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1.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 200: 111635, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671372

RESUMO

Parkinson disease is one of the most common neurological movement disorders affecting geriatric population. Biosynthesized gold nanoparticles are the ideal alternatives spotlighted by many researchers to treat various diseases. In the present study we synthesized gold nanoparticles using the root extract of Paeonia mountan, woody trees which are used in traditional Chinese medicine to be prescribed for diverse diseases. The synthesis of gold nanoparticles was confirmed with UV-Vis spectroscopic analysis and characterized using FTIR, HR-TEM, EDAX and XRD analysis. The cytotoxicity property of synthesized gold nanoparticles was assessed using MTT assay in the murine microglial BV2 cells. The neuroprotective effect of synthesized gold nanoparticles in inflammatory agent lipopolysaccharides triggered murine microglial BV2 cells was evaluated using nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2 and inflammatory cytokines assays such as IL-6&IL-1ß. Further to confirm in vivo effect of synthesized nanoparticles, the nanoparticles were treated to Parkinson induced C57BL/6 mice. Behavioral, biochemical and molecular analysis were performed to estimate the potency of synthesized gold nanoparticles against the Parkinson induction in mice model. Our characterization results prove the gold nanoparticles synthesized using Paeonia mountan fulfills the requirement of ideal nanodrug and it potentially inhibited the inflammation in in vitro murine microglial BV2. The results of in vivo experiments authentically confirm gold nanoparticles synthesized using Paeonia mountan alleviates the neuroinflammation and improves the motor coordination in Parkinson induced mice.


Assuntos
Ouro/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Paeonia/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/química , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Química Verde , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Masculino , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microglia/citologia , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Paeonia/metabolismo , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , Doença de Parkinson/veterinária , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
2.
Orv Hetil ; 160(46): 1832-1839, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707820

RESUMO

Post-resuscitation brain injury forms the leading cause of death of patients after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation that explains why post-resuscitation neuroprotection is the most important part of post-resuscitation therapy. The goals of the neuroprotection tools available today are preventing the evolution of primary and formation of secondary brain injury. We are going to summarize the neuroprotective possibilities that we can reach today. We will discuss the role of pharmacologic strategies including sedation, the modalities of upholding brain perfusion, the monitoring of proper hemodynamic variables and the practice of targeted temperature management. It is very important to avoid hypo- and hyperoxia, to keep normocapnia, normoglycemia and to control seizures during the management of post-cardiac arrest patients. There is still a lack of evidence to prove which pharmacologic agent may be effective in postresuscitation neuroprotection, however, there are some promising results regarding thiamine. Hemodynamic management guided by higher level hemodynamic monitoring may be beneficial in enhancing brain perfusion but more clinical studies are needed to investigate its usefulness. Targeted temperature management constitutes the main element of post-resuscitation neuroprotection, however, the details of its implementation raise several questions. Orv Hetil. 2019; 160(46): 1832-1839.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas/prevenção & controle , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Hipotermia Induzida/métodos , Neuroproteção , Parada Cardíaca/complicações , Humanos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico
3.
Georgian Med News ; (294): 141-145, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687967

RESUMO

General anesthesia may cause damage of the central nervous system and cognitive dysfunction in the postoperative period. A new intranasal form of Noopept (N-Phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine ethyl ester) was developed by our team at the Department of the medical technology (Zaporizhzhia State Medical University, Ukraine). The objectives of this investigation were the study of neuroprotective action of Noopept and to prove using in the clinic for correction of amnestic and behavioral disorders after ketamine anesthesia. We discovered that the intranasal administration of noopept after ketamine anesthesia significantly decreases anxiety and excitability, raises the animal's activity, shows an intensive antiamnesic effects and increases animal's training ability. Noopept significantly exceeds piracetam and cerebrocurin according to neuroprotective effects.


Assuntos
Amnésia/tratamento farmacológico , Ketamina/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Amnésia/induzido quimicamente , Anestesia , Anestesia Geral , Animais , Dipeptídeos/uso terapêutico , Ketamina/administração & dosagem , Transtornos Mentais/induzido quimicamente , Resultado do Tratamento , Ucrânia
4.
Undersea Hyperb Med ; 46(5): 709-712, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683371

RESUMO

We describe the emergency management of a man who experienced acute vision loss diagnosed as direct traumatic optic neuropathy (TON) in his right eye (no light perception) after falling from a height. TON is caused by a high-impact mechanism of injury. Clinical findings include acute vision loss, which is typically immediate, afferent pupillary defect, decreased color vision, and visual field defects. Treatment is controversial because of the lack of strong evidence supporting intervention over observation. In this case report, our treatment strategy comprised immediate hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) and daily high doses of a steroid. On the second day, minocycline was added to the treatment regimen for its neuroprotective effects. The patient was discharged after receiving six HBO2 treatments and six days of intravenous solumedrol transitioned to oral prednisone. After the third HBO2 treatment, his vision improved to 20/100; after the fourth treatment, it was 20/40 and plateaued. At the time of discharge, it was 20/40. At two-month follow-up, his corrected visual acuity was 20/60+2 in the affected eye. Immediate HBO2 for ischemic and mechanical injury to the optic nerve following trauma is a therapeutic option.


Assuntos
Cegueira/terapia , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Hemissuccinato de Metilprednisolona/administração & dosagem , Minociclina/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Traumatismos do Nervo Óptico/terapia , Acidentes por Quedas , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Cegueira/etiologia , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Tratamento de Emergência/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Traumatismos do Nervo Óptico/complicações , Prednisona/administração & dosagem , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica
5.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(10): 1324-1327, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607719

RESUMO

Background: Acute cerebral infarction threats human health and life safety. The edaravone is a new antioxidant and hydroxyl radical scavenger, which is the novel scavenger for clinical use, mainly for nervous system diseases. Objective: The purpose of this study is to observe the clinical treatment effects of edaravone on the degree of improvement of neurological impairment and functional movement impairment in patients with acute cerebral infarction. Method: A total of 130 patients admitted to our hospital because of acute cerebral infarction from December 2015 to May 2017 were selected for group analysis. These patients were divided into a control group (n = 65) and a treatment group (n = 65) with a random odd-even method. The control group accepted conventional treatment, while the treatment group received edaravone treatment on top of the conventional treatment of the control group. After treatment, the differences in functional movement, living ability score, neurological score, treatment effect, and adverse reaction of these two groups were tested and compared. Results: The total treatment efficiency of conventional treatment in the control group was significantly lower than the combination treatment in the treatment group (P < 0.05). The inter-group differences in the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, activities of daily living, and Fugl-Meyer assessment scores after the treatment were significant between these two groups (P < 0.05). The posttreatment effect on the treatment group was superior to that on the control group (P < 0.05). The adverse reaction rate of the treatment group did not significantly vary from that of the control group (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Edaravone can significantly improve the degree of neurological impairment during acute cerebral infarction, functional movement, and living quality with a definite effect and high safety. Thus, this drug has a good prospect in clinical treatment.


Assuntos
Infarto Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Edaravone/uso terapêutico , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Pirazinas/uso terapêutico , Vasodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Adv Gerontol ; 32(3): 439-444, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512432

RESUMO

The article presents the results of a study of the effectiveness of the addition of a standard course of conservative therapy to 104 patients of the older age group with coxarthrosis deforming the drug «Cytoflavin¼ and cognitive-behavioral therapy courses. It was found that such scheme increases the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions, which manifests itself as the improvement of the mental and physical components of quality of life by reducing pain and increasing the functionality of some of the affected hip. At the heart of positive clinical effect is a decrease in processes of inflammation and reduction of tension of regulatory processes in the organism.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Mononucleotídeo de Flavina , Inosina Difosfato , Niacinamida , Osteoartrite do Quadril , Succinatos , Idoso , Combinação de Medicamentos , Mononucleotídeo de Flavina/farmacologia , Mononucleotídeo de Flavina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Inosina Difosfato/farmacologia , Inosina Difosfato/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Niacinamida/farmacologia , Niacinamida/uso terapêutico , Osteoartrite do Quadril/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoartrite do Quadril/terapia , Qualidade de Vida , Succinatos/farmacologia , Succinatos/uso terapêutico
7.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464285

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of combined neuroprotection in the restoration of speech function in patients with acute ischemic stroke in the carotid region. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 257 patients (median age 60 (55; 72) years) with ischemic stroke and motor or sensorimotor aphasia. The degree of speech recovery was characterized by an increase in the score on the scale of the speech questionnaire (SQ) on the 21st day from the beginning of the disease. Patients were divided into low recovery (ΔSQ ≤6) and high recovery (ΔSQ >6) groups. All patients received neuroprotectors of different groups. RESULTS: The greatest efficacy was shown for cortexin in combination with mexidol: the ΔSQ >6 group included 24 (70.6%) and the group ΔSQ ≤6 10 (29.4%) patients out of 34 patients. The lowest efficacy was observed for gliatilin in monotherapy: an increase was ≤6 points in 24 (68.6%) patients and >6 points in 11 (31.4%), and for combinations of ceraxon and mexidol: 26 (61.9%) and 6 (38.1%) patients with low- and high level of speech recovery, respectively (p=0.041). CONCLUSION: Combined neuroprotective therapy using drugs with neuromodulatory and antioxidant effects (cortexin and mexidol) in the acute period of ischemic stroke is effective in the treatment of post-stroke aphasia.


Assuntos
Afasia , Isquemia Encefálica , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Afasia/etiologia , Afasia/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Neuroproteção , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Fala , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 4449-4460, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31417253

RESUMO

Curcumin as a hydrophobic polyphenol is extracted from the rhizome of Curcuma longa. Curcumin is widely used as a dietary spice and a topical medication for the treatment of inflammatory disorders in Asia. This compound also possesses remarkable anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects with the ability to pass from the blood brain barrier. Based on several pharmacological activities of curcumin, it has been introduced as an ideal candidate for different neurological disorders. Despite the pleiotropic activities of curcumin, poor solubility, rapid clearance and low stability have limited its clinical application. In recent years, nano-based drug delivery system has effectively improved the aqueous solubility and bioavailability of curcumin. In this review article, the effects of curcumin nanoparticles and their possible mechanism/s of action has been elucidated in various central nervous system (CNS)-related diseases including Parkinson's disease, Huntington disease, Alzheimer's disease, Multiple sclerosis, epilepsy and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Furthermore, recent evidences about administration of nano-curcumin in the clinical trial phase have been described in the present review article.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/tratamento farmacológico , Curcumina/uso terapêutico , Nanopartículas/química , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Curcumina/administração & dosagem , Curcumina/farmacologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico
9.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464291

RESUMO

AIM: To perform a pharmacoeconomic analysis of the most frequently prescribed neuroprotective medicines for treating patients with mild ischemic stroke in the acute and early rehabilitation periods in the Russian Federation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three medical technologies were compared: ethylmethylhydroxypyridine succinate (mexidol), inosine + nicotinamide + riboflavin + succinic acid (cytoflavin) and a deproteinized hemoderivate of the blood of calves (actovegin). Cost minimization analysis, budget impact analysis and sensitivity analysis were performed based on the indirect comparison results. RESULTS: Efficacy analysis shows that mentioned above medicines have the same efficacy: mean difference mexidol is 0,2 (CI min 0,25; max 0,65), cytoflavin - 0,61 (CI min 0,23; max 0,99), actovegin 0,2 (CI min 0,18; max 0,22). The cost minimization analysis for the Russian Federation shows that mexidol therapy is associated with the lowest costs, while savings are observed both in the evaluation of total costs and separate components: intravenous ampoules and tablet forms. The savings in comparison with cytoflavin and actovegin are 231 RUB and 12,872 RUB, respectively. These savings will be enough to treat five patients with ischemic stroke (IS) with mexidol. Moreover, oral mexidol therapy is cheaper than the same dosage forms of cytoflavin and actovegin by 481 RUB and 3,164 RUB, respectively. This is an advantage for the treatment of population at the outpatient stage. Budget impact analysis has shown that the budget for the medicines for treating IS at the current distribution between treatment regimens, is estimated at 1.99 BN RUB. The increase in the proportion of patients receiving mexidol by 10% reduces total costs to 1.75 BN RUB, which is 240 M RUB less than current costs. With these savings 85 thousand patients with IS could be treated. The sensitivity analysis reveals that the result of the cost minimization analysis and the budget impact analysis remain stable when both the amount of the population and the cost of 1 mg of mexidol vary from -10% to + 10%. CONCLUSIONS: Mexidol has the same efficacy as alternatives. However mexidol is superior to cytoflavin and actovegin in terms of cost minimization analysis. The savings from one course of alternatives will cover costs of treatment of five patients with IS using mexidol. The increase in the proportion of patients receiving mexidol is associated with savings, which allows us to consider mexidol therapy of mild IS as budget-saving in the Russian Federation.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Farmacoeconomia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Animais , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia Encefálica/prevenção & controle , Bovinos , Humanos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/economia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Federação Russa , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle
10.
Eur J Med Chem ; 181: 111585, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404860

RESUMO

Brain amyloid deposits have been identified as the main neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's diseases (AD) and intensive efforts have been devoted to develop aggregation inhibitors preventing the formation of toxic oligomeric Aß for therapeutic. In addition, evidence indicates that the formation and accumulation of ß-amyloid plaques probably precede clinical symptoms by around 20 years and imaging of such plaques would be beneficial for early-stage AD detection. In this study, we investigated phenothiazine-based compounds as novel promising theranostic agents for AD. These multifunctional agents exhibited BBB permeability, low neurotoxicity, good bio-stability as well as strong turn-on fluorescence with a Stokes shift upon binding to Aß aggregates. They had metal-chelating property which could delay Aß aggregation and displayed high binding affinity for ß-amyloid aggregates. Moreover, they have been simultaneously applied to perform in vivo near-infrared fluorescence imaging of ß-amyloid plaques in double transgenic AD mouse model, to prevent self-aggregation of Aß monomer from forming toxic oligomers and to protect human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells against Aß-induced toxicity and oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/análise , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Fenotiazinas/uso terapêutico , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacocinética , Imagem Óptica , Fenotiazinas/química , Fenotiazinas/farmacocinética , Placa Amiloide/diagnóstico por imagem , Placa Amiloide/tratamento farmacológico , Agregação Patológica de Proteínas/diagnóstico por imagem , Agregação Patológica de Proteínas/metabolismo , Agregação Patológica de Proteínas/prevenção & controle , Nanomedicina Teranóstica
11.
Minerva Med ; 110(5): 455-463, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368292

RESUMO

Peripheral neuropathies are frequently encountered in clinical practice and are associated with a major impairment in quality of life. However, their management remains poor, and current therapies are often burdened with major side effects and can present poor efficacy on pain and functionality. Therefore, it has been suggested that the combination of two or more different drugs may improve analgesic efficacy and reduce side effects. Tricortin® 1000 is formulated with 12 mg of Brain cortex phospholipid liposomes + 1000 µg of Cyanocobalamin injectable solution (PL+CNCbl) for intramuscular use and is indicated in the treatment of poly-algo-neuropathic syndromes. This combination exerts a marked neurotrophic action by promoting the synthesis of endogenous phospholipids; moreover, the peculiar formulation optimizes the delivery of CNCbl which has analgesic and neurotrophic action. This paper discusses the pharmacotherapy of peripheral neuropathies, including low-back pain, neck pain, postherpetic neuropathy (PHN) and focuses on the fixed dose combination PL+CNCbl clinical efficacy in association with other treatments or in monotherapy.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/tratamento farmacológico , Fosfolipídeos/uso terapêutico , Vitamina B 12/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos/efeitos adversos , Córtex Cerebral/química , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Combinação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Injeções Intramusculares , Lipossomos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/efeitos adversos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/etiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/fisiopatologia , Fosfolipídeos/administração & dosagem , Fosfolipídeos/efeitos adversos , Vitamina B 12/administração & dosagem , Vitamina B 12/efeitos adversos
12.
Life Sci ; 232: 116647, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301416

RESUMO

AIM: Brain injury after sepsis leads to high mortality and long-term brain dysfunction in patients. Previous studies revealed that borneol has a protective effect on the brain, but its function on sepsis associated encephalopathy (SAE) remains unknown. Herein, we investigated the protective effect of borneol against sepsis-related brain injury. MAIN METHODS: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis mice and cells were treated with borneol at the dose of 100 mg/kg by gavage or 10 µg/ml in culture, respectively. The protective effect of borneol on neurons and the microglia were assessed in vivo and in vitro. KEY FINDINGS: We observed that borneol attenuated brain neuronal and microglial inflammation in LPS-induced sepsis mice with a suppression of p-p65 and p38 signaling that were initially activated by LPS in the brain. In vitro examination confirmed that the protective effect of borneol on both neurons and microglia, and its suppressive effect on p-p65 and p38 pathways were, at least in part, direct. SIGNIFICANCE: An early protection of neurons and microglia from bacterial endotoxin during sepsis is beneficial, and borneol has the potential to protect these cells.


Assuntos
Bornanos/uso terapêutico , Lesões Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Lesões Encefálicas/etiologia , Endotoxinas/toxicidade , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Sepse/complicações , Animais , Bornanos/administração & dosagem , Bornanos/farmacologia , Células Cultivadas , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia
13.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 67(10): 1030-1041, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31341111

RESUMO

Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is one of the most challenging diseases faced by humankind. AD is still not classified as curable because of the complex structure of pathologies underlying it. As the mean life expectancy of the world population constantly increases, the prevalence of AD and treatment costs for AD also grow rapidly. Current state of the art for AD treatment mainly consists of palliative therapy aimed at providing symptomatic relief and improving the standard of living in patients with AD. However, different research groups are working on more effective and safe drug delivery options aimed at both symptomatic relief and treatment of the underlying mechanisms. In this review, the current prevalence of AD, health costs, pathologies, and available treatment options including the ones in the market and/or under trial have been reviewed. Data in the existing literature have been presented, and future opportunities have been discussed. It is our belief that these nanotechnological products provide the required efficacy and safety profiles to enable these formulations go through phase studies and enter the market after regulatory authority approval, as with cancer. Last, but not the least the metabolomic studies will be providing useful informative data on the early diagnosis of AD, thus may be clinical implications might be delayed with the administration of therapeutic agents at the initial state of the disease.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Pesquisa Biomédica , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Nanotecnologia
14.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 132(12): 1467-1477, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31205106

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The 3-N-butylphthalide (NBP) comprises one of the chemical constituents of celery oil. It has a series of pharmacologic mechanisms including reconstructing microcirculation, protecting mitochondrial function, inhibiting oxidative stress, inhibiting neuronal apoptosis, etc. Based on the complex multi-targets of pharmacologic mechanisms of NBP, the clinical application of NBP is increasing and more clinical researches and animal experiments are also focused on NBP. The aim of this review was to comprehensively and systematically summarize the application of NBP on neurologic diseases and briefly summarize its application to non-neurologic diseases. Moreover, recent progress in experimental models of NBP on animals was summarized. DATA SOURCES: Literature was collected from PubMed and Wangfang database until November 2018, using the search terms including "3-N-butylphthalide," "microcirculation," "mitochondria," "ischemic stroke," "Alzheimer disease," "vascular dementia," "Parkinson disease," "brain edema," "CO poisoning," "traumatic central nervous system injury," "autoimmune disease," "amyotrophic lateral sclerosis," "seizures," "diabetes," "diabetic cataract," and "atherosclerosis." STUDY SELECTION: Literature was mainly derived from English articles or articles that could be obtained with English abstracts and partly derived from Chinese articles. Article type was not limited. References were also identified from the bibliographies of identified articles and the authors' files. RESULTS: NBP has become an important adjunct for ischemic stroke. In vascular dementia, the clinical application of NBP to treat severe cognitive dysfunction syndrome caused by the hypoperfusion of brain tissue during cerebrovascular disease is also increasing. Evidence also suggests that NBP has a therapeutic effect for neurodegenerative diseases. Many animal experiments have found that it can also improve symptoms in other neurologic diseases such as epilepsy, cerebral edema, and decreased cognitive function caused by severe acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Moreover, NBP has therapeutic effects for diabetes, diabetes-induced cataracts, and non-neurologic diseases such as atherosclerosis. Mechanistically, NBP mainly improves microcirculation and protects mitochondria. Its broad pharmacologic effects also include inhibiting oxidative stress, nerve cell apoptosis, inflammatory responses, and anti-platelet and anti-thrombotic effects. CONCLUSIONS: The varied pharmacologic mechanisms of NBP involve many complex molecular mechanisms; however, there many unknown pharmacologic effects await further study.


Assuntos
Benzofuranos/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Animais , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 53(1): 76-86, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192545

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Diabetes causes damage to the enteric nervous system. The enteric nervous system consists of neurons and enteric glial cells (EGCs). The present study evaluated the effects of an ethyl-acetate fraction (EAF) from Trichilia catigua (T. catigua; 200 mg/kg) on the total population of enteric neurons (HuC/D-immunoreactive [IR]) and EGCs (S100-IR and glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP]-IR) in the total preparation and jejunal mucosa in diabetic rats. METHODS: The animals were distributed into four groups: normoglycemic rats (N), diabetic rats (D), normoglycemic rats that received the EAF (NC), and diabetic rats that received the EAF (DC). The jejunum was processed for immunohistochemistry to evaluate HuC/D, S100, and GFAP immunoreactivity. The expression of S100 and GFAP proteins was also quantified by Western blot. RESULTS: The D group exhibited a decrease in the number of neurons and EGCs, an increase in the area of cell bodies, an increase in S100 protein expression, a decrease in GFAP protein expression, and a decrease in S100-IR and GFAP-IR EGCs in the jejunal mucosa. The DC group exhibited a decrease in the number of neurons and EGCs, a decrease in the area of cell bodies, a decrease in S100 and GFAP protein expression, and a decrease in S100-IR and GFAP-IR EGCs in the jejunal mucosa. The NC group exhibited maintenance of the number of neurons and EGCs, an increase in the area of cell bodies, and a decrease in S100 and GFAP protein expression. CONCLUSION: The EAF from T. catigua partially conferred protection against diabetic neuropathy in the enteric nervous system.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Neuropatias Diabéticas/prevenção & controle , Jejuno/inervação , Meliaceae/química , Neuroglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Acetatos/química , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Neuropatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Neuropatias Diabéticas/patologia , Sistema Nervoso Entérico/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/análise , Jejuno/efeitos dos fármacos , Jejuno/patologia , Masculino , Neuroglia/patologia , Neurônios/patologia , Neuroproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Proteínas S100/análise
16.
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 68(11): 468-479, 1 jun., 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-180792

RESUMO

La reunión Post-ECTRIMS se celebró por undécimo año consecutivo el pasado octubre de 2018 en Madrid, con el objetivo de analizar los avances en esclerosis múltiple destacados en el último congreso anual ECTRIMS. Fruto de esta reunión, formada por los líderes de opinión en esclerosis múltiple de ámbito nacional, se presentan dos artículos de revisión. En esta segunda parte, se incluye el creciente número de evidencias que confirman la seguridad de la exposición a los tratamientos modificadores de la enfermedad en mujeres que planifican un embarazo, y el efecto beneficioso de la lactancia, siempre y cuando la enfermedad no esté muy activa. Se abordan los datos que muestran cómo la aplicación de los criterios de McDonald de 2017 en población pediátrica ha mejorado considerablemente el diagnóstico en comparación con los criterios anteriores. En cuanto a la esclerosis múltiple progresiva, los resultados de los fármacos neuroprotectores son poco concluyentes, pero se proponen biomarcadores para mejorar la evaluación de la respuesta terapéutica. Los estudios sobre tratamientos de reparación de la mielina sugieren que la remielinización en la esclerosis múltiple es posible. De igual manera, se exponen indicios favorables sobre el trasplante de células madre hematopoyéticas, siempre que se seleccione adecuadamente a los pacientes. Por otro lado, se revisan las similitudes y diferencias de las recomendaciones de las nuevas guías de práctica clínica publicadas. Por último, los resultados positivos de la rehabilitación cognitiva y motora con el uso de las nuevas tecnologías vaticinan la incorporación sistemática de estas herramientas en el tratamiento de la enfermedad en un futuro próximo


The Post-ECTRIMS Meeting was held for the eleventh consecutive year in October 2018 in Madrid, with the aim of analysing the advances made in multiple sclerosis that were highlighted at the latest ECTRIMS annual congress. Based on the issues discussed at this meeting, attended by the nation’s foremost opinion leaders on multiple sclerosis, two review articles are presented. This second part includes the growing body of evidence confirming the safety of exposure to disease-modifying treatments in women planning a pregnancy, and the beneficial effect of breastfeeding, provided that the disease is not very active. It addresses data showing how the application of the 2017 McDonald criteria in the paediatric population has significantly improved diagnosis compared to the previous criteria. With regard to progressive multiple sclerosis, the results of neuroprotective drugs are inconclusive, but biomarkers are proposed to improve the evaluation of the therapeutic response. Studies on myelin repair treatments suggest that remyelination in multiple sclerosis is possible. Likewise, there are favourable indications for haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, provided that patients are selected appropriately. On the other hand, we also conduct a review of the similarities and differences of the recommendations in the new clinical practice guidelines. Finally, the positive results of cognitive and motor rehabilitation with the use of new technologies point to the systematic incorporation of these tools in the treatment of the disease in the near future


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Esclerose Múltipla/epidemiologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Células-Tronco/tendências , Resultado do Tratamento , Esclerose Múltipla/complicações , Esclerose Múltipla/reabilitação , Sociedades Médicas/normas , Farmacovigilância , Planejamento Familiar , Complicações na Gravidez , Aleitamento Materno , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/reabilitação , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde
17.
Paediatr Drugs ; 21(3): 137-152, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155694

RESUMO

Pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (MS) comprises 2-5% of MS cases, and is known to be associated with high disease activity and the accumulation of disability at an earlier age than their adult-onset counterparts. Appropriate therapy leading to disease control has the potential to alter the known trajectory of adverse long-term physical, cognitive, and psychosocial outcomes in this population. Thus, optimizing treatment for children and adolescents with MS is of paramount importance. The last decade has seen a growing number of disease-modifying therapies approved for relapsing MS in adults, and available agents now include oral, injectable, and infusion therapies. Recently, the development of randomized controlled MS trials in youth has led to the first agent approved by the US FDA for the treatment of pediatric MS-fingolimod. With this, we have entered a new era of knowledge and treatment in this population and ongoing pediatric trials are expected to further inform clinical management. With the emergence of highly effective therapies targeting the inflammatory component of the disease, there has been increased interest in identifying treatment strategies that instead target mechanisms such as remyelination/repair, neuroprotection, or rehabilitation. The potential role for such emerging therapies in the treatment of pediatric MS remains an important area of study. In this review, we discuss current evidence for MS therapies in children including the treatment of acute relapses, disease-modifying therapies, and symptomatic management. We will also discuss evidence for emerging therapies, including remyelinating and neuroprotective agents.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla/terapia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Esclerose Múltipla/patologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Carbohydr Polym ; 220: 60-70, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196551

RESUMO

Chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) are the degraded products of chitin or chitosan prepared by chemical or enzymatic hydrolysis. As compared to chitosan, COS not only exhibit some specific physicochemical properties such as excellent water solubility, biodegradability and biocompatibility, but also have a variety of functionally biological activities including anti-inflammation, anti-bacteria, immunomodulation, neuroprotection and so on. This review aims to summarize the preparation and structural characterization methods of COS, and will discuss the application of COS or their derivatives to human health, animal husbandry and agricultural production. COS have been demonstrated to prevent the occurrence of human health-related diseases, enhance the resistance to diseases of livestock and poultry, and improve the growth and quality of crops in plant cultivation. Overall, COS have presented a broad developmental potential and application prospect in the healthy field that deserves further exploration.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Antiobesidade/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Quitosana/química , Quitosana/isolamento & purificação , Quitosana/farmacologia , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Humanos , Gado/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gado/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle
19.
J Clin Neurosci ; 67: 265-270, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239199

RESUMO

Acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis (AHL) is a rare and mostly fatal fulminant demyelinating disease. This case describes a 63-year old male in status epilepticus associated with an intracerebral hemorrhage following a one week viral prodrome with rapid decline to coma. He exhibited peripheral leukocytosis, neutrophilic pleocytosis with normal glucose and high protein in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Additionally, CSF was positive for herpes simplex virus (HSV) polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Medical decompression, low-dose dexamethasone, antibiotics and acyclovir were initially given. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was suggestive of AHL, thus he was treated with methylprednisolone 1 g/day for 5 days. The patient improved and was discharged with significant neurologic morbidity. This is the first reported case of AHL in the Philippines presenting as a diagnostic dilemma with a protracted clinical course who responded to high dose intravenous steroids.


Assuntos
Encefalite por Herpes Simples/diagnóstico , Leucoencefalite Hemorrágica Aguda/diagnóstico , Estado Epiléptico/diagnóstico , Aciclovir/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Encefalite por Herpes Simples/complicações , Humanos , Leucoencefalite Hemorrágica Aguda/etiologia , Masculino , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Estado Epiléptico/tratamento farmacológico , Estado Epiléptico/etiologia
20.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 132: 110646, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31252025

RESUMO

Neurological illnesses are multifactorial incurable debilitating disorders that may cause neurodegeneration. These diseases influence approximately 30 million people around the world. Despite several therapies, effective management of such disorders remains a global challenge. Thus, natural products might offer an alternative therapy for the treatment of various neurological disorders. Polyphenols, such as curcumin, resveratrol, myricetin, mangiferin and naringin (NRG) have been shown to possess promising potential in the treatment of neurogenerative illness. In this review, we have targeted the therapeutic potential of naringin as a neuroprotective agent. The overall neuroprotective effects and different possible underlying mechanisms related to NRG are discussed. In light of the strong evidence for the neuropharmacological efficacy of NRG in various experimental paradigms, it is concluded that this molecule should be further considered and studied as a potential candidate for neurotherapeutics, focusing on mechanistic and clinical trials to ascertain its efficacy.


Assuntos
Flavanonas/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Animais , Flavanonas/química , Humanos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química
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