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1.
Lancet HIV ; 7(10): e666-e676, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010240

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ADVANCE compared the efficacy and safety of two antiretroviral first-line combinations (dolutegravir combined with emtricitabine and either tenofovir disoproxil fumarate or tenofovir alafenamide), with a third regimen (efavirenz combined with emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate) previously recommended by WHO. Here, we report the 96-week data for the study. METHODS: This randomised, open-label, non-inferiority phase 3 trial, was done at two research sites in Johannesburg, South Africa, after participant recruitment from 11 public health clinics also in Johannesburg. Eligible participants were aged 12 years or older with HIV-1 infection, who weighed at least 40 kg, had no antiretroviral exposure in the previous 6 months, with a creatinine clearance of more than 60 mL/min (>80 mL per min in individuals aged <19 years), and a plasma HIV-1 RNA concentration of 500 copies per mL or higher. Individuals who were pregnant or had tuberculosis were excluded. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1) by study staff using a computerised randomisation system. Randomisation was stratified by age (12 and <19 years and ≥19 years). Participants were randomly assigned to once-daily oral fixed-dose combination tenofovir alafenamide 25 mg and emtricitabine 200 mg, and once-daily oral dolutegravir 50 mg; once-daily oral fixed-dose combination tenofovir disoproxil fumarate 300 mg and emtricitabine 200 mg, and once-daily oral dolutegravir 50 mg; or once-daily oral fixed-dose combination of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate 300 mg, emtricitabine 200 mg, and efavirenz 600 mg. The primary efficacy endpoint was the proportion of participants who had a plasma HIV-1 RNA concentration of less than 50 copies per mL at week 48, which has been reported previously. Here, we report the key secondary efficacy endpoint of the proportion of participants who had a plasma HIV-1 RNA concentration of less than 50 copies per mL at the week 96 visit, assessed in all participants who received at least one dose of any study drug, with a prespecified non-inferiority margin of -10%. Safety data, including clinical, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and laboratory data, are also reported. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03122262. FINDINGS: Between Jan 17, 2017, and May 14, 2018, we screened 1453 individuals, of whom 1053 were enrolled: 351 participants were randomly assigned to the tenofovir alafenamide, emtricitabine, and dolutegravir group, 351 to the tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, emtricitabine, and dolutegravir group, and 351 to the tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, emtricitabine, and efavirenz group. All participants received at least one dose of study medication and were included in the primary analysis. At week 96, 276 (79%) of 351 participants in the tenofovir alafenamide, emtricitabine, and dolutegravir group, 275 (78%) of 351 participants in the tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, emtricitabine, and dolutegravir group, and 258 (74%) of 351 participants in the tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, emtricitabine, and efavirenz group had achieved a plasma HIV-1 RNA concentration of less than 50 copies per mL. Non-inferiority was established in all three comparisons. The proportion of patients with protocol-defined virological failure at week 96 was low in all treatment groups. Participants in the tenofovir alafenamide, emtricitabine, and dolutegravir group had fewer changes in bone density than the two other treatment groups. Mean weight gain was substantial (7·1 kg [SD 7·4] in the tenofovir alafenamide, emtricitabine, and dolutegravir group; 4·3 kg [6·7] in the tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, emtricitabine, and dolutegravir group, and 2·3 kg [7·0] in the tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, emtricitabine, and efavirenz group), and was greater among women than men. Ten (3%) of 351 participants in the tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, emtricitabine, and efavirenz group discontinued due to treatment-related adverse events, of which liver dysfunction (n=4) and rash (n=4) were most common. INTERPRETATION: Medium-term and long-term metabolic and clinical consequences of the considerable increase in bodyweight observed in participants given these antiretroviral regimens and the trajectory of this weight gain over time, especially among women, require further study. FUNDING: USAID, Unitaid, South African Medical Research Council, ViiV Healthcare.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Adenina/administração & dosagem , Adenina/análogos & derivados , Adolescente , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Benzoxazinas/administração & dosagem , Composição Corporal , Peso Corporal , Duração da Terapia , Emtricitabina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tenofovir/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
2.
Lancet HIV ; 7(10): e677-e687, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Updated WHO guidelines recommend a dolutegravir-based regimen as the preferred first-line treatment for HIV infection and low-dose efavirenz (400 mg) as an alternative. We aimed to report the non-inferior efficacy of dolutegravir compared with efavirenz 400 mg at week 96. METHODS: We did a multicentre, randomised, open label, phase 3 trial in in three hospitals in Yaoundé, Cameroon, in HIV-1 infected antiretroviral-naive adults with an HIV RNA viral load of greater than 1000 copies per mL to compare dolutegravir 50 mg with efavirenz 400 mg (reference treatment), both combined with lamivudine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. The primary endpoint was the proportion with a viral load of less than 50 copies per mL at week 48 (10% non-inferiority margin). The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02777229 and is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between July, 2016, and August, 2019, of 820 patients assessed, 613 were randomly assigned to receive at least one dose of study medication, with 310 in the dolutegravir group and 303 in the efavirenz 400 mg group. At week 96 in the intention-to-treat analysis, 229 (74%) of 310 patients receiving dolutegravir and 219 (72%) of 303 patients receiving efavirenz, achieved plasma HIV-1 RNA less than 50 copies per mL (difference 1·6%, 95% CI -5·4 to 8·6; p=0.66). Viral load suppression was reached significantly more rapidly in the dolutegravir group (p<0·001). Virological failure (>1000 copies per mL) was observed in 27 patients (eight in the dolutegravir group, among which, three women switched to efavirenz 600 mg because of the dolutegravir teratogeneicity signal, and 19 in the efavirenz 400 mg group). No acquired resistance mutations to dolutegravir were observed against 17 mutations to efavirenz with or without mutations to lamivudine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate among the 19 efavirenz 400 mg participants with virological failure. Weight gain was greater in the dolutegravir group (median weight gain, 5·0 kg in the dolutegravir group and 3·0 kg in the efavirenz 400 mg group, p<0·001, and incidence of obesity, 22% in the dolutegravir group and 16% in the efavirenz 400 mg group, p=0·043). The incidence of new WHO HIV-related stage 3 and 4 events was similar in each group (12 [4%] in each group). The two groups had similar rates of serious adverse events (28 [9%] of 310 in the dolutegravir group and 21 [7%] of 303 in the efavirenz 400 mg group). 18 deaths were observed during the 96-week follow-up (eight in the dolutegravir group and ten in the efavirenz 400 mg group). INTERPRETATION: The non-inferior efficacy of the dolutegravir-based regimen and non-emergence of dolutegravir resistance at 96 weeks supports its use as a first-line regimen for antiretroviral-naive adults with HIV-1 infection. Viral load suppression was reached more quickly in the dolutegravir group and weight gain was significantly higher. FUNDING: UNITAID and the French National Agency for AIDS Research.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/efeitos adversos , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Benzoxazinas/administração & dosagem , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Duração da Terapia , Feminino , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
3.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(9): 826-830, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882767

RESUMO

We retrospectively reviewed patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections who were admitted to an intensive care unit in Daegu, South Korea. The outcomes of patients who did (cases) or did not (controls) receive darunavir-cobicistat (800-150 mg) therapy were compared. Fourteen patients received darunavir-cobicistat treatment, and 96 received other antiviral therapy (controls). Overall, the darunavir-cobicistat group comprised patients with milder illness, and the crude mortality rate of all patients in the darunavir-cobicistat group was lower than that in the controls [odds ratio (OR) 0.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.04-0.89, p=0.035]. After 1:2 propensity-score matching, there were 14 patients in the darunavir-cobicistat group, and 28 patients in the controls. In propensity score-matched analysis, the darunavir-cobicistat group had lower mortality than the controls (OR 0.07, 95% CI 0.01-0.52, p=0.009). In conclusion, darunavir-cobicistat therapy was found to be associated with a significant survival benefit in critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Cobicistat/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Darunavir/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Protease de HIV/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Betacoronavirus , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cobicistat/administração & dosagem , Cobicistat/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Estado Terminal , Darunavir/administração & dosagem , Darunavir/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Inibidores da Protease de HIV/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Protease de HIV/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238052, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866163

RESUMO

The integrase inhibitor dolutegravir was included in initial antiretroviral therapy in Brazil in January 2017. Studies have demonstrated that the efficacy and safety of antiretrovirals have improved with the introduction of new classes of antiretrovirals, such as integrase inhibitors. This study aimed to estimate the frequency of individuals with a virologic response by week 24 of antiretroviral treatment and to describe the adverse events of the regimen containing dolutegravir. This was a cohort of people living with HIV followed up at a referral hospital. Patients were included who had initiated their first treatment between January and August 2017. Data were obtained from medical records, the Drug Logistics Management System and from the Laboratory Tests Control System. Two hundred and twenty-two patients were included for the tolerability analysis and one hundred and thirty-seven for the virologic response analysis. The mean age was 34 years, the median time between diagnosis and initiating treatment was 1.9 months and the median time on antiretroviral therapy was 13.2 months. The frequency of adverse events was 10% (95% CI: 7% to 15.2%), of these, amongst the most frequent events, 91% presented gastrointestinal effects, and 47.8% neuropsychiatric. By week 24 the estimated incidence of virologic response was 89.1% (95% CI: 83% to 93.5%), with an increase during the first 6 months in the number of T-CD4 lymphocytes of 50.7 cells/mm 3 (95% CI: 42 to 59.3). Initial antiretroviral regimens containing dolutegravir were well tolerated and effective in viral suppression during the first 24 weeks after initiating treatment. The occurrence of adverse events was low, either mild or moderate.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/efeitos adversos , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/farmacologia , Segurança , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Virologia
5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236933, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are at a greater risk of developing tuberculosis (TB) compared to people without HIV and of developing complications due to the complexity of TB/HIV coinfection management. METHODS: During 2013-2017, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funded 5 TB Regional Training and Medical Consultation Centers (RTMCCs) (now known as TB Centers of Excellence or COEs) to provide medical consultation to providers for TB disease and latent TB infection (LTBI), with data entered into a Medical Consultation Database (MCD). Descriptive analyses of TB/HIV-related consultations were conducted using SAS® software, version [9.4] to determine the distribution of year of consultation, medical setting and provider type, frequency of consultations regarding a pediatric (<18 years) patient, and to categorize key concepts and themes arising within consultation queries and medical consultant responses. RESULTS: Of 14,586 consultations captured by the MCD in 2013-2017, 544 (4%) were categorized as TB/HIV-related, with 100 (18%) received in 2013, 129 (24%) in 2014, 104 (19%) in 2015, 117 (22%) in 2016, and 94 (17%) in 2017. Most TB/HIV consultations came from nurses (54%) or physicians (43%) and from local (65%) or state health departments (10%). Only 17 (3%) of HIV-related consultations involved pediatric cases. Off the 544 TB/HIV consultations, 347 (64%) concerned the appropriate treatment regimen for TB/HIV or LTBI/HIV for a patient on or not on antiretroviral therapy (ART). CONCLUSIONS: The data support a clear and ongoing gap in areas of specialized HIV knowledge by TB experts that could be supplemented with proactive educational outreach. The specific categories of TB/HIV inquiries captured by this analysis are strategically informing future targeted training and educational activities planned by the CDC TB Centers of Excellence, as well as guiding HIV educational efforts at regional and national TB meetings.


Assuntos
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S./economia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Pessoal de Saúde/economia , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Encaminhamento e Consulta/economia , Tuberculose/complicações , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Antituberculosos/efeitos adversos , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Segurança , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Estados Unidos
6.
Paediatr Drugs ; 22(5): 511-524, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936413

RESUMO

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a neurotropic virus that has a detrimental impact on the developing central nervous system (CNS) of children growing up with perinatal HIV (PHIV) due to a combination of pathophysiological processes related to direct viral cytopathic effects and immune activation. This leads to a spectrum of neurocognitive impairment ranging from severe encephalopathy to subtle domain-specific cognitive impairments, as well as psychological disorders that are compounded by HIV-related stigma and sociodemographic factors that disproportionately affect PHIV children. Early commencement and consistent use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has resulted in a dramatic improvement in neuropsychological outcomes for PHIV children; however, they remain vulnerable to cognitive impairment and psychological disorders, as evidenced by imaging findings, randomised clinical trials and observational studies. An optimal neuroprotective cART regimen remains elusive in children, but systemic viral suppression, regular neurocognitive and psychological screening and ready access to neuropsychological management strategies are key components for optimising neuropsychological outcomes. However, a lack of standardised and validated screening tools, particularly in resource-limited settings, hinders a precise understanding of the nature, prevalence and associations between neuropsychological symptomatology and HIV health. This article reviews the natural history, cellular pathophysiology and structural and functional imaging findings for children growing up with HIV, as well as summarising management strategies related to antiretroviral therapy, screening tools and specific interventions for neurocognitive impairments and psychological disorders.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Encéfalo/virologia , Criança , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Prevalência
7.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239452, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956419

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has reduced HIV-related morbidity and mortality at all stages of infection and reduced transmission of HIV. Currently, the immediate start of HAART is recommended for all HIV patients, regardless of the CD4 count. There are several concerns, however, about starting treatment in critically ill patients. Unpredictable absorption of medication by the gastrointestinal tract, drug toxicity, drug interactions, limited reserve to tolerate the dysfunction of other organs resulting from hypersensitivity to drugs or immune reconstitution syndrome, and the possibility that subtherapeutic levels of drug may lead to viral resistance are the main concerns. The objective of our study was to compare the early onset (up to 5 days) with late onset (after discharge from the ICU) of HAART in HIV-infected patients admitted to the ICU. METHODS: This was a randomized, open-label clinical trial enrolling HIV-infected patients admitted to the ICU of a public hospital in southern Brazil. Patients randomized to the intervention group had to start treatment with HAART within 5 days of ICU admission. For patients in the control group, treatment should begin after discharge from the ICU. The patients were followed up to determine mortality in the ICU, in the hospital and at 6 months. The primary outcome was hospital mortality. The secondary outcome was mortality at 6 months. RESULTS: The calculated sample size was 344 patients. Unfortunately, we decided to discontinue the study due to a progressively slower recruitment rate. A total of 115 patients were randomized. The majority of admissions were for AIDS-defining illnesses and low CD4. The main cause of admission was respiratory failure. Regarding the early and late study groups, there was no difference in hospital (66.7% and 63.8%, p = 0.75) or 6-month (68.4% and 79.2%, p = 0.20) mortality. After multivariate analysis, the only independent predictors of in-hospital mortality were shock and dialysis during the ICU stay. For the mortality outcome at 6 months, the independent variables were shock and dialysis during the ICU stay and tuberculosis at ICU admission. CONCLUSIONS: Although the early termination of the study precludes definitive conclusions being made, early HAART administration for HIV-infected patients admitted to the ICU compared to late administration did not show benefit in hospital mortality or 6-month mortality. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01455688. Registered 20 October 2011, https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01455688.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/etiologia , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacocinética , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/efeitos adversos , Brasil , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Estado Terminal , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Síndrome Inflamatória da Reconstituição Imune/etiologia , Síndrome Inflamatória da Reconstituição Imune/prevenção & controle , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Respiração Artificial , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia
8.
Value Health ; 23(7): 851-861, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762986

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Limited data describe patient preferences for the growing number of antiretroviral therapies (ARTs). We quantified preferences for key characteristics of modern ART deemed relevant to shared decision making. METHODS: A discrete choice experiment survey elicited preferences for ART characteristics, including dosing (frequency and number of pills), administration characteristics (pill size and meal requirement), most bothersome side effect (from diarrhea, sleep disturbance, headaches, dizziness/difficulty thinking, depression, or jaundice), and most bothersome long-term effect (from increased risk of heart attacks, bone fractures, renal dysfunction, hypercholesterolemia, or hyperglycemia). Between March and August 2017, the discrete choice experiment was fielded to 403 treatment-experienced persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), enrolled from 2 infectious diseases clinics in the southern United States and a national online panel. Participants completed 16 choice tasks, each comparing 3 treatment options. Preferences were analyzed using mixed and latent class logit models. RESULTS: Most participants were male (68%) and older (interquartile range: 42-58 years), and had substantial treatment experience (interquartile range: 7-21 years). In mixed logit analyses, all attributes were associated with preferences. Side and long-term effects were most important, with evidence of substantial preference heterogeneity. Latent class analysis identified 5 preference classes. For classes 1 (40%), 2 (24%), and 3 (21%), side effects were most important, followed by long-term effects. For class 4 (10%), dosing was most important. Class 5 (4%) was largely indifferent to ART characteristics. CONCLUSION: Overall, treatment-experienced persons living with HIV valued minimizing side effects and long-term toxicities over dosing and administration characteristics. Preferences varied widely, highlighting the need to elicit individual patient preferences in models of shared antiretroviral decision making.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Comportamento de Escolha , Tomada de Decisão Compartilhada , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Preferência do Paciente , Adulto , Idoso , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 582, 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited data are available on the effect of antiretroviral treatment (ART) or Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) on renal function in Ethiopians. We aimed to assess factors associated with renal function changes during the first year of ART with special focus on TDF. METHODS: HIV positive persons who were ≥ 18 years of age and eligible for ART initiation were recruited. Creatinine measurement to estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and spot urine analyses were performed at baseline and after 3, 6 and 12 months of ART. Univariate and multivariate linear regression and univariate logistic regression were used to determine factors associated with eGFR as continuous and categorical variable respectively. A linear mixed model was used to assess 12 month eGFR difference in TDF and non-TDF based regimen. RESULT: Of 340 ART-naïve HIV patients with baseline renal function tests, 82.3% (279/339) were initiated on a TDF based ART regimen. All patients were on non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) based ART regimen. The median (IQR) change in eGFR with 12 months of ART was 0.8 (- 11.1; 10.0) ml/min/1.73m2. About 41 and 26.9% of HIV patients had a drop of greater than 3 and 10 mL/min/1.73 m2 in eGFR at 12 month, respectively. However, none of the HIV patients declined to < 60 ml/min/1.73m2 within 12 months. Moreover, none of the HIV patients had persistent proteinuria or glycosuria. Older HIV patients especially age > 45 years and those with unsuppressed viral load at 6 month of ART had a significantly lower eGFR at 12 months of ART initiation. However, there was no difference in 12 month eGFR between HIV patients initiated on TDF based regimen and non-TDF based regimen. CONCLUSION: Renal function remained stable with no difference between HIV patients treated with TDF or non-TDF NNRTI based ART regimen over 12 months. However, older HIV patients and those with unsuppressed viral load deserve special focus on renal monitoring. Data on long-term safety of TDF (> 1 year) is still warranted in this population.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Tenofovir/efeitos adversos , Tenofovir/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Creatinina/sangue , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteinúria , Fatores de Risco , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 631, 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The drug resistance and the virologic failure of antiretroviral therapy (ART) are quite severe in Liangshan. A better understanding of the virologic failure of ART and the HIV-1 transmission network dynamics is essential for the surveillance and prevention of HIV. Here, we analyzed the HIV-1 CRF07_BC strain genetic transmission networks and their associated factors among people living with HIV-1 (PLWH) who had virologic failure of ART by using close genetic links. METHODS: The drug-resistant mutations were determined using the Stanford University HIV Drug Resistance Database. HIV-1 pol genes sequences were used for phylogenetic and genotypic drug resistance analysis. The genetic transmission networks were performed by comparing sequences, constructing the phylogenetic tree, calculating the pairwise distance, and visualizing the network. RESULTS: A total of 1050 PLWH with CRF07_BC pol sequences were finally identified and included in the genetic transmission network analysis from 2016 to 2017. Of the 1050 CRF07_BC pol sequences, 346 (32.95%) fell into clusters at a genetic distance of 0.006, resulting in 137 clusters ranging in size from 2 to 40 individuals. Subjects who were widowed or divorced were less likely to form a genetic transmission network (adjusted OR: 0.50), while subjects who had shared a needle ≥ five times were more likely to form a network (adjusted OR: 1.88). CONCLUSIONS: The genetic transmission networks revealed the complex transmission pattern, highlighting the urgent need for transmission monitoring of virologic failure of ART and selection of more effective therapeutic regimens to promote viral suppression.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , HIV-1/genética , Grupos Minoritários , Adolescente , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Genes pol , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Filogenia , Falha de Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
12.
Lancet HIV ; 7(10): e721-e730, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861269

RESUMO

When used appropriately, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) substantially reduces the risk of HIV acquisition. Early implementation outcomes often suggest poor PrEP adherence and persistence; however, this intervention is time-limited and the need for PrEP fluctuates as risk behaviours change. In this Viewpoint we examine the current guidelines and early programmatic outcomes after starting, stopping, and restarting PrEP, and we review the implications of PrEP in relation to HIV testing algorithms. Guidelines suggest to discontinue PrEP when a person is no longer at risk for HIV, but effectively implementing this strategy requires support tools to make the decision of stopping and restarting PrEP that considers the complex relationship between risk perceptions and risk behaviours. Safely discontinuing PrEP also requires greater understanding of the daily dosing duration that is needed to protect the person after their last HIV exposure. Additionally, clear strategies are needed to re-engage a person as their HIV exposure risk changes over time.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Gerenciamento Clínico , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Implementação de Plano de Saúde , Humanos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/métodos , Retratamento , Medição de Risco , Tempo para o Tratamento
13.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236642, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756581

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The long-term prognosis of HIV-2-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) is still challenging, due to the intrinsic resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) and the suboptimal response to some protease inhibitors (PI). The objective was to describe the 5-years outcomes among HIV-2 patients harboring drug-resistant viruses. METHODS: A clinic-based cohort of HIV-2-patients experiencing virologic failure, with at least one drug resistance mutation was followed from January 2012 to August 2017 in Côte d'Ivoire. Follow-up data included death, lost to follow-up (LTFU), immuno-virological responses. The Kaplan-Meier curve was used to estimate survival rates. RESULTS: A total of 31 HIV-2 patients with virologic failure and with at least one drug resistance mutation were included. Two-third of them were men, 28(90.3%) were on PI-based ART-regimen at enrolment and the median age was 50 years (IQR = 46-54). The median baseline CD4 count and viral load were 456 cells/mm3 and 3.7 log10 c/mL respectively, and the participants have been followed-up in median 57 months (IQR = 24-60). During this period, 21 (67.7%) patients switched at least one antiretroviral drug, including two (6.5%) and three (9.7%) who switched to a PI-based and an integrase inhibitor-based regimen respectively. A total of 10(32.3%) patients died and 4(12.9%) were LTFU. The 36 and 60-months survival rates were 68.5% and 64.9%, respectively. Among the 17 patients remaining in care, six(35.3%) had an undetectable viral load (<50 c/mL) and for the 11 others, the viral load ranged from 2.8 to 5.6 log10 c/mL. Twelve patients were receiving lopinavir at the time of first genotype, five(42%) had a genotypic susceptibility score (GSS) ≤1 and 4(33%) a GSS >2. CONCLUSIONS: The 36-months survival rate among ART-experienced HIV-2 patients with drug-resistant viruses is below 70%,lower than in HIV-1. There is urgent need to improve access to second-line ART for patients living with HIV-2 in West Africa.


Assuntos
Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/efeitos adversos , Farmacorresistência Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-2/genética , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Antirretrovirais/administração & dosagem , Antirretrovirais/efeitos adversos , Costa do Marfim/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/genética , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/efeitos adversos , HIV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-2/patogenicidade , Humanos , Lopinavir/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Ritonavir/administração & dosagem , Ritonavir/efeitos adversos , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Carga Viral/genética
14.
Lancet ; 396(10246): 239-254, 2020 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tenofovir alafenamide shows high antiviral efficacy and improved renal and bone safety compared with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate when used for HIV treatment. Here, we report primary results from a blinded phase 3 study evaluating the efficacy and safety of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with emtricitabine and tenofovir alafenamide versus emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for HIV prevention. METHODS: This study is an ongoing, randomised, double-blind, multicentre, active-controlled, phase 3, non-inferiority trial done at 94 community, public health, and hospital-associated clinics located in regions of Europe and North America, where there is a high incidence of HIV or prevalence of people living with HIV, or both. We enrolled adult cisgender men who have sex with men and transgender women who have sex with men, both with a high risk of acquiring HIV on the basis of their self-reported sexual behaviour in the past 12 weeks or their recent history (within 24 weeks of enrolment) of bacterial sexually transmitted infections. Participants with current or previous use of PrEP with emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate were not excluded. We used a computer-generated random allocation sequence to randomly assign (1:1) participants to receive either emtricitabine (200 mg) and tenofovir alafenamide (25 mg) tablets daily, with matched placebo tablets (emtricitabine and tenofovir alafenamide group), or emtricitabine (200 mg) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (300 mg) tablets daily, with matched placebo tablets (emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate group). As such, all participants were given two tablets. The trial sponsor, investigators, participants, and the study staff who provided the study drugs, assessed the outcomes, and collected the data were masked to group assignment. The primary efficacy outcome was incident HIV infection, which was assessed when all participants had completed 48 weeks of follow-up and half of all participants had completed 96 weeks of follow-up. This full analysis set included all randomly assigned participants who had received at least one dose of the assigned study drug and had at least one post-baseline HIV test. Non-inferiority of emtricitabine and tenofovir alafenamide to emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate was established if the upper bound of the 95·003% CI of the HIV incidence rate ratio (IRR) was less than the prespecified non-inferiority margin of 1·62. We prespecified six secondary bone mineral density and renal biomarker safety endpoints to evaluate using the safety analysis set. This analysis set included all randomly assigned participants who had received at least one dose of the assigned study drug. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02842086, and is no longer recruiting. FINDINGS: Between Sept 13, 2016, and June 30, 2017, 5387 (92%) of 5857 participants were randomly assigned and received emtricitabine and tenofovir alafenamide (n=2694) or emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (n=2693). At the time of the primary efficacy analysis (ie, when all participants had completed 48 weeks and 50% had completed 96 weeks) emtricitabine and tenofovir alafenamide was non-inferior to emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for HIV prevention, as the upper limit of the 95% CI of the IRR, was less than the prespecified non-inferiority margin of 1·62 (IRR 0·47 [95% CI 0·19-1·15]). After 8756 person-years of follow-up, 22 participants were diagnosed with HIV, seven participants in the emtricitabine and tenofovir alafenamide group (0·16 infections per 100 person-years [95% CI 0·06-0·33]), and 15 participants in the emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate group (0·34 infections per 100 person-years [0·19-0·56]). Both regimens were well tolerated, with a low number of participants reporting adverse events that led to discontinuation of the study drug (36 [1%] of 2694 participants in the emtricitabine and tenofovir alafenamide group vs 49 [2%] of 2693 participants in the emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate group). Emtricitabine and tenofovir alafenamide was superior to emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in all six prespecified bone mineral density and renal biomarker safety endpoints. INTERPRETATION: Daily emtricitabine and tenofovir alafenamide shows non-inferior efficacy to daily emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for HIV prevention, and the number of adverse events for both regimens was low. Emtricitabine and tenofovir alafenamide had more favourable effects on bone mineral density and biomarkers of renal safety than emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. FUNDING: Gilead Sciences.


Assuntos
Adenina/análogos & derivados , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Combinação Emtricitabina e Fumarato de Tenofovir Desoproxila/uso terapêutico , Emtricitabina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Tenofovir/uso terapêutico , Adenina/efeitos adversos , Adenina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Emtricitabina/efeitos adversos , Combinação Emtricitabina e Fumarato de Tenofovir Desoproxila/efeitos adversos , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Homossexualidade Masculina/etnologia , Humanos , Masculino , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/métodos , Prevalência , Segurança , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Tenofovir/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235759, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634168

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Renal abnormalities in HIV infected children may be due to the HIV infection or treatment among other factors. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is associated with proximal renal tubular dysfunction, proteinuria and decrease in glomerular function. Studies in developed countries have shown variable prevalence of proximal renal tubular dysfunction in children on TDF. There are no known studies in developing countries, including Zimbabwe, documenting the proximal tubular function in HIV infected children on TDF. The aim of this study was to assess renal and proximal renal tubular function in HIV infected children receiving TDF and determine factors associated with proximal tubular dysfunction. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in HIV infected patients below 18 years of age attending outpatient clinics at two tertiary hospitals in Harare, who received a TDF-containing antiretroviral regimen for at least six months. Dipstick protein and glucose, serum and urine phosphate and creatinine levels were measured. Fractional excretion of phosphate was calculated. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the Schwartz formula. Tubular dysfunction was defined by at least two of the following characteristics: normoglycaemic glycosuria, hypophosphatemia and fractional excretion of phosphate > 18%. FINDINGS: One hundred and ninety-eight children below 18 years of age were recruited over a period of six months. The prevalence of tubular dysfunction was 0.5%. Normoglycaemic glycosuria occurred in 1 (0.5%), fractional excretion of phosphate >18% in 4 (2%), and hypophosphatemia in 22 [11.1%] patients. Severe stunting was associated with increased risk of hypophosphatemia (OR 9.31 CI (1.18, 80.68) p = 0.03). Reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 90ml/min/1.73m2 and proteinuria was evident in 35.9% and 32.8% of children, respectively. Concurrent TDF and HIV-1 protease inhibitor-based regimen was the only independent factor associated with reduction in GFR (OR 4.43 CI (1.32; 4.89) p = 0.016). CONCLUSION: Tubular dysfunction was uncommon in Zimbabwean children on a TDF-based ART regimen. Hypophosphatemia, proteinuria and reduction in eGFR were common. Reassessing renal function using more sensitive biomarkers is needed to examine the long-term tolerance of TDF.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Síndrome de Fanconi/etiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/uso terapêutico , Tenofovir/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Síndrome de Fanconi/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Proteinúria/etiologia , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/efeitos adversos , Tenofovir/efeitos adversos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Zimbábue
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 443, 2020 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture is one of the areas that most severely affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in China, and virological failure on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is serious in this area. Analyses of prevalence and determinants of ART failure, the genetic diversity and drug resistance among people living with HIV (PLWH) helps improve HIV treatment efficiency and prevent HIV transmission. METHODS: A total of 5157 PLWH were recruited from 2016 to 2017. The venous blood samples were subjected to RT-PCR, followed by sequencing of the HIV-1 pol gene, targeting the protease and reverse transcriptase fragments. HIV-1 diversity was analyzed using the DNAStar software and drug resistance mutations were analyzed using the Stanford University HIV Drug Resistance Database. RESULTS: A total of 2156 (41.81%) PLWH showed virological failure on ART. Males (ORm = 1.25), heterosexual behaviors and drug injection (ORm = 1.44) and mother to child transmission routes (ORm = 1.58), the clinical stage of AIDS (ORm = 1.35), having used illicit drugs and shared the needles (1-4 times: ORm = 1.34; more than 5 times: ORm = 1.52), having ever replaced ART regimen (ORm = 1.48) increased the risk of virological failure among PLWH, while higher education lever (ORm = 0.77) and ≥ 12 months on ART (12 ~ 36 months: ORm = 0.72; ≥36 months: ORm = 0.66) was associated with lower likelihood of virological failure. The data revealed that CRF07_BC (1508, 95.62%) were the most common strains, and the drug-resistant rate was 32.10% among PLWH with virological failure in this area. The high frequencies of drug resistance were found in EFV and NVP of NNRTIs, ABC, FTC and 3TC of NRTIs, and TPV/r in PIs. The most common mutations in NNRTIs, NRTIs and PIs were K103N/KN (64.69%), M184V/MV/I (36.29%) and Q58E/QE (4.93%), respectively. CONCLUSION: We concluded that surveillance of virological failure, HIV-1 subtypes, and drug resistance to understand HIV-1 epidemiology and guide modification of ART guidelines, and target prevention and control strategies should be formatted to reduce the virological failure and drug resistance to promote viral suppression and prevent HIV-1 transmission.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Variação Genética , HIV-1/genética , Grupos Minoritários , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/uso terapêutico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/sangue , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/transmissão , Adolescente , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Genes pol , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Mutação , Prevalência , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
17.
Int J STD AIDS ; 31(7): 689-693, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32538332

RESUMO

Renal monitoring is recommended for Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) users. We aimed to explore follow-up and outcomes among PrEP users with renal impairment (defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate <65 mL/min/1.73 m2) attending Sydney Sexual Health Centre. Time to follow-up was analysed for impairment results over a 12-month period (January-December 2018); 48/2504 (1.9%) tests among 1700 attendees showed impairment. Follow-up occurred in 39/48 (81.3%) impairment results after a median of 42 days. PrEP was ceased in 3/6 cases of non-resolving/persisting impairment, with one case of subsequent human immunodeficiency virus infection. Maintaining engagement and follow-up of those with renal impairment are important aspects of PrEP service provision.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Rim/fisiopatologia , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/métodos , Insuficiência Renal/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Austrália/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Auditoria Médica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Renal/induzido quimicamente , Insuficiência Renal/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Braz J Infect Dis ; 24(2): 104-109, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360120

RESUMO

HIV infection may be considered a chronic condition for people living with HIV with access to antiretrovirals and this has effectively increased survival. Moreover, this has also facilitated the emergence of other comorbidities increasing the risk for drug-drug interactions and polypharmacy. The profile of these interactions as well as their consequences for people living with HIV are still not completely elucidated. The objectives of this study were to describe the profile of these interactions, their prevalence and their classification according to the potential for significant or non-significant drug-drug interactions. From June 2015 to July 2016, people living with HIV on follow-up at an Infectious Diseases Referral Center in Belo Horizonte, Brazil have been investigated for the presence of drug-drug interactions. A total of 304 patients were included and the majority (75%) had less than 50 years of age, male (66.4%), and 37.8% self-defined as brown skinned. Approximately 24% were on five or more medications and half of them presented with drug-drug interactions. Patients older than 50 years had a higher frequency of antiretrovirals drug-drug interactions with other drugs compared to younger patients (p=0.002). No relationship was found between the number of drug-drug interactions and the effectiveness of antiretrovirals. As expected, the higher the number of non-HIV medications used (OR=1.129; 95%CI 1.004-1.209; p=0.04) was associated with an increase in drug-drug interactions. The high prevalence of drug-drug interactions found and the data collected should be useful to establish measures of quaternary prevention and to increase the medication security for people living with HIV.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/efeitos adversos , Interações Medicamentosas , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimedicação , Fatores de Risco
19.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232473, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32357195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Two-drug regimens (2DR) to treat HIV infection have the potential to reduce long-term toxicity and increase therapeutic options for people living with HIV (PLHIV). Prior phase III trials, SWORD-1 and SWORD-2, as well as GEMINI-1 and GEMINI-2, have demonstrated that a dolutegravir-based 2DR is as effective as three- or four-drug regimens among virologically suppressed patients. Limited information exists, however, on patient and provider experiences with 2DR to inform roll-out and integration into routine clinical care. METHODS: We conducted 39 in-depth interviews with PLHIV currently on 2DR in the context of routine care and 8 of their clinical care providers in the United States (U.S.) and Spain. Participants included 33 male and 6 female PLHIV and 8 providers. Interview topics explored perceptions of and experiences with 2DR compared to prior anti-retroviral regimens (ARVs), side effects, patient satisfaction, and clinical performance. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analyzed using thematic content analysis. RESULTS: Participants viewed 2DR as a significant and positive advance, in terms of its ability to effectively treat HIV with reduced toxicity and essentially no reported side effects. Patients noted the central role providers played in the decision to switch to a 2DR regimen and, among U.S. participants, the importance of insurance coverage making this preferred option feasible. Patients and providers agreed that a 2DR regimen would be appropriate for any PLHIV regardless of whether they were treatment naïve or had significant experience with ARVs. CONCLUSIONS: Participants' experiences with a 2DR regimen were positive with no participants, reporting side effects and all reporting continued viral suppression. Providers valued the reduced toxicity offered by 2DR and served as the primary gateway to a transition to 2DR for patients in both settings. This study provides a foundation for further research on the transition to 2DR regimens in other populations and contexts including low- and middle-income settings.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/economia , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Tomada de Decisões , Custos de Medicamentos , Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada/economia , Quimioterapia Combinada/psicologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Preferência do Paciente , Espanha , Estados Unidos
20.
BMC Neurol ; 20(1): 179, 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32397957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diverse mechanisms including infections, autoimmune inflammatory reactions, neoplasms, and degeneration are involved in the central nervous system in cases of acquired immune deficiency syndrome. In such cases, it is difficult to determine the precise pathogenesis by radiological examination and laboratory testing. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a 37-year-old Japanese woman who had untreated hypertension and gender identity disorder and had been taking testosterone injections since she was 19 years old. She developed a headache and visual field deficits together with elevated blood pressure. According to radiological findings, she was initially suspected as having posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in the right parieto-occipital lobe with reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome. Human immunodeficiency virus antibody was positive and the CD4+ T-lymphocyte count was 140 cells/µl. Therefore, antiretroviral therapy was started. Antiretroviral therapy suppressed the activity of acquired immune deficiency syndrome but worsened her visual symptoms and expanding radiological lesions. Brain biopsy led to the diagnosis of CD8+ encephalitis, and she also fulfilled the diagnosis of paradoxical immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Corticosteroid therapy alleviated her symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: This is a rare case of CD8+ encephalitis, with an exacerbation owing to paradoxical immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome after antiretroviral therapy, which radiologically mimicked posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. Corticosteroid therapy was effective; thus, it is important to provide a pathological diagnosis in such cases.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Encefalite/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome da Leucoencefalopatia Posterior/diagnóstico , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Encefalite/etiologia , Encefalite/imunologia , Feminino , Disforia de Gênero , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Humanos , Síndrome Inflamatória da Reconstituição Imune/induzido quimicamente
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