Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 24.914
Filtrar
1.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(8): 936-940, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484257

RESUMO

Objective: To study the survival time and influencing factors of HIV/AIDS cases who began receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) from 2005 to 2015 in Tianjin. Methods: Data related to HIV/AIDS cases that receiving ART between 2005 and 2015 in Tianjin, were collected from the Chinese HIV/AIDS Basic Information Management System. A retrospective cohort study was conducted to analyze data of collection. Life table was used to calculate the survival proportion and Cox proportion hazard regression model was used to analyze the factors associated to the time of survival. Results: A total of 2 057 HIV/AIDS cases were involved, including 51 died from AIDS related disease, ending up with the survival rates of 1, 3, 5 and 10 years as 98.4%, 97.8%, 97.4% and 95.8%, respectively. Results from the multivariate Cox proportion hazard regression model showed that when comparing with the cases aged<30 years, aHR (95%CI) of the cases aged 30-39 years, 40-49 years, 50 years or above appeared as 4.506 (1.226-9.059), 5.944 (1.479-13.892) and 15.958 (5.309-27.206) respectively. When comparing with the cases having no loss of follow-up during ART process, the aHR of the cases having lost of follow-up during ART was 5.645 (95%CI: 3.124-10.200). When comparing with the cases diagnosed by other institutions, the aHR of the cases diagnosed by hospitals was 3.823 (95%CI: 1.423-10.274). When compared with the cases had no hepatitis B or hepatitis C before ART, aHR of the cases with hepatitis B or C prior to ART was 2.580 (95%CI:1.210-5.502). Compared with the cases receiving ART at Ⅰ/Ⅱ clinical stages, the aHR of the cases at Ⅲ/Ⅳ clinical stages was 3.947 (95%CI: 2.167-7.188). Compared with the cases with junior high school education or below, the aHR of the cases with high school education or above was 0.440 (95%CI: 0.238-0.810). Compared with the cases diagnosed before operation, aHR of the cases from special investigation and from counseling and testing (VCT) were 0.111 (0.027-0.456) and 0.182 (0.049-0.674) respectively. Conclusions: The survival rate of HIV/AIDS cases that received ART was high in Tianjin. Risk factors related to the survival of cases would include: old age when started receiving ART, loss of follow-up during ART, diagnosed by hospitals, co-infected with hepatitis B or hepatitis C and receiving ART at Ⅲ/Ⅳ clinical stages. Meanwhile, protective factors related to the survival of cases would include: having high school or above education, diagnosis was made through other special programs or from VCT services.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/mortalidade , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Análise de Sobrevida , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
2.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(8): 982-987, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484265

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the distribution of HIV-1 genotypes and the status of drug resistance among people living with HIV who had prepared to initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Dehong Dai and Jingpo autonomous prefecture (Dehong). Methods: A total of 170 adults with HIV were recruited in Dehong from January to June 2017, before initiating ART. HIV-1 pol genes were amplified and used to analyze the HIV-1 genotypes and drug resistance. Results: A total of 147 samples were successfully sequenced. Based on the phylogenetic analysis, 12 HIV-1 genotypes were found among the subjects, including three predominant genotypes such as subtype C (29.9%, 44/147), unique recombinant forms (URFs) (27.2%, 40/147) and CRF01_AE (19.7%, 29/147). Circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) which were newly identified in this area in recent years were also found among these subjects, including CRF62_BC, CRF64_BC, CRF86_BC and CRF96_cpx. The distribution of HIV-1 genotypes between heterosexual transmission or intravenous drug use, showed statistical difference. Surveillance drug resistance mutations (SDRMs) were found among 8.8% (13/147) of the subjects. Proportion of drug resistant strains among injecting drug users (25.0%, 8/32) was higher than that among those heterosexual transmitted individuals (4.6%, 5/109, χ(2)=10.166, P=0.002). Conclusions: Among people living with HIV-1 who had prepared to initiate ART, their HIV-1 genetics were highly complicated, with moderate prevalence rate of HIV-1 drug-resistant strains.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/genética , Adulto , Análise do Polimorfismo de Comprimento de Fragmentos Amplificados , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , China/epidemiologia , Genes pol , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Filogenia
3.
AIDS Behav ; 23(9): 2219-2225, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31440859

RESUMO

Carefully controlled clinical trials have determined that theory-based behavioral interventions delivered by adherence nurses, professional and paraprofessional counselors, and case managers improve ART adherence and viral suppression. However, there are no studies that empirically inform how much intervention is needed for which patient populations and at what cost. This Editorial raises the issue of how a lack of intervention dosing limits interpretation of trial results and impedes implementation, therefore calling for behavioral intervention dose-finding studies.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação , HIV , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(32): e16813, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393412

RESUMO

Dolutegravir (DTG) has shown effectiveness in combination with rilpivirine in with experience of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and with 3TC in naïve patients (GEMINI trial). The main objectives of this real-life study were to analyze the effectiveness and safety of 3TC plus DTG in virologically suppressed HIV-1 patients and to conduct a pharmacoeconomic analysis.We conducted an observational, retrospective and multicenter study of HIV+ patients pretreated for at least 6 months with ART that was then simplified to 3TC + DTG for any reason. We gathered data on viral loads (VLs) during exposure to the DT, calculating the rate with VL < 50 copies/mL at week 48, and on associated adverse effects.The 177 HIV+ patients were collected, 77.4% male, with average age of 48.5 years and mean count of 252.2cell/µL CD4+ nadir lymphocytes; 96.6% had VL < 50 copies/mL and 674 cells/µL CD4+ lymphocytes. Median time since HIV diagnosis was 15 years, and median ART duration was 13 years, and 34.5% of patients were on mono- or dual-therapy before the switch. At week 48, 82.4% of patients had VL < 50 cop/µL using an intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis, 89.6% according to mITT, and 96.7% according to Per-Protocol analysis. 3.3% patients had virological failure (VF). These effectiveness data and costs were compared with those for 2 reference triple therapies (DTG/ABC/3TC and EVG/cobi/FTC/TAF) in a cost minimization analysis, showing cost savings with administration of DTG+3TC (2741 &OV0556;/year vs DTG/ABC/3TC and 4164 &OV0556;/year vs EVG/cobi/FTC/TAF) and in a cost-effectiveness analysis, finding the DT to be the most cost-effective approach (ICER = -548 vs DTG/ABC/3TC and ICER = -4,627&OV0556; vs EVG/cobi/FTC/TAF)The combination of 3TC with DTG appears to be a safe and effective option for the simplification of ART in pretreated and virologically stable HIV-positive patients, being cost-effective and offering the same effectiveness as the triple therapy it replaces.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/uso terapêutico , Lamivudina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/economia , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Análise Custo-Benefício , Quimioterapia Combinada , Farmacoeconomia , Honorários Farmacêuticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , HIV-1 , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/administração & dosagem , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/efeitos adversos , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/economia , Humanos , Lamivudina/administração & dosagem , Lamivudina/efeitos adversos , Lamivudina/economia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Carga Viral
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 601, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291899

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite effective antiretroviral therapy developed over the last decade, HIV infection remains a major worldwide public health problem. Recently, a promising preventive treatment has been made available for HIV prophylaxis, PrEP for pre-ExPosure Prophylaxis. Indeed, it was shown to significantly reduce the risk of HIV infection in patients exposed to high risk of infection such as men having sex with men (MSM), heterosexuals and people who inject drugs. Several issues pertaining to PrEP remain uncertain including short and long-term adverse events, drug resistance, risk compensation and resurgence of other sexually transmitted infections. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a 52-year-old MSM eligible for PrEP as he was exposed to a high risk of HIV infection, presented no clinical symptoms of HIV primary infection and was seronegative for HIV. PrEP therapy was then initiated with fixed association of emtricitabine-tenofovir disoproxil. One month later, HIV tests using two different assays were positive, despite perfect compliance reported by the patient and confirmed by plasma drug level. A retrospective search for plasma viral RNA in the blood sample before PrEP initiation turned out positive. Genotyping and treatment sensitivity performed on sample after one month of PrEP showed a virus resistance to lamivudine and emtricitabine. Similar cases in the literature and pivotal studies have reported HIV infections in patients initiating or undergoing PrEP. These patients where either infected but still seronegative, displaying no clinical symptoms upon enrollment, or became infected during PrEP. Reasons are mainly poor compliance to treatment, resistance to PrEP, and lack of diagnosis before PrEP. Guidelines advocate safe sex behavior before initiation, search for clinical signs of HIV primary infection and two different serologic tests performed with one-month interval. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Our patient newly HIV infected received PrEP as he was still seronegative. Current recommendations fail to screen recently HIV infected, but still seronegative patients who are initiating PrEP. This issue raises strong concerns regarding the lack of adequate selection for eligibility to PrEP and may contribute to exposing partners to HIV infection and select viral mutations. Infection risk could be minimized by search for plasma viral HIV RNA at pre-inclusion, at least for patients suspected of unsafe behaviors such as non-respect of the non-exposure period before PrEP initiation.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/normas , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Viral/sangue , RNA Viral/genética
6.
BMJ ; 366: l4179, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285198

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of four drug (quadruple) versus three drug (triple) combination antiretroviral therapies in treatment naive people with HIV, and explore the implications of existing trials for clinical practice and research. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, Web of Science, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature from March 2001 to December 2016 (updated search in PubMed and EMBASE up to June 2018); and reference lists of eligible studies and related reviews. STUDY SELECTION: Randomised controlled trials comparing quadruple with triple combination antiretroviral therapies in treatment naive people with HIV and evaluating at least one effectiveness or safety outcome. REVIEW METHODS: Outcomes of interest included undetectable HIV-1 RNA, CD4 T cell count, virological failure, new AIDS defining events, death, and severe adverse effects. Random effects meta-analyses were conducted. RESULTS: Twelve trials (including 4251 people with HIV) were eligible. Quadruple and triple combination antiretroviral therapies had similar effects on all relevant effectiveness and safety outcomes, with no point estimates favouring quadruple therapy. With the triple therapy as the reference group, the risk ratio was 0.99 (95% confidence interval 0.93 to 1.05) for undetectable HIV-1 RNA, 1.00 (0.90 to 1.11) for virological failure, 1.17 (0.84 to 1.63) for new AIDS defining events, 1.23 (0.74 to 2.05) for death, and 1.09 (0.89 to 1.33) for severe adverse effects. The mean difference in CD4 T cell count increase between the two groups was -19.55 cells/µL (-43.02 to 3.92). In general, the results were similar, regardless of the specific regimens of combination antiretroviral therapies, and were robust in all subgroup and sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSION: In this study, effects of quadruple combination antiretroviral therapy were not better than triple combination antiretroviral therapy in treatment naive people with HIV. This finding lends support to current guidelines recommending the triple regimen as first line treatment. Further trials on this topic should be conducted only when new research is justified by adequate systematic reviews of the existing evidence. However, this study cannot exclude the possibility that quadruple cART would be better than triple cART when new classes of antiretroviral drugs are made available.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
7.
Braz J Infect Dis ; 23(3): 151-159, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271732

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV infection harms adaptive cellular immunity mechanisms. Long-term virological control by combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) reduces the risk of mycobacterial infections. Thus, we aimed to study cellular responses to mycobacterial antigens in 20 HIV-infected adolescents with at least one year of virological control (HIV-RNA <40 copies/mL) and 20 healthy adolescents. METHODS: We evaluated CD8 and γδ T-cell degranulation by measurement of CD107a membrane expression after stimulation with lysates from BCG (10 µg/mL) and H37RA Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb, 10 µg/mL). Immune activation and antigen-presenting ability were also assessed by determination of HLA-DR, CD80, and CD86 markers. RESULTS: TCR γδ T-cell CD107a expression was similar between groups in response to mycobacterial antigens, and lower in the HIV-infected group in response to mitogen. Higher baseline HLA-DR expression and lower mycobacterial-stimulated expression was found within the HIV-infected group. CONCLUSIONS: Similar degranulation in stimulated CD8+ and TCR γδ T-cells from HIV-infected adolescents, when compared to healthy controls suggests long-term immunological preservation with immune reconstitution under successful cART. However, differences in HLA-DR expression may represent ongoing inflammation and lower specific responses in HIV-infected youth. These features may be relevant in the context of the precocity and severity of vertically acquired HIV infection.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/imunologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/imunologia , Tuberculose/imunologia , Apresentação do Antígeno/imunologia , Antígenos de Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 654, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331280

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Retaining patients on antiretroviral treatment in care is critical to sustaining the 90:90:90 vision. Nigeria has made some progress in placing HIV-positive patients on treatment. In an effort to increase access to treatment, ART decentralization has been implemented in the country. This is aimed at strengthening lower level health facilities to provide comprehensive antiretroviral treatment. We determined the level of retention and adherence to treatment as well as the associated factors among private and public secondary level hospitals in Anambra State. METHOD: We conducted a cross-sectional study among patients who had taken antiretroviral treatment for at least one complete year. A structured questionnaire and patient record review were used to extract information on patient adherence to treatment, and retention in care. Adherence to treatment was ascertained by patient self-report of missed pills in the 30 days prior to date of interview. Retention in care was ascertained using the 3-month visit constancy method reviewing the period spanning 12 months prior to the study. RESULT: We found a comparable level of retention in care (private 81.1%; public 80.3%; p = 0.722). However, treatment adherence was significantly higher amongst participants in the private hospitals compared to those in the public hospitals (private: 95.3%; public: 90.7%; p = 0.001). Determinants of good retention in the private hospitals included disclosure of one's HIV status (AOR: 1.94, 95% CI: 1.09-3.46), being on first-line regimen (AOR: 3.07, 95% CI: 1.27-7.41), whereas being on once-daily regimen (AOR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.36-0.92), and being currently married (AOR: 0.54 95% CI: 0.32-0.91) determined poor retention. In the public hospitals, only disclosure (AOR: 3.12 95% CI: 1.81-5.56) determined good retention, whereas, spending less than N1000 on transport (AOR: 0.230 95% CI: 0.07-0.78) and residing in a rural area (AOR: 0.64 95% CI: 0.41-0.99) determined poor retention. None of the factors determined adherence. CONCLUSION: Retention in care was high and comparable among the different hospital types and HIV disclosure status was an important factor relating to retention in care. The other factors that determined retention were however different at public and private hospitals. The HIV program manager should consider these variations in designing programs to improve patient retention in care and adherence to treatment.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Retenção nos Cuidados/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitais Privados/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Públicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Nigéria , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(27): e16329, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277180

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Over one-third of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women are clinically depressed, increasing the risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV, as well as negative birth and child development outcomes. This study will evaluate the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of an evidence-based stepped care treatment model for perinatal depression (maternal depression treatment in HIV [M-DEPTH]) to improve adherence to prevention of MTCT care among HIV+ women in Uganda. METHODS: Eight antenatal care (ANC) clinics in Uganda will be randomized to implement either M-DEPTH (n=4) or usual care (n=4) for perinatal depression among 400 pregnant women (n=50 per clinic) between June 2019 and August 2022. At each site, women who screen positive for potential depression will be enrolled and followed for 18 months post-delivery, assessed in 6-month intervals: baseline, within 1 month of child delivery or pregnancy termination, and months 6, 12, and 18 following delivery. Primary outcomes include adherence to the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) care continuum-including maternal antiretroviral therapy and infant antiretrovial prophylaxis, and maternal virologic suppression; while secondary outcomes will include infant HIV status, post-natal maternal and child health outcomes, and depression treatment uptake and response. Repeated-measures multivariable regression analyses will be conducted to compare outcomes between M-DEPTH and usual care, using 2-tailed tests and an alpha cut-off of P <.05. Using a micro-costing approach, the research team will relate costs to outcomes, examining the incremental cost-effectiveness ration (ICER) of M-DEPTH relative to care as usual. DISCUSSION: This cluster randomized controlled trial will be one of the first to compare the effects of an evidence-based depression care model versus usual care on adherence to each step of the PMTCT care continuum. If determined to be efficacious and cost-effective, this study will provide a model for integrating depression care into ANC clinics and promoting adherence to PMTCT. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NIH Clinical Trial Registry NCT03892915 (clinicaltrials.gov).


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/psicologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/terapia , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Adolescente , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Depressivo/diagnóstico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Gravidez , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 663, 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biomedical interventions such as antiretroviral therapy (ART) and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) are highly effective for prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, China has not released national PrEP guidelines, and HIV incidence among men who have sex with men (MSM) is unchanged despite substantial scale-up of ART. We evaluated reductions in HIV transmission that may be achieved through early initiation of ART plus partners' PrEP. METHODS: Six intervention scenarios were evaluated in terms of their impact on HIV transmission and their cost-effectiveness for 36 months post-infection. Three scenarios were based on observed data: non-ART, standard-ART, and early-ART. Another three scenarios were based on observed and hypothetical data: non-ART plus partners' PrEP, standard-ART plus partners' PrEP, and early-ART plus partners' PrEP. The number of onward transmissions was calculated according to viral load and self-reported sexual behaviors, and calibrated by the prevalence and incidence of HIV among Chinese MSM. Cost-effectiveness outcomes were quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and cost-utility ratio (CUR). RESULTS: The estimated number of onward transmissions by every 100 HIV-positive cases 36 months post-infection was 41.83 (95% credible interval: 30.75-57.69) in the non-ART scenario, 7.95 (5.85-10.95) in the early-ART scenario, and 0.79 (0.58-1.09) in the early-ART plus partners' PrEP scenario. Compared with non-ART, the early-ART and early-ART plus partners' PrEP scenarios were associated with an 81.0 and 98.1% reduction in HIV transmission, and had a CUR of $12,864/QALY and $16,817/QALY, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Integrated delivery of early ART and sexual partners' PrEP could nearly eliminate HIV transmission and reduce costs during the first 36 months of HIV infection. Our results suggest a feasible and cost-effective strategy for reversing the HIV epidemic among MSM in China.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/economia , Adulto , Idoso , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Antirretrovirais/economia , China , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Custo-Benefício , Infecções por HIV/economia , Soropositividade para HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/métodos , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Prevenção Secundária/economia , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 569, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262272

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) was rolled-out in Ethiopia in 2005, but there are no reports on outcome of ART and human immunodeficiency virus drug resistance (HIVDR) at national level. We described acquired drug resistance mutations in pol gene and performed a viral genome wide association study in virologic treatment failure patients who started first line ART during 2009-2011 in the first large countrywide HIV cohort in Ethiopia. METHODS: The outcome of tenofovir (TDF)- and zidovudine (ZDV)-based ART was defined in 874 ART naïve patients using the on-treatment (OT) and intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses. Genotypic resistance testing was done in patients failing ART (> 1000 copies/ml) at month 6 and 12. Near full-length genome sequencing (NFLG) was used to assess amino acid changes in HIV-1 gag, pol, vif, vpr, tat, vpu, and nef genes between paired baseline and month 6 samples. RESULTS: High failure rates were found in ITT analysis at month 6 and 12 (23.3%; 33.9% respectively). Major nucleoside and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase (NRTI/NNRTI) drug resistance mutations were detected in most failure patients at month 6 (36/47; 77%) and month 12 (20/30; 67%). A high rate of K65R was identified only in TDF treated patients (35.7%; 50.0%, respectively). No significant difference was found in failure rate or extent of HIVDR between TDF- and ZDV- treated patients. All target regions of interest for HIVDR were described by NFLG in 16 patients tested before initiation of ART and at month 6. CONCLUSION: In this first Ethiopian national cohort, a high degree of HIVDR was seen among ART failure patients, independent on whether TDF- or ZDV was given. However, the major reason to ART failure was lost-to-follow-up rather than virologic failure. Our NFLG assay covered all relevant target genes for antiretrovirals and is an attractive alternative for HIVDR surveillance.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/genética , Mutação , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Farmacorresistência Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Etiópia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Integrase de HIV/genética , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/uso terapêutico , Tenofovir/uso terapêutico , Falha de Tratamento , Zidovudina/uso terapêutico
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 588, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV controllers (HICs) are a rare group of HIV-1-infected individuals able to naturally control viral replication. Several studies have identified the occurrence of HIV dual infections in seropositive individuals leading to disease progression. In HICs, however, dual infections with divergent outcomes in pathogenesis have been described. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we present a case report of a HIC diagnosed in late 1999 who displayed stable CD4+ T cell levels and low plasmatic viral load across 12 years of follow-up. In early 2013, the patient started to present an increase in viral load, reaching a peak of 10,000 copies/ml in early 2014, followed by an oscillation of viremia at moderate levels in the following years. The genetic diversity of env proviral quasispecies from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was studied by single genome amplification (SGA) at six timepoints across 2009-2017. Phylogenetic analyses of env sequences from 2009 and 2010 samples showed the presence of a single subtype B variant (called B1). Analyses of sequences from 2011 and after revealed an additional subtype B variant (called B2) and a subsequent dominance shift in the proviral quasispecies frequencies, with the B2 variant becoming the most frequent from 2014 onwards. Latent syphilis related to unprotected sexual intercourse was diagnosed a year before the first detection of B2, evidencing risk behavior and supporting the superinfection hypothesis. Immunologic analyses revealed an increase in CD8+ and CD4+ T cell immune activation following viremia increase and minor T cell subset alterations during follow-up. HIV-specific T cell responses remained low throughout the follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, these results show that loss of viremia control in the HIC was associated with superinfection. These data alert to the negative consequences of reinfection on HIV pathogenesis, even in patients with a long history of viremia control and an absence of disease progression, reinforcing the need for continued use of adequate prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/fisiologia , Superinfecção/virologia , Replicação Viral/fisiologia , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/virologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/virologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , HIV-1/patogenicidade , Antígenos HLA-B/genética , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia , Masculino , Filogenia , RNA Viral/sangue , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Carga Viral , Viremia/tratamento farmacológico , Viremia/virologia
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 583, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles are implicated in drug-induced hypersensitivity, including by nevirapine and abacavir. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the relationship between HLA polymorphisms and hypersensitivity to antiretroviral therapy in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library for studies that evaluated the associations of HLA polymorphisms with antiretroviral therapy-induced hypersensitivity published in April 2019. The summary odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were considered as estimates of the effect. RESULTS: The meta-analysis included 17 studies that assessed a total of 4273 patients. First, carriers of HLA-A *24 were associated with an increased risk of hypersensitivity among patients with HIV who received antiretroviral therapy (OR: 12.12; P = 0.018). Second, five SNPs of HLA-B genotypes, including *18 (OR: 1.63; P = 0.028), *35 (OR: 2.31; P = 0.002), *39 (OR: 11.85; P = 0.040), *51 (OR: 1.66; P = 0.028), and *81 (OR: 8.11; P = 0.021), were associated with an increased risk of hypersensitivity. Conversely, carriers of HLA-B *15 were associated with a reduced risk of hypersensitivity (OR: 0.43; P < 0.001). Third, HLA-C *04 was associated with an increased risk of hypersensitivity (OR: 3.09; P < 0.001), whereas a lower risk for hypersensitivity was observed in patients who were carriers of HLA-C *02 (OR: 0.22; P = 0.030), *03 (OR: 0.53; P = 0.049), and *07 (OR: 0.61; P = 0.044). Finally, carriers of HLA-DRB1 *05 (OR: 0.18; P = 0.006) and *15 (OR: 0.23; P = 0.013) were associated with a reduced risk of hypersensitivity among patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this meta-analysis indicated patients carrying HLA-A *24, HLA-B *18, *35, *39, *51, *81, HLA-C *04 were associated with a higher risk of hypersensitivity. Conversely, subjects carrying HLA-B *15, HLA-C *02, *03, *07, HLA-DRB1 *05, *15 were associated with a reduced risk of hypersensitivity.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/genética , Antígenos HLA/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Didesoxinucleosídeos/efeitos adversos , Didesoxinucleosídeos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Nevirapina/efeitos adversos , Nevirapina/uso terapêutico , Razão de Chances
14.
Afr J AIDS Res ; 18(2): 104-114, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282302

RESUMO

In South Africa, African traditional healers and biomedical practitioners play important roles in the management of HIV and AIDS, but provide healthcare services in isolation of each other, despite legislative recognition of both types of healing. An interpretive, qualitative research approach was employed to elicit the views of both groups regarding the feasibility of collaboration. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a sample of 20 participants with 10 persons from each group. Key findings were that African traditional healers referred their patients to hospitals but never received referrals from biomedical health care practitioners. The traditional healers took precautions to avoid drug interactions between their medicines and antiretrovirals (ARVs). Biomedical healthcare practitioners recommended that traditional medicine only be used externally to avoid interaction with ARVs. Lack of shared knowledge, poor dosages and medical complications due to the use of African traditional medicine were viewed as threats to the collaboration between the two groups, while open communication, research into the efficacy, scientific administration and proper dosages of African traditional medicine were articulated as facilitating factors. The main conclusion was that biomedical practitioners, traditional healers and government officials responsible for formulating healthcare policies need to be involved in devising a framework that would facilitate ways of encouraging collaboration between these two healthcare systems.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/terapia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Medicina Tradicional Africana , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Assistência à Saúde , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Política de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Encaminhamento e Consulta , África do Sul , Terapias Espirituais , Adulto Jovem
15.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2737, 2019 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31227699

RESUMO

Little is known about the genotypic make-up of HIV-1 DNA genomes during the earliest stages of HIV-1 infection. Here, we use near-full-length, single genome next-generation sequencing to longitudinally genotype and quantify subtype C HIV-1 DNA in four women identified during acute HIV-1 infection in Durban, South Africa, through twice-weekly screening of high-risk participants. In contrast to chronically HIV-1-infected patients, we found that at the earliest phases of infection in these four participants, the majority of viral DNA genomes are intact, lack APOBEC-3G/F-associated hypermutations, have limited genome truncations, and over one year show little indication of cytotoxic T cell-driven immune selections. Viral sequence divergence during acute infection is predominantly fueled by single-base substitutions and is limited by treatment initiation during the earliest stages of disease. Our observations provide rare longitudinal insights of HIV-1 DNA sequence profiles during the first year of infection to inform future HIV cure research.


Assuntos
DNA Viral/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Viral/genética , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/genética , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Seguimentos , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Mutação , Estudos Prospectivos , África do Sul , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
16.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(6): 648-653, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238613

RESUMO

Objective: To explore HIV-1 drug resistance and influencing factors among people living with HIV/AIDS before antiretroviral therapy in Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture (Liangshan). Methods: Between January 1 and June 30, in both 2017 and 2018, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in Liangshan HIV-1 pol sequences were gathered and analyzed according to WHO Guidelines on HIV drug resistance surveillance of 2014. Both HyPhy 2.2.4 and Cytoscape 3.6.1 software were used to analyze the drug resistant strains of HIV-1 transmission network. Results: A total of 464 people living with HIV/AIDS was recruited. The proportion of HIV-1 CRF07_BC subtype was 88.6% (411/464), with HIV-1 drug resistance rate was 9.9% (46/464). The HIV-1 drug resistance rates of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI), nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors(NRTI) and protease inhibitors (PI) were 6.7% (31/464), 1.9% (9/464) and 0.4% (2/464) respectively. New recombinant strains of HIV-1 URF_01BC subtype was independently clustered according to the drug resistant mutation sites. Results from the multivariate logistic analysis showed that injected drug users group had higher risk on HIV-1 drug resistance (aOR=3.03, 95%CI:1.40-6.54) than heterosexual group among people living with HIV/AIDS. Conclusions: HIV-1 drug resistance rate had already been in a high level before antiretroviral therapy was in place. The newly identified recombinant strains of HIV-1 URF_01BC subtype were independently clustered according to the drug resistant mutation sites. It was necessary to strengthen the prevention of the HIV-1 drug resistant strains transmission.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/genética , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Mutação , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Carga Viral
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(23): e15994, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169739

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to evaluate the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment cascade and mortality in migrants and citizens living with HIV in Botswana.Retrospective 2002 to 2016 cohort study using electronic medical records from a single center managing a high migrant case load.Records for 768 migrants and 3274 citizens living with HIV were included. Maipelo Trust, a nongovernmental organization, funded care for most migrants (70%); most citizens (85%) had personal health insurance. Seventy percent of migrants and 93% of citizens had received antiretroviral therapy (ART). At study end, 44% and 27% of migrants and citizens, respectively were retained in care at the clinic (P < .001). Among the 35% and 60% of migrants and citizens on ART respectively with viral load (VL) results in 2016, viral suppression was lower among migrants (82%) than citizens (95%) (P < .001). Citizens on ART had a median 157-unit [95% confidence interval (CI) 122-192] greater increase in CD4+ T-cell count (last minus first recorded count) than migrants after adjusting for baseline count (P < .001). Five-year survival was 92% (95% CI = 87.6-94.8) for migrants and 96% (95% CI = 95.4-97.2) for citizens. Migrants had higher mortality than citizens after entry into care (hazard ratio = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.34-3.89, P = .002) and ART initiation (hazard ratio = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.24-3.78, P = .01).Fewer migrants than citizens living with HIV in Botswana were on ART, accessed VL monitoring, achieved viral suppression, and survived. The HIV treatment cascade appears suboptimal for migrants, undermining local 90-90-90 targets. These results highlight the need to include migrants in mainstream-funded HIV treatment programs, as microepidemics can slow HIV epidemic control.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Epidemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , HIV , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Botsuana/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Nações Unidas , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 484, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146698

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Network meta-analyses (NMAs) provide comparative treatment effects estimates in the absence of head-to-head randomized controlled trials (RCTs). This NMA compared the efficacy and safety of dolutegravir (DTG) with other recommended or commonly used core antiretroviral agents. METHODS: A systematic review identified phase 3/4 RCTs in treatment-naïve patients with HIV-1 receiving core agents: ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors (PIs), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), or integrase strand inhibitors (INSTIs). Efficacy (virologic suppression [VS], CD4+ cell count change from baseline) and safety (adverse events [AEs], discontinuations, discontinuation due to AEs, lipid changes) were analyzed at Week 48 using Bayesian NMA methodology, which allowed calculation of probabilistic results. Subgroup analyses were conducted for VS (baseline viral load [VL] ≤/> 100,000copies/mL, ≤/> 500,000copies/mL; baseline CD4+ ≤/>200cells/µL). Results were adjusted for the nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) combined with the core agent (except subgroup analyses). RESULTS: The NMA included 36 studies; 2 additional studies were included in subgroup analyses only. Odds of achieving VS with DTG were statistically superior to PIs (odds ratios [ORs] 1.78-2.59) and NNRTIs (ORs 1.51-1.86), and similar but numerically higher than other INSTIs. CD4+ count increase was significantly greater with DTG than PIs (difference: 23.63-31.47 cells/µL) and efavirenz (difference: 34.54 cells/µL), and similar to other core agents. INSTIs were more likely to result in patients achieving VS versus PIs (probability: 76-100%) and NNRTIs (probability: 50-100%), and a greater CD4+ count increase versus PIs (probability: 72-100%) and NNRTIs (probability: 60-100%). DTG was more likely to result in patients achieving VS (probability: 94-100%), and a greater CD4+ count increase (probability: 53-100%) versus other core agents, including INSTIs (probability: 94-97% and 53-93%, respectively). Safety outcomes with DTG were generally similar to other core agents. In patients with baseline VL > 100,000copies/mL or ≤ 200 CD4+cells/µL (18 studies), odds of achieving VS with DTG were superior or similar to other core agents. CONCLUSION: INSTI core agents had superior efficacy and similar safety to PIs and NNRTIs at Week 48 in treatment-naïve patients with HIV-1, with DTG being among the most efficacious, including in patients with baseline VL > 100,000copies/mL or ≤ 200 CD4+cells/µL, who can be difficult to treat.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/classificação , Teorema de Bayes , Benzoxazinas/uso terapêutico , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensaios Clínicos Fase IV como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Meta-Análise em Rede , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/uso terapêutico , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 528, 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several factors have been identified as being associated with increased adherence to antiretroviral therapy, including sero-status disclosure; however, studies examining the effect of disclosure on ART adherence in Ethiopia have had inconsistent findings. This systematic review and meta-analysis therefore aims to estimate the pooled effect of disclosure on adherence to ART among adults living with HIV in Ethiopia. METHODS: We performed a systematic search for articles reporting on peer-reviewed, quantitative, English-language observational studies of reporting the association between self sero-status disclosure and good ART adherence in adults living with HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia during published from 2010 to 2015. We searched four electronic databases: PubMed/Medline, the World Health Organization's Hinari portal (which includes the SCOPUS, African Index Medicus, and African Journals Online databases) for studies from December 1, 2017 to January 30, 2018. We also searched university repositories and conference abstracts for unpublished studies. We conducted a meta-analysis for the pooled effect of adherence using a random effects model in Stata version 14 and assessed publication bias using the Egger's test for funnel plot asymmetry. RESULTS: Our search returned in 179 studies, of which seven (3.9%), were eligible and included in the final meta-analysis. The seven included studies were conducted from 2010 to 2015. Our analysis found that disclosure had a significant effect on the adherence to ART in adult patients living with HIV. Patients who disclosed were 1.64 times more likely to have good adherence to ART compared with those who did not (OR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.11, 2.42). The small number of studies eligible for review and differences in study definitions of adherence and disclosure were the main limitations of this study. CONCLUSION: This review found a statistically significant positive effect of disclosure status on the adherence to ART in adult patients living with HIV in Ethiopia. This suggests that Ethiopia's national treatment and prevention programs should redouble efforts to encourage self-disclosure among people living with HIV/AIDS. Encouraging supportive social environments for disclosure, and promoting partner notification and partner disclosure support initiatives might be particularly helpful in this regard.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação , Autorrevelação , Adulto , Etiópia , Humanos , Parceiros Sexuais , Apoio Social
20.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 344, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patient satisfaction is an important factor for both assessing the quality of healthcare and predicting positive health outcomes. This study assesses the influence of HIV/AIDS patients' perception of the quality of health services on adherence to antiretroviral treatment using the decentralized care model in Manaus, Brazil. METHODS: We conducted a non-randomized, cross-sectional analysis to explore the relationship between patient satisfaction and adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. We also compared patient satisfaction levels at the city's main hospital with those at smaller health units established to decentralize HIV/AIDS healthcare. Using survey responses from 812 patients and health data from 713 patients, we conducted descriptive and regression analyses to identify health center characteristics associated with higher patient satisfaction and higher adherence to treatment. RESULTS: We found a clear and positive relationship between patient satisfaction with the quality of health services and adherence to ART. Patients who had better access to their health center and its services -mainly in the form of convenient location, shorter commute times, and shorter wait times- tended to rate the quality of services higher and were also more likely to adhere to ART. We also found higher levels of patient satisfaction and adherence to ART among patients served at decentralized health units than among patients served at the main hospital. CONCLUSIONS: The study's results emphasize the importance of patients' experience at the health center for improved health outcomes. While many of the factors that play a role in whether a patient adheres to ART or not are beyond the control of the health center, our findings highlight that health centers can importantly contribute to increased ART adherence by improving such experience. The study also showcases the potential benefits of decentralizing HIV care to increase patient satisfaction and, with it, adherence to ART.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Percepção , Inquéritos e Questionários
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA