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1.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500626

RESUMO

We investigated the protective effect and mechanisms of apigenin against cognitive impairments in a scopolamine-injected mouse model. Our results showed that intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of scopolamine leads to learning and memory dysfunction, whereas the administration of apigenin (synthetic compound, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day) improved cognitive ability, which was confirmed by behavioral tests such as the T-maze test, novel objective recognition test, and Morris water maze test in mice. In addition, scopolamine-induced lipid peroxidation in the brain was attenuated by administration of apigenin. To further evaluate the protective mechanisms of apigenin on cognitive and memory function, Western blot analysis was carried out. Administration of apigenin decreased the B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X/B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bax/Bcl-2) ratio and suppressed caspase-3 and poly ADP ribose polymerase cleavage. Furthermore, apigenin down-regulated the ß-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme, along with presenilin 1 (PS1) and PS2 protein levels. Apigenin-administered mice showed lower protein levels of a receptor for advanced glycation end-products, whereas insulin-degrading enzyme, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) expression were promoted by treatment with apigenin. Therefore, this study demonstrated that apigenin is an active substance that can improve cognitive and memory functions by regulating apoptosis, amyloidogenesis, and BDNF/TrkB signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Apigenina/farmacologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/induzido quimicamente , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Escopolamina/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Receptor trkB/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(36): 10606-10616, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482683

RESUMO

We previously identified peptides derived from round scad as potential Nrf2 activators. However, the neuroprotection of these peptides is still unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effect of WCPFSRSF against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity, and the memory-improving effects of WCPFSRSF in mice were also explored. Results showed that WCPFSRSF ameliorated oxidative stress by improving the activities of antioxidant enzymes and promoting the Nrf2-mediated endogenous defense system. Moreover, there is an interaction between the up-regulation of Nrf2 and the down-regulation of NFκB induced by the peptide, which was related to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and could be abolished by the Akt inhibitor LY294002. Further analysis demonstrated that WCPFSRSF may act as a radical scavenger and Nrf2 activator. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects might be related to the Cys and Trp in WCPFSRSF. Moreover, WCPFSRSF could improve spatial memory impairment in sleep-deprived mice. Thus, this work provided evidence for WCPFSRSF as a potential candidate against neurotoxicity and memory deficits.


Assuntos
Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Camundongos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Neuroproteção , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Transdução de Sinais
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445626

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the Substantia Nigra pars compacta, leading to classical PD motor symptoms. Current therapies are purely symptomatic and do not modify disease progression. Cannabidiol (CBD), one of the main phytocannabinoids identified in Cannabis Sativa, which exhibits a large spectrum of therapeutic properties, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, suggesting its potential as disease-modifying agent for PD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chronic treatment with CBD (10 mg/kg, i.p.) on PD-associated neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory processes, and motor deficits in the 6-hydroxydopamine model. Moreover, we investigated the potential mechanisms by which CBD exerted its effects in this model. CBD-treated animals showed a reduction of nigrostriatal degeneration accompanied by a damping of the neuroinflammatory response and an improvement of motor performance. In particular, CBD exhibits a preferential action on astrocytes and activates the astrocytic transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), thus, enhancing the endogenous neuroprotective response of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF). These results overall support the potential therapeutic utility of CBD in PD, as both neuroprotective and symptomatic agent.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Canabidiol/farmacologia , Fator Neurotrófico Ciliar/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo , Animais , Anticonvulsivantes/farmacologia , Fator Neurotrófico Ciliar/genética , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/patologia , Masculino , Doença de Parkinson/etiologia , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Canais de Cátion TRPV/genética
4.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 36(1): 1860-1873, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425715

RESUMO

To discover novel scaffolds as leads against dementia, a series of δ-aryl-1,3-dienesulfonyl fluorides with α-halo, α-aryl and α-alkynyl were assayed for ChE inhibitory activity, in which compound A10 was identified as a selective BuChE inhibitor (IC50 = 0.021 µM for eqBChE, 3.62 µM for hBuChE). SAR of BuChE inhibition showed: (i) o- > m- > p-; -OCH3 > -CH3 > -Cl (-Br) for δ-aryl; (ii) α-Br > α-Cl, α-I. Compound A10 exhibited neuroprotective, BBB penetration, mixed competitive inhibitory effect on BuChE (Ki = 29 nM), and benign neural and hepatic safety. Treatment with A10 could almost entirely recover the Aß1-42-induced cognitive dysfunction to the normal level, and the assessment of total amount of Aß1-42 confirmed its anti-amyloidogenic profile. Therefore, the potential BuChE inhibitor A10 is a promising effective lead for the treatment of AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Colinesterases/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Ácidos Sulfínicos/química , Alcinos/química , Amiloide/metabolismo , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Desenho de Fármacos , Humanos , Fígado , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Teste do Labirinto Aquático de Morris , Sistema Nervoso , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Ácidos Sulfínicos/farmacologia
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 223: 112597, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365213

RESUMO

Quercetin is reported to be beneficial to or pose hazards to the health of animals, the inconsistence remains to be recognized and debated. This work was conducted to understand the neuroprotective or neurotoxic properties of quercetin, and investigate the different action mechanisms between low- and high-level quercetin. Therefore, we evaluated brain oxidative stress and monoamine neurotransmitters in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) after exposure to 1 and 1000 µg/L quercetin. In addition, the brain transcriptional profiles were analyzed to identify genes and pathways that were differentially regulated in the brains. The results of oxidative stress and neurotransmitters suggest that low-level quercetin might be beneficial to nervous system, while high-level quercetin might exert detrimental effects. Furthermore, transcriptional profiles also suggested different toxic mechanisms occurred between low- and high-level quercetin. At 1 µg/L quercetin, enrichment analysis of differently expressed genes (DEGs) revealed that the fanconi anemia pathway might be an important mechanism in neuroprotective effects. At 1000 µg/L quercetin, the up-regulated DEGs were enriched in many Gene Ontology (GO) terms related to neuronal synapses, indicating potential neuroprotective effects; however, enrichment of up-regulated DEGs in GO terms of response to stimulus and the MAPK signaling pathway was also found, which indicated increases of stress. Notably, at 1000 µg/L quercetin, the down-regulated DEGs were enriched in several GO terms related to the proteostasis and the proteasome pathway, indicating impairment of proteasome functions which was involved in neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, several hub genes involved in the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases were identified by Protein-protein interaction analysis at 1000 µg/L quercetin. Thus, high-level quercetin might pose potential risk inducing neurodegenerative diseases, which should receive more attention in the future. Additionally, our findings may provide awareness to society and researchers about toxicity possibilities of phytochemicals on wildlife and human.


Assuntos
Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Encéfalo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Quercetina/farmacologia , Peixe-Zebra/genética
6.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 12(18): 3358-3372, 2021 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34460227

RESUMO

Neurodegenerative diseases have been associated with brain metal accumulation, which produces oxidative stress (OS), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) induction, and neuronal cell death. Several metals have been reported to downregulate both the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway and the antioxidant enzymes regulated by it, mediating OS induction and neurodegeneration. Among a recently discovered family of multitarget 7-amino-phenanthridin-6-one derivatives (APH) the most promising compounds were tested against metal-induced cell death and OS in SN56 cells. These compounds, designed to have chelating activity, are known to inhibit some MMPs and to present antioxidant and neuroprotective effects against hydrogen peroxide treatment to SN56 neuronal cells. However, the mechanisms that mediate this protective effect are not fully understood. The obtained results show that compounds APH1, APH2, APH3, APH4, and APH5 were only able to chelate iron and copper ions among all metals studied and that APH3, APH4, and APH5 were also able to chelate mercury ion. However, none of them was able to chelate zinc, cadmium, and aluminum, thus exhibiting selective chelating activity that can be partly responsible for their neuroprotective action. Otherwise, our results indicate that their antioxidant effect is mediated through induction of the Nrf2 pathway that leads to overexpression of antioxidant enzymes. Finally, these compounds exhibited neuroprotective effects, reversing partially or completely the cytotoxic effects induced by the metals studied depending on the compound used. APH4 was the most effective and safe compound.


Assuntos
Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Estresse Oxidativo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Morte Celular , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Neuroproteção , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia
7.
Biomolecules ; 11(7)2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34356596

RESUMO

Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) impairs neuronal function and introduces a complex cascade of secondary pathologies that limit recovery. Despite decades of preclinical and clinical research, there is a shortage of efficacious treatment options to modulate the secondary response to injury. Protein kinases are crucial signaling molecules that mediate the secondary SCI-induced cellular response and present promising therapeutic targets. The objective of this study was to examine the safety and efficacy of midostaurin-a clinically-approved multi-target protein kinase inhibitor-on cervical SCI pathogenesis. High-throughput analyses demonstrated that intraperitoneal midostaurin injection (25 mg/kg) in C6/7 injured Wistar rats altered the local inflammasome and downregulated adhesive and migratory genes at 24 h post-injury. Treated animals also exhibited enhanced recovery and restored coordination between forelimbs and hindlimbs after injury, indicating the synergistic impact of midostaurin and its dimethyl sulfoxide vehicle to improve functional recovery. Furthermore, histological analyses suggested improved tissue preservation and functionality in the treated animals during the chronic phase of injury. This study serves as a proof-of-concept experiment and demonstrates that systemic midostaurin administration is an effective strategy for mitigating cervical secondary SCI damage.


Assuntos
Medula Cervical , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal , Estaurosporina/análogos & derivados , Animais , Medula Cervical/lesões , Medula Cervical/metabolismo , Medula Cervical/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/tratamento farmacológico , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/fisiopatologia , Estaurosporina/farmacologia
8.
Biomolecules ; 11(7)2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34356602

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is a potential pathogenic factor in the nervous system associated with various neurodegenerative disorders. Puerarin (Pur) is an isoflavone purified from the Chinese medical herb, kudzu root, and exhibits antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties in the brain. In this study, the detailed mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective potential of Pur against Cd-induced neuronal injury was evaluated for the first time in vivo in a rat model and in vitro using primary rat cerebral cortical neurons. The results of the in vivo experiments showed that Pur ameliorated Cd-induced neuronal injury, reduced Cd levels in the cerebral cortices, and stimulated Cd excretion in Cd-treated rats. We also observed that the administration of Pur rescued Cd-induced oxidative stress, and attenuated Cd-induced apoptosis by concomitantly suppressing both the Fas/FasL and mitochondrial pathways in the cerebral cortical neurons of rats both in vivo and in vitro. Our results demonstrate that Pur exerted its neuroprotective effects by stimulating Cd excretion, ameliorating Cd-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in rat cerebral cortical neurons.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Cádmio , Córtex Cerebral , Isoflavonas/farmacologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Cádmio/farmacocinética , Cádmio/toxicidade , Córtex Cerebral/lesões , Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
9.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361628

RESUMO

In excitable cells, mitochondria play a key role in the regulation of the cytosolic Ca2+ levels. A dysregulation of the mitochondrial Ca2+ buffering machinery derives in serious pathologies, where neurodegenerative diseases highlight. Since the mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCLX) is the principal efflux pathway of Ca2+ to the cytosol, drugs capable of blocking NCLX have been proposed to act as neuroprotectants in neuronal damage scenarios exacerbated by Ca2+ overload. In our search of optimized NCLX blockers with augmented drug-likeness, we herein describe the synthesis and pharmacological characterization of new benzothiazepines analogues to the first-in-class NCLX blocker CGP37157 and its further derivative ITH12575, synthesized by our research group. As a result, we found two new compounds with an increased neuroprotective activity, neuronal Ca2+ regulatory activity and improved drug-likeness and pharmacokinetic properties, such as clog p or brain permeability, measured by PAMPA experiments.


Assuntos
Doenças Neurodegenerativas/tratamento farmacológico , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neuroproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Tiazepinas , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/síntese química , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/farmacologia , Sinalização do Cálcio/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Humanos , Mitocôndrias , Neurônios/patologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/síntese química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Ratos , Tiazepinas/síntese química , Tiazepinas/farmacologia
10.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361702

RESUMO

Neurodegenerative diseases have a complex nature which highlights the need for multitarget ligands to address the complementary pathways involved in these diseases. Over the last decade, many innovative curcumin-based compounds have been designed and synthesized, searching for new derivatives having anti-amyloidogenic, inhibitory of tau formation, as well as anti-neuroinflammation, antioxidative, and AChE inhibitory activities. Regarding our experience studying 3-substituted coumarins with interesting properties for neurodegenerative diseases, our aim was to synthesize a new series of curcumin-coumarin hybrid analogues and evaluate their activity. Most of the 3-(7-phenyl-3,5-dioxohepta-1,6-dien-1-yl)coumarin derivatives 11-18 resulted in moderated inhibitors of hMAO isoforms and AChE and BuChE activity. Some of them are also capable of scavenger the free radical DPPH. Furthermore, compounds 14 and 16 showed neuroprotective activity against H2O2 in SH-SY5Y cell line. Nanoparticles formulation of these derivatives improved this property increasing the neuroprotective activity to the nanomolar range. Results suggest that by modulating the substitution pattern on both coumarin moiety and phenyl ring, ChE and MAO-targeted derivatives or derivatives with activity in cell-based phenotypic assays can be obtained.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/síntese química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/síntese química , Cumarínicos/síntese química , Curcumina/análogos & derivados , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/síntese química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/síntese química , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inibidores , Butirilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Curcumina/farmacologia , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/metabolismo , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/antagonistas & inibidores , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Monoaminoxidase/metabolismo , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/farmacologia , Córtex Motor/citologia , Córtex Motor/enzimologia , Nanopartículas/química , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/enzimologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Picratos/antagonistas & inibidores , Cultura Primária de Células , Ratos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
11.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443598

RESUMO

Apocynin (APO) is a known multi-enzymatic complexed compound, employed as a viable NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibitor, extensively used in both traditional and modern-day therapeutic strategies to combat neuronal disorders. However, its therapeutic efficacy is limited by lower solubility and lesser bioavailability; thus, a suitable nanocarrier system to overcome such limitations is needed. The present study is designed to fabricate APO-loaded polymeric nanoparticles (APO-NPs) to enhance its therapeutic efficacy and sustainability in the biological system. The optimized APO NPs in the study exhibited 103.6 ± 6.8 nm and -13.7 ± 0.43 mV of particle size and zeta potential, respectively, along with further confirmation by TEM. In addition, the antioxidant (AO) abilities quantified by DPPH and nitric oxide scavenging assays exhibited comparatively higher AO potential of APO-NPs than APO alone. An in-vitro release profile displayed a linear diffusion pattern of zero order kinetics for APO from the NPs, followed by its cytotoxicity evaluation on the PC12 cell line, which revealed minimal toxicity with higher cell viability, even after treatment with a stress inducer (H2O2). The stability of APO-NPs after six months showed minimal AO decline in comparison to APO only, indicating that the designed nano-formulation enhanced therapeutic efficacy for modulating NOX-mediated ROS generation.


Assuntos
Acetofenonas/química , Acetofenonas/farmacologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/química , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Células PC12 , Ratos
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360755

RESUMO

Increasing attention is being focused on the use of polypeptide-based N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists for the treatment of nervous system disorders. In our study on Achyranthes bidentata Blume, we identified an NMDA receptor subtype 2B (NR2B) antagonist that exerts distinct neuroprotective actions. This antagonist is a 33 amino acid peptide, named bidentatide, which contains three disulfide bridges that form a cysteine knot motif. We determined the neuroactive potential of bidentatide by evaluating its in vitro effects against NMDA-mediated excitotoxicity. The results showed that pretreating primary cultured hippocampal neurons with bidentatide prevented NMDA-induced cell death and apoptosis via multiple mechanisms that involved intracellular Ca2+ inhibition, NMDA current inhibition, and apoptosis-related protein expression regulation. These mechanisms were all dependent on bidentatide-induced inhibitory regulation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors; thus, bidentatide may contribute to the development of neuroprotective agents that would likely possess the high selectivity and safety profiles inherent in peptide drugs.


Assuntos
Achyranthes/química , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Peptídeos , Proteínas de Plantas , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Cálcio/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/isolamento & purificação , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/isolamento & purificação , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Plantas/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360966

RESUMO

Neurodegenerative diseases affect millions of people worldwide and are characterized by the chronic and progressive deterioration of neural function. Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Huntington's disease (HD), represent a huge social and economic burden due to increasing prevalence in our aging society, severity of symptoms, and lack of effective disease-modifying therapies. This lack of effective treatments is partly due to a lack of reliable models. Modeling neurodegenerative diseases is difficult because of poor access to human samples (restricted in general to postmortem tissue) and limited knowledge of disease mechanisms in a human context. Animal models play an instrumental role in understanding these diseases but fail to comprehensively represent the full extent of disease due to critical differences between humans and other mammals. The advent of human-induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) technology presents an advantageous system that complements animal models of neurodegenerative diseases. Coupled with advances in gene-editing technologies, hiPSC-derived neural cells from patients and healthy donors now allow disease modeling using human samples that can be used for drug discovery.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Medicina de Precisão/métodos
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361041

RESUMO

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of disability and mortality worldwide. It can instigate immediate cell death, followed by a time-dependent secondary injury that results from disproportionate microglial and astrocyte activation, excessive inflammation and oxidative stress in brain tissue, culminating in both short- and long-term cognitive dysfunction and behavioral deficits. Within the brain, the hippocampus is particularly vulnerable to a TBI. We studied a new pomalidomide (Pom) analog, namely, 3,6'-dithioPom (DP), and Pom as immunomodulatory imide drugs (IMiD) for mitigating TBI-induced hippocampal neurodegeneration, microgliosis, astrogliosis and behavioral impairments in a controlled cortical impact (CCI) model of TBI in rats. Both agents were administered as a single intravenous dose (0.5 mg/kg) at 5 h post injury so that the efficacies could be compared. Pom and DP significantly reduced the contusion volume evaluated at 24 h and 7 days post injury. Both agents ameliorated short-term memory deficits and anxiety behavior at 7 days after a TBI. The number of degenerating neurons in the CA1 and dentate gyrus (DG) regions of the hippocampus after a TBI was reduced by Pom and DP. DP, but not Pom, significantly attenuated the TBI-induced microgliosis and DP was more efficacious than Pom at attenuating the TBI-induced astrogliosis in CA1 and DG at 7D after a TBI. In summary, a single intravenous injection of Pom or DP, given 5 h post TBI, significantly reduced hippocampal neurodegeneration and prevented cognitive deficits with a concomitant attenuation of the neuroinflammation in the hippocampus.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Gliose/tratamento farmacológico , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Talidomida/análogos & derivados , Animais , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Cognição , Gliose/etiologia , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Masculino , Memória , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Talidomida/farmacologia , Talidomida/uso terapêutico
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361017

RESUMO

Glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3ß) is an enzyme pertinently linked to neurodegenerative diseases since it is associated with the regulation of key neuropathological features in the central nervous system. Among the different kinds of inhibitors of this kinase, the allosteric ones stand out due to their selective and subtle modulation, lowering the chance of producing side effects. The mechanism of GSK-3ß allosteric modulators may be considered still vague in terms of elucidating a well-defined binding pocket and a bioactive pose for them. In this context, we propose to reinvestigate and reinforce such knowledge by the application of an extensive set of in silico methodologies, such as cavity detection, ligand 3D shape analysis and docking (with robust validation of corresponding protocols), and molecular dynamics. The results here obtained were consensually consistent in furnishing new structural data, in particular by providing a solid bioactive pose of one of the most representative GSK-3ß allosteric modulators. We further applied this to the prospect for new compounds by ligand-based virtual screening and analyzed the potential of the two obtained virtual hits by quantum chemical calculations. All potential hits achieved will be subsequently tested by in vitro assays in order to validate our approaches as well as to unveil novel chemical entities as GSK-3ß allosteric modulators.


Assuntos
Sítio Alostérico , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Regulação Alostérica , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/antagonistas & inibidores , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Humanos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Ligação Proteica
16.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361744

RESUMO

Korean red pine (Pinus densiflora) belongs to the Genus Pinus, and its bark contains a great amount of naturally occurring phenolic compounds. Until now, few studies have been conducted to assess the neuroprotective effects of Pinus densiflora bark extract against brain ischemic injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of pre-treatment with the extract in the hippocampus following 5-min transient forebrain ischemia in gerbils. Furthermore, this study examined the anti-inflammatory effect as a neuroprotective mechanism of the extract. Pinus densiflora bark was extracted by pure water (100 °C), and this extract was quantitatively analyzed and contained abundant polyphenols, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins. The extract (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) was orally administered once a day for seven days before the ischemia. In the gerbil hippocampus, death of the pyramidal neurons was found in the subfield cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) five days after the ischemia. This death was significantly attenuated by pre-treatment with 100 mg/kg, not 25 or 50 mg/kg, of the extract. The treatment with 100 mg/kg of the extract markedly inhibited the activation of microglia (microgliosis) and significantly decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 1ß and tumor necrosis factor α). In addition, the treatment significantly increased anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 4 and interleukin 13). Taken together, this study clearly indicates that pre-treatment with 100 mg/kg of Pinus densiflora bark extract in gerbils can exert neuroprotection against brain ischemic injury by the attenuation of neuroinflammatory responses.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Pinus/química , Prosencéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Isquemia Encefálica/genética , Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo , Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Gerbillinae , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/patologia , Inflamação , Interleucina-13/agonistas , Interleucina-13/genética , Interleucina-13/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-4/agonistas , Interleucina-4/genética , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Masculino , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/metabolismo , Microglia/patologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Proantocianidinas/química , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Prosencéfalo/metabolismo , Prosencéfalo/patologia , Células Piramidais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Piramidais/metabolismo , Células Piramidais/patologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
17.
Phytochemistry ; 191: 112904, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388665

RESUMO

Eight hitherto undescribed long-chain anacardic acid derivatives, janohigenins, were isolated from the endosperm of Ophiopogon japonicus seed, and their structures were elucidated employing spectroscopic and chemical methods. The neuroprotective activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated against rotenone-induced cellular damage in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Janohigenins exhibited noticeable neuroprotection at 1 µM.


Assuntos
Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Ophiopogon , Ácidos Anacárdicos/farmacologia , Neuroproteção , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Sementes
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445531

RESUMO

Glaucoma is associated with increased intraocular pressure (IOP), causing the apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and the loss of their axons leading to blindness. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is neuroprotective in several neural injuries, including retinopathies. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of PACAP1-38 eye drops in a model of glaucoma. IOP was elevated bilaterally by injections of microbeads to block the aqueous humor outflow. The control groups received the same volume of saline. Animals were treated with PACAP1-38 (1 µg/drop, 3 × 1 drop/day) or vehicle for 4 weeks starting one day after the injections. Retinal morphology by histology and optical coherence tomography, function by electroretinography, and IOP changes were analyzed. Animals were sacrificed 8 weeks after the injections. Microbeads injections induced a significant increase in the IOP, while PACAP1-38 treatment lowered it to normal levels (~10 mmHg). Significant retinal degeneration and functional impairment were observed in the microbead-injected group without PACAP1-38 treatment. In the microbeads + PACAP1-38 group, the retinal morphology and functionality were close to the normal values. In summary, our results show that PACAP1-38, given in form of eye drops, is neuroprotective in glaucoma, providing the basis for potential future therapeutic administration.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glaucoma/tratamento farmacológico , Microesferas , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Soluções Oftálmicas/farmacologia , Polipeptídeo Hipofisário Ativador de Adenilato Ciclase/farmacologia , Degeneração Retiniana/prevenção & controle , Animais , Glaucoma/etiologia , Glaucoma/patologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Degeneração Retiniana/etiologia , Degeneração Retiniana/patologia
19.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444885

RESUMO

Medicinal mushrooms are rich sources of pharmacologically active compounds. One of the mushrooms commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine is Ganoderma lucidum (Leyss. Ex Fr.) Karst. In Asian countries it is treated as a nutraceutical, whose regular consumption provides vitality and improves health. Ganoderma lucidum is an important source of biologically active compounds. The pharmacologically active fraction of polysaccharides has antioxidant, immunomodulatory, antineurodegenerative and antidiabetic activities. In this review, we summarize the activity of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLP).


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/parasitologia , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Reishi/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445784

RESUMO

Neurodegenerative disorders involve the slow and gradual degeneration of axons and neurons in the central nervous system (CNS), resulting in abnormalities in cellular function and eventual cellular demise. Patients with these disorders succumb to the high medical costs and the disruption of their normal lives. Current therapeutics employed for treating these diseases are deemed palliative. Hence, a treatment strategy that targets the disease's cause, not just the symptoms exhibited, is desired. The synergistic use of nanomedicine and gene therapy to effectively target the causative mutated gene/s in the CNS disease progression could provide the much-needed impetus in this battle against these diseases. This review focuses on Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases, the gene/s and proteins responsible for the damage and death of neurons, and the importance of nanomedicine as a potential treatment strategy. Multiple genes were identified in this regard, each presenting with various mutations. Hence, genome-wide sequencing is essential for specific treatment in patients. While a cure is yet to be achieved, genomic studies form the basis for creating a highly efficacious nanotherapeutic that can eradicate these dreaded diseases. Thus, nanomedicine can lead the way in helping millions of people worldwide to eventually lead a better life.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Animais , Humanos , Nanomedicina/métodos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Parkinson/genética
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