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1.
Z Gastroenterol ; 58(1): 68-73, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931543

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is of increasing prevalence globally. While lifestyle modifications are recommended, many patients do not succeed to achieve significant and maintained weight loss from lifestyle and as such there is a high unmet need for pharmacotherapy in this group. Comparable to other metabolic diseases including diabetes and dyslipidaemia, a high proportion of patients will likely benefit from permanent pharmacological therapy. Currently there are many compounds with different mechanisms of action in clinical development including metabolic, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic drugs. A number of phase 3 clinical trials are currently ongoing including Elafibranor, a dual PPAR α/δ agonist, Cenicriviroc, a CCR2/CCR5 chemokine antagonist, the nuclear bile acid receptor FXR agonist obeticholic acid, Aramchol, a fatty acid bile acid conjugate that modulates SCD-1, and Resmetrion, a liver-specific THR-ß agonist. Further studies with promising pathophysiological mechanisms of action, e. g. the ASK-1 inhibitor Selonsertib or the caspase inhibitor Emricasan have shown negative results. However, some are being further evaluated in combination therapies. The complex pathophysiology of the disease, which combines inflammation, metabolism and fibrosis, has led to the fact that even combinations of several substances are investigated with different modes of action. This review summarizes pivotal clinical trials for patients with NASH in the absence of cirrhosis which are recruiting in the fall of 2019.


Assuntos
Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Inflamatórios , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Toxicol Lett ; 319: 155-159, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706005

RESUMO

Novel HepG2 cell clones 1A2 C2 and 1A2 C7 were independently generated by lentiviral transduction to functionally overexpress cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2). We found similar and stable CYP1A2 transcript and protein levels in both cell clones leading to specific enzyme activities of about 370 pmol paracetamol x min-1 x mg-1 protein analyzed by phenacetin conversion. Both clones showed dramatically increased sensitivity to the hepatotoxic compound aflatoxin B1 (EC50 < 100 nM) when compared to parental HepG2 cells (EC50∼5 µM). Thus, newly established cell lines are an appropriate tool to study metabolism and toxicity of substances depending on conversion by CYP1A2.


Assuntos
Citocromo P-450 CYP1A2/genética , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Hepatoblastoma/enzimologia , Hepatoblastoma/genética , Lentivirus/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/enzimologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Aflatoxina B1/toxicidade , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A2/biossíntese , Impressões Digitais de DNA/métodos , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Mycoplasma/química , Fenacetina/farmacocinética , Plasmídeos/genética
3.
Toxicol Lett ; 319: 11-21, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711802

RESUMO

Alcoholic liver injury (ALI) is a part of alcohol-related liver diseases. These diseases include steatohepatitis, alcoholic fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Accumulating data indicates that alcohol metabolism and circulating endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide (LPS) contribute to macrophage activation, which leads to the development of ALI. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) has been shown to be involved in many tissue inflammations as well as liver fibrosis; however, the role of PTP1B in ALI is still unclear. In this study, PTP1B expression was elevated in liver tissues and primary macrophages isolated from EtOH-fed mice. Moreover, PTP1B expression was elevated in RAW264.7 cells stimulated with alcohol and LPS. Additional studies showed that silencing of PTP1B reduced the inflammatory response and expression of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α, while overexpression of PTP1B induced inflammation in RAW264.7 cells. In addition, we found that NF-κB pathway was activated in RAW264.7 cells stimulated with alcohol and LPS, and PTP1B silencing or overexpression could regulate NF-κB signaling. In conclusion, this study revealed the function of PTP1B in ALI via its regulation of the NF-κB signaling pathway and may provide theoretical support for further research on ALI.


Assuntos
Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/genética , Ativação de Macrófagos , NF-kappa B/genética , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 1/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Animais , Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacologia , Citocinas/biossíntese , Etanol/farmacologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 1/biossíntese , Células RAW 264.7 , Regulação para Cima
4.
Toxicol Lett ; 320: 1-8, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756458

RESUMO

With the spread of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] contamination, risk of exposure in non-occupational populations is increasing. The liver is the main target organ for Cr(VI) accumulation; however, the effect of long-term Cr(VI) exposure on liver toxicity is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of chronic Cr(VI) exposure on liver fibrosis and its possible mechanism. Mice were injected with Cr(VI) for two months, and our results showed Cr(VI) treatment caused liver toxicity characterized by liver structure disorganization, liver dysfunction, and antioxidant enzyme system inhibition. The development of liver fibrosis was also found via the emergence of collagen fibril deposition, increased expression of extracellular matrix-related genes, activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and increase the expression levels of Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway-related molecules. To demonstrate the role of Hh signaling in the regulation of Cr(VI)-induced liver fibrosis, genetically modified mice with heterozygous deficiency of Shh (Shh+/-) were used. In the Shh+/- mice, Hh signaling, HSCs activation and liver fibrosis development were all ameliorated. In conclusion, we demonstrated that Cr(VI)-induced liver fibrosis development resulted from Hh pathway-mediated HSCs activation. Our findings strongly suggest that inhibition of Hh pathway may help in the development of new strategies for Cr(VI)-associated liver fibrosis.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Cromo , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Células Estreladas do Fígado/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Dicromato de Potássio , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/genética , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Proteínas Hedgehog/deficiência , Proteínas Hedgehog/genética , Células Estreladas do Fígado/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/genética , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout
5.
Toxicol Lett ; 319: 85-94, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730885

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic hepatic disease associated with the excessive accumulation of lipids in the liver. Premenopausal women are protected from the liver metabolic complications of obesity compared with body mass index (BMI)-matched men. This protection may be related to estrogen's ability to limit liver fat accumulation. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a novel regulator of NAFLD, may be an important target for regulating estrogen homeostasis. In present study, we used benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a classic and potent ligand of AhR, to activate AhR pathway causes overexpression of the estrogen-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and affects the expression of important genes involved in hepatic lipid regulation. BaP induces CYP1A1 expression through AhR signaling and inhibits the protective effect of 17ß-estradiol (E2) on hepatic steatosis, characterized by triglyceride accumulation, and markers of liver damage are significantly elevated. The expression of adipogenic genes involved in the hepatic lipid metabolism of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) was increased compared with that in the control group. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), which is involved in fatty acid oxidation, were significantly reduced. Taken together, our results revealed that the steatotic effect of AhR is likely due to overexpression of the E2 metabolic enzyme CYP1A1, which affects the estrogen signaling pathway, leading to the suppression of fatty acid oxidation, inhibition of the hepatic export of triglycerides, and an increase in peripheral fat mobilization. The results from this study may help establish AhR as a novel therapeutic and preventive target for fatty liver disease.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipogenia/genética , Animais , Benzo(a)pireno/farmacologia , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/biossíntese , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/genética , Estradiol/farmacologia , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Feminino , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , PPAR alfa/biossíntese , PPAR alfa/genética , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/agonistas , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/biossíntese , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/genética , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
6.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eAO4876, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576909

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of sericin extracted from silkworm Bombyx mori cocoon on morphophysiological parameters in mice with obesity induced by high-fat diet. METHODS: Male C57Bl6 mice aged 9 weeks were allocated to one of two groups - Control and Obese, and fed a standard or high-fat diet for 10 weeks, respectively. Mice were then further subdivided into four groups with seven mice each, as follows: Control, Control-Sericin, Obese, and Obese-Sericin. The standard or high fat diet was given for 4 more weeks; sericin (1,000mg/kg body weight) was given orally to mice in the Control-Sericin and Obese-Sericin Groups during this period. Weight gain, food intake, fecal weight, fecal lipid content, gut motility and glucose tolerance were monitored. At the end of experimental period, plasma was collected for biochemical analysis. Samples of white adipose tissue, liver and jejunum were collected and processed for light microscopy analysis; liver fragments were used for lipid content determination. RESULTS: Obese mice experienced significantly greater weight gain and fat accumulation and had higher total cholesterol and glucose levels compared to controls. Retroperitoneal and periepididymal adipocyte hypertrophy, development of hepatic steatosis, increased cholesterol and triglyceride levels and morphometric changes in the jejunal wall were observed. CONCLUSION: Physiological changes induced by obesity were not fully reverted by sericin; however, sericin treatment restored jejunal morphometry and increased lipid excretion in feces in obese mice, suggesting potential anti-obesity effects.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/uso terapêutico , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Sericinas/uso terapêutico , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Animais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol/análise , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Trânsito Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sericinas/farmacologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Triglicerídeos/análise , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 84(1): 171-177, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476130

RESUMO

We tested the hypothesis that α-lactalbumin inhibits the disruption of intestinal barrier function and liver cirrhosis by restoring gut-liver axis function in thioacetamide (TAA) -treated rats. Rat diets were supplemented with α-lactalbumin replacing 50% of dietary protein. After consuming α-lactalbumin for one week, rats were intraperitoneally injected with TAA twice a week for 14 weeks. The α-lactalbumin-enriched diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and hyaluronic acids. The supplement significantly reduced plasma lipopolysaccharide levels and increased occludin mRNA level. Hepatic fibrosis and regenerative nodules was developed and intestinal villi were shortened by TAA; α-Lactalbumin attenuated these histopathological changes. These results indicated that α-lactalbumin improved intestinal barrier function, suppressing endotoxin levels. These data also suggested that α-lactalbumin ameliorated the impairment of the gut-liver axis by TAA, inhibiting the development of liver cirrhosis.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactalbumina/uso terapêutico , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/dietoterapia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/uso terapêutico , Tioacetamida/farmacologia , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Fibrose/tratamento farmacológico , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Hialurônico/sangue , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Lipopolissacarídeos/sangue , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/prevenção & controle , Masculino , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Tioacetamida/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/genética
8.
Gene ; 725: 144167, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639434

RESUMO

Osteoporosis in advanced cholestatic and end-stage liver disease is related to low bone formation. Previous studies have demonstrated the deleterious consequences of lithocholic acid (LCA) and bilirubin on osteoblastic cells. These effects are partially or completely neutralized by ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). We have assessed the differential gene expression of osteoblastic cells under different culture conditions. The experiments were performed in human osteosarcoma cells (Saos-2) cultured with LCA (10 µM), bilirubin (50 µM) or UDCA (10 and 100 µM) at 2 and 24 h. Expression of 87 genes related to bone metabolism and other signalling pathways were assessed by TaqMan micro fluidic cards. Several genes were up-regulated by LCA, most of them pro-apoptotic (BAX, BCL10, BCL2L13, BCL2L14), but also MGP (matrix Gla protein), BGLAP (osteocalcin), SPP1 (osteopontin) and CYP24A1, and down-regulated bone morphogenic protein genes (BMP3 and BMP4) and DKK1 (Dickkopf-related protein 1). Parallel effects were observed with bilirubin, which up-regulated apoptotic genes and CSF2 (colony-stimulating factor 2) and down-regulated antiapoptotic genes (BCL2 and BCL2L1), BMP3, BMP4 and RUNX2. UDCA 100 µM had specific consequences since differential expression was observed, up-regulating BMP2, BMP4, BMP7, CALCR (calcitonin receptor), SPOCK3 (osteonectin), BGLAP (osteocalcin) and SPP1 (osteopontin), and down-regulating pro-apoptotic genes. Furthermore, most of the differential expression changes induced by both LCA and bilirubin were partially or completely neutralized by UDCA. Conclusion: Our observations reveal novel target genes, whose regulation by retained substances of cholestasis may provide additional insights into the pathogenesis of osteoporosis in cholestatic and end-stage liver diseases.


Assuntos
Bilirrubina/metabolismo , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteoporose/genética , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Colestase/genética , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Perfil Genético , Humanos , Ácido Litocólico/farmacologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/fisiologia , Hepatopatias/genética , Hepatopatias/metabolismo , Hepatopatias/fisiopatologia , Osteoporose/metabolismo , Osteossarcoma/genética , Osteossarcoma/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Ursodesoxicólico/farmacologia
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518684

RESUMO

Generally, fish are thought to have a limited ability to utilize carbohydrate. Postprandial blood glucose is cleared sluggishly in fish, resulting in prolonged hyperglycemia. Facilitative glucose transporters (GLUTs) play an important role in glucose utilization. In the present study, the expression levels of glut2 in different tissues were detected in grass carp. Furthermore, the effects of oral glucose administration on glut2 mRNA expression in the liver, intestine and kidney were investigated, and we also evaluated the response of glut2 mRNA to insulin and glucagon in the primary hepatocytes of grass carp. The expression level of glut2 mRNA was highest in the liver, followed by the intestine and kidney, but lower in other tissues. The result of glucose tolerance test (GTT) showed that serum glucose reached the highest level at 3 h after GTT and recovered to the basic level at 6 h. The glut2 mRNA in the intestine was up-regulated at 1 h after GTT. However, the glut2 mRNA expression in the liver of grass carp was unchanged after GTT for 1, 3, 6 h, and even decreased at 12 h after GTT. In addition, the expression of glut2 mRNA in the primary hepatocytes was enhanced by insulin and glucagon at 3 h post treatment. These results suggested that glut2 expression in the liver of grass carp was sensitive to insulin and glucagon, but not blood glucose. The up-regulation of glut2 by these hormones might be involved in the bi-directional transportation of glucose in the liver.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Glucagon/metabolismo , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 2/biossíntese , Glucose/farmacologia , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo
10.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124609, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524604

RESUMO

Human pharmaceuticals are pollutants of special concern due to their widespread consumption over the last decades, their high persistence in the environment, and the reported alterations produced on non-target organism. The antidepressant fluoxetine (FLX) exerts its effect by inhibiting serotonin (5-HT) reuptake at the presynaptic membrane, thus increasing brain serotonergic activity. In vertebrates, there is a clear inverse relationship between hypothalamic 5-HT levels and food intake, therefore we hypothesized that FLX would inhibit food intake, and in consequence alter energy metabolism in freshwater fish. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of FLX on feeding behavior and energy storage of the cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus. Adult fish were intraperitoneally injected daily with 2 or 20 µg.g-1 FLX or saline for a 5-day period, during which the 20 µg.g-1 FLX-injected fish exhibited a marked reduction in food intake, consistent with a decrease in total body weight and total hepatocyte area observed at the end of the experiment. Although not statistically significant, a marked 50% decrease in glycogen and lipid content and an increase in protein levels in liver was observed for the 20 µg.g-1 FLX dose. This was evidenced histochemically by a weak PAS positive reaction and an intense Coomasie Blue stain. Taken together, these results suggest that the SSRI antidepressant FLX produces an anorectic effect in adults of C. dimerus, which could alter normal physiological function and, in consequence, have a negative impact on fish growth, reproduction, and population success.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluoxetina/toxicidade , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipotálamo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124900, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563099

RESUMO

Spirotetramat (SPT) is a new tetronic acid derivative insecticide used to control scales and aphids; the potential for endocrine disruptor effects in fish could not be finalized with the available data. In this study, zebrafish were selected to assess the endocrine-disrupting effects. Significant decrease of plasma estradiol (E2), testosterone (T) and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) were observed in both male and female following the spirotetramat exposure; the vitellogenin (VTG) level in females significantly decreased. The expression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis genes fshr, lhr and esr1 showed significant increase in the gonads, which expression in males is higher than in females. In addition, the activities of capspase-3 and caspase-9 significantly decreased in both males and females liver, while the capspase-3 and caspase-9 were increased in male testis, the mRNA expression levels of genes expression related to the apoptosis pathway were also significantly altered after the spirotetramat exposure. Additionally, we found the parental zebrafish exposed to spirotetramat induced the development delay of its offspring. Above all, the adverse effects induced by spirotetramat suggesting that spirotetramat is a potential exogenous hazardous agent.


Assuntos
Compostos Aza/toxicidade , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Compostos de Espiro/toxicidade , Animais , Apoptose , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Estradiol/metabolismo , Estrogênios/farmacologia , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Gônadas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testosterona/análogos & derivados , Vitelogeninas/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
12.
Anticancer Res ; 39(12): 6653-6660, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810930

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) on chemically-induced hepatic carcinogenesis (HCC) in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a first set of experiments, mice were treated with diethylnitrosoamine intraperitoneally at two weeks of age. They were fed chow containing MCT or a normal chow diet and sacrificed after 28 weeks. Incidence of hepatic tumor was compared between the two groups. Expression of oxidative stress, and inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in liver tissues were examined. In a second set of experiments, the histopathological findings of the intraperitoneal adipose tissue were assessed, and expression of adipocytokines in the fat tissue was measured. In a third set of experiments, plasma ß-hydroxybutyrate (HB) concentration was measured in both animals fed chow containing MCT and a normal chow diet. Mouse HCC cells were co-cultured with ß-HB, and the numbers of tumor cells were counted at days 3 and 7. RESULTS: In the first set of experiments, the tumor count observed in the control group was significantly blunted in the MCT group. Maximum tumor diameter also decreased in the MCT group compared to the control group. The expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines was significantly decreased by MCT. Furthermore, expression of 4-hydroxynonenal was lower in the MCT group compared to the control group. In the second set of experiments, hypertrophy of the adipocytes was suppressed, and the concentration of adiponectin and leptin in the adipose tissue decreased by MCT. In the third set of experiments, plasma ß-HB concentration increased in the MCT group as expected. ß-HB significantly inhibited the proliferation of HCC cells. CONCLUSION: MCT administration markedly suppresses the incidence of chemically-induced HCC by inhibition of inflammation and increase of ketone bodies.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Hepáticas Experimentais/prevenção & controle , Triglicerídeos/farmacologia , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Adipócitos/patologia , Adipocinas/metabolismo , Adiponectina/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Aldeídos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Carcinógenos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/induzido quimicamente , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Contagem de Células , Proliferação de Células , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dietilnitrosamina , Hipertrofia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Leptina/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas Experimentais/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Hepáticas Experimentais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas Experimentais/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C3H , Estresse Oxidativo , Triglicerídeos/administração & dosagem
13.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(19): 4234-4240, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872704

RESUMO

The aim of this paper was to screen out relevant genes of geniposide-induced hepatotoxicity based on genomics,in order to provide a scientific basis for the non-clinical evaluation of drugs containing Gardeniae Fructus and geniposide. Fifty-five SD rats were randomly divided into normal control group,24 h group and 72 h group. The changes of appearance,behavior and weight of rats were observed after administration by gavage for 3 days. The activities of ALT and AST were detected. Molecular mechanism of geniposideinduced hepatotoxicity was investigated by Affymetrix miRNA 4. 0 and Affymetrix Rat Gene 2. 0 to examine the gene expression levels in Sprague-Dawley rat livers at 24 h and 72 h after administration of overdose-geniposide( 300 mg·kg-1 daily),and then verified by Realtime quantitative PCR. Compared with the normal control group,the activities of ALT and AST were markedly increased. In addition,experimental results indicated that 324 genes were differentially expressed,among which 259 were up-regulated and 65 down-regulated.Nine candidate genes were verified by qRT-PCR,including Bcl2,Il1 b,Tpm3,MMP2,Col1α1,Ifit1,Aldob,Nr0 b2,Cyp2 c23. And Bcl2,Col1α1,Aldob,Nr0 b2 and Cyp2 c23 were found to be correlated with geniposide-induced hepatotoxicity. This study provides an important clue for mechanism of geniposide-induced hepatotoxicity.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Iridoides/toxicidade , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Genômica , Fígado/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
14.
Yi Chuan ; 41(12): 1129-1137, 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31857284

RESUMO

Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) is a highly conserved metallopeptidase that functions in the catabolism of bioactive peptides. In our previous study, we identified a putative circular transcript in that chicken insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) gene through analyzing a high throughput sequencing result. Here we set to confirm the circular transcript of IDE (circIDE) and explore its expression regularity in normal barred Plymouth chicken. The circIDE was confirmed by PCR amplification and sequencing. The circular structure of circIDE was determined by RNase R processing and reverse transcription experiments. Then we analyzed the spatiotemporal expression pattern of circIDE and IDE mRNA and compared the differential expression of circIDE and IDE mRNA in the normal barred Plymouth chicken and the dwarf ones. The results showed that the full length of chicken circIDE was 1332 nt, divided form exon 2-11 of the IDE gene. RNase R tolerance analysis showed that chicken circIDE had the general characteristics of circular molecule, and was highly resistant to RNase R. The random primers had higher transcription efficiency than the oligo-d(T)18 primers, confirming that circIDE is a circular structured molecule without poly(A). circIDE was highly expressed in the liver and heart tissues but less in the muscle tissues of leg and breast in normal chickens at the age of 1 and 12 weeks. The expression profile of circIDE in liver tissue showed that circIDE level was lower in1 to 6 weeks and then became higher after 8 weeks of age. The expression of circIDE in liver tissue was significantly higher in normal chicken than that in dwarf barred Plymouth chicken (P<0.05). This study confirmed a circIDE strucutre in chicken IDE gene and uncovered its expression regularity. We demonstrated that the expression level of circIDE in the liver tissue was higher in normal barred Plymouth chicken compared to dwarf species. This study paves the way for further understanding the biological function of chicken circIDE, including its roles in regulating chicken growth and development.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Clonagem Molecular , Insulisina , Animais , Expressão Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Insulisina/genética , Fígado/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(47): 13082-13092, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671940

RESUMO

Elevated circulating level of the intestinal microbiota-derived l-carnitine metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) has recently been linked to many chronic diseases. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of omega-7-enriched Decaisnea insignis seed oil (DISO) on reducing TMAO formation to prevent the l-carnitine-induced hepatic damage in mice. Feeding of mice with 3% l-carnitine in drinking water clearly increased the serum and urinary levels of TMAO (p < 0.05 vs Normal), whereas the serum and urinary TMAO formation was sharply reduced by DISO administration (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, DISO resulted in strong inhibition against the elevation of hepatic injury marker (AST, ALT, and ALP) activities and dyslipidemia (TC, TG, LDL-C, and HDL-C), as well as liver inflammatory cytokine (IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α, and TNF-ß) release in l-carnitine-fed mice (p < 0.05). As revealed by 16S rDNA gene sequencing, DISO significantly inhibited the l-carnitine-induced elevations in the abundance of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Erysipelotrichaceae and the increases in the proportion of Lactobacillus and Akkermansia, revealing that DISO attenuated the l-carnitine-caused gut dysbiosis. These findings suggested that DISO could alleviate liver dysfunction in l-carnitine-fed mice, which might be due to the protection against TMAO formation by modulating the gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Carnitina/efeitos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Magnoliopsida/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Interleucina-1/genética , Interleucina-1/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Hepatopatias/metabolismo , Hepatopatias/microbiologia , Masculino , Metilaminas/efeitos adversos , Camundongos , Sementes/química
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(50): 13929-13938, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674780

RESUMO

Lipid accumulation is a typical characteristic of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The inhibition of lipid accumulation is regarded as a potential treatment for NAFLD. In this study, we investigated the effects of γ-mangostin or α-mangostin on lipid accumulation in a cell model. Analysis of the inhibitory effects of γ-mangostin on lipid accumulation revealed that it downregulated NAFLD-related biochemical parameters and stimulated the SIRT1/LKB1/AMPK pathway. Consequently, it suppressed lipid synthesis and enhanced fatty acid oxidation. Moreover, we demonstrated that the blockage of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) by the pharmacological inhibitor Compound C abrogated the promoting effect of AMPK. Similar results were also observed for α-mangostin. The effects of α-mangostin on lipid accumulation were inferior to those of γ-mangostin. The differences in CPT1A activity might be originated from their different chemical structures. Our results suggested that γ-mangostin and α-mangostin can be exploited as potential candidates for NAFLD treatment.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Xantonas/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/genética , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Sirtuína 1/genética
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(47): 13073-13081, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675219

RESUMO

Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are the major products of the microbial fermentation of indigestible carbohydrates. SCFAs are known to improve the host metabolism, but their underlying mechanism of action remains elusive. In this study, 16 growing pigs were infused with saline or sodium propionate solution (25 mL, 2 mol/L) through a cecal fistula twice a day during a 28 day experimental period. The results showed that the cecal infusion of the SCFA propionate decreased serum and liver triglyceride levels and increased serum PYY secretion in growing pigs. Hepatic metabolomics identified 12 metabolites that were significantly altered by propionate. These included decreased levels of lipid metabolism-related stearic acid and glycerol-2-phosphate; increased levels of TCA cycle components including malic acid, fructose-6-phosphate, and succinic acid; and decreased levels of the amino acid metabolism products aspartic acid and serine. Hepatic transcriptomics demonstrated that propionate inhibited fatty acid synthesis and promoted the lipid metabolic process. Pathway enrichment analysis showed that propionate accelerated gluconeogenesis and decreased glycolysis. Taken together, these data support a role of the SCFA propionate on host lipid and glucose metabolism.


Assuntos
Ceco/metabolismo , Fístula/tratamento farmacológico , Fígado/metabolismo , Propionatos/administração & dosagem , Suínos , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Ceco/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fístula/genética , Fístula/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
18.
Biochemistry (Mosc) ; 84(10): 1197-1203, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694515

RESUMO

Here, we suggested that the epigenetic mechanism of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) action might be based on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated transcription of the target genes, including miRNAs, that have the dioxin response element (DRE) in their promoters. The effect of BP on the expression of the oncogenic miR-483-3p, its host gene IGF2, and target gene IGF1 in primary hepatocytes and in the liver of Wistar female rats was investigated. The activation of AhR was confirmed using selective AhR inhibitor CH-223191 and by evaluating expression of the target CYP1A1 gene. The lack of coordination between the expression of miR-483-3p and its host gene IGF2 was revealed, which may be due to the presence of the binding site for the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), which is a negative expression regulator. Our results confirm the existence of the AhR-mediated pathway in the regulation of expression of miR-483-3p, IGF1, and IGF2 under BP exposure, which is of considerable interest for understanding the epigenetic mechanisms of the carcinogenic effect of BP.


Assuntos
Benzo(a)pireno/farmacologia , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , MicroRNAs/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Biologia Computacional , Feminino , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
19.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 297, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694618

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Radix isatidis (Isatis indigotica Fort.) is an ancient medicinal herb, which has been applied to the prevention and treatment of influenza virus since ancient times. In recent years, the antioxidant activity of Radix isatidis has been widely concerned by researchers. Our previous studies have shown that Radix isatidis protein (RIP) has good antioxidant activity in vitro. In this study, the composition of the protein was characterized and its antioxidant activity in vivo was evaluated. METHODS: The model of oxidative damage in mice was established by subcutaneous injection of D-galactose for 7 weeks. Commercially available kits were used to determine the content of protein and several oxidation indexes in different tissues of mice. The tissue samples were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and the pathological changes were observed by optical microscope. The molecular weight of RIP was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The amino acid composition of RIP was determined by a non-derivative method developed by our research group. RESULTS: RIP significantly increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, CAT, GSH-Px and total antioxidant capability (TAOC) but decreased the MDA level in the serum, kidney and liver. H&E stained sections of liver and kidney revealed D-galactose could cause serious injury and RIP could substantially attenuate the injury. The analysis of SDS-PAGE showed that four bands with molecular weights of 19.2 kDa, 21.5 kDa, 24.8 kDa and 40.0 kDa were the main protein components of RIP. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggested that RIP had excellent antioxidant activity, which could be explored as a health-care product to retard aging and a good source of protein nutrition for human consumption.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Galactose/efeitos adversos , Proteínas de Plantas/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Catalase/metabolismo , Humanos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Peso Molecular , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Raízes de Plantas/química , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
20.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 6917-6932, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695366

RESUMO

Aim: To determine whether the use of a mixed polymeric micelle delivery system based on vitamin E succinate (VES)-grafted-chitosan oligosaccharide (CSO)/VES-grafted-chitosan (CS) mixed micelles (VES-g-CSO/VES-g-CS MM) enhances the delivery of C-DMSA, a theranostic fluorescent probe, for Hg2+ detection and detoxification in vitro and in vivo. Methods: Mixed micelles self-assembled from two polymers, VES-g-CSO and VES-g-CS, were used to load C-DMSA and afforded C-DMSA@VES-g-CSO/VES-g-CS MM for cell and in vivo applications. Fluorescence microscopy was used to assess C-DMSA cellular uptake and Hg2+ detection in L929 cells. C-DMSA@VES-g-CSO/VES-g-CS MM was then administered intravenously. Hg2+ detection was assessed by fluorescence microscopy in terms of bio-distribution while detoxification efficacy in Hg2+-poisoned rat models was evaluated in terms of mercury contents in blood and in liver. Results: The C-DMSA loaded mixed micelles, C-DMSA@VES-g-CSO/VES-g-CS MM, significantly enhanced cellular uptake and detoxification efficacy of C-DMSA in Hg2+ pretreated human L929 cells. Evidence from the reduction of liver coefficient, mercury contents in liver and blood, alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase activities in Hg2+ poisoned SD rats treated with the mixed micelles strongly supported that the micelles were effective for Hg2+ detoxification in vivo. Furthermore, ex vivo fluorescence imaging experiments also supported enhanced Hg2+ detection in rat liver. Conclusion: The mixed polymeric micelle delivery system could significantly enhance cell uptake and efficacy of a theranostic probe for Hg2+ detection and detoxification treatment in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, this nanoparticle drug delivery system could achieve targeted detection and detoxification in liver.


Assuntos
Quitosana/química , Fígado/metabolismo , Mercúrio/análise , Micelas , Oligossacarídeos/química , Succímero/química , alfa-Tocoferol/farmacologia , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Quitosana/síntese química , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Corantes Fluorescentes/síntese química , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Humanos , Inativação Metabólica/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Mercúrio/sangue , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Nanopartículas/química , Oligossacarídeos/síntese química , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Succímero/síntese química , alfa-Tocoferol/síntese química , alfa-Tocoferol/química
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