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1.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(suppl 2): e20191080, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533793

RESUMO

In this contribution, we described a new fossil of a Pleistocene Tayassuidae from northern Brazil. The specimen is a left dentary with molars assigned to cf. Pecari tajacu recovered from an outcrop of the Rio Madeira Formation, State of Rondônia, Brazil. It represents the first Pleistocene fossil of this clade with stratigraphic provenance in the Amazon region of Brazil. This record contributes to the knowledge on the paleofauna of Rio Madeira Formation as well as extend the past geographic distribution of peccaries in South America.


Assuntos
Artiodáctilos , Animais , Brasil , Fósseis
2.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(suppl 2): e20200762, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533794

RESUMO

CT scans of the type braincase of Limaysaurus tessonei (MUCPv-205) allowed the first study of the endocranial cavities (brain and inner ear) for this South American taxon. Comparisons of the cranial endocast of L. tessonei with other sauropods indicate that 1) South American rebbachisaurids are more similar to each other than to Nigersaurus, and 2) certain association of traits are present in all known rebbachisaurid cranial endocasts, such as lack of an enlarged dorsal expansion, poorly laterally projected cerebral hemispheres, presence of a small flocculus of the cerebellum, markedly long passage for the facial nerve (CN VII), markedly inclined pituitary, and presence of a passage for the basilar artery communicating the floor of the endocranial cavity and the pituitary fossa. The relatively enlarged olfactory region indicates that smell was an important sense for this group of dinosaurs, suggesting different olfactory capabilities when compared to coeval titanosaurs.


Assuntos
Dinossauros , Fósseis , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Dinossauros/anatomia & histologia , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1037, 2021 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33589612

RESUMO

Fossilized invertebrate embryonic and later developmental stages are rare and restricted largely to the Ediacaran-Cambrian, providing direct insight into development during the emergence of animal bodyplans. Here we report a new assemblage of eggs, embryos and bilaterian post-embryonic developmental stages from the early Cambrian Salanygol Formation of Dzhabkan Microcontinent of Mongolia. The post-embryonic developmental stages of the bilaterian are preserved with cellular fidelity, possessing a series of bilaterally arranged ridges that compare to co-occurring camenellan sclerites in which the initial growth stages retain the cellular morphology of modified juveniles. In this work we identify these fossils as early post-embryonic developmental stages of camenellans, an early clade of stem-brachiopods, known previously only from isolated sclerites. This interpretation corroborates previous reconstructions of camenellan scleritomes with sclerites arranged in medial and peripheral concentric zones. It further supports the conjecture that molluscs and brachiopods are descended from an ancestral vermiform and slug-like bodyplan.


Assuntos
Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Invertebrados/classificação , Filogenia , Zigoto/ultraestrutura , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Embrião não Mamífero/anatomia & histologia , Embrião não Mamífero/ultraestrutura , Fósseis/história , História Antiga , Invertebrados/anatomia & histologia , Invertebrados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mongólia , Zigoto/crescimento & desenvolvimento
4.
Am J Bot ; 108(1): 129-144, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528044

RESUMO

PREMISE: Fossils can reveal long-vanished characters that inform inferences about the timing and patterns of diversification of living fungi. Through analyzing well-preserved fossil scutella, shield-like covers of fungal sporocarps, we describe a new taxon of early Dothideomycetes with a combination of characters unknown among extant taxa. METHODS: Macerated clays from the Potomac Group, lower Zone 1, from the Lower Cretaceous (Aptian, 125-113 Ma) of Virginia USA yielded one gymnospermous leaf cuticle colonized by 21 sporocarps of a single fungal morphotype. We inferred a tree from nuclear ribosomal DNA of extant species, and coded morphological characters to evaluate alternative, equally parsimonious placements of the fossil in a molecular constraint tree of extant species. RESULTS: Bleximothyrium ostiolatum gen. et sp. nov. has an ostiolate scutellum of radiate, dichotomizing hyphae. Unlike otherwise similar extant and fossil taxa, B. ostiolatum has tangled hyphae at its scutellum margin. Scutella of B. ostiolatum are connected to superficial mycelium, to intercalary and lateral appressoria, and to extensive subcuticular "mycélium en palmettes". The gymnospermous host has characters consistent with identity as a non-papillate ginkgophyte or cycad. CONCLUSIONS: Bleximothyrium ostiolatum is the oldest known fossil fly-speck fungus that occurs on plant cuticles and has the radiate, ostiolate scutellum known only from Dothideomycetes. Its combination of characters, its scutellum margin, and mycélium en palmettes are unknown in other extant and fossil species, and Bleximothyrium ostiolatum likely represents a new group of fly-speck fungi that may now be extinct.


Assuntos
Cycadopsida , Fósseis , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta , Virginia
5.
Am J Bot ; 108(1): 22-36, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482683

RESUMO

The phrase "Darwin's abominable mystery" is frequently used with reference to a range of outstanding questions about the evolution of the plant group today known as the angiosperms. Here, I seek to more fully understand what prompted Darwin to coin the phrase in 1879, and the meaning he attached to it, by surveying the systematics, paleobotanical records, and phylogenetic hypotheses of his time. In the light of this historical research, I argue that Darwin was referring to the origin only of a subset of what are today called angiosperms: a (now obsolete) group equivalent to the "dicotyledons" of the Hooker and Bentham system. To Darwin and his contemporaries, the dicotyledons' fossil record began abruptly and with great diversity in the Cretaceous, whereas the gymnosperms and monocotyledons were thought to have fossil records dating back to the Carboniferous or beyond. Based on their morphology, the dicotyledons were widely seen by botanists in Darwin's time (unlike today) as more similar to the gymnosperms than to the monocotyledons. Thus, morphology seemed to point to gymnosperm progenitors of dicotyledons, but this hypothesis made the monocotyledons, given their (at the time) apparently longer fossil record, difficult to place. Darwin had friendly disagreements about the mystery of the dicotyledons' abrupt appearance in the fossil record with others who thought that their evolution must have been more rapid than his own gradualism would allow. But the mystery may have been made "abominable" to him because it was seen by some contemporary paleobotanists, most notably William Carruthers, the Keeper of Botany at the British Museum, as evidence for divine intervention in the history of life. Subsequent developments in plant systematics and paleobotany after 1879 meant that Darwin's letter was widely understood to be referring to the abrupt appearance of all angiosperms when it was published in 1903, a meaning that has been attached to it ever since.


Assuntos
Botânica , Magnoliopsida , Evolução Biológica , Fósseis , História do Século XIX , Masculino , Filogenia
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 503, 2021 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33479227

RESUMO

The source of oxygen to Earth's atmosphere is organic carbon burial, whilst the main sink is oxidative weathering of fossil carbon. However, this sink is to insensitive to counteract oxygen rising above its current level of about 21%. Biogeochemical models suggest that wildfires provide an additional regulatory feedback mechanism. However, none have considered how the evolution of different plant groups through time have interacted with this feedback. The Cretaceous Period saw not only super-ambient levels of atmospheric oxygen but also the evolution of the angiosperms, that then rose to dominate Earth's ecosystems. Here we show, using the COPSE biogeochemical model, that angiosperm-driven alteration of fire feedbacks likely lowered atmospheric oxygen levels from ~30% to 25% by the end of the Cretaceous. This likely set the stage for the emergence of closed-canopy angiosperm tropical rainforests that we suggest would not have been possible without angiosperm enhancement of fire feedbacks.


Assuntos
Atmosfera/química , Retroalimentação Fisiológica , Fogo , Magnoliopsida/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Algoritmos , Carbono/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Fósseis , Magnoliopsida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Modelos Teóricos , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3, 2021 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414467

RESUMO

Rapid environmental change is a catalyst for human evolution, driving dietary innovations, habitat diversification, and dispersal. However, there is a dearth of information to assess hominin adaptions to changing physiography during key evolutionary stages such as the early Pleistocene. Here we report a multiproxy dataset from Ewass Oldupa, in the Western Plio-Pleistocene rift basin of Olduvai Gorge (now Oldupai), Tanzania, to address this lacuna and offer an ecological perspective on human adaptability two million years ago. Oldupai's earliest hominins sequentially inhabited the floodplains of sinuous channels, then river-influenced contexts, which now comprises the oldest palaeolake setting documented regionally. Early Oldowan tools reveal a homogenous technology to utilise diverse, rapidly changing environments that ranged from fern meadows to woodland mosaics, naturally burned landscapes, to lakeside woodland/palm groves as well as hyper-xeric steppes. Hominins periodically used emerging landscapes and disturbance biomes multiple times over 235,000 years, thus predating by more than 180,000 years the earliest known hominins and Oldowan industries from the Eastern side of the basin.


Assuntos
Antropologia , Meio Ambiente , Hominidae , Paleontologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Arqueologia , Biomarcadores , Carvão Vegetal , Dieta/história , Ecossistema , Fósseis/história , História Antiga , Hominidae/fisiologia , Humanos , Plantas , Pólen , Tanzânia , Tecnologia
8.
Trends Ecol Evol ; 36(3): 258-267, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33455740

RESUMO

The many high-resolution tools that are uniquely applicable to specimens from the Quaternary period (the past ~2.5 Ma) provide an opportunity to cross-validate data and test hypotheses based on the morphology and distribution of fossils. Among these tools is palaeogenomics - the genome-scale sequencing of genetic material from ancient specimens - that can provide direct insight into ecology and evolution, potentially improving the accuracy of inferences about past ecological communities over longer timescales. Palaeogenomics has revealed instances of over- and underestimation of extinct diversity, detected cryptic faunal migration and turnover, allowed quantification of widespread sex biases and sexual dimorphism in the fossil record, revealed past hybridisation events and hybrid individuals, and has highlighted previously unrecognised routes of zoonotic disease transfer.


Assuntos
Fósseis , Genômica , Humanos , Paleontologia
10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 641, 2021 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33510166

RESUMO

The colonization of land by fungi had a significant impact on the terrestrial ecosystem and biogeochemical cycles on Earth surface systems. Although fungi may have diverged ~1500-900 million years ago (Ma) or even as early as 2400 Ma, it is uncertain when fungi first colonized the land. Here we report pyritized fungus-like microfossils preserved in the basal Ediacaran Doushantuo Formation (~635 Ma) in South China. These micro-organisms colonized and were preserved in cryptic karstic cavities formed via meteoric water dissolution related to deglacial isostatic rebound after the terminal Cryogenian snowball Earth event. They are interpreted as eukaryotes and probable fungi, thus providing direct fossil evidence for the colonization of land by fungi and offering a key constraint on fungal terrestrialization.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Eucariotos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fósseis , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Evolução Biológica , China , Planeta Terra , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 754: 142247, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254952

RESUMO

Carbon and oxygen isotopes (δ13C and δ18O) in tree rings are widely used to reconstruct palaeoclimate variables such as temperature during the Holocene (12 thousand years ago - present), and are used increasingly in deeper time. However, their use is largely restricted to arboreal trees, which excludes potentially important data from prostrate trees and shrubs, which grow in high latitude and altitude end-member environments. Here, we calibrate the use of δ13C and δ18O as climatic archives in two modern species of southern beech (Nothofagus) from Tierra del Fuego, Chile, at the southern limit of their current range. We show that prostrate trees are potentially suitable archives for recording climatological means over longer periods (on the order of decades), which opens up these important environments for tree ring isotope analysis. We then apply our new understanding to a remarkable late Neogene (17-2.5 Ma) fossil Nothofagus assemblage from the Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctica, representative of a prostrate tundra shrub growing during a period of significant ice sheet retreat. The δ13C of the fossil cellulose was found to be ~4‰ enriched relative to that of the modern tress. This is likely to be due to a combination of a more positive δ13C of contemporaneous atmospheric CO2 and enhanced water use efficiency at the fossil site. Using the cellulose-δ18O in the fossil wood, we are able to reconstruct precipitation oxygen isotopes over the Antarctic interior for the first time for this time period. The results show that δ18Oprecip over Antarctica was -16.0 ± 4.2‰, around 12‰ enriched relative to today, suggesting changes in the hydrological cycle linked to warmer temperatures and a smaller ice sheet.


Assuntos
Celulose , Fósseis , Regiões Antárticas , Calibragem , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Chile , Isótopos de Oxigênio/análise
12.
Zootaxa ; 4878(3): zootaxa.4878.3.1, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311141

RESUMO

Two new species of soldier beetles (Coleoptera, Cantharidae) from the Priabonian deposits in Yantarny, Russia (Baltic amber) are described. Cantharis crisantha sp. nov. is characterized by its relatively small body size, laterally rounded prothorax, and simple claws with a small basal tooth. Of particular interest, this specimen has its aedeagus extruded-a feature described for the first time in a representative of the genus Cantharis found in amber, and something rarely seen in all known fossil species of the Cantharidae family. The second described species, Cantharis raeorum sp. nov., is characterized by a pronotum with straight sides and a transverse and concave part near the posterior margin. The species are compared with earlier reported fossil Cantharis.


Assuntos
Âmbar , Besouros , Animais , Países Bálticos , Fósseis
13.
Zootaxa ; 4878(3): zootaxa.4878.3.5, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311145

RESUMO

Five species of decapod crustaceans, including Calliax nishiki sp. nov. (Axiidea, Eucalliacidae) and Carcinoplax longimana (de Haan), are described from the upper part of the Moeshima Silt Bed (latest Pleistocene to Holocene: ca 13,000 to 8,000 cal BP). Ten decapods, including Laticallichirus grandis (Karasawa Goda) and Ebalia tuberculosa (A. Milne-Edwards) are described from the Moeshima Shell Bed (Holocene: ca 8,000 to 2,000 cal BP). Calliax nishiki is abundant and Carcinoplax longimana is common in the decapod assemblage of Moeshima Silt Bed. The new species of Calliax seems to have dispersed around the deep marine setting with a reducing environment. The decapod assemblage of the Moeshima Shell Bed is characterized by a predominance of L. grandis. The present record suggests that L. grandis is abundant under sandy and gravelly bottoms mixed with shells of the lower sublittoral to subtidal zones during the Quaternary.


Assuntos
Decápodes , Fósseis , Animais , Crustáceos , Ilhas , Japão
14.
Zootaxa ; 4878(1): zootaxa.4878.1.11, 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311175

RESUMO

The fossil ship-timber beetle, Adamas hukawngensis gen. et sp.n., is described and defined based on one well preserved specimen in mid-Cretaceous amber from the Hukawng Valley in Northern Myanmar. The new species can be readily distinguished from all other extinct and recent members of the family due to the presence of a lozenge-shaped scutellum with a meso-longitudinal groove. Modifications of lymexylid metathoracic wing venation and palaeobiomigratory significance are briefly discussed.


Assuntos
Âmbar , Besouros , Animais , Fósseis , Insetos , Mianmar
15.
Zootaxa ; 4885(1): zootaxa.4885.1.4, 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311287

RESUMO

Pseudopsinae represented by four genera with just over 50 species in the Recent fauna represent one of the smallest subfamilies of the megadiverse family Staphylinidae. Here we describe the first fossil member of the subfamily Pseudopsinae. Cretopseudopsis maweii gen. et sp. nov. preserved in mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber (ca. 99 Ma) is distinguished from extant pseudopsine genera by head not carinate, apical maxillary palpomere only slightly narrower than penultimate segment, subocular carinae absent, temples short, pronotal lateral margin smoothly rounded, and mesocoxae separated by an elongate process of the mesoventrite. Our discovery of Cretopseudopsis gen. et sp. nov. provides evidence that the subfamily Pseudopsinae originated by the Albian-Cenomanian and suggests a Gondwanan distribution of the group in the Cretaceous.


Assuntos
Âmbar , Besouros , Animais , Cor , Fósseis , Cabeça
16.
Zootaxa ; 4881(3): zootaxa.4881.3.12, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311310

RESUMO

The Bernaeinae, currently regarded as a subfamily of Aleyrodidae (Szwedo Drohojowska 2016, Drohojowska et al. 2019), is the only extinct subfamily of whiteflies with a fossil record from the Callovian (late Middle Jurassic) to Cenomanian (early Upper Cretaceous). Currently, it comprises seven species in six genera (Schlee 1970, Shcherbakov 2000, Drohojowska et al. 2019, Chen et al. 2020)-Bernaea neocomica Schlee, 1970; Burmoselis evelynae Shcherbakov, 2000; Heidea cretacica Schlee, 1970 (see comment below); Juleyrodes Shcherbakov, 2000 (J. gilli Shcherbakov, 2000, J. visnyai Shcherbakov, 2000), Paraburmoselis kachinensis Chen, Zhang, Wang et Zheng, 2020 and Sinicoselis weberi Drohojowska, Wegierek, Evans et Huang, 2019. Heidea by mistake was figured in Drohojowska Szwedo (2011a, p. 192, Fig. 23) in Aleyrodinae, but no taxonomic decisions were taken regarding this fossil. Later, in the checklist of fossil Aleyrodidae, Szwedo Drohojowska (2016: supplement p. 6), listed Heidea in Bernaeinae. This statement was not noted by Chen et al. (2020) listing again Heidea in Aleyrodinae referring to erroneous placement on the figure in Drohojowska Szwedo (2011a).


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Animais , Fósseis
17.
Zootaxa ; 4869(3): zootaxa.4869.3.10, 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311357

RESUMO

Recent studies of extinct soldier beetles have generated an immense amount of new information. Scientists have described various new species of †Cacomorphocerus Schaufuss, 1892, confirming the remarkable diversification and evolution of this genus and the Cantharidae family during the Eocene. In the present work, we describe a new species from Baltic amber. Cacomorphocerus marki sp. nov., is the first species of Cacomorphocerus discovered with filiform 11-segmented antennae. Based on inclusions in Baltic and Rovno amber, it now appears certain that the genus Cacomorphocerus and the tribe Cacomorphocerini Fanti Kupryjanowicz, 2018 evolved and subsequently went extinct in Europe during the Eocene. Known for more than 100 years from a single species, the genus is now known to be far more morphologically diversified thanks to these recent discoveries.


Assuntos
Âmbar , Besouros , Animais , Países Bálticos , Fósseis
18.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0229370, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326416

RESUMO

The present study applies a dental morphological perspective to the understanding of the complex pre-contact population history of the South Central Andes, through the detection of the underlying dynamics, and the assessment of the biological ties among groups. It presents an analysis of 1591 individuals from 66 sites that date from the Archaic to the Late Intermediate phases from Bolivia, Chile and Peru. The results suggest this area is characterized by significant movement of people and cultures and, at the same time, by long standing population continuity, and highlight the need for wider perspectives capable of taking into account both the different micro-regional realities and the region in its entirety.


Assuntos
Migração Humana/história , Dinâmica Populacional/história , Arqueologia , Bolívia , Chile , Feminino , Fósseis , História Antiga , Humanos , Índios Sul-Americanos , Masculino , Peru , Dente
19.
Zootaxa ; 4894(4): zootaxa.4894.4.7, 2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311066

RESUMO

Gimmel et al. (2019) recently treated the two fossil taxa of the beetle family Cyclaxyridae (Cucujoidea), a family that is today represented only by two species in New Zealand (Gimmel et al. 2009). Gimmel et al. (2019) synonymized two species from European amber described within the family Phalacridae (Cucujoidea), Stilbus bedovoyi Lyubarsky Perkovsky, 2011 and Neolitochropus hoffeinsorum Lyubarsky Perkovsky, 2016, with Neolitochropus bedovoyi (Lyubarsky Perkovsky, 2011) becoming the valid combination. They treated a total of 13 specimens of this species from across Rovno, Bitterfeld, and Baltic amber deposits, implying a widespread and abundant species in Eocene Europe whose life history, like extant forms, was likely tied to sooty molds (Gimmel et al. 2019).


Assuntos
Besouros , Âmbar , Animais , Fósseis
20.
Zootaxa ; 4873(1): zootaxa.4873.1.1, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311334

RESUMO

The genera Psalistops Simon, 1889, Trichopelma, Simon, 1888 and Cyrtogrammomma Pocock, 1895 are revised and included in cladistics analyses including almost all species of these genera. In order to test previous morphological hypotheses on the relationships of Barychelidae, Paratropididae and Theraphosidae and because of the controversial taxonomic position of Psalistops and Trichopelma, a set of terminal taxa representing all subfamilies of Paratropididae (Paratropidinae, Glabropelmatinae), Barychelidae (Barychelinae, Sasoninae, Trichopelmatinae) and most theraphosid subfamilies were included, as well as a diplurid, a nemesiid, and a pycnothelid, the later used to root the cladogram. The matrix with 66 terminal taxa, 2 continuous and 93 discrete characters was analysed with TNT 1.5. We found that Trichopelmatinae is not a monophyletic group, and Psalistops is transferred to Theraphosidae, as well as the barychelid genus Cyrtogrammomma and the paratropidid genus Melloina Brignoli. Cyrtogrammomma was retrieved as the sister group of Trichopelma, and Melloina as the sister group of Holothele Karsch. Psalistops was retrieved as the sister group of Reichlingia Rudloff, and the clade with these two genera is the most basal in Theraphosidae. Barychelidae was found to be monophyletic and the sister group of Theraphosidae. Paratropididae was retrieved as the sister group of Barychelidae + Theraphosidae. The relationship and possible synapomorphies of the three families are herein discussed.                This is the first time since Raven (1985) that representatives of all barychelid (Barychelinae, Sasoninae, Trichopelmatinae), paratropidid (Paratropidinae, Glabropelmatinae) and most theraphosid subfamilies have been included in a morphological cladistic analysis.                Psalistops comprises two species, P. melanopygius Simon, 1889 (type species) and P. colombianus sp. nov. Psalistops montigena Simon, 1889, P. tigrinus Simon, 1889 and P. zonatus Simon, 1889 are synonymized with P. melanopygius Simon, 1889. Psalistops fulvus Bryant, 1948, P. hispaniolensis Wunderlich, 1988 (fossil), P. maculosus Bryant, 1948, P. venadensis Valerio, 1986 and P. steini (Simon, 1889) are transferred to Trichopelma. Psalistops gasci Maréchal, 1996 is transferred to Hapalopus Ausserer (Theraphosidae); P. opifex (Simon, 1889) and P. solitarius (Simon, 1889) are transferred to Schismatothele Karsch, 1879 (Theraphosidae). Schismatothele solitarius (Simon, 1889) n. comb. is synonymized with Schismatothele lineata Karsch, 1879, n. syn. Psalistops nigrifemuratus Mello-Leitão, 1939 is probably a nemesiid or pycnothelid, and herein considered as nomen dubium in Pycnothelidae. Trichopelma comprises 22 species: Trichopelma nitidum Simon, 1888 (type species), T. coenobita (Simon, 1889), T. steini (Simon, 1889), T. affine (Simon, 1892), T. cubanum (Simon, 1903), T. maculatum (Banks, 1906), T. zebra (Petrunkevitch, 1925), T. banksia Özdikmen Demir, 2012, T. insulanum (Petrunkevitch, 1926), T. fulvus (Bryant, 1948) n. comb., T. laselva Valerio, 1986, T. venadensis (Valerio, 1986) n. comb., T. huffi sp. nov., T. gabrieli sp. nov., T. tostoi sp. nov., T. goloboffi sp. nov., T. juventud sp. nov., T. laurae sp. nov., T.bimini sp. nov., T. loui sp. nov., T. platnicki sp. nov., and T. hispaniolensis Wunderlich, 1988 n. comb. (fossil). Trichopelma maculosus (Bryant, 1948) n. comb. is synonymized with P. fulvus Bryant, 1948; T. corozalis (Petrunkevitch, 1929) is synonymized with T. insulanum (Petrunkevitch, 1926). Trichopelma astutum Simon, 1889 is transferred to Euthycaelus Simon, 1889, and T. maddeni Esposito Agnarsson, 2014 to Holothele Karsch, 1879 (Theraphosidae). Trichopelma flavicomum Simon, 1891 is transferred to Neodiplothele (Barychelidae, Sasoninae). The species T. illetabile Simon, 1888, T. spinosum (Franganillo, 1926), T. scopulatum (Fischel, 1927) and T. eucubanum Özdikmen Demir, 2012 are considered as nomina dubia. Cyrtogrammomma comprises two species: C. monticola Pocock, 1895 (type species) and C. raveni sp. nov.


Assuntos
Aranhas , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Fósseis
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