC50 value 2.42 ± 0.13 µg/mL) used as a positive control. The same extract was also found to be almost 37-fold more selective against A-549 vs. MRC-5 (normal) lung cells, in difference to weak selectivity of doxorubicin (less than 3-fold). Its profound anti-DPPH radical activity comparable to that of quercetin (IC50 values 3.68 ± 0.19 and 3.14 ± 0.09 µg/mL, respectively) coupled with no signs of genotoxicity in the comet assay (MRC-5 cell line, vs. doxorubicin) has actually implicated the importance of this animal bioresource in searching for pharmaceutically useful bioactive compounds of natural origin.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Poríferos/química , Extratos de Tecidos/farmacologia , Células A549 , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Água Doce , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Extratos de Tecidos/química
17.
Theriogenology ; 105: 115-119, 2018 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28950168

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess the effects of carp pituitary extract (CPE), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) on zebrafish oocyte maturation and the ability of these mature oocytes to be fertilized and developed until hatching. Stage III follicles were matured in eight treatments: five concentrations of CPE (16, 32, 48, 64 and 80 µg/mL), one of FSH (0.5 µg/mL), one of LH (0.5 µg/mL), or one combination of FSH (0.5 µg/mL) and LH (0.5 µg/mL). Maturation rates in CPE treatments were 12.8% (16 µg/mL), 24.8% (32 µg/mL), 27.0% (48 µg/mL), 22.7% (64 µg/mL) and 9.6% (80 µg/mL); in FSH was 15.7% (0.5 µg/mL), in LH was 31.8% (0.5 µg/mL) and in FSH (0.5 µg/mL) combined with LH (0.5 µg/mL) it was 50.4%. In vitro fertilization was performed in all treatments; however, only the treatment combining FSH and LH resulted in fertilized oocytes. After maturation using FSH combined with LH, the cleavage rate was 33.3% and hatching rate of live larvae was 20.0%. These results showed that FSH combined with LH was effective in IVM of zebrafish oocyte.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Maturação in Vitro de Oócitos/veterinária , Oócitos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Larva/fisiologia , Oócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipófise/química , Extratos de Tecidos/administração & dosagem , Extratos de Tecidos/química , Extratos de Tecidos/farmacologia
18.
J Helminthol ; 92(2): 244-249, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28349851

RESUMO

Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Woloszynska) is a photosynthetic cyanobacterium that can produce cytotoxic (cylindrospermopsin) and neurotoxic cyanotoxins (saxitoxins). In Brazil the strains of C. raciborskii are reported to produce only saxitoxins (STX) and their effect on fish parasites has not been tested to date. The fish Poecilia vivipara Bloch and Schneider is a common host for the trematode Pygidiopsis macrostomum Travassos off the coast of Rio de Janeiro, and this fish-parasite interaction is a model for behavioural and ecotoxicological studies. The aim of this work was to evaluate the motility of metacercariae of P. macrostomum from P. vivipara exposed to 40 mg l-1 and 400 mg l-1 of crude lyophilized extract of the cyanobacterium C. raciborskii (CYRF-01) for 48 h. The fish were separated into groups of ten individuals and, after exposure, five fish from each group were dissected for counting and checking the motility of metacercariae. The other five fish were dissected after 48 h in clean water. The detection and quantification of STX in the solutions of cyanobacteria, and the gills and guts of fish, were performed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The crude extract of C. raciborskii caused temporary paralysis in metacercariae of P. macrostomum after exposure of fish to both concentrations, and the motility recovered after the fish were kept for 48 h in clean water. STX was detected in the guts and gills of all fish analysed, suggesting that this toxin is involved in the paralysis of metacercariae. This is the first report on the action of neurotoxins in metacercariae of fish.


Assuntos
Cylindrospermopsis/química , Metacercárias/efeitos dos fármacos , Saxitoxina/toxicidade , Extratos de Tecidos/toxicidade , Trematódeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia , Animais , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurotoxinas/farmacologia , Neurotoxinas/toxicidade , Poecilia/parasitologia , Saxitoxina/farmacologia , Extratos de Tecidos/química , Extratos de Tecidos/farmacologia , Trematódeos/fisiologia
19.
J Invest Surg ; 31(1): 38-43, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28107102

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dilong injection as a medicinal preparation extracted from earthworm in traditional Chinese medicine, is used to activate blood circulation and remove blood stasis. In this research, we aim to investigate its potential effect on random skin flap survival in rat models. MATERIALS AND METHODS: McFarlane flaps were established in 60 male Sprague-Dawley rats randomly divided into two groups: the control group and the Dilong injection group. Diong injection group was injected with the Diong injection (4 mL/kg) once a day for seven days, and the control group was given an equal volume of saline solution. After seven days, flaps were obtained and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin. Histological examination was done to determine changes in histology such as thickness of granulation tissue, tissue edema, neutrophil infiltration, and the microvascular density (MVD). In addition, immunohistochemical detection was carried out to show vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression level. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the Dilong group exhibited more fibroblastic proliferation, thinner neutrophil infiltration with less edema through histological examination. The MVD and the VEGF expression of flaps were significantly higher. The mean superoxide dismutase activity was evidently higher in the Dilong group than in the control group, while the mean MDA level was lower. CONCLUSIONS: According to the comparison made between the two groups for histological and immunohistochemical evaluation, the Dilong injection group has potential effects on the survival of random skin flaps in rat models.


Assuntos
Sobrevivência de Enxerto/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Oligoquetos/química , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/efeitos adversos , Retalhos Cirúrgicos/efeitos adversos , Extratos de Tecidos/farmacologia , Animais , Injeções Subcutâneas , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Microvasos/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Retalhos Cirúrgicos/irrigação sanguínea , Retalhos Cirúrgicos/patologia , Extratos de Tecidos/química , Resultado do Tratamento , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
20.
Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr ; 1860(3): 710-717, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29269315

RESUMO

Hg and Cd are non-essential toxic heavy metals that bioaccumulate in the tissues of living systems but less is known about their interactions with Eukaryotic lipid bilayers. Microscopy experiments showed that Hg and Cd changed the cell morphology of rabbit erythrocytes while Hg also induced cell rupture. As membranes are one of the first available targets, our study aimed to better understand metal-lipid interactions that could lead to toxic effects. Fluorescence spectroscopy (Laurdan Generalized Polarization) and dynamic light scattering were used to analyze metal-induced changes in membrane fluidity and the size of liposomes composed of Brain (Porcine), Liver (Bovine), Heart (Bovine) and Yeast (S. cerevisiae) lipid extracts. Under physiological chloride and pH levels, Hg irreversibly cleaves plasmalogens resulting in an increase in membrane rigidity. These lipids are enriched in Brain, Heart and Erythrocyte membranes and are important in signalling and the protection against oxidative stress. Interestingly, Hg had a heavily reduced effect on the plasmalogen-free Yeast extract membrane. In contrast, Cd induced rigidity by targeting negatively charged phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylglycerol and cardiolipin in these extracts. Metal-induced liposome aggregation depended on the proportion of negatively charged lipids/plasmalogen and even the order of metal addition. Our results show that data from model systems correlate with trends observed in complex biological extracts and red blood cells and serve as a predictive tool for analyzing metal-lipid interactions. The determination of the specific lipid targets for Hg and Cd provides new insights how these metals exert toxic effects on cell membranes.


Assuntos
Cloreto de Cádmio/farmacologia , Membrana Eritrocítica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluidez de Membrana/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipídeos de Membrana/química , Cloreto de Mercúrio/farmacologia , Animais , Química Encefálica , Bovinos , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada , Difusão Dinâmica da Luz , Lipossomos , Fígado/química , Lipídeos de Membrana/isolamento & purificação , Miocárdio/química , Especificidade de Órgãos , Plasmalogênios/química , Coelhos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Suínos , Extratos de Tecidos/química
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