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1.
Environ Pollut ; 274: 116527, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33508715

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-PAHs (NPAHs) in PM2.5 were first observed at a background site (Yuzhong site: YZ site) in the northwestern highlands of China in five seasonal campaigns. Compared with major northwestern cities, PAHs and NPAHs at the YZ site were at a lower level but showed consistent seasonal differences. The PAH and NPAH concentrations peaked in the winter campaigns, which were 36.11 ± 6.54 ng/m3 and 418.11 ± 123.55 pg/m3, respectively, in winter campaign 1 and 28.97 ± 10.07 ng/m3 and 226.89 ± 133.54 pg/m3, respectively, in winter campaign 2. These values were approximately a dozen times larger those in other campaigns. The diagnostic ratios indicate that vehicle emissions were the primary source of the PAHs throughout the five campaigns, and coal and biomass combustion also contributed during the winter, summer, and fall campaigns. Among NPAHs, 2-nitrofluoranthene and 2-nitropyrene were generated through OH radical-initiated reactions during atmospheric transport, while 1-nitropyrene came from combustion sources. There is an observation worth pondering, which is that the ratio between pyrene and fluoranthene increased abnormally in the spring and fall campaigns, which is presumably caused by the burning of Tibetan barley straw in the northwestern highlands. The backward trajectories over Tibetan areas in Qinghai and southwestern Gansu are consistent with this hypothesis. In addition, this study reported for the first time that the burning of Tibetan barley straw has become a seasonal contributor to air pollution in northwestern China and is participating in the atmospheric transport of air pollutants driven by the monsoon in East Asia, which urgently requires further research.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , China , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Extremo Oriente , Material Particulado/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Estações do Ano
2.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e25454, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33464207

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a profound global impact on governments, health care systems, economies, and populations around the world. Within the East Asia and Pacific region, some countries have mitigated the spread of the novel coronavirus effectively and largely avoided severe negative consequences, while others still struggle with containment. As the second wave reaches East Asia and the Pacific, it becomes more evident that additional SARS-CoV-2 surveillance is needed to track recent shifts, rates of increase, and persistence associated with the pandemic. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study is to provide advanced surveillance metrics for COVID-19 transmission that account for speed, acceleration, jerk, persistence, and weekly shifts, to better understand country risk for explosive growth and those countries who are managing the pandemic successfully. Existing surveillance coupled with our dynamic metrics of transmission will inform health policy to control the COVID-19 pandemic until an effective vaccine is developed. We provide novel indicators to measure disease transmission. METHODS: Using a longitudinal trend analysis study design, we extracted 330 days of COVID-19 data from public health registries. We used an empirical difference equation to measure the daily number of cases in East Asia and the Pacific as a function of the prior number of cases, the level of testing, and weekly shift variables based on a dynamic panel model that was estimated using the generalized method of moments approach by implementing the Arellano-Bond estimator in R. RESULTS: The standard surveillance metrics for Indonesia, the Philippines, and Myanmar were concerning as they had the largest new caseloads at 4301, 2588, and 1387, respectively. When looking at the acceleration of new COVID-19 infections, we found that French Polynesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines had rates at 3.17, 0.22, and 0.06 per 100,000. These three countries also ranked highest in terms of jerk at 15.45, 0.10, and 0.04, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Two of the most populous countries in East Asia and the Pacific, Indonesia and the Philippines, have alarming surveillance metrics. These two countries rank highest in new infections in the region. The highest rates of speed, acceleration, and positive upwards jerk belong to French Polynesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines, and may result in explosive growth. While all countries in East Asia and the Pacific need to be cautious about reopening their countries since outbreaks are likely to occur in the second wave of COVID-19, the country of greatest concern is the Philippines. Based on standard and enhanced surveillance, the Philippines has not gained control of the COVID-19 epidemic, which is particularly troubling because the country ranks 4th in population in the region. Without extreme and rigid social distancing, quarantines, hygiene, and masking to reverse trends, the Philippines will remain on the global top 5 list of worst COVID-19 outbreaks resulting in high morbidity and mortality. The second wave will only exacerbate existing conditions and increase COVID-19 transmissions.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Ásia Sudeste/epidemiologia , Australásia/epidemiologia , Extremo Oriente/epidemiologia , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Malásia/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Filipinas/epidemiologia , Polinésia/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Sistema de Registros
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 764: 144551, 2021 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385653

RESUMO

Anthropogenic inputs into the environment may serve as sources of antimicrobial resistant bacteria and alter the ecology and population dynamics of synanthropic wild animals by providing supplemental forage. In this study, we used a combination of phenotypic and genomic approaches to characterize antimicrobial resistant indicator bacteria, animal telemetry to describe host movement patterns, and a novel modeling approach to combine information from these diverse data streams to investigate the acquisition and long-distance dispersal of antimicrobial resistant bacteria by landfill-foraging gulls. Our results provide evidence that gulls acquire antimicrobial resistant bacteria from anthropogenic sources, which they may subsequently disperse across and between continents via migratory movements. Furthermore, we introduce a flexible modeling framework to estimate the relative dispersal risk of antimicrobial resistant bacteria in western North America and adjacent areas within East Asia, which may be adapted to provide information on the risk of dissemination of other organisms and pathogens maintained by wildlife through space and time.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Charadriiformes , Animais , Bactérias , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Extremo Oriente , América do Norte , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
4.
J Plant Res ; 134(1): 91-104, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398441

RESUMO

The vast territory of East Asia, including southwestern Beringia, is considered to have been almost ice free during the Pleistocene. Cold-resistant flora may have persisted in this region expanding or contracting its range during the climate cooling. Only a few plant genera have been studied with a sampling area across their entire geographic range in East Asia; therefore, the understanding of the biogeographic history of alpine flora in this region remains limited. In the present study, genetic variation and population structure in 21 populations of the alpine shrub Rhododendron aureum across its range in East Asia were assessed using 18 microsatellite loci. Phylogenetic analyses revealed three main genetic groups: Siberia, Northeast, and North Pacific. According to the geographical pattern of genetic diversity, the North Pacific group includes populations from Kamchatka, south of Russian Far East, and territories close to central Japan. This group is the most diverse and likely diverged earlier than the Siberia and Northeast groups. Ecological niche modeling predicts range expansion of this species during the period of cooling and, together with demographic history, suggests that the divergence between the three main genetic groups predated the Last Glacial Maximum. Similar to other cold-resistant species such as Larix sibirica and Juniperus communis, the pattern of genetic diversity of R. aureum supports the survival of the species at high latitudes during the Pleistocene with limited contribution of the southern populations to expansion of the species range to the Northeast region and Siberia.


Assuntos
Ericaceae , Rhododendron , Extremo Oriente , Variação Genética , Japão , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Rhododendron/genética , Federação Russa , Sibéria
7.
Pest Manag Sci ; 77(1): 527-537, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), a new method of application to deliver pesticides, is rapidly being adopted for commercial use in crop protection in East Asia with increasing worldwide interest. Pest control in mature almond orchards with dense foliar canopies presents greater coverage challenges than field crops and smaller orchard or vineyard crops. We investigated the use of an electric hexacopter to provide acceptable spray deposition and canopy penetration to be considered credible for use in an almond pest control program. RESULTS: The performance of the aerial and ground methods at different spray volumes were compared by analyzing spray deposition on water sensitive papers, insecticide residues on filter papers and residues on whole unhulled almonds at three canopy elevations. Overall residue levels of chlorantraniliprole insecticide on whole unhulled almonds across all pooled canopy strata were similar between UAV applied at 46.8 L/ha and 93.5 L/ha and the comparative air blast sprayer treatments applied at 935 L/ha. However, significant interactions between canopy elevation and spray method showed distinct residue patterns between the two application methods. Penetration and spray deposition at the lower canopy were observed and validated for the UAV application. Pest efficacy was evaluated by measuring nut damage at harvest. CONCLUSION: This study presents promising data that support the potential innovative integration of UAV's into crop protection programs for large canopy crops such as almonds and may guide future research for developing relevant label recommendations.


Assuntos
Proteção de Cultivos , Inseticidas , Praguicidas , Prunus dulcis , Extremo Oriente , Praguicidas/análise
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 754: 142226, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254896

RESUMO

This study leverages satellite remote sensing to investigate the impact of the coronavirus outbreak and the resulting lockdown of public venues on air pollution levels in East Asia. We analyze data from the Sentinel-5P and the Himawari-8 satellites to examine concentrations of NO2, HCHO, SO2, and CO, and the aerosol optical depth (AOD) over the BTH, Wuhan, Seoul, and Tokyo regions in February 2019 and February 2020. Results show that most of the concentrations of pollutants are lower than those of February 2019. Compared to other pollutants, NO2 experienced the most significant reductions by almost 54%, 83%, 33%, and 19% decrease in BTH, Wuhan, Seoul, and Tokyo, respectively. The greatest reductions in pollutants occurred in Wuhan, with a decrease of almost 83%, 11%, 71%, and 4% in the column densities of NO2, HCHO, SO2, and CO, respectively, and a decrease of about 62% in the AOD. Although NO2, CO, and formaldehyde concentrations decreased in the Seoul and Tokyo metropolitan areas compared to the previous year, concentrations of SO2 showed an increase in these two regions due to the effect of transport from polluted upwind regions. We also show that meteorological factors were not the main reason for the dramatic reductions of pollutants in the atmosphere. Moreover, an investigation of the HCHO/NO2 ratio shows that in many regions of East China, particularly in Wuhan, ozone production in February 2020 is less NOX saturated during the daytime than it was in February 2019. With large reductions in the concentrations of NO2 during lockdown situations, we find that significant increases in surface ozone in East China from February 2019 to February 2020 are likely the result of less reaction of NO and O3 caused by significantly reduced NOX concentrations and less NOX saturation in East China during the daytime.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , China , Surtos de Doenças , Monitoramento Ambiental , Extremo Oriente , Humanos , Pandemias , Seul , Tóquio/epidemiologia
9.
J Plant Res ; 133(6): 827-839, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33090298

RESUMO

Sagittaria is a genus of ca. 40 species in the aquatic plant family Alismataceae with a nearly global distribution, and a center of diversity in the New World. Two thirds of the known species are native to the Americas, while only a few species are distributed in Africa, Asia and Europe. A previous biogeographic analysis of the genus suggested an African origin for the genus with subsequent dispersal to North America and then to East Asia. Here we expanded the taxon sampling with a focus on the New World taxa and applied species delimitation and biogeographic analyses to revise the knowledge of the phylogeny and evolution of the genus. We obtained largely similar topologies from the chloroplast DNA and nuclear DNA (ITS) data sets. The 74 accessions sampled for our analyses were delimited into 29 species and several cryptic taxa were revealed in widely distributed species. Biogeographic analysis supported basal diversification in South America and subsequent colonization to North America and Asia.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Filogenia , Sagittaria/classificação , África , Ásia , Teorema de Bayes , DNA de Cloroplastos/genética , DNA de Plantas/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Europa (Continente) , Extremo Oriente , América do Norte , Análise de Sequência de DNA , América do Sul
10.
Zootaxa ; 4820(3): zootaxa.4820.3.4, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056057

RESUMO

Daphnia curvirostris species complex is a cladoceran group (Crustacea: Cladocera) with maximum diversity in Eastern Palearctic. To date, several representatives of this complex are known from the Russian Far East. Here we describe a new species of the Daphnia sinevi species group from water bodies of Sakhalin Island. Morphology of its parthenogenetic females is similar to that in D. sinevi from the continental part of Asian Eurasia. However, we found diagnostic traits of D. sakhalinensis sp.nov. in morphology of the second pecten on postabdominal claw, armature of seta 2 on exopodite III, proportions of setae 1/ and 2 length on exopodite V, relative length of male rostrum and structure of the second pecten of male postabdominal claw. This work contributes to our full revision of the D. curvirostris species complex. Separation between continental and Sakhalin populations of D. sinevi group probably happened in Pliocene (about 5 MA) when Sakhalin began to separate from the mainland. However, we cannot exclude a version that populations of D. sakhalinensis sp.nov. appeared as a result of colonization of Sakhalin from the continent and further independent evolution of the island populations.


Assuntos
Cladóceros , Animais , Daphnia , Extremo Oriente , Feminino , Ilhas , Masculino , Federação Russa
11.
Zootaxa ; 4820(2): zootaxa.4820.2.4, 2020 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056068

RESUMO

A new species Baetis (Rhodobaetis) molecularis sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on larvae and reared adults from the Far East of Russia. The differential diagnosis of this species is provided with regard to other representatives of the subgenus Rhodobaetis Jacob, 2003 from East Palaearctic and Nearctic Regions. A dataset including novel and publicly available COI mtDNA sequences of 16 species of Rhodobaetis has been assembled to provide a reference dataset for DNA barcoding. The comparison between Baetis (Rhodobaetis) molecularis sp. nov. and other species produced K2P genetic distances of 0.201 in average, values well above those associated with intraspecific variation. The closest species was Baetis foemina McDonough with a K2P distance value 0.114. A Bayesian phylogeny of available Rhodobaetis is also provided.


Assuntos
Ephemeroptera , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Extremo Oriente , Filogenia , Federação Russa
12.
Zootaxa ; 4822(3): zootaxa.4822.3.6, 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056280

RESUMO

The ground beetle genus Pterostichus Bonelli has diversified in regions including the Far East, but taxonomic issues remain even at the species level. This study presents taxonomic and nomenclatural changes in three species of Pterostichus from the Far East: P. (Petrophilus) eximius Morawitz, P. (Lenapterus) wellschmiedi Kirschenhofer, and P. (L.) subrugosus Straneo. The analyses are based on comparative studies of the endophallus of male genitalia, which is taxonomically useful in Carabidae but has not been examined in these species. The first species, P. eximius, has been treated as a monotypic species that is widely distributed in Eastern Siberia, the Russian Far East, and adjacent regions, but our results revealed that populations from Rishiri-tô and the Sakhalin islands are distinct from the nominotypical population from Transbaikalia. The name for the Sakhalin population, which was synonymized with P. eximius, is reinstated as subspecies P. eximius sachalinensis stat. nov., and the Rishiri-tô population is described as Pterostichus eximius rishiridakensis ssp. nov. Conspecificity (syn. nov.) was confirmed for P. wellschmiedi, which was described from southern Sakhalin, and P. marginatus Matsumura, which was described earlier from southern Sakhalin. No conspicuous differences in the endophallus structure were found between P. subrugosus, which was described from Hokkaidô, and P. marginatus, although differences are recognized in the elytral sculptures and in the metallic luster of the dorsal surface. The taxon was thus downgraded to subspecies P. marginatus subrugosus stat. nov.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Extremo Oriente , Genitália Masculina , Masculino
13.
Zootaxa ; 4772(2): zootaxa.4772.2.8, 2020 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055618

RESUMO

The larvae, male and female imagines, and eggs of Cinygmula levanidovi Tshernova Belov 1982 are described based on reared specimens from the Russian Far East. The larvae, female imago and eggs are described and illustrated for the first time. The larva of C. levanidovi is similar to the one of C. hirasana Imanishi, 1935 and C. kurenzovi (Bajkova, 1965). However, it can be distinguished from these species and from all other Far Eastern Cinygmula by the shape of its tergalius I, which has a heart-shape and bears a single short gill filament. Tergalius I of C. hirasana and C. kurenzovi possess a similar shape, but there are no gill filaments on the first and the other tergalii.


Assuntos
Ephemeroptera , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Extremo Oriente , Feminino , Larva , Masculino , Federação Russa
14.
Environ Pollut ; 267: 115407, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896765

RESUMO

The central mountainous area of Japan is affected by air pollutant emissions from nearby countries such as China and Korea. Sharp increases in the consumption of fossil fuels in the early 21st century, associated with rapid industrialization in China, resulted in long-range transport of pollutants from East Asia and increases in the harmful effects of pollution. However, the air pollutants emissions have decreased since 2006, when air pollution countermeasures were implemented in China. Furthermore, climatic patterns during 2008-2013 reduced tropospheric ozone concentrations around Japan. Such major changes in the social and climatic environment may have had a significant impact on forests. To investigate this, long-term forest monitoring data obtained at Buna-daira (1190 m a.s.l.), Buna-zaka (1090 m a.s.l.) and Arimine (1350 m a.s.l.) were analyzed. Buna-daira and Buna-zaka forests face the continental side of Mt. Tateyama in Toyama Prefecture. In both stands, the girth growth rate of Fagus crenata was found to have increased after 2008; however, such a tendency was not detected at Arimine, which is surrounded by mountains. The growth rates of Cryptomeria japonica, a conifer resistant to air pollution, were found to remain unchanged or decrease. Here, regional long-range transport of air pollution (including ozone and sulfur oxide) has been demonstrated to influence mountain forests in Japan. In particular, recent decreases in regional air pollution may be an important factor controlling increases in F. crenata, likely through changes in interspecific relationships between species sensitive to and tolerant of air pollution.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Ozônio , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , China , Extremo Oriente , Florestas , Japão , Ozônio/análise , República da Coreia
15.
Lancet ; 396(10261): 1525-1534, 2020 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979936

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic is an unprecedented global crisis. Many countries have implemented restrictions on population movement to slow the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and prevent health systems from becoming overwhelmed; some have instituted full or partial lockdowns. However, lockdowns and other extreme restrictions cannot be sustained for the long term in the hope that there will be an effective vaccine or treatment for COVID-19. Governments worldwide now face the common challenge of easing lockdowns and restrictions while balancing various health, social, and economic concerns. To facilitate cross-country learning, this Health Policy paper uses an adapted framework to examine the approaches taken by nine high-income countries and regions that have started to ease COVID-19 restrictions: five in the Asia Pacific region (ie, Hong Kong [Special Administrative Region], Japan, New Zealand, Singapore, and South Korea) and four in Europe (ie, Germany, Norway, Spain, and the UK). This comparative analysis presents important lessons to be learnt from the experiences of these countries and regions. Although the future of the virus is unknown at present, countries should continue to share their experiences, shield populations who are at risk, and suppress transmission to save lives.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/economia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/legislação & jurisprudência , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Política de Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Comércio , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente) , Extremo Oriente , Humanos , Nova Zelândia , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(39): 24138-24143, 2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929013

RESUMO

Rice agriculture is the foundation of Asian civilizations south of the Yangtze River. Although rice history is well documented for its lower Yangtze homeland area, the early southward expansion of paddy rice farming is poorly known. Our study investigates this process using a compilation of paleoenvironmental proxies from coastal sediment cores from southeast China to Thailand and Island Southeast Asia. We propose that a shortage of land suitable for paddy fields, caused by marine transgression, constrained rice agriculture during the mid-Holocene. Rapid expansion of coastal plains, particularly in deltaic basins, over the past three millennia has coincided with increases in land suitable for rice cultivation. Our study also helps explain the past population movements of rice farmers.


Assuntos
Agricultura/história , Meio Ambiente , Fósseis , Oryza , Extremo Oriente , Geografia , História Antiga , Pólen
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(35): 43569-43581, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935217

RESUMO

Environmental objects (surface and groundwater, soil, bottom sediments, wastewater) are reservoirs in which large-scale multidirectional exchange of determinants of antibiotic resistance between clinical strains and natural bacteria takes place. The review discusses the results of studies on antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) isolated from environmental objects (water, soil, sewage, permafrost) of the Russian Federation. Despite the relevance of the topic, the number of available publications examining the resistomes of Russian water bodies and soils is small. The most studied environmental objects are surface waters (rivers, lakes), permafrost deposits. Soil resistomes are less studied. Data on ARG and ARB in wastewater are the least covered in publications. In most of the studies, antibiotic resistance of isolated pure bacterial cultures was determined phenotypically. A significant number of publications are devoted to the resistance of natural isolates of Vibrio cholerae, since the lower reaches of the Volga and Don rivers are endemic to cholera. Molecular genetic methods were used in a small number of studies. Geographically, the south of the European part of Russia is the most studied. There are also publications on the distribution of ARG in water bodies of Siberia and the Russian Far East. There are practically no publications on such developed regions of Russia as the center and northwest of the European part of Russia. The territory of the country is very large, anthropogenic and natural factors in its various regions vary significantly; therefore, it seems interesting to combine all available data in one work.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Extremo Oriente , Genes Bacterianos , Federação Russa , Sibéria
18.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0235588, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946457

RESUMO

Data on the historical change of the Transbaikalian malacofauna in the Neopleistocene and Holocene is presented. Aquatic mollusc shells from archaeological excavations of the ancient settlements dating from the Neolithic period to Medieval and also from a drill hole of the Neopleistocene alluvial deposits were collected. In total eight species of bivalve molluscs from the families Margaritiferidae, Unionidae, Lymnocardiidae, Glycymerididae [marine], and two gastropod species from families Viviparidae and Planorbidae were identified. These species were aged using radiocarbon dating. It was found that the species ranged in age from more than 50.000 to 2.080-1.210 years BP. Five species inhabited the Transbaikal region which are locally extirpated today. Their disjunctive ranges in the past included southern Europe and Western and Eastern Siberia to Transbaikalia and in the east to Far East and Primorye Territory of Russia. A remarkable finding is that of the bivalve genus Monodacna, which was found very far from its native range, the Ponto-Caspian region. The time of existence and extirpation of the thermophilic species of genera Monodacna, Planorbis, Lanceolaria and Amuropaludina corresponds to cycles of the warming and cooling in Pleistocene and Holocene according to regional climate chronological scales. These species can be used as palaeoclimate indicators. Change of the regional malacofaunal species composition is connected with the natural climatochron cycles in the Pleistocene and Holocene resulting in evidence for succession. In the course of this succession, these stenothermal species became extirpated on a regional level, decreasing their global ranges.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Organismos Aquáticos/fisiologia , Biodiversidade , Ecologia/métodos , Moluscos/fisiologia , Exoesqueleto/química , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos/química , Organismos Aquáticos/classificação , Arqueologia , Europa (Continente) , Extremo Oriente , Fósseis , Água Doce , Geografia , História Antiga , Moluscos/química , Moluscos/classificação , Datação Radiométrica , Sibéria
19.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 159: 111514, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768675

RESUMO

Marine pollution caused by plastic litter can threaten the survival and health of marine organisms. In 2019, a juvenile fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus, length: 13.02 m, weight 12,000 kg) was found dead floating on the sea near Jeju Island, Republic of Korea. During the dissection, 45 plastic particles were found in the body of the whale, including fishing lines, plastic filaments, pieces of fishing nets, and Styrofoam particles. The largest item found was a piece of fishing line (1180 mm in length and 1.15 mm in thickness). Filaments, both bundled and separated, were more frequent. Some of the filaments found were entangled with the baleen plate bristles. These observations suggest that plastic pollution is a potential risk for baleen whale species. This is the first record of plastic ingestion by a vulnerable baleen whale species in the sea off East Asia.


Assuntos
Baleia Comum , Animais , Ásia , Extremo Oriente , Plásticos , República da Coreia
20.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(7): e2016924, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32725247

RESUMO

Importance: There is insufficient evidence on the efficacy of masks in the general population for the prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in public areas. Therefore, it is imperative to investigate the association of mandatory mask-wearing policies with behaviors associated with the transmission of COVID-19. Objective: To assess the association of mask wearing with face-touching behavior among the general population in public areas. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used videos recorded in public transportation stations, streets, and parks among the general population in China, Japan, South Korea, Western Europe (ie, England, France, Germany, Spain, and Italy), and the US to analyze mask-wearing and face-touching behavior in public areas. Videos before the COVID-19 pandemic were defined as those recorded from January 2018 to October 2019, and those during the COVID-19 pandemic were defined as those recorded during February 2020 to March 2020 in China, Japan, and South Korea and during March 2020 in Western Europe and the US. Individuals who clearly displayed their face and face-touching behavior were included, and those whose behaviors were influenced by filming or public events were excluded. Exposures: Mandatory mask-wearing policies enacted at various time points in China, Japan, South Korea, Western Europe, and the US. Main Outcomes and Measures: Proportion of individuals wearing masks and incidence of face touching. Results: This study included 4699 individuals before the COVID-19 pandemic and 2887 individuals during the pandemic. During the periods studied, mask wearing increased in all regions except the US, from 20 of 1745 individuals (1.1%) to 1090 of 1097 individuals (99.4%) in mainland China (P < .001), 44 of 1422 individuals (3.1%) to 346 of 893 individuals (38.7%) in Japan (P < .001), 6 of 717 individuals (0.8%) to 277 of 324 individuals (85.5% ) in South Korea (P < .001), 1 of 546 individuals (0.2%) to 6 of 379 individuals (1.6%) in Western Europe (P = .02), and 1 of 269 individuals (0.4%) to 4 of 194 individuals (2.1%) in the US (P = .17). Surgical masks were predominant in China (989 masks [89.1%]), and fabric masks were predominant in the other regions (Japan: 371 masks [95.1%]; South Korea: 240 masks [84.8%]; Western Europe: 6 masks [85.7%]; US: 5 masks [100%]). Face-touching behaviors decreased from before COVID-19 to during COVID-19 among individuals in China (72 incidences of 1745 observations [4.1%] to 12 incidences of 1097 observations [1.1%]; P < .001), South Korea (80 incidences of 717 observations [11.2%] to 7 incidences of 324 observations [2.2%]; P < .001), and Europe (62 incidences of 546 observations [11.4%] to 23 incidences of 379 observations [6.1%]; P = .01). Logistic regression found that mask wearing was associated with a reduction in face touching in China (odds ratio [OR], 3.91; 95% CI, 2.11-7.24) and South Korea (OR, 6.69; 95% CI, 2.69-16.69) and of touching the nose, mouth, and eyes (China: OR, 8.60; 95% CI, 2.65-27.86; South Korea: OR, 29.27; 95% CI, 1.79-478.22). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this cross-sectional study suggest that mandatory mask-wearing policies were associated with increased mask wearing during the COVID-19 pandemic. Mask wearing was associated with reduced face-touching behavior, especially touching of the eyes, nose, and mouth, which may prevent contact transmission of COVID-19 among the general population in public areas.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Face , Hábitos , Máscaras , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Tato , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Extremo Oriente/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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