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1.
J Anim Sci ; 97(10): 4023-4031, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376282

RESUMO

A study was conducted to determine the standardized total tract digestible phosphorus (STTD P) requirement for 24- to 130-kg finishing pigs housed under commercial conditions. A total of 1,130 barrows and gilts (PIC 359 × 1050, Hendersonville, TN; initially 24.2 kg) were used, with 26 to 27 pigs per pen with 7 replicates per treatment. Pens of pigs were allotted to treatments in a randomized complete block design with body weight (BW) as the blocking factor. The dietary treatments were fed in 4 phases and were formulated to contain 80%, 90%, 100%, 115%, 130%, and 150% of the National Research Council (NRC) requirement estimate for finishing pigs within each phase. Weight ranges for each phase were: 27 to 49, 49 to 76, 76 to 90, and 90 to 130 kg. Treatments were achieved by increasing the amount of monocalcium phosphate at the expense of corn in the diet with no added phytase. All diets were formulated to contain a similar 1.14:1 to 1.16:1 total Ca:P ratio across treatments in all phases. Increasing STTD P resulted in a quadratic response (P < 0.05) in average daily gain (ADG), gain-to-feed ratio (G:F), and final BW. The greatest improvement was observed with STTD P at 130% of NRC for ADG and final BW and at 115% STTD P for G:F. Average daily feed intake increased linearly (linear, P < 0.05) with the inclusion of STTD P. Increasing STTD P resulted in an increase (quadratic, P < 0.05) in hot carcass weight (HCW) and carcass ADG with the greatest response observed with STTD P at 130% of NRC. There was a marginally significant response (quadratic, P < 0.10) in carcass G:F, with the greatest improvement with STTD P at 115% of NRC. Carcass yield decreased (linear, P < 0.05) with increasing STTD P, while there was a marginally significant (linear, P < 0.10) decrease in backfat and increase in fat-free lean. At the end of the study, a metacarpal was collected and analyzed for bone ash. Increasing STTD P resulted in an increase (linear, P < 0.05) in bone ash weight and percentage ash. For ADG and G:F, the quadratic model demonstrated the best fit. The maximum response in ADG and G:F was estimated at 122% and 116% of NRC STTD P, respectively. The broken-line linear model best fit the data for percentage bone ash, with a plateau achieved at 131% of the NRC STTD P. In conclusion, the estimated STTD P requirement of 24 to 130 kg ranged from 116% to 131% of the NRC publication (2012) requirement estimate.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/química , Calcificação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Fósforo na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suínos/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Feminino , Masculino , Ossos Metacarpais/química , Necessidades Nutricionais , Fósforo na Dieta/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
2.
J Anim Sci ; 97(10): 4032-4040, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374120

RESUMO

Two experiments were conducted to determine the standardized total tract digestible phosphorus (STTD P) requirement for 11- to 23-kg nursery pigs fed diets with or without phytase. A total of 1,080 and 2,140 pigs (PIC 359 × Camborough, Hendersonville, TN; initially 11.4 ± 0.29 and 11.1 ± 0.24 kg) were used in Exp. 1 and Exp. 2, respectively. There were 23 to 27 pigs per pen with 6 and 12 replicate pens per treatment in Exp. 1 and Exp. 2, respectively. After weaning, pigs were fed a common pelleted diet with 0.45% STTD P for 7 d, and a common phase 2 meal diet with 0.40% STTD P for 14 d in Exp. 1 and 18 d in Exp. 2. Pens of pigs were then allotted to dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design with body weight (BW) as the blocking factor. In Exp. 1, dietary treatments consisted of 0.26%, 0.30%, 0.33%, 0.38%, 0.43%, 0.48%, and 0.53% STTD P. Treatments were achieved with the inclusion of monocalcium phosphate at the expense of corn. In Exp. 2, diets contained 1,000 phytase units (FYT; Ronozyme Hiphos 2500, DSM Nutritional Products, Inc., Parsippany, NJ) with assumed release value 0.132% STTD P, and treatments consisted of 0.30%, 0.33%, 0.38%, 0.43%, 0.48%, 0.53%, and 0.58% STTD P. These STTD P concentrations included the expected phytase release of 0.132% STTD P. In both experiments, a similar 1.17:1 Ca:P ratio was maintained across treatments. Statistical models included linear model (LM), quadratic polynomial (QP), broken-line linear (BLL), and broken-line quadratic (BLQ). In Exp. 1, increasing STTD P increased (linear, P < 0.001) ADG, ADFI, G:F, final BW, and grams of STTD P intake per day and per kilogram of gain. There was also a marginal quadratic response for G:F (P < 0.066). In Exp. 2, ADG and G:F increased quadratically (P < 0.05), whereas ADFI increased linearly (P = 0.060) with increasing STTD P. The BLL and QP model provided similar fit to G:F in Exp. 1, estimating the requirement for maximum G:F at 0.34% and 0.42%, respectively. The BLL was the best fitting model for ADG and G:F in Exp. 2, estimating the breakpoint at 0.40% and 0.37% STTD P, respectively. The BLL and BLQ models estimated the breakpoint for ADG as a function of STTD P intake in grams per day at 2.92 and 3.02 g/d, respectively. These data provide empirical evidence that for 11- to 23-kg pigs, the NRC (2012) accurately estimates the STTD P requirement on a g/d basis. As a percentage of the diet, the STTD P requirement for diets without or with 1,000 FYT added phytase ranged from 0.34% to 0.42%.


Assuntos
6-Fitase/administração & dosagem , Dieta/veterinária , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Fósforo/metabolismo , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Fósforo na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória , Soja , Suínos/fisiologia , Ganho de Peso , Zea mays
3.
J Anim Sci ; 97(10): 4041-4052, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381760

RESUMO

Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of calcium to phosphorus (Ca:P) ratio in diets adequate in standardized total tract digestible (STTD) P on performance of 26- to 127-kg pigs fed diets with or without phytase. Pens of pigs (n = 1,134 in Exp. 1 and n = 1,215 in Exp. 2, initially 26.3 and 25.3 kg) were blocked by body weight (BW) and allotted to treatments in a randomized complete block design. There were 27 pigs per pen with 7 and 9 replicates per treatment in Exp. 1 and Exp. 2, respectively. Treatments were formulated to contain 0.75:1, 1.00:1, 1.25:1, 1.50:1, 1.75:1, and 2.00:1 analyzed Ca:P ratios in Exp. 1, and 0.75:1, 1.00:1, 1.25:1, 1.50:1, and 2.00:1 analyzed Ca:P ratios in Exp. 2. These correspond to a range of 0.96:1 to 2.67:1 and 0.95:1 to 2.07:1 STTD Ca:STTD P ratios in Exp. 1 and Exp. 2, respectively. Experiment 2 diets contained 1,000 phytase units of Ronozyme HiPhos 2500 (DSM Nutritional Products, Inc., Parsippany, NJ) with release values of 0.132% STTD P, 0.144% total Ca, and 0.096% STTD Ca. Diets contained 122% of NRC (2012) STTD P estimates for the weight range across 4 phases. In Exp. 1, increasing Ca:P ratio increased (quadratic, P < 0.05) average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI). Feed efficiency (G:F) worsened (quadratic, P < 0.05) at the highest ratio. Hot carcass weight (HCW) and bone ash increased (quadratic, P < 0.05) while carcass yield decreased (linear, P < 0.10) with increasing Ca:P ratio. The maximum responses in ADG, HCW, and bone ash were estimated at 1.38:1, 1.25:1, and 1.93:1 analyzed Ca:P and at 1.82:1, 1.64:1, and 2.57:1 STTD Ca:STTD P, respectively. In Exp. 2, increasing Ca:P ratio increased (quadratic, P < 0.05) ADG and bone ash, and improved G:F (linear, P < 0.05). There was a quadratic increase (P < 0.05) in HCW and decrease in carcass yield (P < 0.10). The maximum responses in ADG, HCW, and bone ash were estimated at 1.63:1, 1.11:1 to 1.60:1, and 1.25:1 analyzed Ca:P and at 1.75:1, 1.28:1 to 1.71:1, and 1.40:1 STTD Ca:STTD P, respectively. Expressing ADG on a STTD Ca:STTD P basis provided a more consistent estimate of the ideal Ca:P ratio among the 2 studies than analyzed Ca to analyzed P ratio. A STTD Ca:STTD P ratio between 1.75:1 to 1.82:1 can be used for 26- to 127-kg pigs that are fed diets adequate in STTD P with or without added phytase to maximize growth rate without reducing bone ash.


Assuntos
6-Fitase/administração & dosagem , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Necessidades Nutricionais , Fósforo na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suínos/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
4.
Poult Sci ; 98(10): 4729-4744, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31329980

RESUMO

In a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design, the effects of dietary non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) levels, 0.17% (low) and 0.33% (moderate), diet moisture (dry and wet), and diet particle size (coarse and fine), were studied on egg production, characteristics of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and tibia, digesta pH, and phytase activity in layer pullets (16 to 28 wk of age). The low NPP diet increased average daily water intake (ADWI) to ADFI ratio (4.2%) from 16 to 17 wk, but decreased this ratio (2.8%) from 23 to 27 wk. It decreased ADFI (1.5%) and egg mass production (3.8%) from 19 to 22 wk. It decreased egg weight (0.29 g) and ADWI (2.1%) from 23 to 27 wk. At 22 wk, the GIT relative empty organ weights were (g/kg BW) higher for proventriculus + gizzard (0.96), duodeneum (0.94), and jejunum + ileum (1.95) with the low vs. moderate NPP diet. The low NPP diet decreased digesta phytase activity in crop and proventriculus+gizzard at 28 wk. The wet diet increased ADFI, ADWI, and ADWI/ADFI ratio from 16 to 27 wk, egg mass production (3.0%) from 19 to 22 wk, and egg weight (0.45 g) from 23 to 27 wk. The wet diet also increased digesta phytase activity in proventriculus+gizzard. The coarse diet decreased ADFI from 19 to 22 wk (1.7%) and 23 to 27 wk (1.2%). The coarse diet caused reduced egg mass production (2.6%) from 23 to 27 wk. Egg shell breaking strength was increased on the coarse diet (0.9 Newton). The coarse diet increased ADWI/ADFI ratio from 16 to 27 wk, and increased relative gizzard weight by 1.95 and 0.81 g/kg BW at 22 and 28 wk, respectively. The coarse diet increased jejunal/ileal pH with 0.16 units at 28 wk. None of the tested parameters affected tibia characteristics. It was concluded that a low NPP diet did not clearly affect the studied parameters. The wet diet increased ADFI, ADWI, and egg production. The coarse diet increased ADWI, egg shell breaking strength, relative gizzard weight, and reduced ADFI and egg production.


Assuntos
6-Fitase/metabolismo , Galinhas/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fósforo na Dieta/metabolismo , Fósforo/metabolismo , Tíbia/efeitos dos fármacos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Fezes/química , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Fósforo na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Tíbia/fisiologia
5.
J Med Invest ; 66(1.2): 134-140, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064926

RESUMO

Hyperphosphatemia is associated with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Recently, it has been shown that high serum phosphorus levels are associated with increased cardiovascular events in healthy subjects, but the dietary factors determining serum phosphorus level have not been fully investigated. The study investigated the influence of habitual dietary factors on serum phosphorus levels in healthy young participants. This cross-sectional study conducted fasting blood sampling in 109 healthy young people and used a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire to evaluate the subject's habitual meals. Since the bioavailability of dietary phosphorus depends on the food sources, habitual phosphorus intakes from different food groups and intake frequency (times/month) of processed foods were calculated. The mean serum phosphorus level was 3.9 0.5 mg/dl ; 10.1% of the subjects had serum phosphorus levels that exceeded the reference levels of 4.5 mg/dl. Total phosphorus intake and phosphorus intake from animal-based food did not differ between serum phosphorus quartiles. Higher intake of confectionery was associated with increased serum phosphorus levels. This study showed that frequent consumption of confectionery was associated with elevated serum phosphorus levels. Additional studies are needed to determine whether this is a causal relationship. J. Med. Invest. 66 : 134-140, February, 2019.


Assuntos
Fósforo na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fósforo/sangue , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino
6.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 103(4): 1224-1232, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31062421

RESUMO

Hydroxyapatite, a mineral form of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) that gives bones their rigidity, is the major and essential component of bones and teeth in the human and animal body. A suitable ratio of Ca and P is vital for bone growth. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of dietary calcium to available phosphorus ratios (Ca/AP) on bone metabolism and osteoclast activity of the osteoprotegerin (OPG)/receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) signalling pathway in piglets. At days 15 and 29, the piglets were assessed for growth performance, blood indicators, cytokines and the OPG/RANK/RANKL signalling pathway. Our results showed that piglets fed a dietary Ca/AP ratio of 2:1 increases growth performance and regulates blood indicators and cytokines (parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin (CT), vitamin D3 (VD3 ), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß), interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin (OCN) content). We also demonstrated that this ratio affects hormone secretion and further bone metabolism through the OPG/RANK/RANKL signalling pathway of osteoclasts. These results indicate that a suitable dietary Ca/AP ratio is vital for bone growth and reduce the incidence of bone diseases such as osteoporosis, providing a practical basis for the raising of piglets.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/efeitos dos fármacos , Cálcio na Dieta/farmacologia , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoprotegerina/metabolismo , Receptor Ativador de Fator Nuclear kappa-B/metabolismo , Suínos , Animais , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Osteoclastos/fisiologia , Osteoprotegerina/genética , Fósforo na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fósforo na Dieta/farmacologia , Ligante RANK/genética , Ligante RANK/metabolismo , Receptor Ativador de Fator Nuclear kappa-B/genética
7.
Poult Sci ; 98(10): 4685-4693, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982064

RESUMO

Effects of dietary non-phytate phosphorus (nPP) restriction on growth and duodenal type IIb sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter (NaPi-IIb) genes were observed. A total of 432 one-day old Cobb500 male broiler chickens in 36 cage pens were divided into 6 groups with each group containing 6 pens. Each group was treated with one of the diets containing 0.33, 0.37, 0.41, 0.45, 0.49, and 0.53% of nPP up to 14 D. During 15 to 31 D, birds were treated with one of the diets containing 0.23, 0.27, 0.31, 0.35, 0.39, and 0.43% of nPP. Level of Ca was kept the same across all treatments. Dietary nPP level influenced (P < 0.001) weight gain and feed intake in both growth phases, whereas effect on feed per gain ratio was seen only in the second phase. Toe ash, tibia ash, and tibia breaking strength responded to treatments (P < 0.01) at 14 D. Only tibia ash content was significantly improved (P < 0.001) at 31 D. Growth and bone parameters linearly improved with an increase in dietary nPP content (P < 0.05). Above dietary nPP 0.41% and 0.31% for first phase and second phase, respectively, no significant improvement was seen. Duodenal NaPi-IIb mRNA overexpressed with a decrease in dietary nPP in both phases (P < 0.05). Relative expression of NaPi-IIb in lowest nPP group were 2.2 folds higher in the first phase and 3.6 folds higher in the second phase compared to respective highest nPP groups of each phase. No significant change in NaPi-IIb expression was seen above 0.37% of dietary nPP for 14 D and 0.31% of dietary nPP for 31 D. Dietary requirements of nPP 0.41% for 0 to 14 D and 0.31% for 15 to 31 D were adequate for optimal growth and bone parameters. This study fills the gap in understanding of intestinal NaPi-IIb expression in response to dietary nPP restriction in broilers older than 21 D of age.


Assuntos
Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/genética , Expressão Gênica , Fósforo na Dieta/metabolismo , Proteínas Cotransportadoras de Sódio-Fosfato Tipo IIb/genética , Ração Animal/análise , Ração Animal/classificação , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Galinhas/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Masculino , Fósforo na Dieta/administração & dosagem , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Proteínas Cotransportadoras de Sódio-Fosfato Tipo IIb/metabolismo
8.
Br Poult Sci ; 60(3): 297-308, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30836768

RESUMO

1. The current experiment was performed to elucidate the effects of degelatinised bone meal (DBM) in combination with different particle sizes of limestone or oyster shell on broiler performance, bone characteristics and digestive and plasma alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. 2. Treatments were applied as a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement with three sources of P (DCP, bone meal and DBM) and three particle sizes (50, 100 and 200 µm) of limestone. Chickens were given either DCP or DBM with oyster shell (523 µm), resulting in a total of 11 treatments with 5 replicates of 8 chicks. 3. Performance criteria were measured weekly. Tibia strength, ash, calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) content and plasma P and Ca concentration along with plasma and intestinal alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and P digestibility were measured on d 14 and 28. 4. Body weight and FCR were improved in chicks which were fed DBM or oyster shell in comparison to the DCP and limestone respectively (P ≤ 0.05). Performance was influenced (P ≤ 0.05) by particle size; with coarser particles BW and feed intake were increased (P ≤ 0.05). Tibia shear force and P content were reduced (P ≤ 0.001), whereas tibia shear energy, length, ash and Ca content were increased by substitution of DCP with DBM or bone meal (P ≤ 0.001; P ≤ 0.05). A significant difference was observed in the tibia length between the chicks fed oyster shell or limestone with different particles (P ≤ 0.05). Plasma P concentration was reduced in chicks were fed with DBM, bone meal and lower limestone particle size. Intestinal ALP activity was increased (P ≤ 0.001) in chicks which were fed DBM, bone meal, oyster shell or coarse particles of limestone. The P digestibility in chicks fed bone meal was lower than that of those fed DBM or DCP (P ≤ 0.01). Overall, gelatin removal from bone meal improved broiler bone characteristics through the P digestibility and intestinal ALP activity enhancement.


Assuntos
Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Osso e Ossos/química , Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Galinhas/fisiologia , Minerais/química , Fósforo na Dieta/metabolismo , Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Produtos Biológicos/química , Desenvolvimento Ósseo/efeitos dos fármacos , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/enzimologia , Masculino , Tamanho da Partícula , Fósforo na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória
9.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(5): 4072-4093, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827552

RESUMO

Phosphorus (P) deficiency and hypophosphatemia are believed to be associated with muscle function disturbances in dairy cows, particularly around parturition. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary P deprivation during late gestation and early lactation on muscle P homeostasis and muscle function in periparturient dairy cows. Thirty-six multiparous dairy cows in late gestation were randomly assigned either to undergo dietary P depletion or to be offered a diet with adequate P content from 4 wk before to 4 wk after parturition. Phosphorus-deficient rations for dry and lactating cows contained 0.15 and 0.20% P on a dry matter basis, respectively. Blood and muscle tissue for biopsy were obtained and electromyographic examinations were conducted on biceps femoris and intercostal muscles in regular intervals throughout the study. Muscle tissue was analyzed for the total P, adenosine triphosphate, adenosine diphosphate, adenosine monophosphate, creatine phosphate, and tissue water content. Dietary P deprivation resulted in a pronounced and sustained decline of the plasma phosphate concentration, reaching a nadir at calving with mean values below 1.5 mg/dL and remaining below 2.0 mg/dL during the first 4 wk of lactation. Hypophosphatemia was not associated with signs of clinically apparent muscle weakness or disturbed muscle function and was not associated with a decline in the content of any of the studied P-containing compounds in muscle tissue. Accordingly, no association between plasma phosphate concentration and muscle tissue P content was found. Electromyographic examination identified subclinical effects on motor unit action potentials that are indicative of disturbed neuromuscular functionality. Increasing occurrence of pathologic spontaneous activity possibly resulting from membrane instability of nerve or muscle cells and suggestive of myopathy was also recorded as P deprivation progressed. These effects were predominantly observed in intercostal and to a lesser degree biceps femoris muscles. Electromyographic parameters affected by P deprivation were found to be associated primarily with the plasma phosphate and to a lesser extent with the amounts of energy storing P-containing compounds contained in muscle tissue. These results indicate that prolonged and pronounced dietary P deprivation in transition dairy cows leads to marked sustained hypophosphatemia without altering the muscle tissue P homeostasis or causing clinically apparent muscle function disturbances.


Assuntos
Dieta/veterinária , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Fósforo na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fósforo/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/metabolismo , Feminino , Homeostase , Hipofosfatemia/veterinária , Lactação/fisiologia , Leite , Parto , Fosfatos/sangue , Fósforo/deficiência , Gravidez
10.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 103(2): 555-563, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30786072

RESUMO

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of phytase (PHY), alone or in combination with citric acid (CA), on growing Japanese quails under moderate and severe phosphorus (P) restriction. For this, 504 one-day-old female quails were distributed in a completely randomised design with seven treatments and six replications. Treatments consisted of the following diets: (a) positive control (PC): formulated according to quails nutritional requirements; (b) negative control 40% (NC40 ): PC with 40% less aP; (c) NC40 +PHY; (d) NC40 +PHY+CA; (e) negative control 65% (NC65 ): PC with 65% less aP; (f) NC65 +PHY; (g) NC65 +PHY+CA. Phytase and CA were included at 300 FTU/kg and 40 g/kg, respectively. Performance, bone mineralization and plasma mineral concentration were evaluated at day 35; calcium (Ca) and P metabolism, between days 36 and 39. No significant differences in performance, plasma Ca and P were detected between quails fed PC or NC40 ; however, NC40 decreased tibia ash (p < 0.01). Treatment NC65 impaired daily weight gain (p = 0.01), tibia ash (p < 0.01), and tibia optical densitometry (p = 0.03), as well as modified plasma Ca (p < 0.01) and P (p = 0.03) concentrations when compared to PC. Both NC40 and NC65 reduced P excretion (p < 0.01). Phytase alone restored tibia ash of NC40 quails to regular rates. Nevertheless, only PHY and CA combined returned plasma P, tibia ash, tibia optical densitometry, and daily weight gain of quails fed NC65 to similar values as those observed in PC. In conclusion, PHY alone suppresses the negative effects of moderate P restriction in growing Japanese quails, but fails in this task under severe P restriction. In such a situation, only the combination of PHY and CA ensures regular rates of growth and bone mineralization. This concept should be better explored by producers in order to take full advantage of the reduction in P excretion achieved by lowering dietary P concentrations.


Assuntos
6-Fitase/farmacologia , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento Ósseo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Cítrico/farmacologia , Fósforo na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Codorniz , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Ácido Cítrico/administração & dosagem , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Fósforo/deficiência , Distribuição Aleatória
11.
Nutrients ; 11(2)2019 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30791512

RESUMO

Phosphorus (P) is an important element of various metabolic and signalling processes, including bone metabolism and immune function. To elucidate the routes of P homeostasis and utilization, a five-week feeding study was conducted with weaned piglets receiving a diet with recommended amounts of P and Ca (M), or a diet with lower (L) or higher (H) P values and a constant Ca:P ratio. Routes of P utilization were deduced via bone characteristics (MicroCT), genome-wide transcriptomic profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and serum mineral levels. MicroCT revealed significantly lower bone mineral density, trabecular number, and mechanical fracture load in (L). Gene expression analyses showed transcripts of 276 and 115 annotated genes with higher or lower abundance in (H) than (L) that were related to basic cellular and metabolic processes as well as response to stimuli, developmental processes and immune system processes. This study shows the many molecular routes involved in P homeostasis that should be considered to improve endogenous mechanisms of P utilization.


Assuntos
Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Dieta/métodos , Homeostase/fisiologia , Fósforo na Dieta/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Fósforo na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suínos
12.
Circulation ; 139(11): 1422-1434, 2019 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30612451

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inorganic phosphate (Pi) is used extensively as a preservative and a flavor enhancer in the Western diet. Physical inactivity, a common feature of Western societies, is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. It is unknown whether dietary Pi excess contributes to exercise intolerance and physical inactivity. METHODS: To determine an association between Pi excess and physical activity in humans, we assessed the relationship between serum Pi and actigraphy-determined physical activity level, as well as left ventricular function by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, in DHS-2 (Dallas Heart Study phase 2) participants after adjusting for relevant variables. To determine direct effects of dietary Pi on exercise capacity, oxygen uptake, serum nonesterified fatty acid, and glucose were measured during exercise treadmill test in C57/BL6 mice fed either a high-Pi (2%) or normal-Pi (0.6%) diet for 12 weeks. To determine the direct effect of Pi on muscle metabolism and expression of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism, additional studies in differentiated C2C12 myotubes were conducted after subjecting to media containing 1 to 3 mmol/L Pi (pH 7.0) to simulate in vivo phosphate conditions. RESULTS: In participants of the DHS-2 (n=1603), higher serum Pi was independently associated with reduced time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity ( P=0.01) and increased sedentary time ( P=0.004). There was no association between serum Pi and left ventricular ejection fraction or volumes. In animal studies, compared with the control diet, consumption of high-Pi diet for 12 weeks did not alter body weight or left ventricular function but reduced maximal oxygen uptake, treadmill duration, spontaneous locomotor activity, fat oxidation, and fatty acid levels and led to downregulation of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis, release, and oxidation, including Fabp4, Hsl, Fasn, and Pparγ, in muscle. Similar results were recapitulated in vitro by incubating C2C12 myotubes with high-Pi media. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate a detrimental effect of dietary Pi excess on skeletal muscle fatty acid metabolism and exercise capacity that is independent of obesity and cardiac contractile function. Dietary Pi may represent a novel and modifiable target to reduce physical inactivity associated with the Western diet.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Tolerância ao Exercício/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfatos/efeitos adversos , Fósforo na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Exercício , Tolerância ao Exercício/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mitocôndrias Musculares/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias Musculares/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Consumo de Oxigênio , Fosfatos/administração & dosagem , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Fósforo na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fósforo na Dieta/metabolismo , Comportamento Sedentário
13.
Poult Sci ; 98(5): 2122-2132, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30597079

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effect of phytase and dietary Ca level on performance, phytate (inositol hexa-phosphate, IP6) concentration, and anti-oxidant enzyme activity in broilers exposed to cycling high environmental temperatures. A total of 2,970 day-old Cobb 400 male broilers were randomly allocated among 6 treatments, with 15 replicate pens, and 33 birds per pen. Corn-soy diets low in available phosphorus (avP, 0.15% matrix applied) were fed in 2 phases; starter (0 to 21 d) and grower (22 to 42 d). Diets were factorially arranged by 2 × 3, with adequate (0.90% starter, 0.80% grower) or low (0.60% starter, 0.50% grower) dietary Ca and phytase (0, 500, or 3,000 phytase units (FTU)/kg). Temperature was not regulated, but followed environmental changes determined by the summer season in India; 22 to 39°C in the morning and 23 to 40°C at night. At 42 d of age, supplementing either dose of phytase increased (P < 0.001) weight gain (+128 g) and feed intake (+194 g) of birds, while only 3,000 FTU/kg phytase lowered (P < 0.01) feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared to the control. Birds fed low Ca diets had poorer (P < 0.01) weight gain (-33 g) and FCR (+0.04) than birds fed adequate Ca levels, suggesting that Ca was limiting in these diets. Phytase and low dietary Ca reduced the concentration of IP esters in the gastrointestinal tract of broilers. Lower IP6, IP5, IP4, and IP3 concentrations and increased myo-inositol provision was positively correlated to anti-oxidant enzyme activity in tissues. These results indicate that phytase can be used to alleviate the negative performance traits accredited to broilers under high temperature stress, potentially by reducing the anti-nutritive effect of IP6 and improving anti-oxidant status of birds. However, caution should be taken when reducing dietary Ca levels as improvements in IP6 degradation and anti-oxidant status cannot overcome the constraints on growth by diets that do not meet the Ca requirements.


Assuntos
6-Fitase/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Galinhas/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Fósforo na Dieta/metabolismo , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , 6-Fitase/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Escherichia coli/química , Trato Gastrointestinal/enzimologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Masculino , Fósforo na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória , Estresse Fisiológico
14.
Br Poult Sci ; 60(1): 56-63, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30345797

RESUMO

1. An experiment was conducted to determine optimal non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) concentrations for White Leghorn (WL) layers (22-72 weeks) fed diet containing 38 g Ca/kg. 2. Eight diets with graded concentrations (1.5-3.25 g/kg in increments of 0.25 g) of NPP were prepared. Each diet was fed to eight pen replicates containing 88 birds in each. Performance data was evaluated in three different phases (phase I-22-37 weeks, phase II-38-53 weeks and phase III-54-72 weeks). Optimum levels of NPP were determined by fitting a quadratic polynomial (QP) regression model. 3. Egg production (EP) was not affected (P = 0.059) by the concentration of NPP and interaction between NPP and diet phase was non-significant, indicating that the lowest concentration (1.5 g/kg diet) of NPP used in the study was adequate across the three phases. However, EP was influenced by phase (P < 0.001). 4. Optimum concentration of NPP for feed intake (FI) was estimated to be 1.5, 1.71 and 2.40 g/kg diet during phases I, II and III, respectively. FI per egg mass (EM) or feed efficiency (FE) responded quadratically with NPP and also differed significantly between phases. Optimum concentration of NPP for FE during phases I, II and III was 1.5, 2.56 and 2.32 g/kg diet, respectively. 5. Egg weight (EW), EM, shell weight and thickness were not affected by NPP concentration although all of these variables (except shell weight) were influenced by phases. 6. Breaking strength of tibia and Ca contents in tibia ash were not affected by the concentration of NPP, but bone ash and P contents in tibia ash were influenced (P < 0.001) by NPP. Predicted optimal concentrations of NPP for responses for tibia ash at 44 or 72 weeks, tibia ash P at 44 weeks and tibia ash P at 72 weeks were 1.55, 2.63 and 1.5 g/kg diet, respectively. 7. Based on the results, it was concluded that WL layers required 1.5 g, 2.63 g and 2.4 g, respectively/kg diet during phase I, II and III with the calculated daily intake of 137.3, 278.3 and 262 mg NPP/b/d.


Assuntos
Calcificação Fisiológica , Galinhas/fisiologia , Casca de Ovo/química , Óvulo/fisiologia , Fósforo na Dieta/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Calcificação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Casca de Ovo/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Óvulo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fósforo na Dieta/administração & dosagem
15.
Eur J Pharm Sci ; 128: 1-7, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30419292

RESUMO

Lithium is one of the mainstays for the treatment of bipolar disorder despite its side effects on the endocrine, neurological, and renal systems. Experimentally, lithium has been used as a measure to determine proximal tubule reabsorption based on the assumption that lithium and sodium transport go in parallel in the proximal tubule. However, the exact mechanism by which lithium is reabsorbed remains elusive. The majority of proximal tubule sodium reabsorption is directly or indirectly mediated by the sodium-hydrogen exchanger 3 (NHE3). In addition, sodium-phosphate cotransporters have been implicated in renal lithium reabsorption. In order to better understand the role of sodium-phosphate cotransporters involved in lithium (re)absorption, we studied lithium pharmacokinetics in: i) tubule-specific NHE3 knockout mice (NHE3loxloxPax8Cre), and ii) mice challenged with low or high phosphate diets. Intravenous or oral administration of lithium did not result in differences in lithium bioavailability, half-life, maximum plasma concentrations, area under the curve, lithium clearance, or urinary lithium/creatinine ratios between control and NHE3loxloxPax8Cre mice. After one week of dietary phosphate challenges, lithium bioavailability was ~30% lower on low versus high dietary phosphate, possibly the consequence of a smaller area under the curve after oral administration. This was associated with higher apparent lithium clearance after oral administration and lower urinary lithium/creatinine ratios on low versus high dietary phosphate. Collectively, renal NHE3 does not play a role in lithium pharmacokinetics; however, dietary phosphate could have an indirect effect on lithium bioavailability and lithium disposition.


Assuntos
Lítio/farmacocinética , Fosfatos/administração & dosagem , Fósforo na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Trocador 3 de Sódio-Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Administração Oral , Ração Animal , Animais , Dieta , Injeções Intravenosas , Lítio/administração & dosagem , Lítio/sangue , Lítio/urina , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Trocador 3 de Sódio-Hidrogênio/genética
16.
Nutrition ; 57: 59-62, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30153580

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Phosphorus ingestion with glucose was reported to stimulate the postprandial peripheral uptake of both phosphorus and glucose, a process that favors energy production. The aim of this study was to determine whether phosphorus ingestion with a meal can affect energy metabolism. METHODS: Overnight fasted men (eight lean and seven obese) consumed a high-carbohydrate meal (648 kcal) with either placebo or phosphorus (500 mg) tablets in a random order. Energy expenditure and substrate oxidation were monitored for 240 min using ventilated hood indirect calorimetry. RESULTS: Phosphorus ingestion with a meal increased the postprandial energy expenditure of both lean and obese individuals (P < 0.001), although in different patterns. Alterations in postprandial substrate oxidation was highly noticeable from time 120 min onward, where phosphorus-treated lean participants exhibited a significant decrease in respiratory quotient. CONCLUSION: Phosphorus ingestion with a high-carbohydrate meal alters postprandial energy metabolism mainly by enhancing postprandial energy expenditure that may ultimatly favor weight loss.


Assuntos
Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Fósforo na Dieta/farmacologia , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Masculino , Fósforo na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Método Simples-Cego , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS One ; 13(11): e0207601, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30452474

RESUMO

Intestinal phosphorus absorption is an important component of whole-body phosphorus metabolism, and limiting dietary phosphorus absorption is particularly of interest as a therapeutic target in patients with chronic kidney disease to manage mineral bone disorders. Yet, mechanisms and regulation of intestinal phosphorus absorption have not been adequately studied and discrepancies in findings exist based on the absorption assessment technique used. In vitro techniques show rather consistent effects of dietary phosphorus intake level and age on intestinal sodium-dependent phosphate transport. But, the few studies that have used in vivo techniques conflict with these in vitro studies. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effects of dietary phosphorus intake level on phosphorus absorption using the in situ ligated loop technique in three different aged rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 72), were studied at 10-, 20-, and 30-weeks-of-age on a low (0.1%), normal (0.6%), or high (1.2%) phosphorus diet in a 3x3 factorial design (n = 8/group). Rats were fed their assigned diet for 2-weeks prior to absorption testing by jejunal ligated loop as a non-survival procedure, utilizing 33P radioisotope. Metabolic cages were used for determination of calcium and phosphorus balance over the final four days prior to sacrifice, and blood was collected at the time of sacrifice for biochemistries. Our results show that phosphorus absorption was higher in 10-week-old rats compared with 20- and 30-week-olds and this corresponded to higher gene expression of the major phosphate transporter, NaPi-2b, as well as higher whole-body phosphorus balance and net phosphorus absorption. Dietary phosphorus intake level did not affect jejunal phosphorus absorption or NaPi-2b gene expression. Our results contrast with studies utilizing in vitro techniques, but corroborate results of other rodent studies utilizing in situ or in vivo methods. Thus, there is need for additional studies that employ more physiological methods of phosphorus absorption assessment.


Assuntos
Intestinos/química , Fósforo na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Cotransportadoras de Sódio-Fosfato Tipo IIb/genética , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Absorção Intestinal , Masculino , Fósforo na Dieta/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Regulação para Cima
18.
Arch Anim Nutr ; 72(6): 478-491, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30324824

RESUMO

The influence of feed or protein depletion-repletion on phosphorus balance, and bone characteristics was studied on 70 growing pigs from 90 to 168 d of age. During depletion period (90-118 d of age), C pigs were fed semi ad libitum (95% ad libitum intake) on control diet; FR pigs (feed-restricted group) consumed 40% less of control diet compared to C pigs; PR pigs (protein-restricted group) were fed semi ad libitum a low-protein diet containing 40% less protein than control diet. During repletion period (119-168 d of age), daily allowances for C pigs were equal of 95% ad libitum intake. Remaining pigs consumed a control diet at the same amount as C pigs. Pigs were slaughtered at 90 d of age ("zero" animals, n = 7), following seven animals from each group at d 118, 146 and 168  of age. At 118 d of age, phosphorus content in the body was lower (p < 0.001) in FR than C and PR pigs. Lower phosphorus deposition and utilisation was observed in FR animals. Humerus in FR pigs was lighter, had lower mineral content and density, but had greater stiffness than in PR and C pigs. During repletion period, FR pigs deposited more phosphorus and had better phosphorus utilisation than C and PR pigs. Humerus mineral density was greater in FR and PR than in C pigs. Humerus strength was the highest in PR pigs, and the lowest in FR pigs. Humerus stiffness was greater in PR than in C and FR pigs. In conclusion, during depletion period feed restriction affects bone growth more than protein restriction, and bone strength is less sensitive, than other bone characteristics, to feed restriction. Reductions in measured bone indices observed after lower feed intake can be fully compensated during the repletion period and resulted mainly from better utilisation of minerals.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Fósforo na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fósforo/fisiologia , Suínos/fisiologia , Envelhecimento , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Privação de Alimentos , Distribuição Aleatória
19.
G Ital Nefrol ; 35(5)2018 Sep.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30234228

RESUMO

The Italian nephrology has a long tradition and experience in the field of dietetic-nutritional therapy (DNT), which is an important component in the conservative management of the patient suffering from a chronic kidney disease, which precedes and integrates the pharmacological therapies. The objectives of DNT include the maintenance of an optimal nutritional status, the prevention and / or correction of signs, symptoms and complications of chronic renal failure and, possibly, the delay in starting of dialysis. The DNT includes modulation of protein intake, adequacy of caloric intake, control of sodium and potassium intake, and reduction of phosphorus intake. For all dietary-nutritional therapies, and in particular those aimed at the patient with chronic renal failure, the problem of patient adherence to the dietetic-nutritional scheme is a key element for the success and safety of the DNT and it can be favored by an interdisciplinary and multi-professional approach of information, education, dietary prescription and follow-up. This consensus document, which defines twenty (20) essential points of the nutritional approach to patients with advanced chronic renal failure, has been written, discussed and shared by the Italian nephrologists together with representatives of dietitians (ANDID) and patients (ANED).


Assuntos
Insuficiência Renal Crônica/dietoterapia , Anorexia/etiologia , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Progressão da Doença , Ingestão de Energia , Humanos , Transplante de Rim , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Náusea/etiologia , Cooperação do Paciente , Fósforo na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Potássio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Diálise Renal , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem
20.
J Dairy Sci ; 101(10): 9591-9598, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30100496

RESUMO

Environmental concerns with P of animal origin polluting surface waters are leading to legal incentives aimed at reducing the dietary P content of dairy cow rations to the lowest possible level that does not negatively affect health and productivity. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of feeding rations with low dietary P content in late gestation on the Ca homeostasis of the periparturient dairy cow. Eighteen multiparous dairy cows were either fed a P-deficient (0.15% P in dry matter antepartum and 0.20% P in dry matter postpartum) but otherwise balanced ration or a control ration with adequate P content (0.28% P in dry matter antepartum and 0.44% P in dry matter postpartum) during the last 4 wk of gestation until d 10 postpartum. Blood was obtained before initiation of P-deprivation (baseline) and -10, -2, +1, +3, and +10 d relative to parturition to be analyzed for plasma concentrations of Ca [Ca] and inorganic phosphate [Pi]. In addition, plasma concentrations of parathyroid hormone [PTH], the bone resorption marker CrossLaps [CTX], 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D were determined in a subset of samples. Feeding a P-deficient diet for 4 wk antepartum positively affected the Ca homeostasis of periparturient cows. Clinical hypocalcemia occurred in 3/9 control and 0/9 P-deprived cows. [Calcium], [PTH], and plasma concentrations of vitamin D metabolites did not differ between groups until parturition, whereas [Pi] was decreased and [CTX] significantly increased in P-deprived animals. At parturition [PTH] was significantly greater in control cows compared with P-depleted cows. The P-deprived cows had significantly higher [Ca] than control cows on d +1 (2.46 ± 0.11 vs. 2.27 ± 0.41 mmol/L) and +2 (2.61 ± 0.13 vs. 2.35 ± 0.25 mmol/L). Plasma [CTX] was significantly higher in P-deprived than in control cows on d +2. Bone resorption and the typical increase in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in periparturient P-deprived cows seemed to occur despite the smaller rise of [PTH], suggesting either greatly increased sensitivity to PTH or bone mobilization independent of PTH. Future studies must explore potentially negative effects of P-deprivation antepartum on health and productivity of the dairy cow in the following lactation.


Assuntos
Cálcio/metabolismo , Bovinos , Fósforo na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fósforo/deficiência , Animais , Bovinos/fisiologia , Dieta , Feminino , Homeostase , Lactação , Necessidades Nutricionais , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez
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