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1.
JAMA ; 324(17): 1765-1776, 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141212

RESUMO

Importance: Incidence rates for lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT) range from 88 to 112 per 100 000 person-years and increase with age. Rates of recurrent VTE range from 20% to 36% during the 10 years after an initial event. Observations: PubMed and Cochrane databases were searched for English-language studies published from January 2015 through June 2020 for randomized clinical trials, meta-analyses, systematic reviews, and observational studies. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE), such as older age, malignancy (cumulative incidence of 7.4% after a median of 19 months), inflammatory disorders (VTE risk is 4.7% in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and 2.5% in those without), and inherited thrombophilia (factor V Leiden carriers with a 10-year cumulative incidence of 10.9%), are associated with higher risk of VTE. Patients with signs or symptoms of lower extremity DVT, such as swelling (71%) or a cramping or pulling discomfort in the thigh or calf (53%), should undergo assessment of pretest probability followed by D-dimer testing and imaging with venous ultrasonography. A normal D-dimer level (ie, D-dimer <500 ng/mL) excludes acute VTE when combined with a low pretest probability (ie, Wells DVT score ≤1). In patients with a high pretest probability, the negative predictive value of a D-dimer less than 500 ng/mL is 92%. Consequently, D-dimer cannot be used to exclude DVT without an assessment of pretest probability. Postthrombotic syndrome, defined as persistent symptoms, signs of chronic venous insufficiency, or both, occurs in 25% to 50% of patients 3 to 6 months after DVT diagnosis. Catheter-directed fibrinolysis with or without mechanical thrombectomy is appropriate in those with iliofemoral obstruction, severe symptoms, and a low risk of bleeding. The efficacy of direct oral anticoagulants-rivaroxaban, apixaban, dabigatran, and edoxaban-is noninferior to warfarin (absolute rate of recurrent VTE or VTE-related death, 2.0% vs 2.2%). Major bleeding occurs in 1.1% of patients treated with direct oral anticoagulants vs 1.8% treated with warfarin. Conclusions and Relevance: Greater recognition of VTE risk factors and advances in anticoagulation have facilitated the clinical evaluation and treatment of patients with DVT. Direct oral anticoagulants are noninferior to warfarin with regard to efficacy and are associated with lower rates of bleeding, but costs limit use for some patients.


Assuntos
Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico , Tromboembolia Venosa/terapia , Fatores Etários , Biomarcadores/sangue , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Ilustração Médica , Síndrome Pós-Trombótica/etiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Avaliação de Sintomas , Trombectomia/métodos , Trombofilia/complicações , Trombofilia/genética , Ultrassonografia , Filtros de Veia Cava , Tromboembolia Venosa/sangue , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Varfarina/uso terapêutico
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(43): e22935, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120851

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Recent research shows that in-stent restenosis (ISR) occurs in half of the patients treated with stenting of femoral and popliteal artery for lower extremity arteriosclerotic occlusive disease (LEASO). Combined therapy is mainly used clinically to obtain better medium- and long-term treatment outcomes and reduce the occurrences of reintervention, among which, the combination of excimer laser ablation (ELA) and drug eluting balloon (DEB) is a new and effective choice. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 76-year-old male patient with ISR of right superficial femoral artery after stent implantation was reported. DIAGNOSIS: Rechecking angiography indicated severe occlusion of the right superficial femoral artery. The physical examination showed that bilateral femoral and popliteal arteries were accessible whereas right dorsalis and posterior tibial arteries are unaccessible. Ankleolus brachial index (ABI) was 0.92 for left and 0.58 for right. INTERVENTIONS: We performed the operation with ELA and drug balloon DEB on the right superficial femoral artery under local anesthesia and treated with oral antiplatelet drugs after operation. OUTCOMES: The combination treatment was very successful, and postoperative lower extremity arteriogram showed the blood flow was fluent and fast. No recurrence was discovered 3 months after the operation and he had no obvious symptom of claudication. LESSONS: The combination of ELA and DEB is useful and effective for ISR of peripheral vessel after stent implantation, and this surgical method is worthwhile but need further clinical research for safety confirmation.


Assuntos
Angioplastia com Balão a Laser/métodos , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/etiologia , Lasers de Excimer/normas , Stents/efeitos adversos , Administração Oral , Idoso , Angiografia/métodos , Terapia Combinada , Constrição Patológica/etiologia , Stents Farmacológicos/normas , Artéria Femoral/patologia , Artéria Femoral/cirurgia , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Extremidade Inferior/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(9): 1221-1228, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913160

RESUMO

Background: : Vascular injuries are commonly seen in both emergency services and forensic medicine practise. They are often life-threatening, with high morbidity and mortality rates. Aims: This study aimed to retrospectively evaluate extremity vascular injuries and the associated treatment approaches. Methods: After obtaining approval from the ethics committee of the university, those patients admitted to the emergency department of Adiyaman between 1 February 2013 and 31 August 2018 were included in this study. The patients' data were obtained through the electronic records system, and the cases were evaluated according to the age, gender and cause of injury, including blunt force trauma injuries (accidents, traffic accidents, crush injuries and occupational accidents) and penetrating injuries (stabbing, gunshot wounds, suicide attempts and assaults). Additionally, the injuries were evaluated based on the extremity, according to the anatomical location and whether the injury was life-threatening. Results: This study included 76 patients with extremity vascular injuries; 65 were males (85.52%), 11 were females (14.48%) and their average age was 33.24 ± 15.85 years. Forty-five (59.2%) of the patients had upper extremity vascular injuries, and 31 (40.3%) had lower extremity vascular injuries. In addition to arterial injuries, 26 (34.21%) of the patients had venous injuries and 22 (28.94%) had nerve injuries. Nine of these patients had neurological deficits due to their nerve injuries. All of the patients were revascularized within 3-5 hours, and none of the patients required amputations. Conclusion: The primary goals in extremity vessel injury cases are to prevent mortality, especially after major vascular injuries, and save the extremity from amputation. With a fast, effective and multi-disciplinary approach, an accurate diagnosis and effective surgical intervention can prevent morbidity and mortality as well as reduce the rate of undesirable complications.


Assuntos
Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Extremidade Inferior/lesões , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/métodos , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/cirurgia , Ferimentos Penetrantes/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidentes de Trânsito , Adolescente , Adulto , Artérias/diagnóstico por imagem , Artérias/lesões , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Extremidades , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/complicações , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/epidemiologia , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/cirurgia , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/complicações , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/epidemiologia , Ferimentos Penetrantes/epidemiologia , Ferimentos Penetrantes/cirurgia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (8): 55-60, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869616

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the immediate results of therapy and indirect revascularization in patients with critical ischemia of the lower limbs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The results of medication and surgical treatment were analyzed in 210 patients with critical ischemia of the lower limbs. Atherosclerosis obliterans was diagnosed in 142 patients, thromboangiitis obliterans - in 68 patients. Lesion of femoropopliteal segment was observed in 32 (15.2%) cases, popliteal-tibial segment - 68 (32.8%) patients, tibial and foot segment - 62 (29.5%) cases, foot - 31 (14.8%) cases, multiple-level lesion - 17 (8.1%) cases. Survey consisted of Doppler ultrasound, CT angiography, rheovasography with analysis of rheographic index (RI) and pulse oximetry. Circulatory parameters were compared with identical values in 48 almost healthy persons ("reference group"). The results of medication and surgical treatment were evaluated by using of the scale of Rutherford R.B. et al. (1997). RESULTS: Conservative treatment was performed in 48 patients (control group). The following types of indirect revascularization operations were performed to stimulate regional circulation: bone trepanation in 42 patients, lumbar sympathectomy in 51 patients, bone trepanation + lumbar sympathectomy in 38 patients, bone trepanation with intraosseous irradiation in 31 cases. CONCLUSION: Indirect revascularization improves early postoperative outcomes, ensures maintaining support function of the limb and active lifestyle in patients with critical ischemia of the lower limbs. Technical simplicity of these procedures facilitates widespread introduction of indirect revascularization in multi-field hospitals.


Assuntos
Arteriopatias Oclusivas/cirurgia , Isquemia/cirurgia , Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Extremidade Inferior/cirurgia , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/diagnóstico por imagem , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/tratamento farmacológico , Arteriosclerose Obliterante/diagnóstico por imagem , Arteriosclerose Obliterante/tratamento farmacológico , Arteriosclerose Obliterante/cirurgia , Osso e Ossos/cirurgia , Tratamento Conservador , Humanos , Isquemia/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia/tratamento farmacológico , Salvamento de Membro/métodos , Extremidade Inferior/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Simpatectomia , Tromboangiite Obliterante/diagnóstico por imagem , Tromboangiite Obliterante/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboangiite Obliterante/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/métodos
5.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD013407, 2020 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lower limb peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a type of cardiovascular disease where the blood vessels that carry the blood to the legs are hardened and narrowed. The most severe manifestation of PAD is critical limb ischaemia (CLI). This condition results in symptoms of intractable rest pain, non-healing wounds and ulceration, gangrene or both. PAD affects more than 200 million people worldwide and approximately 3% to 5% of people aged over 40 have PAD, rising to 18% in people over 70 years of age. Between 5% to 10% of symptomatic PAD patients will progress to CLI over a five-year period and the five year cumulative incidence rate for asymptomatic patients with PAD deteriorating to intermittent claudication is 7%, with 21% of these progressing to CLI. Treatment options include angioplasty, bypass or amputation of the limb, when life or limb is threatened. People with CLI have a high risk of mortality and morbidity. The mortality rates during a surgical admission are approximately 5%. Within one year of surgery, the mortality rate rises to 22%. Postoperative complications are as high as 30% and readmission rates vary between 7% to 18% in people with CLI. Despite recent advances in surgical technology, anaesthesia and perioperative care, a proportion of surgical patients have a suboptimal recovery. Presurgery conditioning (prehabilitation) is a multimodal conditioning intervention carried out prior to surgery using a combination of exercise, with or without nutritional or psychological interventions, or both. The use of prehabilitation is gaining momentum, particularly in elderly patients undergoing surgery and patients undergoing colorectal cancer surgery, as a means of optimising fitness to improve the prognosis for people undergoing the physiological stress of surgery. People with PAD are characterised by poor mobility and physical function and have a lower level of fitness as a result of disease progression. Therefore, prehabilitation may be an opportunity to improve their recovery following surgery. However, as multimodal prehabilitation requires considerable resources, it is important to assess whether it is superior to usual care. This review aimed to compare prehabilitation with usual care (defined as a preoperative assessment, including blood and urine tests). The key outcomes were postoperative complications, mortality and readmissions within 30 days of the surgical procedure, and one-year survival rates. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of prehabilitation (preoperative exercise, either alone or in combination with nutritional or psychological interventions, or both) on postoperative outcomes in adults with PAD undergoing open lower limb surgery. SEARCH METHODS: The Cochrane Vascular Information Specialist searched the Cochrane Vascular Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and ClinicalTrials.gov trials register to 25 September 2019. SELECTION CRITERIA: We considered all published and unpublished randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing presurgery interventions and usual care. Primary outcomes were postoperative complications, mortality and readmission to hospital within 30 days of the surgical procedure. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently reviewed all records identified by the searches conducted by the Cochrane Vascular Information Specialist. We planned to undertake data collection and analysis in accordance with recommendations described in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. MAIN RESULTS: We found no RCTs that met the inclusion criteria for this review. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found no RCTs conducted to determine the effects of prehabilitation on mortality or other postoperative outcomes when compared to usual care for patients with PAD. As a consequence, we were unable to provide any evidence to guide the treatment of patients with PAD undergoing surgery. To perform a randomised controlled trial of presurgery conditioning would be challenging but trials are warranted to provide solid evidence on this topic.


Assuntos
Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Doença Arterial Periférica/cirurgia , Condicionamento Físico Humano , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Humanos
6.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(10): 105183, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912551

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with lower lateral medullary infarction (LMI) located under the vestibular nucleus, proprioceptive impairment due to dorsal spinocerebellar tract (DSCT) is considered a pathological condition for body lateropulsion. In patients with brainstem infarction located at or above the level of the vestibular nucleus, other pathways, such as the crossed vestibulothalamic tract (CVTT), are considered responsible. RESEARCH QUESTION: The clinical course of body lateropulsion between each anatomical level of infarction remains unclear. Further, whether body lateropulsion refers to a static or a dynamic symptom also remains unclear. METHODS: We examined 47 patients who exhibited body lateropulsion and categorized them into four groups: lower LMI under the vestibular nucleus, LMI at the level of the vestibular nucleus, pontine infarction, and midbrain infarction. The patients' time to acquire static upright standing position and gait in a straight line were statistically analyzed by a log-rank test using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: Body lateropulsion in the static upright position was less frequent in the lower LMI group than in the other groups. SIGNIFICANCE: Lower LMI primarily affected body lateropulsion in gait. DSCT damage could affect ipsilateral hip joint or leg coordination, causing body lateropulsion in dynamic situation.


Assuntos
Infartos do Tronco Encefálico/fisiopatologia , Marcha , Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Mesencéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Atividade Motora , Ponte/irrigação sanguínea , Postura , Propriocepção , Núcleos Vestibulares/irrigação sanguínea , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infartos do Tronco Encefálico/diagnóstico por imagem , Infartos do Tronco Encefálico/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
J Med Vasc ; 45(5): 241-247, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862980

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The persistent sciatic artery (PSA) is a rare congenital anomaly with a high rate of aneurysm formation, occlusion and stenosis. It may lead to severe complications including thrombosis, distal embolisation, or aneurysm rupture. We reported herein our experience in the management of PSA and its complications, and discuss the therapeutic options. METHODS: Eight patients with 10 PSA were managed in our institutions between 1985 and 2017. An analysis was done for the clinical data, surgical technique, and results. RESULTS: The series included six women and two men. The median age of the patients was 66,5 years (37-80 years). Physical examination found a pulsatile gluteal mass in five patients, sciatic neuropathy in two cases. Four patients had an acute ischemia of the lower limb. Cowie's sign was described in only two patients (diminished or absent femoral pulse but presence of popliteal pulse). Digital subtraction angiography was performed in all patients, and was completed with a computed tomography angiography (CTA) with a diagnosis of PSA, associated with a symptomatic aneurysmal lesion in seven cases and with an occlusion in one case. The treatment was surgical in all cases: bipolar exclusion of the aneurysm and bypass between the iliac artery and the PSA distal to the aneurysm was performed in four cases, only proximal and distal ligation was done in 2 other cases. A Chopart amputation was necessary in 2 cases. CONCLUSION: We consider that the treatment of PSA is usually surgical in symptomatic cases. Surgical techniques depend on symptoms and classification describing anatomy of the PSA. However, future studies should compare the open versus the endovascular approach to optimize patient selection criteria and identify the most safe and effective strategy. In an asymptomatic patient, PSA does not require any intervention; continued follow-up is required because of the high incidence of aneurysmal formation and the risk of thromboembolic events.


Assuntos
Artérias/anormalidades , Isquemia/etiologia , Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Doença Arterial Periférica/etiologia , Malformações Vasculares/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Amputação , Artérias/diagnóstico por imagem , Artérias/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Isquemia/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia/cirurgia , Ligadura , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença Arterial Periférica/cirurgia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Enxerto Vascular , Malformações Vasculares/diagnóstico por imagem
8.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (7): 97-101, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736472

RESUMO

Mine-explosive trauma is one of the most serious types of combat lesion and injuries in peacetime. We report a patient with mine-explosive trauma of the lower limbs followed by injury of the vascular bundle. Well-coordinated work of a multidisciplinary team of specialists at all stages of treatment is presented. The management was effective to save patient's life, avoid amputation and restore lower limb function.


Assuntos
Traumatismos por Explosões/cirurgia , Traumatismos da Perna/cirurgia , Salvamento de Membro/métodos , Extremidade Inferior/cirurgia , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/cirurgia , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Extremidade Inferior/lesões , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Orv Hetil ; 161(33): 1382-1390, 2020 08.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749233

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The screening tool for diagnosing lower extremity arterial disease (LEAD) is the assessment of the ankle-brachial index (ABI). In patients at risk for LEAD, the purpose of screening is to avoid major adverse limb events, such as amputation. However, resting ABI can easily produce a false negative result. AIM: In light of this, our goal was to test the usefulness of an easily performed, fast and cost-effective screening method and to determine the proportion of subjects without definitive diagnoses among patients screened in general practice (with special attention to groups having negative ABI with symptoms and patients with non-compressible arteries). METHOD: 680 patients were screened from the region of Northern Hungary. We used the Edinburgh Questionnaire, recorded medical histories, major risk factors, current complaints, and medication. Physical examinations were performed, including ABI testing. RESULTS: 34% complained about lower extremity claudication; 23% had abnormal ABI values; 14% of the patients within the normal ABI range had complaints of dysbasia; 12% were in the non-compressible artery group. The ABI-negative symptomatic group's risk factor profile showed a close similarity to the clear LEAD-positive and non-compressible artery groups. CONCLUSION: The percentage of LEAD could be higher than the number of patients diagnosed by ABI screening. Nearly a quarter of the population fell into the non-compressible artery and ABI-negative symptomatic groups. When screening purposely for LEAD, these patients deserve special attention due to the insufficient selectivity and sensitivity of measurements. If there is a high clinical suspicion of LEAD in spite of normal ABI values, further assessment may be considered. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(33): 1381-1389.


Assuntos
Artéria Braquial/fisiopatologia , Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Doenças Vasculares Periféricas/fisiopatologia , Tornozelo/irrigação sanguínea , Tornozelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Índice Tornozelo-Braço , Humanos , Hungria , Extremidade Inferior/diagnóstico por imagem
10.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 60(3): 462-468, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763120

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Ankle brachial index (ABI) is widely used for the diagnosis of lower extremity artery disease (LEAD). The purpose of this prospective study was to validate the diagnostic ability and reproducibility of a four cuff automated oscillometric device vs. the Doppler method. METHODS: Patients with suspected LEAD or asymptomatic individuals at risk because of the presence two or more cardiovascular risk factors were enrolled. For each patient, Doppler and oscillometric ABI measurements were repeated by two observers to address intra- and interobserver reproducibility. RESULTS: In total, 118 patients were evaluated. The prevalence of Doppler ABI (Dop-ABI) ≤ 0.90 was 45.8%. Taking the Dop-ABI as the reference, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values of oscillometric ABI (Osc-ABI) during the first measurement by the first observer were 89.1%, 94.4%, 94.1%, 91.8%, and 92.4%, respectively. The concordance for diagnosing ABI ≤0.90 between methods was excellent (kappa coefficients ranging from 0.80 to 0.88 with different observers). Intra-observer reproducibility assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) between methods were 0.94 for observer 1 and 0.96 for observer 2. The intra-observer reproducibility using the same method was also excellent (ICC 0.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.91-0.95) for Dop-ABI and 0.95 (95% CI 0.93-0.97) for Osc-ABI). The ICC for interobserver reproducibility using the same method was 0.95 (95% CI 0.92-0.96) for Dop-ABI and 0.96 (95% CI 0.94-0.97) for Osc-ABI. CONCLUSION: This study validates the excellent diagnostic performances of a four cuff oscillometric device specifically designed for screening for LEAD. The simple measurement method could therefore be advocated in primary care where fast, easy, and reliable methods are suitable.


Assuntos
Índice Tornozelo-Braço/instrumentação , Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Oscilometria/instrumentação , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Ultrassonografia Doppler , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , França , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença Arterial Periférica/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
11.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 60(3): 403-409, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768278

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Vein is regarded superior to artificial graft in peripheral arterial bypass surgery. However, this option is often limited owing to previous use or removal of the ipsilateral greater saphenous vein (iGSV). In this case, the contralateral great saphenous vein (cGSV), the small saphenous vein (SSV), or arm veins (AV) are possible alternatives. Experience with all three grafts for below knee vein bypass is reported. METHODS: Consecutive patients treated at an academic tertiary referral centre between January 1998 and July 2018 using the cGSV, SSV, or AV as the main peripheral bypass graft were analysed. Study end points were primary patency, secondary patency, limb salvage, and survival. RESULTS: Over the observed time period, 2642 bypass operations for treatment of peripheral artery disease with below knee target arteries were performed at the authors' institution: 1937 procedures using the iGSV; 644 bypass procedures using the cGSV (n = 186; 28.9%), SSV (n = 101; 15.7%), or AV (n = 357; 55.4%); and 61 procedures using a prosthetic graft. The median follow up period was 2.3 years (range 9 days-18.5 years). Thirty day mortality was 1.9% for the whole group and similar between the three groups. After five years, primary and secondary patency rates were comparable between the three groups. Secondary patency was 75% (95% confidence interval [CI] 66-83) in the cGSV and SSV groups, and 65% (95% CI 57-73) in the AV group (p = .47). Limb salvage and survival after five years were, respectively, 73% (95% CI 65-81) and 89% (95% CI 82-95) in the cGSV group, 79% (95% CI 69-89) and 87% (95% CI 79-95) in the SSV group, and 74% (95% CI 68-80) and 83% (77-89) in the AV group (p = .46). CONCLUSION: All three types of alternative autologous vein graft are equal regarding outcome parameters. Vascular surgeons should consider all autologous options if their preferred choice is not available.


Assuntos
Braço/irrigação sanguínea , Implante de Prótese Vascular , Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Doença Arterial Periférica/cirurgia , Veia Safena/transplante , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Amputação , Implante de Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Oclusão de Enxerto Vascular/etiologia , Oclusão de Enxerto Vascular/fisiopatologia , Oclusão de Enxerto Vascular/cirurgia , Humanos , Salvamento de Membro , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença Arterial Periférica/fisiopatologia , Reoperação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Grau de Desobstrução Vascular
12.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 60(4): 560-566, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778492

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although high quality epidemiological data are lacking, the global increase in chronic limb threatening ischaemia may be disproportionately affecting low and LMICs. All available data for outcomes from bypass for limb salvage are from high income countries, with none from LMIC settings where the challenge is greatest. This study aimed to assess the clinical outcomes following vein lower extremity bypass for chronic limb threatening ischaemia at the University of Colombo, Sri Lanka, and to compare patients and outcomes with those described in the Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS) Objective Performance Goals (OPG) and United States National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP). METHODS: Consecutive patients (n = 367) undergoing SVS-OPG eligible lower extremity bypass between 2015 and 2017 were studied. Thirty day major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), major adverse limb events (MALE), deaths, and amputations are reported, along with one year overall survival, limb salvage, and amputation free survival. RESULTS: Patients at University of Colombo had more diabetes mellitus (80% vs. SVS 57% vs. NSQIP 50%, p < .001) and tissue loss (100% vs. SVS 74% vs. NSQIP 59%, p < .001). The 30 day MALE was 7.6%, which is not a statistically significant difference from the SVS (6.1%) or NSQIP (9%). The 30 day MACE was 8.2%, statistically significantly higher than NSQIP (4.2%, p < .001) but not SVS (6.2%, p = .20). At 12 months, the overall survival (82%) was within the OPG threshold, but limb salvage (81.8%) and amputation free survival (64.5%) were just outside. CONCLUSION: Outcomes following vein bypass for ischaemic necrosis at the University of Colombo, Sri Lanka, are acceptable and similar to those reported from high income countries despite greater limb threat severity and resource limitations. Further real world data from similar settings on outcomes following revascularisation are required. These data suggest that a vein bypass first strategy for advanced ischaemic necrosis is feasible and effective even in resource limited settings.


Assuntos
Isquemia/cirurgia , Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Doença Arterial Periférica/cirurgia , Enxerto Vascular , Veias/transplante , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Amputação , Doença Crônica , Bases de Dados Factuais , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Isquemia/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia/mortalidade , Isquemia/fisiopatologia , Salvamento de Membro , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença Arterial Periférica/mortalidade , Doença Arterial Periférica/fisiopatologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sri Lanka , Fatores de Tempo , Enxerto Vascular/efeitos adversos , Enxerto Vascular/mortalidade
13.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 60(4): 614-621, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800475

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify timing, incidence, and risk factors for ipsilateral re-amputation within 12 months of first dysvascular amputation and to determine specific subgroups of patients at each amputation level that are at increased risk. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study evaluating 7187 patients with first unilateral transmetatarsal (TM), transtibial (TT), or transfemoral (TF) amputation secondary to diabetes and/or peripheral artery disease (PAD) were identified in the VA Surgical Quality Improvement Program database between 2004 and 2014. Re-amputation was defined as any subsequent ipsilateral soft tissue/bony revision or amputation to a higher level. Twenty-three potential pre-operative risk factors (and nine potential interactions) were identified. A backward stepwise Cox regression was used to identify risk factors. Incidence rates and hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed. RESULTS: The median time to highest level of re-amputation in the first year was 33 (interquartile range, 13-73) days. Risk of requiring at least one re-amputation was 41% (TM), 25% (TT), and 9% (TF). Risk factors associated with requiring re-amputation included chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, elevated white blood cell count, abnormal ankle brachial index (ABI), history of revascularisation, and alcohol misuse. TM patients who had diabetes only (HR 1.9; 95% CI 1.4-2.5), diabetes with an abnormal ankle brachial index (ABI) score (HR 2.4; 95% CI 1.8-3.2), and kidney failure (HR 1.7; 95% CI 1.3-2.1) were at the greatest risk of re-amputation. TT amputees who were smokers were also at an increased risk (HR 1.4; 95% CI 1.2-1.6). CONCLUSION: This research identified important risk factors for failure of primary healing and need for re-amputation at the TM and TT level. If considering a TM amputation, caution should be exercised in patients with diabetes, in particular those with an abnormal ABI and/or renal failure. At the TT level, caution should be exercised in those who smoke.


Assuntos
Amputação , Angiopatias Diabéticas/cirurgia , Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Doença Arterial Periférica/cirurgia , Cicatrização , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Amputação/efeitos adversos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Angiopatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico por imagem , Reoperação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
14.
Vasc Endovascular Surg ; 54(8): 752-755, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783501
15.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 69: 80-84, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791191

RESUMO

Novel 2019 coronavirus (COVID-19) infection usually causes a respiratory disease that may vary in severity from mild symptoms to severe pneumonia with multiple organ failure. Coagulation abnormalities are frequent, and reports suggest that COVID-19 may predispose to venous and arterial thrombotic complications. We report a case of acute lower limb ischemia and resistance to heparin as the onset of COVID-19 disease, preceding the development of respiratory failure. This case highlights that the shift of coagulation profile toward hypercoagulability was associated with the acute ischemic event and influenced the therapy.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Isquemia/diagnóstico , Isquemia/terapia , Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Doença Aguda , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus , Biomarcadores/sangue , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Diagnóstico por Imagem , Heparina/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Trombectomia , Trombofilia/complicações , Trombofilia/tratamento farmacológico
16.
J Rehabil Med ; 52(9): jrm00094, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32720698

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical characteristics and rehabilitation management of patients who undergo amputation for COVID-19-associated coagulopathy. METHODS: Clinical and laboratory data for 3 patients were analysed and their rehabilitative management discussed. RESULTS: The medical records of 3 patients who had undergone amputation due to acute lower extremity ischaemia and who were provided with rehabilitation in our COVID-19 unit were reviewed. CONCLUSION: Coagulation changes related to SARS-CoV-2 may complicate recovery from this devastating disease. The rehabilitation management of amputated patients for COVID-19 acute lower extremity ischaemia is based on a multilevel approach for clinical, functional, nutritional and neuropsychological needs. Based on this limited experience, a dedicated programme for this specific group of patients seems advantageous to warrant the best functional outcome and quality of life.


Assuntos
Amputação/reabilitação , Betacoronavirus , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/reabilitação , Isquemia/virologia , Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/reabilitação , Idoso , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/reabilitação , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/cirurgia , Humanos , Isquemia/reabilitação , Isquemia/cirurgia , Itália , Extremidade Inferior/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Qualidade de Vida
17.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235228, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658909

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess specific risk factors and biomarkers associated with intimal arterial calcification (IAC) and medial arterial calcification (MAC). METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in patients with or at risk of vascular disease from the SMART study(n = 520) and the DCS cohort(n = 198). Non-contrast computed tomography scanning of the lower extremities was performed and calcification in the femoral and crural arteries was scored as absent, predominant IAC, predominant MAC or indistinguishable. Multinomial regression models were used to assess the associations between cardiovascular risk factors and calcification patterns. Biomarkers for inflammation, calcification and vitamin K status were measured in a subset of patients with IAC(n = 151) and MAC(n = 151). RESULTS: Femoral calcification was found in 77% of the participants, of whom 38% had IAC, 28% had MAC and 11% were scored as indistinguishable. The absolute agreement between the femoral and crural arteries was high(69%). Higher age, male sex, statin use and history of coronary artery disease were associated with higher prevalences of femoral IAC and MAC compared to absence of calcification. Smoking and low ankle-brachial-index (ABI) were associated with higher prevalence of IAC and high ABI was associated with less IAC. Compared to patients with IAC, patients with MAC more often had diabetes, have a high ABI and were less often smokers. Inactive Matrix-Gla Protein was associated with increased MAC prevalence, while osteonectin was associated with decreased risk of MAC, compared to IAC. CONCLUSIONS: When femoral calcification is present, the majority of the patients have IAC or MAC throughout the lower extremity, which have different associated risk factor profiles.


Assuntos
Artéria Femoral/patologia , Doença Arterial Periférica/epidemiologia , Túnica Íntima/patologia , Túnica Média/patologia , Calcificação Vascular/epidemiologia , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Artéria Femoral/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Arterial Periférica/sangue , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Doença Arterial Periférica/patologia , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Túnica Íntima/diagnóstico por imagem , Túnica Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcificação Vascular/sangue , Calcificação Vascular/diagnóstico , Calcificação Vascular/patologia , Vitamina K/sangue
18.
Vasc Endovascular Surg ; 54(7): 605-611, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32691691

RESUMO

We evaluated the outcome of multimodal supervised exercise training (SET) on walking performances and different hemodynamic parameters (ankle/toe-brachial index [ABI/TBI], and transcutaneous oxygen pressure [TcPO2]) in patients with symptomatic lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD). Whether hemodynamic parameters predict walking performances at baseline and following SET was also investigated. Fontaine stage II PAD's patients following a 3-month SET were retrospectively included. Hemodynamic parameters and walking performances (pain-free [PFWD], maximal [MWD], and 6-minute [6MWD] walking distance) were measured in each patient. Eighty-five symptomatic PAD patients were included. Following SET, PFWD, MWD, and 6MWD significantly increased (+142%, +94%, +14%; respectively; P ≤ .001). Toe-brachial index significantly increased (MD: 0.04 ± 0.01; P = .02), whereas ABI and TcPO2 did not change significantly. At baseline, patients with higher TBI and TcPO2 performed significantly better (PFWD: ß = 0.25, P = .01 for TBI; PFWD: ß = 0.30, P = .005, and MWD: ß = 0.22, P = .04, for TcPO2). No significant relationship was observed at baseline between ABI and walking performances. Baseline values of hemodynamic parameters did not significantly correlate with changes in walking performances. Multimodal SET significantly improves walking performances. Following SET, no significant changes in ABI and TcPO2 were observed. Toe-brachial index values significantly improved after SET. However, this increase was very modest and its clinical relevance remains questionable. Although baseline TBI and supine TcPO2 values predict baseline walking performances, no association was found between baseline hemodynamic parameters and changes in walking performances following SET.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Tolerância ao Exercício , Hemodinâmica , Claudicação Intermitente/terapia , Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Doença Arterial Periférica/terapia , Caminhada , Idoso , Índice Tornozelo-Braço , Monitorização Transcutânea dos Gases Sanguíneos , Feminino , Humanos , Claudicação Intermitente/diagnóstico , Claudicação Intermitente/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Doença Arterial Periférica/fisiopatologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Treinamento de Resistência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Teste de Caminhada
19.
Vasc Endovascular Surg ; 54(7): 646-649, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638640

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic multisystem inflammatory condition with associated endothelial dysfunction and dysregulated coagulation. Although deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in IBD has been well described, arterial thrombosis and thromboembolism are less commonly appreciated. METHODS: A 63-year-old male with a known history of Crohn disease presented with acute-onset right arm pain. His past vascular history was significant for left lower extremity DVT with an existing inferior vena cava filter and acute ischemia of the right lower extremity requiring a below-knee amputation a year ago. Imaging revealed acute brachial, ulnar, and radial artery thrombosis. RESULTS: Patient underwent an open right brachial, radial, and ulnar thrombectomy to restore vascular flow. He required multiple exploration and thrombectomy for reocclusion of the vessels in the early postoperative period. He later developed a rapidly deteriorating clinical status, flank ecchymosis and swelling concerning for soft tissue ischemia, and compartment syndrome heralding an eventual hemodynamic collapse. On exploration, he was found to have chronic fibrosis of his left femoral vein and femoral artery occlusion. Clinically, the patient deteriorated rapidly, which resulted in his demise. CONCLUSION: The inflammatory reaction in IBD leads to arterial stiffening and hypercoagulability, which should theoretically increase the risk for vascular disease. Although the link between IBD and DVT is well established, arterial thrombosis and thromboembolism remain widely debated, with some implications for therapeutic intervention. The link between vascular thrombosis and IBD must be examined further, as the treatment and prevention of vascular complications in IBD depends on our understanding of this relationship.


Assuntos
Arteriopatias Oclusivas/etiologia , Doença de Crohn/complicações , Artéria Femoral , Veia Femoral , Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Extremidade Superior/irrigação sanguínea , Trombose Venosa/etiologia , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/diagnóstico por imagem , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/fisiopatologia , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/cirurgia , Doença de Crohn/diagnóstico , Evolução Fatal , Artéria Femoral/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Femoral/fisiopatologia , Artéria Femoral/cirurgia , Veia Femoral/diagnóstico por imagem , Veia Femoral/fisiopatologia , Veia Femoral/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Trombectomia , Resultado do Tratamento , Grau de Desobstrução Vascular , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose Venosa/fisiopatologia , Trombose Venosa/cirurgia
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