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1.
J Environ Qual ; 49(1): 119-127, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016350

RESUMO

Eutrophication is an issue of concern in many brackish lakes with an agricultural watershed. The amount of snowfall in snowy areas is anticipated to decline because of global climate change. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of changes in the inflow of snowmelt on the nutrient concentrations of a downstream brackish lake. In Lake Ogawara, a brackish lake in a snow-covered agricultural area of Japan, we examined the relationships between inflowing river discharge (D/C) during spring and total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations in the mixolimnion of the lake ([TNmix ] and [TPmix ], respectively) using 29 yr of monitoring data. In addition, we assessed the causal relationship between the D/C and the lake nutrient concentrations. There was large year-to-year variation in D/C during April (D/CApr ), which accounted for 7-31% of the mixolimnion volume. Significant positive correlations were observed between D/CApr and [TNmix ] from the ensuing April to September. On an annual basis, 49% of the interannual variation of the mean [TNmix ] during the ensuing April to September was explained by the interannual variation of D/CApr . Therefore, D/CApr could be useful as a simple index to [TNmix ] in the ensuing spring to summer. It is notable that the relationships between D/CApr and [TNmix ] from April to September was indicated to be acausal by statistical causal inference. Common climate conditions that increase D/CApr (i.e., a cold winter with a high level of precipitation) were found to drive other biogeochemical processes that increased [TNmix ] during the ensuing spring to summer.


Assuntos
Lagos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/análise
2.
J Environ Qual ; 49(1): 220-227, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016352

RESUMO

The economic viability of corn biorefineries depends heavily on the sale of coproducts as animal feeds, but elevated phosphorus (P) contents can exacerbate manure management issues. Phosphorus removal from light steep water and thin stillage, two concentrated in-process aqueous streams at wet milling and dry-grind corn biorefineries, could simultaneously generate concentrated fertilizer and low-P animal feeds, but little is known regarding how differences in stream composition affect removal. To address this data gap, we show that the solubility of P in light steep filtrate (LSF) and thin stillage filtrate (TSF) exhibits distinct sensitivity to calcium (Ca) and base addition due to differences in P fractionation and protein abundance. In LSF, P was primarily organic, and near-complete removal of P (96%) was observed at pH 8 and a Ca/total P (TP) ratio of 2. In TSF, TP removal was lower (81%), and there was more equal distribution of organic and orthophosphate, indicating that the Ca requirements of inorganic P precipitation were a limiting factor. The C/H/N ratio, elemental characterization, and crude protein analysis of the precipitated solids indicated that coprecipitation of amorphous solids containing Ca, Mg, and K with soluble proteins facilitated removal of P, particularly in LSF. Although the removal mechanisms and solubility limits differed, these results highlighted the magnitude (40-70 mM) and efficacy (80-96%) of P recovery from two biorefinery streams.


Assuntos
Fósforo , Zea mays , Ração Animal , Animais , Fracionamento Químico , Água
3.
J Environ Qual ; 49(1): 74-84, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016354

RESUMO

Plants release carbon-based exudates from their roots into the rhizosphere to increase phosphorus (P) supply to the soil solution. However, if more P than required is brought into solution, additional P could be available for leaching from riparian soils. To investigate this further, soil columns containing a riparian arable and buffer strip soil, which differed in organic matter contents, were sown with three common agricultural and riparian grass species. The P loads in leachate were measured and compared with those from unplanted columns, which were 0.17 ± 0.01 and 0.89 ± 0.04 mg kg-1 for the arable and buffer strip soil, respectively. A mixture of ryegrass and red fescue significantly (p ≤ .05) increased dissolved inorganic P loads in leachate from the arable (0.23 ± 0.01 mg kg-1 ) and buffer strip soil (1.06 ± 0.05 mg kg-1 ), whereas barley significantly reduced P leaching from the buffer strip soil (0.53 ± 0.08 mg kg-1 ). This was dependent on the dissolved organic C released under different plant species and on interactions with soil management history and biogeochemical conditions, rather than on plant uptake of P and accumulation into biomass. This suggested that the amount and forms of P present in the soil and the ability of the plants to mobilize them could be key factors in determining how plants affect leaching of soil P. Selecting grass species for different stages of buffer strip development, basing species selection on root physiological traits, and correcting soil nutrient stoichiometry in riparian soils through vegetative mining could help to lower this contribution.


Assuntos
Fósforo , Poaceae , Carbono , Rizosfera , Solo
4.
J Environ Qual ; 49(1): 97-105, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016356

RESUMO

Cover crops are often recommended as a best management practice to reduce erosion, weed pressure, and nutrient loss. However, cover crops may be sources of phosphorus (P) to runoff water after termination. Two greenhouse trials were conducted to determine the effects of cover crop species, termination method, and time after termination on water-extractable P (WEP) release from crop biomass. Treatments were structured in a 3 × 3 × 3 factorial and arranged in a randomized complete block design with six replicates. Treatments included three cover crop species (triticale [× Triticosecale; Triticum × Secale 'Trical'], rapeseed [Brassica napus L. 'Winfred'], and crimson clover [Trifolium incarnatum L.]); three termination methods (clipping, freezing, and herbicide); and three WEP extraction times (1, 7, and 14 d after termination). Rapeseed consistently resulted in the least WEP when exposed to the same method of termination and at the same extraction time as the other species. For both trials, terminating crop tissue via freezing increased concentrations of WEP compared with other termination methods. The WEP release from cover crop tissue increased as the time after extraction increased, but the effect was greater for herbicide- and freeze-terminated cover crops and less for clipping-terminated cover crops. Future studies on WEP release from cover crops should pay close attention to the effects of extraction timing. Producers may be able to reduce P loss from cover crop tissue by selecting cover crop species with low WEP and minimizing the amount of biomass exposed to freezing conditions.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Fósforo , Biomassa , Produtos Agrícolas , Congelamento
5.
J Environ Qual ; 49(1): 85-96, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016357

RESUMO

Phosphorus (P) runoff from pastures can cause accelerated eutrophication of surface waters. However, few long-term studies have been conducted on the effects of best management practices, such as rotational grazing and/or buffer strips on P losses from pastures. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of grazing management and buffer strips on P runoff from pastures receiving annual (5.6 Mg ha-1 ) poultry litter applications. A 14-yr study was conducted on 15 small watersheds (0.14 ha) with five treatments: hayed (H), continuously grazed (CG), rotationally grazed (R), rotationally grazed with an unfertilized buffer strip (RB), and rotationally grazed with an unfertilized fenced riparian buffer (RBR). Runoff samples were collected using automatic samplers during runoff events. Average annual runoff volumes from H (40 mm yr-1 ) and RBR (48 mm yr-1 ) were lower than CG and RB, which were both 65 mm yr-1 , and from R (67 mm yr-1 ). Rotational grazing alone did not reduce P loads compared with continuous grazing (1.88 and 1.71 kg P ha-1 for R and CG, respectively). However, compared with CG, total P losses from RB pastures were reduced 36% with unfertilized buffer strips (1.21 kg P ha-1 ), 60% in RBR watersheds with unfertilized fenced riparian buffer strips (0.74 kg P ha-1 ), and 49% by converting pastures to hayfields (0.97 kg P ha-1 ). Hence, the use of unfertilized buffer strips, unfertilized fenced riparian buffer strips, or converting pastures to hayfields are effective best management practices for reducing P runoff in U.S. pasture systems.


Assuntos
Fósforo , Aves Domésticas , Animais , Esterco , Movimentos da Água
6.
J Environ Qual ; 49(1): 106-118, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016362

RESUMO

Plant nursery runoff commonly contains pesticides and nutrients that often threaten aquatic ecosystems. Constructed wetlands could be a tool to remove pesticides and nutrients from nursery runoff but have not been extensively studied in this setting. Two field-scale constructed wetlands (one subsurface-flow constructed wetland [SFCW] and one free-surface constructed wetland [FSCW]) were implemented and monitored for water quality improvement. The SFCW demonstrated significant mass reduction of 78% or greater for nitrate, orthophosphate, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and total suspended solids. The SFCW also demonstrated significant mass reduction of 79% or greater for 10 of the 12 pesticide compounds detected in over half of the collected samples. The FSCW demonstrated significant mass reduction of 46% or greater for all nonpesticide analytes except total nitrogen. Loading rate and actual storage volume compared with inflow volume likely affected performance. Reduced size and increased loading rate of the FSCW likely reduced its ability to effectively reduce pesticides. Results from this study indicate that constructed wetlands are likely an effective tool for nursery runoff management. When designing and implementing constructed wetlands, it is important for practitioners to consider the tradeoff between system size (additional cost and land otherwise dedicated to production) and performance.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Áreas Alagadas , Ecossistema , Nitrogênio , Fósforo
7.
J Environ Qual ; 49(1): 140-151, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016365

RESUMO

Watershed managers generally focus on P reduction strategies to combat freshwater eutrophication despite evidence that N co-limits primary production. Our objective was to test the role of P in limiting stream periphyton biomass within the Buffalo River watershed in Arkansas by conducting a 31-d streamside mesocosm experiment. To represent potentially different starting states, cobbles were transplanted from two different tributary streams and initially exposed to a range of P (0, 0.012, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 mg L-1 P) to assess benthic ash-free dry mass (AFDM) and chlorophyll-a (chl a) and responses during a P only enrichment period. Later, the experiment was continued under a N/P (10:1 molar ratio) enrichment gradient to examine co-limitation. Mean AFDM was higher on Day 31 of the N+P enrichment compared with Day 17 of the P-only enrichment (p < .001). Overall differences in AFDM and chl a were observed between cobbles from different stream sites. Phosphorus enrichment stimulated benthic chl a biomass, but enrichment effects were greater when streams were enriched with N+P (p < .001). Chlorophyll-a increased (4.4-57.9 mg m-2 ) with increasing P concentrations (p < .001) after P enrichment but was threefold greater after N+P enrichment, increasing from 13.3 to 171.1 mg m-2 across the enrichment gradient. Results support the need to consider both N and P limitation in freshwater systems and demonstrate that potential increases in nutrient concentrations may influence accumulation of algae on cobble substrates from the Buffalo River watershed.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Arkansas , Biomassa , Nutrientes
8.
J Environ Qual ; 49(1): 184-193, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016369

RESUMO

Phosphorus deficiency and excess are concomitant problems in agricultural soils of the mid-Atlantic region. A fundamental understanding of soil P speciation is essential to assess P fate and transport in these soils. Current methods for soil P speciation often rely on sequential chemical extractions, which can introduce artifacts during analysis. To overcome limitations of current methods, this study evaluated synchrotron-based micro-focused X-ray fluorescence (µ-XRF) and X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (µ-XANES) techniques to assess soil P speciation in agricultural soils collected from the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Three soils with varying chemical and physical properties were analyzed with µ-XRF maps collected at high (12,000 eV) and tender (2240 eV) energies to evaluate colocation of P with Fe, Al, Ca, and Si in soil samples, and µ-XANES spectra were collected at the P K-edge for P hotspots. Combined µ-XRF and µ-XANES analysis was useful for identifying Ca phosphate, Fe phosphate, Al-sorbed P, and Fe-sorbed P species in heterogeneous soil samples. X-ray fluorescence maps were valuable to distinguish Al-oxide sorbed P from Fe-oxide sorbed P species. A low signal-to-noise ratio often limited µ-XANES data collection in regions with diffuse, low concentrations of P. Therefore, some P species may not have been detected during analysis. Even with varying degrees of self-absorption and signal-to-noise ratios in µ-XANES spectra, important inferences regarding P speciation in mid-Atlantic soils were made. This study highlights the potential of µ-XANES analysis for use in environmental and agricultural sciences to provide insights into P fate and transport in soils.


Assuntos
Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo , Fósforo , Síncrotrons , Espectroscopia por Absorção de Raios X
9.
J Environ Qual ; 49(3): 675-687, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016383

RESUMO

Legacy phosphorus (P) in agricultural soils can be transported to surface waters via runoff and tile drainage, where it contributes to the development of harmful and nuisance algal blooms and hypoxia. However, a limited understanding of legacy P loss dynamics impedes the identification of mitigation strategies. Edge-of-field data from 41 agricultural fields in northwestern Ohio, USA, were used to develop regressions between legacy P concentrations (C) and discharge (Q) for two P fractions: total P (TP) and dissolved reactive P (DRP). Tile drainage TP concentration (CTP ) and DRP concentration (CDRP ) both increased as Q increased, and CTP tended to increase at a greater rate than CDRP . Surface runoff showed greater variation in C-Q regressions, indicating that the response of TP and DRP to elevated Q was field specific. The relative variability of C and Q was explored using a ratio of CVs (CVC /CVQ ), which indicated that tile drainage TP and DRP losses were chemodynamic, whereas losses via surface runoff demonstrated both chemodynamic and chemostatic behavior. The chemodynamic behavior indicated that legacy P losses were strongly influenced by variation in P source availability and transport pathways. In addition, legacy P source size influenced C, as demonstrated by a positive relationship between soil-test P and the CTP and CDRP in both tile drainage and surface runoff. Progress towards legacy P mitigation will require further characterization of the drivers of variability in CTP and CDRP , including weather-, soil-, and management-related factors.


Assuntos
Fósforo/análise , Movimentos da Água , Agricultura , Ohio , Solo
10.
J Environ Qual ; 49(3): 700-711, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016390

RESUMO

Increased phosphorus (P) availability under flooded, anaerobic conditions may accelerate P loss from soils to water bodies. Existing knowledge on P release to floodwater from flooded soils is limited to summer conditions and/or room temperatures. Spring snowmelt runoff, which occurs under cold temperatures with frequent freeze-thaw events, is the dominant mode of P loss from agricultural lands to water bodies in the Canadian Prairies. This research examined the effects of temperature on P dynamics under flooded conditions in a laboratory study using five agricultural soils from Manitoba, Canada. The treatments were (a) freezing for 1 wk at -20 °C, thawing and flooding at 4 ± 1 °C (frozen, cold); (b) flooding unfrozen soil at 4 ± 1 °C (unfrozen, cold); and (c) flooding unfrozen soil at 20 ± 2 °C (warm). Pore water and surface water were collected weekly over 8 wk and analyzed for dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP), pH, calcium, magnesium, iron (Fe), and manganese (Mn). Soils under warm flooding showed enhanced P release with significantly higher DRP concentrations in pore and surface floodwater compared with cold flooding of frozen and unfrozen soils. The development of anaerobic conditions was slow under cold flooding with only a slight decrease in Eh, whereas under warm flooding Eh declined sharply, favoring reductive dissolution reactions releasing P, Fe, and Mn. Pore water and floodwater DRP concentrations were similar between frozen and unfrozen soil under cold flooding, suggesting that one freeze-thaw event prior to flooding had minimal effect on P release under simulated snowmelt conditions.


Assuntos
Fósforo/análise , Solo , Anaerobiose , Canadá , Congelamento , Temperatura
11.
J Environ Qual ; 49(2): 378-391, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016419

RESUMO

The persistent environmental relevance of phosphorus (P) and P sorption capacity (PSC) on P loss to surface waters has led to proposals for its inclusion in soil fertility and environmental management programs. As fertility and environmental management decisions are made on a routine basis, the use of laborious P sorption isotherms to quantify PSC is not feasible. Alternatively, pedotransfer functions (pedoTFs) estimate PSC from routinely assessed soil chemical properties. Our objective was to examine the possibility of developing a suitable pedoTF for estimating PSC and to evaluate subsequent PSC-based indices (P saturation ratio [PSR] and soil P storage capacity [SPSC]) using data from an in-field laboratory where tile drain effluent is monitored daily. Phosphorus sorption capacity was well predicted by a pedoTF derived from soil aluminum and organic matter (R² = .60). Segmented-line relationships between PSR and soluble P were observed in both desorption assays (R² = .69) and drainflows (R² = .66) with apparent PSR thresholds in close agreement at 0.21 and 0.24, respectively. Negative SPSC values exhibited linear relationships with increasing soluble P concentrations in both desorption assays and drainflows (R² = .52 and R2  = .53 respectively), whereas positive SPSC values were associated with low SP concentrations. Therefore, PSC-based indices determined using pedoTFs could estimate the potential for subsurface soluble P losses. Also, we determined that both index thresholds coincided with the critical soil-test P level for agronomic P sufficiency (22 mg kg-1 Mehlich-3 P) suggesting that the agronomic threshold could serve as an environmental P threshold.


Assuntos
Fósforo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Alumínio , Solo
12.
J Environ Qual ; 49(2): 496-508, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016424

RESUMO

Phosphorus (P) loss from agricultural fields contributes to water quality degradation. A phosphorus index (PI) is a tool that scores fields based on P loss potential. Recently, a new transport × best or beneficial management practice (BMP) approach was proposed for the New York PI (NY-PI), which first scores fields using landscape-based transport factors (raw scores) and then offers various BMPs to reduce the score (i.e., risk of P transport). The final score is assigned a management implication (N needs based, P removal based, or zero P application), taking into account field-specific soil-test P (STP) and the farm's whole-farm P balance. With farmer and nutrient management planner input and data on field-specific transport factors and whole-farm P balances of 18 New York dairy farms, we set coefficients for transport factors, BMPs related to P application, and STP limits and determined the impact of implementation of the new NY-PI on manure management options. Based on raw scores, the proposed NY-PI initially limited manure application to 51% of the total cropland area of the participating farms (28% N-based, 23% P-based). Implementation of BMPs (i.e., changing the method and ground cover or timing of P application) allowed 43-98% of the land area to receive manure at N-based rates. For farms with whole-farm P balances within the feasible limits set for New York, an additional 0-50% of the land base was classified as N-based management, depending on BMP selection. These results show the ability of the new NY-PI to limit P applications on fields with high transport risk while incentivizing adoption of BMPs and improvements in whole-farm P management.


Assuntos
Esterco , Fósforo/análise , Agricultura , Fazendas , New York , Medição de Risco
13.
J Environ Qual ; 49(2): 324-334, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016426

RESUMO

Managing a sustainable dairy farm requires balancing phosphorus (P) imports and exports that enter and leave through the farm gate. Over the long term, P surpluses will elevate soil-test P concentrations above crop requirements through routine land applications of manure. The objectives of this study were aimed at Virginia dairy farms (a) to determine P mass balances, (b) to define potential guidelines for a sustainable and feasible zone of operation based on P balance and P use efficiency, and (c) to assess risk factors driving P surplus and P use inefficiencies. Data on farm-gate P imports and exports via feed, manure, crops, fertilizers, bedding, animals, and milk were collected for 58 dairy farms in Virginia. There was no relationship between farm P balance and milk production, indicating that a P surplus was not necessary for good milk productivity. A feasible P balance limit was calculated below which 75% of farms could operate, and this was 18.7 kg P ha-1 . Two risk factors were identified for farms having a P balance above this limit: (a) land application of poultry litter and (b) excessive import of P through feed. Combined dairy and beef operations generally had more land and a lower P balance, whereas having combined dairy and poultry did not raise the P balance as long as poultry litter was exported. Dairy farms in Virginia can operate with a sustainable P balance as long as they avoid using excessive poultry litter and pay attention to P imported through purchased feed.


Assuntos
Indústria de Laticínios , Fósforo/análise , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Fazendas , Nitrogênio/análise , Virginia
14.
J Environ Qual ; 49(5): 1273-1285, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016436

RESUMO

Artificial subsurface (tile) drainage systems can convey phosphorus (P) from agricultural fields to surface waters; however, controls of subsurface dissolved reactive P (DRP) losses at the sub-field scale are not fully understood. We characterized subsurface DRP loads and flow-weighted mean concentration (FWMC) from January 2015 through September 2017 to determine seasonal (growing vs. non-growing) patterns from 36 individually monitored plots across a farm under a corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotation in east-central Illinois. Using linear mixed models, we investigated the effects of soil test P (STP), depression depth, and their interaction with precipitation and P fertilization on subsurface DRP losses. Dissolved reactive P loads in drainage tiles increased with precipitation and were greatest during the non-growing season (NGS) in 2016 and 2017. Annual subsurface DRP loads were positively related to STP, and during the NGS, there was a positive relationship between depression depth quantified at the plot-scale and subsurface DRP loads and FWMC. Along a depression-depth gradient, piecewise regression displayed a threshold at a depth of 0.38 m at which STP increased, indicating soil P accumulation in deeper closed depressions. Our study highlights the need to identify areas with the greatest risk of subsurface P losses to implement sub-field scale nutrient management practices.


Assuntos
Fósforo/análise , Solo , Agricultura , Depressão , Illinois , Movimentos da Água
15.
J Environ Qual ; 49(5): 1408-1420, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016442

RESUMO

Despite the numerous benefits of biosolids, concerns over nutrient losses restrict the extent to which biosolids can be beneficially reused. We evaluated the effectiveness of biochar in controlling the lability of nutrients in agricultural land. This study was designed to investigate the potential impacts of co-applying biochar with biosolids or inorganic fertilizer on N and P leaching losses. A companion paper focuses on greenhouse gas responses. Nutrients were surface applied as biosolids (aerobically digested Class B) and inorganic fertilizer (ammonium nitrate and triple superphosphate) to an established perennial pasture at equivalent annual rates typical of field practices. Biochar was applied at an annual rate of 20 Mg ha-1 . Leachate N and P were monitored using passive-capillary drainage lysimeters. Results demonstrated significant temporal variability in leachate N and P, with larger pulses generally occurring during periods of high water table levels or after intensive rainfall. Inorganic fertilizer generally resulted in greater leachate N and P losses than biosolids. No differences in leachate N and P losses between biosolids and control were observed. Approximately 1% of applied N was lost via leaching from biosolids treatments vs. 16% for inorganic fertilizer. Regardless of the P source, negligible (0.1-0.2% of applied P), cumulative P leaching occurred during the 3-yr study. Biochar had no effect on P leaching but reduced N leaching from treatments receiving inorganic fertilizer by 60%. Prudent nutrient management is possible even on biosolids-amended Spodosols with high water tables.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio , Fósforo , Carvão Vegetal , Pradaria , Nutrientes , Solo
16.
J Environ Qual ; 49(5): 1370-1383, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016447

RESUMO

Recent research on tile-drainage has placed emphasis on dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) delivery and transport pathways but less emphasis on particulate P (PP), resulting in its exclusion from agricultural water management models. In this study, we quantified the fluxes, mechanisms, and factors driving PP delivery into tiles through statistical analysis of a long-term hydrologic and water quality dataset. The dataset includes 5 yr of surface and tile discharge, total P (TP), DRP, total nitrogen (TN), and dissolved inorganic N concentrations from two edge-of-field study sites with contrasting soil and management practices. Hydrograph recession techniques were coupled with multiple linear regression for understanding hydrologic flow pathways, and empirical mode decomposition (EMD) time-series analysis was used to determine the significance of PP seasonality processes and the effect of management practices. The analysis of hydrologic flow pathways demonstrated that quickflow contributed 66 and 36% of subsurface discharge in the clay and loam sites, respectively. Phosphorus loading analysis showed that macropore flow plays a significant role in PP delivery to subsurface P loading and that PP significantly contributed to TP and DRP delivery; however, greater PP loadings were observed at the clay site despite greater subsurface discharge and soil test P levels at the loam site. Furthermore, PP delivery was significantly affected by environmental conditions and management practices. We highlight the efficacy of hydrograph recession analysis for identifying macropore and diffuse drainage, of P/N ratios to characterize sediment delivery mechanisms in tiles, and of EMD to detect management impacts on TP and DRP at the field scale.


Assuntos
Fósforo/análise , Movimentos da Água , Agricultura , Hidrologia , Solo
17.
J Environ Qual ; 49(5): 1203-1224, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016450

RESUMO

Phosphorus (P) losses from nonpoint sources into surface water resources through surface runoff and tile drainage play a significant role in eutrophication. Accordingly, the number of studies involving the modeling of agricultural P losses, the uncertainties of such models, and the best management practices (BMPs) supported by the modeling of hypothetical P loss reduction scenarios has increased significantly around the world. Many improvements have been made to these models: separate manure P pools, variable source areas allowing the determination of critical source areas of P loss, analyses of modeling uncertainties, and understanding of legacy P. However, several elements are still missing or have yet to be sufficiently addressed: the incorporation of preferential flow into models, the modification of P sorption-desorption processes considering recent research data (e.g., pedotransfer functions for labile, active, or stable P, along with P sorption coefficients), BMP parameterization, and scale-up issues, as well as stakeholder-scientist and experimentalist-modeler interactions. The accuracy of P loss modeling can be improved by (a) incorporating dynamic P sorption-desorption processes and new P subroutines for direct P loss from manure, fertilizer, and dung, (b) modeling preferential flow, connectivity between field and adjacent water bodies, and P in-stream processes, (c) including an assessment of model uncertainty, (d) integrating field and watershed models for BMP calibration and scaling field results up to larger areas, and (e) building a holistic interaction between stakeholders, experimentalists, and modelers.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Fósforo , Eutrofização , Fertilizantes , Esterco
18.
J Environ Qual ; 49(5): 1286-1297, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016460

RESUMO

The subsurface transport of dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) from artificially drained agricultural fields can impair water quality, especially in no-till fields. The distribution of soil P in the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-dominated Palouse region in the inland U.S. Pacific Northwest varies greatly due to its steep and complex topography, and a legacy (∼130 yr) of excessive soil erosion and deposition processes. The primary goal of this research was to better understand the magnitude and temporal dynamics of DRP export from an artificial drain line and the variability of subsurface DRP leaching within a long-term, no-till field. Dissolved reactive P in drain line effluent was monitored across three water years. Large intact soil cores were extracted at contrasting field locations (toe and top slope positions) to measure DRP leachate concentration and relative P sorption. Drain line DRP concentration was predominantly >0.05 mg L-1 and often exceeded 0.1 mg L-1 during winter and early spring. Mean leachate DRP levels were significantly higher in toe slope cores than in top slope cores (0.11 and 0.02 mg L-1 , respectively). Saturated hydraulic conductivity varied widely across cores and was not correlated with leachate DRP concentration. All soil cores exhibited high P sorption potential, even under conditions of preferential flow. These findings suggest that much of the DRP transport in these landscapes is derived from P hotspots located in toe slope positions. Application of soil P fertilizer amounts in variable rates that account for spatial variability in P transport may minimize P enrichment and subsequent leaching in these locations.


Assuntos
Fósforo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Agricultura , Monitoramento Ambiental , Noroeste dos Estados Unidos
19.
J Environ Qual ; 49(4): 945-960, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016478

RESUMO

A variety of landscape and hydrological characteristics influence nutrient concentrations and suspended sediments in freshwater systems, yet the combined influence of these characteristics within nested agricultural catchments is still poorly understood, particularly across varying flow states. To tease apart potential drivers at within-catchment scales, it is necessary to sample at a spatiotemporal resolution that captures how landscape drivers change with time. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the relative influence of landscape and hydrological characteristics at sub-catchment scales in relation to total P (TP), soluble reactive P (SRP), the ratio of SRP and TP (SRP/TP), and total suspended solids (TSS) across varying flow conditions. Synoptic surveys were conducted at 13 longitudinal sampling sites under a variety of flow conditions (n = 14) between 2016 and 2017 in the Innisfil Creek watershed, southern Ontario. The surveys were grouped into baseflow and stormflow conditions, and partial least squares regression (PLSR) was used to characterize the relationships between catchment characteristics, median concentrations of P, and TSS. Soil texture (i.e., clay dominated), winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and constructed drain density had the largest influences on stormflow SRP and SRP/TP ratios, but measures of soil erosion, like the Bank Erosion Hazard Index and sinuosity, had the largest influence on stormflow TSS. During baseflow periods, these landscape characteristics were not informative, and they were difficult to tie to in-stream conditions. Overall, our PLSR models indicated that buried tile drainage was a major source of SRP in Innisfil Creek, whereas bank erosion was a dominant source of TSS.


Assuntos
Fósforo/análise , Rios , Agricultura , Água Doce , Hidrologia
20.
J Environ Qual ; 49(4): 812-834, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016477

RESUMO

Despite decades of effort toward reducing nitrogen and phosphorus flux to Chesapeake Bay, water-quality and ecological responses in surface waters have been mixed. Recent research, however, provides useful insight into multiple factors complicating the understanding of nutrient trends in bay tributaries, which we review in this paper, as we approach a 2025 total maximum daily load (TMDL) management deadline. Improvements in water quality in many streams are attributable to management actions that reduced point sources and atmospheric nitrogen deposition and to changes in climate. Nutrient reductions expected from management actions, however, have not been fully realized in watershed streams. Nitrogen from urban nonpoint sources has declined, although water-quality responses to urbanization in individual streams vary depending on predevelopment land use. Evolving agriculture, the largest watershed source of nutrients, has likely contributed to local nutrient trends but has not affected substantial changes in flux to the bay. Changing average nitrogen yields from farmland underlain by carbonate rocks, however, may suggest future trends in other areas under similar management, climatic, or other influences, although drivers of these changes remain unclear. Regardless of upstream trends, phosphorus flux to the bay from its largest tributary has increased due to sediment infill in the Conowingo Reservoir. In general, recent research emphasizes the utility of input reductions over attempts to manage nutrient fate and transport at limiting nutrients in surface waters. Ongoing research opportunities include evaluating effects of climate change and conservation practices over time and space and developing tools to disentangle and evaluate multiple influences on regional water quality.


Assuntos
Baías , Fósforo/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Nutrientes , Qualidade da Água
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