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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445531

RESUMO

Glaucoma is associated with increased intraocular pressure (IOP), causing the apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and the loss of their axons leading to blindness. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is neuroprotective in several neural injuries, including retinopathies. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of PACAP1-38 eye drops in a model of glaucoma. IOP was elevated bilaterally by injections of microbeads to block the aqueous humor outflow. The control groups received the same volume of saline. Animals were treated with PACAP1-38 (1 µg/drop, 3 × 1 drop/day) or vehicle for 4 weeks starting one day after the injections. Retinal morphology by histology and optical coherence tomography, function by electroretinography, and IOP changes were analyzed. Animals were sacrificed 8 weeks after the injections. Microbeads injections induced a significant increase in the IOP, while PACAP1-38 treatment lowered it to normal levels (~10 mmHg). Significant retinal degeneration and functional impairment were observed in the microbead-injected group without PACAP1-38 treatment. In the microbeads + PACAP1-38 group, the retinal morphology and functionality were close to the normal values. In summary, our results show that PACAP1-38, given in form of eye drops, is neuroprotective in glaucoma, providing the basis for potential future therapeutic administration.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glaucoma/tratamento farmacológico , Microesferas , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Soluções Oftálmicas/farmacologia , Polipeptídeo Hipofisário Ativador de Adenilato Ciclase/farmacologia , Degeneração Retiniana/prevenção & controle , Animais , Glaucoma/etiologia , Glaucoma/patologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Degeneração Retiniana/etiologia , Degeneração Retiniana/patologia
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360755

RESUMO

Increasing attention is being focused on the use of polypeptide-based N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists for the treatment of nervous system disorders. In our study on Achyranthes bidentata Blume, we identified an NMDA receptor subtype 2B (NR2B) antagonist that exerts distinct neuroprotective actions. This antagonist is a 33 amino acid peptide, named bidentatide, which contains three disulfide bridges that form a cysteine knot motif. We determined the neuroactive potential of bidentatide by evaluating its in vitro effects against NMDA-mediated excitotoxicity. The results showed that pretreating primary cultured hippocampal neurons with bidentatide prevented NMDA-induced cell death and apoptosis via multiple mechanisms that involved intracellular Ca2+ inhibition, NMDA current inhibition, and apoptosis-related protein expression regulation. These mechanisms were all dependent on bidentatide-induced inhibitory regulation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors; thus, bidentatide may contribute to the development of neuroprotective agents that would likely possess the high selectivity and safety profiles inherent in peptide drugs.


Assuntos
Achyranthes/química , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Peptídeos , Proteínas de Plantas , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Cálcio/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/isolamento & purificação , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/isolamento & purificação , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Plantas/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo
3.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361744

RESUMO

Korean red pine (Pinus densiflora) belongs to the Genus Pinus, and its bark contains a great amount of naturally occurring phenolic compounds. Until now, few studies have been conducted to assess the neuroprotective effects of Pinus densiflora bark extract against brain ischemic injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of pre-treatment with the extract in the hippocampus following 5-min transient forebrain ischemia in gerbils. Furthermore, this study examined the anti-inflammatory effect as a neuroprotective mechanism of the extract. Pinus densiflora bark was extracted by pure water (100 °C), and this extract was quantitatively analyzed and contained abundant polyphenols, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins. The extract (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) was orally administered once a day for seven days before the ischemia. In the gerbil hippocampus, death of the pyramidal neurons was found in the subfield cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) five days after the ischemia. This death was significantly attenuated by pre-treatment with 100 mg/kg, not 25 or 50 mg/kg, of the extract. The treatment with 100 mg/kg of the extract markedly inhibited the activation of microglia (microgliosis) and significantly decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 1ß and tumor necrosis factor α). In addition, the treatment significantly increased anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 4 and interleukin 13). Taken together, this study clearly indicates that pre-treatment with 100 mg/kg of Pinus densiflora bark extract in gerbils can exert neuroprotection against brain ischemic injury by the attenuation of neuroinflammatory responses.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Pinus/química , Prosencéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Isquemia Encefálica/genética , Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo , Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Gerbillinae , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/patologia , Inflamação , Interleucina-13/agonistas , Interleucina-13/genética , Interleucina-13/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-4/agonistas , Interleucina-4/genética , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Masculino , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/metabolismo , Microglia/patologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Proantocianidinas/química , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Prosencéfalo/metabolismo , Prosencéfalo/patologia , Células Piramidais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Piramidais/metabolismo , Células Piramidais/patologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
4.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361762

RESUMO

Amyloidosis is a group of diseases that includes Alzheimer's disease, prion diseases, transthyretin (ATTR) amyloidosis, and immunoglobulin light chain (AL) amyloidosis. The mechanism of organ dysfunction resulting from amyloidosis has been a topic of debate. This review focuses on the ultrastructure of tissue damage resulting from amyloid deposition and therapeutic insights based on the pathophysiology of amyloidosis. Studies of nerve biopsy or cardiac autopsy specimens from patients with ATTR and AL amyloidoses show atrophy of cells near amyloid fibril aggregates. In addition to the stress or toxicity attributable to amyloid fibrils themselves, the toxicity of non-fibrillar states of amyloidogenic proteins, particularly oligomers, may also participate in the mechanisms of tissue damage. The obscuration of the basement and cytoplasmic membranes of cells near amyloid fibrils attributable to an affinity of components constituting these membranes to those of amyloid fibrils may also play an important role in tissue damage. Possible major therapeutic strategies based on pathophysiology of amyloidosis consist of the following: (1) reducing or preventing the production of causative proteins; (2) preventing the causative proteins from participating in the process of amyloid fibril formation; and/or (3) eliminating already-deposited amyloid fibrils. As the development of novel disease-modifying therapies such as short interfering RNA, antisense oligonucleotide, and monoclonal antibodies is remarkable, early diagnosis and appropriate selection of treatment is becoming more and more important for patients with amyloidosis.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Neuropatias Amiloides Familiares/patologia , Amiloide/imunologia , Amiloidose de Cadeia Leve de Imunoglobulina/patologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Nervos Periféricos/patologia , Doenças Priônicas/patologia , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/imunologia , Amiloide/antagonistas & inibidores , Amiloide/genética , Neuropatias Amiloides Familiares/tratamento farmacológico , Neuropatias Amiloides Familiares/genética , Neuropatias Amiloides Familiares/imunologia , Benzoxazóis/uso terapêutico , Diflunisal/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Cadeias Leves de Imunoglobulina/genética , Cadeias Leves de Imunoglobulina/metabolismo , Amiloidose de Cadeia Leve de Imunoglobulina/tratamento farmacológico , Amiloidose de Cadeia Leve de Imunoglobulina/genética , Amiloidose de Cadeia Leve de Imunoglobulina/imunologia , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Miocárdio/imunologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Oligonucleotídeos/uso terapêutico , Nervos Periféricos/efeitos dos fármacos , Nervos Periféricos/imunologia , Pré-Albumina/antagonistas & inibidores , Pré-Albumina/genética , Pré-Albumina/imunologia , Doenças Priônicas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Priônicas/genética , Doenças Priônicas/imunologia , RNA Interferente Pequeno/uso terapêutico
5.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443598

RESUMO

Apocynin (APO) is a known multi-enzymatic complexed compound, employed as a viable NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibitor, extensively used in both traditional and modern-day therapeutic strategies to combat neuronal disorders. However, its therapeutic efficacy is limited by lower solubility and lesser bioavailability; thus, a suitable nanocarrier system to overcome such limitations is needed. The present study is designed to fabricate APO-loaded polymeric nanoparticles (APO-NPs) to enhance its therapeutic efficacy and sustainability in the biological system. The optimized APO NPs in the study exhibited 103.6 ± 6.8 nm and -13.7 ± 0.43 mV of particle size and zeta potential, respectively, along with further confirmation by TEM. In addition, the antioxidant (AO) abilities quantified by DPPH and nitric oxide scavenging assays exhibited comparatively higher AO potential of APO-NPs than APO alone. An in-vitro release profile displayed a linear diffusion pattern of zero order kinetics for APO from the NPs, followed by its cytotoxicity evaluation on the PC12 cell line, which revealed minimal toxicity with higher cell viability, even after treatment with a stress inducer (H2O2). The stability of APO-NPs after six months showed minimal AO decline in comparison to APO only, indicating that the designed nano-formulation enhanced therapeutic efficacy for modulating NOX-mediated ROS generation.


Assuntos
Acetofenonas/química , Acetofenonas/farmacologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/química , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Células PC12 , Ratos
6.
Ann Clin Lab Sci ; 51(4): 503-511, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452888

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the e!cacy and functional outcomes of dl-3-n-Butylphthalide (NBP) and human urinary kallidinogenase (HUK) on ischemic stroke patients and to determine their effects on serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). METHODS: A prospective study was conducted on 57 ischemic stroke patients. Functional outcomes were assessed by the National Institute Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), the modified Rankin Scale (mRS), and the activities of daily living score (ADL), whereas TNF-α and VEGF expressions were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: TNF-α was significantly down-regulated in the NBP group and upregulated in the control group two weeks after treatment (p=0.017 and p=0.047, respectively). A significant difference in VEGF expressions was observed between the two groups (330.25±120.64 vs. 437.15±137.68, p=0.041) two weeks after treatment. Both groups showed significant improvement in NIHSS and ADL scores three months after treatment (p<0.001), with the NBP group exhibiting improvement in NIHSS scores as early as two weeks after treatment (p=0.008). The three-month NIHSS scores of the two groups were significantly lower than those of the control group (p=0.010 and p=0.008, respectively). Both the NBP and HUK groups showed a significant decline in mRS scores two weeks and three months after treatment (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Both treatments are effective and can significantly promote recovery in stroke patients. Additionally, both options have similar effects in promoting long-term recovery, with NBP exerting a greater impact on serum VEGF and TNF-α expressions.


Assuntos
Benzofuranos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , AVC Isquêmico/patologia , Calicreínas/administração & dosagem , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/sangue , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/sangue , Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , AVC Isquêmico/sangue , AVC Isquêmico/terapia , Calicreínas/urina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Prognóstico , Adulto Jovem
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360582

RESUMO

Although considered a rare retinal dystrophy, retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is the primary cause of hereditary blindness. Given its diverse genetic etiology (>3000 mutations in >60 genes), there is an urgent need for novel treatments that target common features of the disease. TLR2 is a key activator of innate immune response. To examine its role in RP progression we characterized the expression profile of Tlr2 and its adaptor molecules and the consequences of Tlr2 deletion in two genetically distinct models of RP: Pde6brd10/rd10 (rd10) and RhoP23H/+ (P23H/+) mice. In both models, expression levels of Tlr2 and its adaptor molecules increased in parallel with those of the proinflammatory cytokine Il1b. In rd10 mice, deletion of a single Tlr2 allele had no effect on visual function, as evaluated by electroretinography. However, in both RP models, complete elimination of Tlr2 attenuated the loss of visual function and mitigated the loss of photoreceptor cell numbers. In Tlr2 null rd10 mice, we observed decreases in the total number of microglial cells, assessed by flow cytometry, and in the number of microglia infiltrating the photoreceptor layers. Together, these results point to TLR2 as a mutation-independent therapeutic target for RP.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Deleção de Genes , Microglia/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Degeneração Retiniana/prevenção & controle , Retinite Pigmentosa/complicações , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/fisiologia , Animais , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Microglia/citologia , Degeneração Retiniana/etiologia , Degeneração Retiniana/metabolismo , Degeneração Retiniana/patologia
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360985

RESUMO

Neurodevelopmental disorders can derive from a complex combination of genetic variation and environmental pressures on key developmental processes. Despite this complex aetiology, and the equally complex array of syndromes and conditions diagnosed under the heading of neurodevelopmental disorder, there are parallels in the neuropathology of these conditions that suggest overlapping mechanisms of cellular injury and dysfunction. Neuronal arborisation is a process of dendrite and axon extension that is essential for the connectivity between neurons that underlies normal brain function. Disrupted arborisation and synapse formation are commonly reported in neurodevelopmental disorders. Here, we summarise the evidence for disrupted neuronal arborisation in these conditions, focusing primarily on the cortex and hippocampus. In addition, we explore the developmentally specific mechanisms by which neuronal arborisation is regulated. Finally, we discuss key regulators of neuronal arborisation that could link to neurodevelopmental disease and the potential for pharmacological modification of arborisation and the formation of synaptic connections that may provide therapeutic benefit in the future.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/patologia , Crescimento Neuronal , Animais , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Dendritos/metabolismo , Dendritos/patologia , Humanos , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 223: 112597, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365213

RESUMO

Quercetin is reported to be beneficial to or pose hazards to the health of animals, the inconsistence remains to be recognized and debated. This work was conducted to understand the neuroprotective or neurotoxic properties of quercetin, and investigate the different action mechanisms between low- and high-level quercetin. Therefore, we evaluated brain oxidative stress and monoamine neurotransmitters in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) after exposure to 1 and 1000 µg/L quercetin. In addition, the brain transcriptional profiles were analyzed to identify genes and pathways that were differentially regulated in the brains. The results of oxidative stress and neurotransmitters suggest that low-level quercetin might be beneficial to nervous system, while high-level quercetin might exert detrimental effects. Furthermore, transcriptional profiles also suggested different toxic mechanisms occurred between low- and high-level quercetin. At 1 µg/L quercetin, enrichment analysis of differently expressed genes (DEGs) revealed that the fanconi anemia pathway might be an important mechanism in neuroprotective effects. At 1000 µg/L quercetin, the up-regulated DEGs were enriched in many Gene Ontology (GO) terms related to neuronal synapses, indicating potential neuroprotective effects; however, enrichment of up-regulated DEGs in GO terms of response to stimulus and the MAPK signaling pathway was also found, which indicated increases of stress. Notably, at 1000 µg/L quercetin, the down-regulated DEGs were enriched in several GO terms related to the proteostasis and the proteasome pathway, indicating impairment of proteasome functions which was involved in neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, several hub genes involved in the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases were identified by Protein-protein interaction analysis at 1000 µg/L quercetin. Thus, high-level quercetin might pose potential risk inducing neurodegenerative diseases, which should receive more attention in the future. Additionally, our findings may provide awareness to society and researchers about toxicity possibilities of phytochemicals on wildlife and human.


Assuntos
Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Encéfalo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Quercetina/farmacologia , Peixe-Zebra/genética
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361017

RESUMO

Glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3ß) is an enzyme pertinently linked to neurodegenerative diseases since it is associated with the regulation of key neuropathological features in the central nervous system. Among the different kinds of inhibitors of this kinase, the allosteric ones stand out due to their selective and subtle modulation, lowering the chance of producing side effects. The mechanism of GSK-3ß allosteric modulators may be considered still vague in terms of elucidating a well-defined binding pocket and a bioactive pose for them. In this context, we propose to reinvestigate and reinforce such knowledge by the application of an extensive set of in silico methodologies, such as cavity detection, ligand 3D shape analysis and docking (with robust validation of corresponding protocols), and molecular dynamics. The results here obtained were consensually consistent in furnishing new structural data, in particular by providing a solid bioactive pose of one of the most representative GSK-3ß allosteric modulators. We further applied this to the prospect for new compounds by ligand-based virtual screening and analyzed the potential of the two obtained virtual hits by quantum chemical calculations. All potential hits achieved will be subsequently tested by in vitro assays in order to validate our approaches as well as to unveil novel chemical entities as GSK-3ß allosteric modulators.


Assuntos
Sítio Alostérico , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Regulação Alostérica , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/antagonistas & inibidores , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Humanos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Ligação Proteica
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360966

RESUMO

Neurodegenerative diseases affect millions of people worldwide and are characterized by the chronic and progressive deterioration of neural function. Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Huntington's disease (HD), represent a huge social and economic burden due to increasing prevalence in our aging society, severity of symptoms, and lack of effective disease-modifying therapies. This lack of effective treatments is partly due to a lack of reliable models. Modeling neurodegenerative diseases is difficult because of poor access to human samples (restricted in general to postmortem tissue) and limited knowledge of disease mechanisms in a human context. Animal models play an instrumental role in understanding these diseases but fail to comprehensively represent the full extent of disease due to critical differences between humans and other mammals. The advent of human-induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) technology presents an advantageous system that complements animal models of neurodegenerative diseases. Coupled with advances in gene-editing technologies, hiPSC-derived neural cells from patients and healthy donors now allow disease modeling using human samples that can be used for drug discovery.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Medicina de Precisão/métodos
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360973

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease and accounts for most cases of dementia. The prevalence of AD has increased in the current rapidly aging society and contributes to a heavy burden on families and society. Despite the profound impact of AD, current treatments are unable to achieve satisfactory therapeutic effects or stop the progression of the disease. Finding novel treatments for AD has become urgent. In this paper, we reviewed novel therapeutic approaches in five categories: anti-amyloid therapy, anti-tau therapy, anti-neuroinflammatory therapy, neuroprotective agents including N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor modulators, and brain stimulation. The trend of therapeutic development is shifting from a single pathological target to a more complex mechanism, such as the neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative processes. While drug repositioning may accelerate pharmacological development, non-pharmacological interventions, especially repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), also have the potential for clinical application. In the future, it is possible for physicians to choose appropriate interventions individually on the basis of precision medicine.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/métodos , Doença de Alzheimer/terapia , Animais , Humanos , Medicina de Precisão/métodos
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361041

RESUMO

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of disability and mortality worldwide. It can instigate immediate cell death, followed by a time-dependent secondary injury that results from disproportionate microglial and astrocyte activation, excessive inflammation and oxidative stress in brain tissue, culminating in both short- and long-term cognitive dysfunction and behavioral deficits. Within the brain, the hippocampus is particularly vulnerable to a TBI. We studied a new pomalidomide (Pom) analog, namely, 3,6'-dithioPom (DP), and Pom as immunomodulatory imide drugs (IMiD) for mitigating TBI-induced hippocampal neurodegeneration, microgliosis, astrogliosis and behavioral impairments in a controlled cortical impact (CCI) model of TBI in rats. Both agents were administered as a single intravenous dose (0.5 mg/kg) at 5 h post injury so that the efficacies could be compared. Pom and DP significantly reduced the contusion volume evaluated at 24 h and 7 days post injury. Both agents ameliorated short-term memory deficits and anxiety behavior at 7 days after a TBI. The number of degenerating neurons in the CA1 and dentate gyrus (DG) regions of the hippocampus after a TBI was reduced by Pom and DP. DP, but not Pom, significantly attenuated the TBI-induced microgliosis and DP was more efficacious than Pom at attenuating the TBI-induced astrogliosis in CA1 and DG at 7D after a TBI. In summary, a single intravenous injection of Pom or DP, given 5 h post TBI, significantly reduced hippocampal neurodegeneration and prevented cognitive deficits with a concomitant attenuation of the neuroinflammation in the hippocampus.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Gliose/tratamento farmacológico , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Talidomida/análogos & derivados , Animais , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Cognição , Gliose/etiologia , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Masculino , Memória , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Talidomida/farmacologia , Talidomida/uso terapêutico
14.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 174: 225-235, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407426

RESUMO

Oxidative stress has been implicated in the aging process and the progression of many neurodegenerative disorders. We previously reported that a novel oxindole compound, GIF-0726-r, effectively prevents endogenous oxidative stress, such as oxytosis/ferroptosis, an iron-dependent form of non-apoptotic cell death, in mouse hippocampal cells. In this study, using two hundred compounds that were developed based on the structure-activity relationship of GIF-0726-r, we screened for the most potent compounds that prevent glutamate- and erastin-induced oxytosis and ferroptosis. Using submicromolar concentrations, we identified nine neuroprotective compounds that have N,N-dimethylaniline as a common structure but no longer contain an oxindole ring. The most potent derivatives, GIF-2114 and GIF-2197-r (the racemate of GIF-2115 and GIF-2196), did not affect glutathione levels, had no antioxidant activity in vitro, or ability to activate the Nrf2 pathway, but prevented oxytosis/ferroptosis via reducing reactive oxygen production and decreasing ferrous ions. Furthermore, we developed fluorescent probes of GIF-2114 and GIF-2197-r to image their distribution in live cells and found that they preferentially accumulated in late endosomes/lysosomes, which play a central role in iron metabolism. These results suggest that GIF-2114 and GIF-2197-r protect hippocampal cells from oxytosis/ferroptosis by targeting late endosomes and lysosomes, as well as decreasing ferrous ions.


Assuntos
Ferroptose , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Compostos de Anilina , Animais , Endossomos , Lisossomos , Camundongos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360532

RESUMO

Stroke is a major cause of death worldwide, leading to serious disability. Post-ischemic injury, especially in the cerebral ischemia-prone hippocampus, is a serious problem, as it contributes to vascular dementia. Many studies have shown that in the hippocampus, ischemia/reperfusion induces neuronal death through oxidative stress and neuronal zinc (Zn2+) dyshomeostasis. Glutathione (GSH) plays an important role in protecting neurons against oxidative stress as a major intracellular antioxidant. In addition, the thiol group of GSH can function as a principal Zn2+ chelator for the maintenance of Zn2+ homeostasis in neurons. These lines of evidence suggest that neuronal GSH levels could be a key factor in post-stroke neuronal survival. In neurons, excitatory amino acid carrier 1 (EAAC1) is involved in the influx of cysteine, and intracellular cysteine is the rate-limiting substrate for the synthesis of GSH. Recently, several studies have indicated that cysteine uptake through EAAC1 suppresses ischemia-induced neuronal death via the promotion of hippocampal GSH synthesis in ischemic animal models. In this article, we aimed to review and describe the role of GSH in hippocampal neuroprotection after ischemia/reperfusion, focusing on EAAC1.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Glutationa/farmacologia , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle , Animais , Homeostase , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo
16.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371875

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been recognized to cause neurobehavioral dysfunctions and disorder of cognition and behavioral patterns in childhood. Momordica charantia L. (MC) has been widely known for its nutraceutical and health-promoting properties. To date, the effect of MC for the prevention and handling of PAHs-induced neurotoxicity has not been reported. In the current study, the neuroprotective effects of MC and its underlying mechanisms were investigated in mouse hippocampal neuronal cell line (HT22); moreover, in silico analysis was performed with the phytochemicals MC to decipher their potential function as neuroprotectants. MC was demonstrated to possess neuroprotective effect by reducing reactive oxygen species' (ROS') production and down-regulating cyclin D1, p53, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) protein expressions, resulting in the inhibition of cell apoptosis and the normalization of cell cycle progression. Additionally, 28 phytochemicals of MC and their competence on inhibiting cytochrome P450 (CYP: CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1) functions were resolved. In silico analysis of vitamin E and stigmasterol revealed that their binding to either CYP1A1 or CYP1A2 was more efficient than the binding of each positive control (alizarin or purpurin). Together, MC is potentially an interesting neuroprotectant including vitamin E and stigmasterol as probable active components for the prevention for PAHs-induced neurotoxicity.


Assuntos
Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Momordica charantia , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Estigmasterol/farmacologia , Vitamina E/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A2/metabolismo , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/patologia , Camundongos , Momordica charantia/química , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Ligação Proteica , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Estigmasterol/isolamento & purificação , Vitamina E/isolamento & purificação
17.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371910

RESUMO

The management of patients with spinal muscular atrophy type 1 (SMA1) is constantly evolving. In just a few decades, the medical approach has switched from an exclusively palliative therapy to a targeted therapy, transforming the natural history of the disease, improving survival time and quality of life and creating new challenges and goals. Many nutritional problems, gastrointestinal disorders and metabolic and endocrine alterations are commonly identified in patients affected by SMA1 during childhood and adolescence. For this reason, a proper pediatric multidisciplinary approach is then required in the clinical care of these patients, with a specific focus on the prevention of most common complications. The purpose of this narrative review is to provide the clinician with a practical and usable tool about SMA1 patients care, through a comprehensive insight into the nutritional, gastroenterological, metabolic and endocrine management of SMA1. Considering the possible horizons opened thanks to new therapeutic frontiers, a nutritional and endo-metabolic surveillance is a crucial element to be considered for a proper clinical care of these patients.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Metabolismo Energético , Sistema Nervoso Entérico/fisiopatologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/inervação , Estado Nutricional , Atrofias Musculares Espinais da Infância/terapia , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Terapia Combinada , Suplementos Nutricionais , Nutrição Enteral , Absorção Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Lactente , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Atrofias Musculares Espinais da Infância/metabolismo , Atrofias Musculares Espinais da Infância/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371921

RESUMO

The study of different natural products can provide a wealth of bioactive compounds, and more interestingly, their combination can exert a new strategy for several neurodegenerative diseases with major public health importance, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we investigated the synergistic neuroprotective effects of a mixed extract composed of docosahexaenoic acid, Ginkgo biloba, D-pinitol, and ursolic acid in several transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) and a senescence-accelerated prone mice 8 (SAMP8) model. First, we found a significantly higher survival percentage in the C. elegans group treated with the natural product mixture compared to the single extract-treated groups. Likewise, we found a significantly increased lifespan in group of C. elegans treated with the natural product mixture compared to the other groups, suggesting synergistic effects. Remarkably, we determined a significant reduction in Aß plaque accumulation in the group of C. elegans treated with the natural product mixture compared to the other groups, confirming synergy. Finally, we demonstrated better cognitive performance in the group treated with the natural product mixture in both AD models (neuronal Aß C. elegans strain CL2355 and the SAMP8 mice model), confirming the molecular results and unraveling the synergist effects of this combination. Therefore, our results proved the potential of this new natural product mixture for AD therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Longevidade , Camundongos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Placa Amiloide
19.
Phytochemistry ; 191: 112904, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388665

RESUMO

Eight hitherto undescribed long-chain anacardic acid derivatives, janohigenins, were isolated from the endosperm of Ophiopogon japonicus seed, and their structures were elucidated employing spectroscopic and chemical methods. The neuroprotective activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated against rotenone-induced cellular damage in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Janohigenins exhibited noticeable neuroprotection at 1 µM.


Assuntos
Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Ophiopogon , Ácidos Anacárdicos/farmacologia , Neuroproteção , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Sementes
20.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 36(1): 1607-1621, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281458

RESUMO

Multitarget directed ligands (MTDLs) are emerging as promising treatment options for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Coumarin derivatives serve as a good starting point for designing MTDLs due to their inherent inhibition of monoamine oxidase (MAO) and cholinesterase enzymes, which are complicit in AD's complex pathophysiology. A preliminary series of 3,7-substituted coumarin derivatives were synthesised and evaluated for enzyme inhibitory activity, cytotoxicity as well as neuroprotective ability. The results indicated that the compounds are weak cholinesterase inhibitors with five compounds demonstrating relatively potent inhibition and selectivity towards MAO-B with IC50 values between 0.014 and 0.498 hx00B5;µM. Significant neuroprotective effects towards MPP+-compromised SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were also observed, with no inherent cytotoxicity at 10 µM for all compounds. The overall results demonstrated that substitution of the phenylethyloxy moiety at the 7-position imparted superior general activity to the derivatives, with the propargylamine substitution at the 3-position, in particular, displaying the best MAO-B selectivity and neuroprotection.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Desenho de Fármacos , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cumarínicos/síntese química , Cumarínicos/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Monoaminoxidase/metabolismo , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/síntese química , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/síntese química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
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