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1.
BMC Surg ; 21(1): 71, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hemobilia due to rupture of hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm and recurrent hemorrhage caused by hepatic artery collateral circulation are both rare complications after liver trauma. There have been a number of separate reports of both complications, but no cases have been reported in which the two events occurred in the same patient. Here we report a recurrent hemorrhage in the bile duct due to hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm secondary to collateral circulation formation after hepatic artery ligation in a patient with liver trauma. CASE PRESENTATION: A 52-year-old male patient was admitted to our hospital for liver trauma (Grade IV according to the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) grading system) with active bleeding after a traffic accident. Hepatic artery ligation was performed for hemostasis. Three months after the surgery, the patient was readmitted for melena and subsequent hematemesis. Selective angiography examination revealed the formation of collateral circulation between the superior mesenteric artery and right hepatic artery. Moreover, a ruptured hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm was observed and transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) was performed for hemostasis at the same time. After the treatment, the patient recovered very well and had an uneventful prognosis until the last follow-up. CONCLUSION: For patients with hepatic trauma, the selection of the site of hepatic artery ligation and the diagnosis and treatment methods of postoperative biliary hemorrhage are crucial for the prognosis of the disease.


Assuntos
Falso Aneurisma , Aneurisma Roto , Hemobilia , Artéria Hepática , Ligadura/efeitos adversos , Fígado , Traumatismos Abdominais/complicações , Falso Aneurisma/diagnóstico por imagem , Falso Aneurisma/etiologia , Falso Aneurisma/terapia , Aneurisma Roto/etiologia , Aneurisma Roto/terapia , Angiografia/métodos , Ductos Biliares/diagnóstico por imagem , Ductos Biliares/lesões , Circulação Colateral , Embolização Terapêutica , Hematemese/etiologia , Hematemese/terapia , Hemobilia/etiologia , Hemobilia/terapia , Artéria Hepática/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Hepática/lesões , Artéria Hepática/cirurgia , Humanos , Fígado/irrigação sanguínea , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Fígado/lesões , Masculino , Melena/etiologia , Melena/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Circulação Esplâncnica
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 863, 2021 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558489

RESUMO

A concept of polyclonal metastasis has recently been proposed, wherein tumor cell clusters break off from the primary site and are disseminated. However, the involvement of driver mutations in such polyclonal mechanism is not fully understood. Here, we show that non-metastatic AP cells metastasize to the liver with metastatic AKTP cells after co-transplantation to the spleen. Furthermore, AKTP cell depletion after the development of metastases results in the continuous proliferation of the remaining AP cells, indicating a role of AKTP cells in the early step of polyclonal metastasis. Importantly, AKTP cells, but not AP cells, induce fibrotic niche generation when arrested in the sinusoid, and such fibrotic microenvironment promotes the colonization of AP cells. These results indicate that non-metastatic cells can metastasize via the polyclonal metastasis mechanism using the fibrotic niche induced by malignant cells. Thus, targeting the fibrotic niche is an effective strategy for halting polyclonal metastasis.


Assuntos
Metástase Neoplásica/patologia , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , Animais , Agregação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Células Clonais , Fibrose , Células Estreladas do Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Estreladas do Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/irrigação sanguínea , Fígado/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Organoides/patologia , Fenótipo , Baço/transplante , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/farmacologia
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(2): e24242, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33466207

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The drastic differences in treatment and prognosis of infantile hepatic hemangioma (IHH) and hepatoblastoma (HBL) make accurate prenatal diagnosis imperative. The retrospective comparisons of ultrasonic features between fetal IHH and HBL have been reported before, but clinically, the differential diagnosis in utero is very difficult and can lead to prenatal misdiagnosis. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 27-year-old woman at 30 gestational weeks underwent the routine prenatal examination. A heterogeneous solid mass of the fetus, with close relationship to the liver, was recognized by ultrasound. DIAGNOSIS: A diagnosis of HBL was highly considered. INTERVENTIONS: The fetus was aborted and the autopsy was performed. OUTCOMES: The histological outcome was IHH. LESSONS: The prognosis of fetal IHH and HBL is very different, so an accurate diagnosis prenatally is crucial and indispensable. The radiologist and clinician should differentiate between IHH and HBL, especially since the fetus can have serious complications.


Assuntos
Hemangioma/diagnóstico , Hepatoblastoma/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal , Aborto Induzido , Adulto , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Erros de Diagnóstico , Feminino , Feto/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemangioma/embriologia , Hepatoblastoma/embriologia , Humanos , Fígado/irrigação sanguínea , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Fígado/embriologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/embriologia , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Vasc Endovascular Surg ; 55(1): 11-17, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878581

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Naftidrofuryl and cilostazol are drugs with proven efficacy in the treatment of claudication in peripheral vascular disease. In this experimental study, we evaluated the effects of naftidrofuryl and cilostazol in ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury on various tissues. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 40 male albino Wistar rats (8-12 weeks old, 250-350 g.) are randomly divided into 4 groups: Control (Group 1), sham (group 2), cilostazol pre-treatment (group 3), naftidrofuryl pre-treatment (group 4). During 21 days placebo is given to group 2, 12 mg/kg/day cilostazol is given to group 3, 50 mg/kg/day naftidrofuryl is given to group 4 orally. Ischemia and reperfusion are induced at the lower hind limb in Groups 2, 3 and 4. Ischemic muscle, kidney, liver, heart, brain and blood samples are obtained. The total antioxidant capacity, oxidant levels and oxidative stress index are studied for each group. RESULTS: Both drugs have protective effects of remote organ injury following IR. Systemic effects are similar to each other, both have protective effects of IR injury. It showed no statistical significance in the total antioxidant capacity. Total oxidant levels are significantly affected by cilostazol in the heart (p < 0.01) and by naftidrofuryl in the liver (p < 0.01). The effect on oxidative stress was only significant with cilostazol on the heart (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Cilostazol and naftidrofuryl had beneficial effects in all tissues against tissue damage caused by IR injury. In ischemic muscle, kidney and heart cilostazol had improved outcomes comparing to naftidrofuryl. Naftidrofuryl had benefits over cilostazol in liver tissue.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Cilostazol/farmacologia , Rim/irrigação sanguínea , Fígado/irrigação sanguínea , Músculo Esquelético/irrigação sanguínea , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/prevenção & controle , Nafronil/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/patologia , Ratos Wistar , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(24)2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321947

RESUMO

Liver disease resulting from heart failure (HF) has generally been referred as "cardiac hepatopathy". One of its main forms is congestive hepatopathy (CH), which results from passive venous congestion in the setting of chronic right-sided HF. The current spectrum of CH differs from earlier reports with HF, due to ischemic cardiomyopathy and congenital heart disease having surpassed rheumatic valvular disease. The chronic passive congestion leads to sinusoidal hypertension, centrilobular fibrosis, and ultimately, cirrhosis ("cardiac cirrhosis") and hepatocellular carcinoma after several decades of ongoing injury. Contrary to primary liver diseases, in CH, inflammation seems to play no role in the progression of liver fibrosis, bridging fibrosis occurs between central veins to produce a "reversed lobulation" pattern and the performance of non-invasive diagnostic tests of liver fibrosis is poor. Although the clinical picture and prognosis is usually dominated by the underlying heart condition, the improved long-term survival of cardiac patients due to advances in medical and surgical treatments are responsible for the increased number of liver complications in this setting. Eventually, liver disease could become as clinically relevant as cardiac disease and further complicate its management.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Hepatopatias/etiologia , Humanos , Fígado/irrigação sanguínea , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Circulação Hepática , Hepatopatias/diagnóstico , Hepatopatias/epidemiologia , Hepatopatias/terapia
6.
Discov Med ; 30(160): 107-112, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382966

RESUMO

Liver injury has been reported as a common complication in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Recently, more and more studies reported that the degree of liver damages was associated with the severity of COVID-19. Although the exact mechanism of liver injury in COVID-19 patients is unknown, recent studies have made some explorations and investigations. In this review, we summarized the potential mechanisms of liver dysfunction in COVID-19 patients gleaned from recently published research reports, which suggested that the progression of pre-existing liver diseases, direct damage of liver by SARS-CoV-2, systemic inflammation caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection, anti-viral drug toxicity, and hypoxia-reperfusion may be associated with liver injury in patients with COVID-19. Hypoxic liver injury due to ischemia and shock, cholestasis-related liver injury due to altered bile metabolism, and hepatocellular injury due to drug toxicity or overwhelming inflammation might occur in severe COVID-19 patients with sepsis. To understand the pathogenesis of liver dysfunction in COVID-19 patients, further research is needed to focus on liver-related comorbidities, the evidence of viral replication in hepatocytes and bile duct cells, histological features of liver injury, and the influence of hepatotoxic antiviral drugs. We also suggested that special attention should be paid to monitoring inflammatory cytokines and hypoxia for the prevention and treatment of liver injury in severe COVID-19 patients. A deep understanding of the mechanism of liver injury is helpful for the management and treatment of COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
/metabolismo , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Hepatopatias/metabolismo , Fígado/irrigação sanguínea , Fígado/metabolismo , /metabolismo , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , /tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hipóxia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipóxia/patologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Hepatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatias/etiologia , Hepatopatias/patologia
9.
Transplantation ; 104(8): 1633-1643, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The cellular infiltrate in protocol liver biopsies (PB) following pediatric liver transplantation remains mostly uncharacterized, yet there is increasing concern about the role of inflammation and fibrosis in long-term liver allografts. We aimed to define cell types in PB and to analyze their relationship with donor-specific antibodies (DSA) and histological phenotype. METHODS: PB were performed at least 1 year after transplantation. We identified 4 phenotypes: normal, fibrosis, inflammation, inflammation with fibrosis. Cell types were counted after immunostaining for CD3, CD4, CD8, CD68, CD20, MUM1, and FoxP3. RESULTS: Forty-four patients underwent 1 PB between 2000 and 2015. Eleven percent (5/44) of PB displayed normal histology, 13.6% (6/44) fibrosis, 34.1% (15/44) inflammation, and 40.9% (18/44) inflammation and fibrosis. The main cell types in the portal tracts and lobules were CD3+ and CD68+ cells. Frequency of de novo DSA was 63% (27/44). The presence of CD8+ cells in the lobules was associated with fibrosis. Inflammation and fibrosis in PB were associated with the presence of circulating de novo DSA, number of de novo DSA, and C1q binding activity when compared to other phenotypes. CONCLUSIONS: T cells (CD3+) and macrophages (CD68+) were the most prevalent cell-types in PB. In the presence of inflammation, portal tracts were enriched in CD3+, CD20+ but displayed fewer CD68+. This coincided with the presence and number of de novo DSA. How these cellular and humoral actors interact is unclear, but peripheral DSA may be a marker of immune cellular activity in the seemingly quiescent allograft.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Terminal/cirurgia , Rejeição de Enxerto/imunologia , Isoanticorpos/imunologia , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Sistema Porta/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Aloenxertos/irrigação sanguínea , Aloenxertos/imunologia , Aloenxertos/patologia , Biópsia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doença Hepática Terminal/diagnóstico , Doença Hepática Terminal/etiologia , Feminino , Fibrose , Seguimentos , Rejeição de Enxerto/patologia , Sobrevivência de Enxerto/imunologia , Antígenos HLA/imunologia , Teste de Histocompatibilidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , Lactente , Isoanticorpos/análise , Fígado/irrigação sanguínea , Fígado/imunologia , Fígado/patologia , Doadores Vivos/estatística & dados numéricos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Masculino , Sistema Porta/citologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Transplantados/estatística & dados numéricos , Transplante Homólogo/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (7): 111-118, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736475

RESUMO

The researches devoted to blood-saving technologies in extensive liver resections are analyzed in the manuscript. Resection of three and more liver segments is effective method of surgical treatment of various focal liver lesions. Surgical (anatomical resection with hilar glissonean access, Pringle maneuver, modern technical equipment, etc.), anesthesiological (reduction of central venous pressure, hemostatic agents) and transfusion (autologous blood donation, transfusion, cell saver, etc.) methods contribute to prevention and reduction of blood loss. Intraoperative measures for blood loss prevention should include adequate surgical incision and liver mobilization, precise techniques of parenchymal dissection (for example, cavitation surgical aspirator-destructor), use of clip applicators and local or systemic hemostatic agents.


Assuntos
Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Hemostasia Cirúrgica/métodos , Hepatectomia/métodos , Hepatopatias/cirurgia , Fígado/cirurgia , Humanos , Fígado/irrigação sanguínea , Recuperação de Sangue Operatório/métodos
11.
Liver Int ; 40(9): 2110-2116, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32654359

RESUMO

SARS2-CoV-2 breakout in Italy caused a huge number of severely ill patients with a serious increase in mortality. Although lungs seem to be the main target of the infection, very few information are available about liver involvement, possibly evocating a systemic disease. Post-mortem wedge liver biopsies from 48 patients died from severe pulmonary COVID-19 disease with respiratory failure were collected from two main hospitals in northern Italy. No patient had clinical symptoms of liver disease or signs of liver failure before and during hospitalization; for each of them liver function tests were available. All liver samples showed minimal inflammation features. Histological pictures compatible with vascular alterations were observed, characterized by increase in number of portal vein branches associated with lumen massive dilatation, partial or complete luminal thrombosis of portal and sinusoidal vessels, fibrosis of portal tract, focally markedly enlarged and fibrotic. SARS-CoV-2 was found in 15 of 22 samples tested by in situ hybridization method. Our preliminary results confirm the clinical impression that liver failure is not a main concern and this organ is not the target of significant inflammatory damage. Histopathological findings are highly suggestive for marked derangement of intrahepatic blood vessel network secondary to systemic changes induced by virus that could target not only lung parenchyma but also cardiovascular system, coagulation cascade and endothelial layer of blood vessels. It still remains unclear if the mentioned changes are directly related to virus infection or if SARS-CoV-2 triggers a series of reactions leading to striking vascular alterations.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Veia Porta/patologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Fígado/irrigação sanguínea , Fígado/enzimologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Insuficiência Respiratória/virologia
12.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 4125-4138, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606668

RESUMO

Purpose: To investigate the effect and mechanism of macrophage membrane-coated nanoparticles (M-NPs) on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/RI) caused by orthotopic liver transplantation. In addition, the advantages of TLR4+/M-NPs compared to M-NPs are discussed. Materials and Methods: We prepared biomimetic M-NPs and identified their characteristics. M-NPs were injected into an SD rat model of orthotopic liver transplantation, and the anti-inflammatory and anti-I/RI activities of M-NPs were studied in vivo and in vitro. In addition, we overexpressed macrophage membrane Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in vitro and prepared TLR4+/M-NPs. Then, we assessed the characteristics and advantages of TLR4+/M-NPs. Results: The M-NPs neutralized endotoxin, inhibited the overactivation of Kupffer cells (KCs) and suppressed the secretion of inflammatory factors by inhibiting the endotoxin-mediated TLR4/MyD88/IRAK1/NF-κB signaling pathway. In an orthotopic liver transplantation model in SD rats, M-NPs showed significant therapeutic efficacy by neutralizing endotoxin and suppressing the secretion of inflammatory factors. Moreover, overexpression of TLR4 on the macrophage membrane by using a TLR4+-plasmid in vitro effectively reduced the amount of M-NPs needed to neutralize an equivalent dose of endotoxin, reducing the potential risks of NP overuse. Conclusion: This study indicates that M-NPs can effectively alleviate I/RI induced by liver transplantation.


Assuntos
Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Endotoxinas/metabolismo , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Fígado/irrigação sanguínea , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/química , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/etiologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/terapia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Fluorescência , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Ativação de Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Células RAW 264.7 , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
13.
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 58(8): 646-648, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727198

RESUMO

The Laennec capsule of liver was first discovered and reported by French doctor Rene Theophile Hyacinthe Laennec in 1802.However, it has not received enough attention for more than 200 years since then. In recent years, with the rapid development of liver surgery represented by laparoscopic technology, and the deepening of the theory of precise liver surgery, the fine anatomical structure of liver Laennec capsule has returned to the vision of liver surgeons.Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of Laennec capsule in liver histology, covering the whole liver surface, and lining the surface of liver parenchyma around the Glisson pedicle and the main hepatic vein along the inflow and outflow channels of the liver. Based on the Laennec capsule approach, it is expected to unify the current approach of Glisson pedicle and the approach of hepatic vein, and provide a new theoretical basis for the liver surgery, and guide us in the standardization of liver surgeries.


Assuntos
Hepatectomia/normas , Fígado/anatomia & histologia , Membranas/anatomia & histologia , Hepatectomia/métodos , Veias Hepáticas/anatomia & histologia , Veias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Humanos , Laparoscopia , Fígado/irrigação sanguínea , Fígado/cirurgia , Membranas/cirurgia
14.
J Vis Exp ; (160)2020 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628153

RESUMO

Here we provide a detailed protocol describing the clinical procedure of hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) measurement in patients with advanced chronic liver disease followed by an instruction for transjugular biopsy. Under local anesthesia and ultrasound guidance, a catheter introducer sheath is placed in the right internal jugular vein. Using fluoroscopic guidance, a balloon catheter is advanced into the inferior vena cava (IVC) and inserted into a large hepatic vein. Correct and sufficient wedge position of the catheter is ensured by injecting contrast media while the balloon is blocking the outflow of the cannulated hepatic vein. After calibrating the external pressure transducer, continuous pressure recordings are obtained with triplicate recordings of the wedged hepatic venous pressure (WHVP) and free hepatic venous pressure (FHVP). The difference between FHVP and WHVP is referred to as HVPG, with values ≥10 mm Hg indicating clinically significant portal hypertension (CSPH). Before removing the catheter, pressure readings obtained in the IVC at the same level, as well as the right atrial pressure are recorded. Finally, a transjugular liver biopsy can be obtained via the same vascular route. Different systems are available; however, core biopsy needles are preferred over aspiration needles, especially for cirrhotic livers. Again, under fluoroscopic guidance a biopsy needle introducer sheath is advanced into an hepatic vein. Next, the transjugular biopsy needle is gently advanced through the introducer sheath: (i) in case of aspiration biopsy, the needle is advanced into the liver parenchyma under aspiration and then removed quickly, or (ii) in case of a core biopsy, the cutting-mechanism is triggered inside the parenchyma. Several separate passages can be safely performed to obtain sufficient liver specimens via transjugular biopsy. In experienced hands, the combination of these procedures takes about 30-45 min.


Assuntos
Veias Hepáticas/fisiopatologia , Veias Jugulares/fisiopatologia , Fígado/patologia , Pressão Venosa/fisiologia , Biópsia , Cateteres , Feminino , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Fígado/irrigação sanguínea , Fígado/fisiopatologia , Masculino
15.
Tokai J Exp Clin Med ; 45(2): 88-91, 2020 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602107

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although the outcomes of patients with retrohepatic inferior vena cava (IVC) injury have improved because of damage control (DC) strategies, some rare complications have been observed. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 35-year-old man with diverticulum-like projections (DLPs) of the retrohepatic IVC that occurred following peri-IVC packing based on DC strategies. The DLPs were treated conservatively with anticoagulant therapy and he recovered completely. CONCLUSIONS: Caution must be exercised regarding such rare complications after abbreviated surgery. Conservative therapy may be the optimal treatment for patients with DLPs of the retrohepatic IVC after peri-IVC packing.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Divertículo , Fígado/irrigação sanguínea , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Veia Cava Inferior/lesões , Veia Cava Inferior/cirurgia , Adulto , Divertículo/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 58(7): 555-557, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32610427

RESUMO

An estimate of about 50% of new liver cancer cases worldwide occur in China every year.Surgical resection is still the major treatment choice for longer survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Blocking hepatic blood flow and reducing intraoperative bleeding ensure the success of the operation. Anatomic separation of hepatic hilar region is the precondition of hepatic inflow occlusion. The hepatic hilar plate system involves a thick layer of connective tissue covering the hepatic inflow ducts of hepatic hilar region. The descending part of hilar plate assists in reducing the anatomical difficulty of the hepatic hilar region. The "forth porta hepatis" that is hidden in the hepatic hilar plate system involves the accumulation area of "short hepatic portal veins" .The communicating branch vessels between the hepatic inflow vessels form the anatomical basis in reducing the indocyanine green fluorescence stain effect.The relatively fixed position of the hepatic portal plate is considered as a positioning marker for accurate liver resection. The intrahepatic Glisson sheath is connected with thick connective tissue of the hepatic portal panel system, and is regarded as the physical barrier in limiting the proliferation and hypertrophy of hepatocytes and continuation of hepatic portal panel system in the liver.This paper summarizes the anatomy and application of hepatic hilar plate system during hepatobiliary surgery.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/cirurgia , Hepatectomia/métodos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Fígado/anatomia & histologia , Fígado/cirurgia , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , China , Tecido Conjuntivo/anatomia & histologia , Tecido Conjuntivo/cirurgia , Hepatectomia/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Fígado/irrigação sanguínea , Veia Porta/anatomia & histologia , Veia Porta/cirurgia
17.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235635, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Normothermic ex vivo liver perfusion (NEVLP) is a promising strategy to increase the donor pool in liver transplantation. Small animal models are essential to further investigate questions regarding organ preservation and reconditioning by NEVLP. A dual vessel small animal NEVLP (dNEVLP) model was developed using metamizole as a vasodilator and compared to conventional portovenous single vessel NEVLP (sNEVLP). METHODS: Livers of male Wistar rats were perfused with erythrocyte-supplemented culture medium for six hours by either dNEVLP via hepatic artery and portal vein or portovenous sNEVLP. dNEVLP was performed either with or without metamizole treatment. Perfusion pressure and flow rates were constantly monitored. Transaminase levels were determined in the perfusate at the start and after three and six hours of perfusion. Bile secretion was monitored and bile LDH and GGT levels were measured hourly. Histopathological analysis was performed using liver and bile duct tissue samples after perfusion. RESULTS: Hepatic artery pressure was significantly lower in dNEVLP with metamizole administration. Compared to sNEVLP, dNEVLP with metamizole treatment showed higher bile production, lower levels of transaminases during and after perfusion as well as significantly lower necrosis in liver and bile duct tissue. Biochemical markers of bile duct injury showed the same trend. CONCLUSION: Our miniaturized dNEVLP system enables normothermic dual vessel rat liver perfusion. The administration of metamizole effectively ameliorates arterial vasospasm allowing for six hours of dNEVLP, with superior outcome compared to sNEVLP.


Assuntos
Dipirona/farmacologia , Transplante de Fígado , Preservação de Órgãos/métodos , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Pressão Arterial/efeitos dos fármacos , Bile/metabolismo , Ductos Biliares/patologia , Artéria Hepática/patologia , Fígado/irrigação sanguínea , Fígado/patologia , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
18.
Int J Hematol ; 112(4): 584-591, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32557125

RESUMO

A 66-year-old man with hypertension was diagnosed with chronic myelogenous leukemia in 1996. Treatment was started with hydroxycarbamide and imatinib 400 mg in 1996 + 6, which was increased to 600 mg. Although he achieved a complete cytogenic response in 1996 + 9, he could not continue imatinib because of edema; the regimen was changed to nilotinib 800 mg in 1996 + 13. After he achieved a molecular response better than 4.5 in 1996 + 19, he was referred to our hospital. His urinalysis had shown urine protein since 1996 + 13, and his creatinine level increased in 1996 + 16. Renal biopsy, performed in 1996 + 20, revealed abdominal distention and massive ascites. After the nilotinib dosage was reduced to 400 mg, liver biopsy, also performed in 1996 + 20, revealed hypertrophy of renal small blood vessels and endothelial cells of the hepatic artery and loss of endothelial cells of the renal glomeruli, portal vein, and hepatic sinusoids. Both renal and liver biopsies revealed marked pathological vascular damage. The patient took oral imatinib for approximately 3.5 years and nilotinib for 11 years. Pathological findings indicated a tendency for thrombosis, which could induce vascular occlusive disease. Accumulation of cases, such as the present case, is needed to further analyze the pathophysiological processes.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Mesilato de Imatinib/efeitos adversos , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/patologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Substituição de Medicamentos , Humanos , Hidroxiureia/administração & dosagem , Mesilato de Imatinib/administração & dosagem , Rim/irrigação sanguínea , Rim/patologia , Fígado/irrigação sanguínea , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Pirimidinas/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin ; 23(13): 987-1004, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32594768

RESUMO

An image-based numerical algorithm is presented for simulating blood flow through the liver tissue. First, a geometric model is constructed by applying image processing techniques on a real microscopic image of a liver tissue. Then, incompressible blood flow through liver lobules is simulated. Effects of tissue heterogeneity and deformity, presence/absence of the second central vein in a particular lobule, and apparent sinusoids density in the liver cross section on the blood flow are investigated. Numerical results indicate that the existence of thick low permeability vascular septum, high permeability sinusoids, and lobule tissue heterogeneity can considerably affect interlobular and intralobular blood flow.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Circulação Hepática/fisiologia , Fígado/irrigação sanguínea , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Modelos Anatômicos , Análise Numérica Assistida por Computador , Perfusão , Animais , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Pressão Sanguínea , Simulação por Computador , Hemorreologia , Permeabilidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Suínos
20.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(6): e1007965, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598356

RESUMO

Can three-dimensional, microvasculature networks still ensure blood supply if individual links fail? We address this question in the sinusoidal network, a plexus-like microvasculature network, which transports nutrient-rich blood to every hepatocyte in liver tissue, by building on recent advances in high-resolution imaging and digital reconstruction of adult mice liver tissue. We find that the topology of the three-dimensional sinusoidal network reflects its two design requirements of a space-filling network that connects all hepatocytes, while using shortest transport routes: sinusoidal networks are sub-graphs of the Delaunay graph of their set of branching points, and also contain the corresponding minimum spanning tree, both to good approximation. To overcome the spatial limitations of experimental samples and generate arbitrarily-sized networks, we developed a network generation algorithm that reproduces the statistical features of 0.3-mm-sized samples of sinusoidal networks, using multi-objective optimization for node degree and edge length distribution. Nematic order in these simulated networks implies anisotropic transport properties, characterized by an empirical linear relation between a nematic order parameter and the anisotropy of the permeability tensor. Under the assumption that all sinusoid tubes have a constant and equal flow resistance, we predict that the distribution of currents in the network is very inhomogeneous, with a small number of edges carrying a substantial part of the flow-a feature known for hierarchical networks, but unexpected for plexus-like networks. We quantify network resilience in terms of a permeability-at-risk, i.e., permeability as function of the fraction of removed edges. We find that sinusoidal networks are resilient to random removal of edges, but vulnerable to the removal of high-current edges. Our findings suggest the existence of a mechanism counteracting flow inhomogeneity to balance metabolic load on the liver.


Assuntos
Fígado/anatomia & histologia , Modelos Biológicos , Humanos , Fígado/irrigação sanguínea , Microvasos/anatomia & histologia
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