Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.155
Filtrar
1.
Molecules ; 27(3)2022 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35163967

RESUMO

This study was planned to explore the locally available natural sources of gum hydrocolloids as a natural modifier of different starch properties. Corn (CS), sweet potato (SPS), and Turkish bean (TBS) starches were mixed with locally extracted native or acetylated cactus (CG) and acacia (AG) gums at 2 and 5% replacement levels. The binary mixtures (starch-gums) were prepared in water, freeze dried, ground to powder, and stored airtight. A rapid viscoanalyzer (RVA), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), texture analyzer, and dynamic rheometer were used to explore their pasting, thermal, textural, and rheological properties. The presence of acetylated AG or CG increased the final viscosity (FV) in all three starches when compared to starch pastes containing native gums. Plain SPS dispersion had a higher pasting temperature (PT) than CS and TBS. The addition of AG or CG increased the PT of CS, SPS, and TBS. The thermograms revealed the overall enthalpy change of the starch and gum blends: TBS > SPS > CS. The peak temperature (Tp) of starches increased with increasing gum concentration from 2 to 5% for both AG and CG native and modified gums. When compared to the control gels, the addition of 2% CG, either native or modified, reduced the syneresis of starch gels. However, further addition (5% CG) increased the gels' syneresis. Furthermore, the syneresis for the first cycle on the fourth day was higher than the second cycle on the eighth day for all starches. The addition of native and acetylated CG reduced the hardness of starch gels at all concentrations tested. All of the starch dispersions had higher G' than G″ values, indicating that they were more elastic and less viscous with or without the gums. The apparent viscosity of all starch gels decreased as shear was increased, with profiles indicating time-dependent thixotropic behavior. All of the starch gels, with or without gums, showed a non-Newtonian shear thinning trend in the shear stress vs. shear rate graphs. The addition of acetylated CG gum to CS resulted in a higher activation energy (Ea) than the native counterparts and the control. More specifically, starch gels with a higher gum concentration (5%) provided greater Ea than their native counterparts.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/metabolismo , Ipomoea batatas/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo , Acacia , Coloides , Fabaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Goma Arábica/metabolismo , Ipomoea batatas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Opuntia/metabolismo , Gomas Vegetais , Reologia/métodos , Arábia Saudita , Amido/metabolismo , Temperatura , Termodinâmica , Viscosidade , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento
2.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 156-166, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34080187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cereal-legume intercropping systems are an environmentally friendly practice in sustainable agriculture. However, research on the interspecific interaction of nitrogen (N) between rice and aquatic legumes has rarely been undertaken. To address this issue, a pot experiment was conducted to investigate N utilization and the N interaction between rice and water mimosa (Neptunia oleracea Lour.) in an intercropping system. The root barrier patterns consisted of solid barrier (SB), mesh barrier (MB), and no barrier (NB) treatments. The N fertilizer application rates were low, medium, and high N rates. RESULTS: The results showed that the NB treatment better facilitated rice growth compared with the MB and SB treatments. And the nitrate N content and urease activity of rice rhizospheric soil in the NB treatment were the highest of the three separated patterns. The ammonium N content in water mimosa rhizospheric soil and N2 fixation of water mimosa ranked as NB > MB > SB. CONCLUSIONS: The amount of N fixation by water mimosa was 4.38-13.64 mg/pot, and the N transfer from water mimosa to rice was 3.97-9.54 mg/pot. This can promote the growth of rice and reduce the application of N fertilizer. We suggest that the rice-water mimosa intercropping system is a sustainable ecological farming approach and can be applied in the field to facilitate rice production. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/métodos , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fabaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fertilizantes/análise , Nitratos/metabolismo , Fixação de Nitrogênio , Oryza/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Solo/química
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(49)2021 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34845020

RESUMO

Fertile soils have been an essential resource for humanity for 10,000 y, but the ecological mechanisms involved in the creation and restoration of fertile soils, and especially the role of plant diversity, are poorly understood. Here we use results of a long-term, unfertilized plant biodiversity experiment to determine whether biodiversity, especially plant functional biodiversity, impacted the regeneration of fertility on a degraded sandy soil. After 23 y, plots containing 16 perennial grassland plant species had, relative to monocultures of these same species, ∼30 to 90% greater increases in soil nitrogen, potassium, calcium, magnesium, cation exchange capacity, and carbon and had ∼150 to 370% greater amounts of N, K, Ca, and Mg in plant biomass. Our results suggest that biodiversity, likely in combination with the increased plant productivity caused by higher biodiversity, led to greater soil fertility. Moreover, plots with high plant functional diversity, those containing grasses, legumes, and forbs, accumulated significantly greater N, K, Ca, and Mg in the total nutrient pool (plant biomass and soil) than did plots containing just one of these three functional groups. Plant species in these functional groups had trade-offs between their tissue N content, tissue K content, and root mass, suggesting why species from all three functional groups were essential for regenerating soil fertility. Our findings suggest that efforts to regenerate soil C stores and soil fertility may be aided by creative uses of plant diversity.


Assuntos
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Plantas/metabolismo , Solo/química , Biodiversidade , Biomassa , Carbono/metabolismo , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Ecossistema , Fabaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Pradaria , Nitrogênio/análise , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Potássio/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22835, 2021 11 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34819547

RESUMO

In the current study, an eco-friendly management technology to improve young carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) tree tolerance to water deficit was set up by using single or combined treatments of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and/or compost (C). Two groups of young carob have been installed: (i) carob cultivated under well-watered conditions (WW; 70% field capacity (FC)) and (ii) where the plants were drought-stressed (DS; 35% FC) during 2, 4, 6, and 8 months. The effect of used biofertilizers on the course of growth, physiological (photosynthetic traits, water status, osmolytes, and mineral content), and biochemical (hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), oxidative damage to lipids (malondialdehyde (MDA), and membrane stability (MS)) traits in response to short- and long-term droughts were assessed. The dual application of AMF and C (C + AMF) boosted growth, physiological and biochemical parameters, and nutrient uptake in carob under WW and DS. After eight months, C + AMF significantly enhanced stomatal conductance by 20%, maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII by 7%, leaf water potential by 23%, chlorophyll and carotenoid by 40%, plant uptake of mineral nutrients (P by 75%, N by 46%, K+ by 35%, and Ca2+ by 40%), concentrations of soluble sugar by 40%, and protein content by 44% than controls under DS conditions. Notably, C + AMF reduced the accumulation of H2O2 and MDA content to a greater degree and increased MS. In contrast, enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, and polyphenoloxidase) significantly increased in C + AMF plants under DS. Overall, our findings suggest that the pairing of C + AMF can mediate superior drought tolerance in young carob trees by increasing leaf stomatal conductance, cellular water content, higher solute concentration, and defense response against oxidative damage during the prolonged period of DS.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Secas , Fabaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Agricultura Orgânica , Estresse Fisiológico , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Fabaceae/microbiologia , Estado de Hidratação do Organismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Simbiose , Árvores/metabolismo , Árvores/microbiologia , Água/metabolismo
5.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 466, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phosphorus (P) is an essential macronutrient for plant growth that participates in a series of biological processes. Thus, P deficiency limits crop growth and yield. Although Stylosanthes guianensis (stylo) is an important tropical legume that displays adaptation to low phosphate (Pi) availability, its adaptive mechanisms remain largely unknown. RESULTS: In this study, differences in low-P stress tolerance were investigated using two stylo cultivars ('RY2' and 'RY5') that were grown in hydroponics. Results showed that cultivar RY2 was better adapted to Pi starvation than RY5, as reflected by lower values of relative decrease rates of growth parameters than RY5 at low-P stress, especially for the reduction of shoot and root dry weight. Furthermore, RY2 exhibited higher P acquisition efficiency than RY5 under the same P treatment, although P utilization efficiency was similar between the two cultivars. In addition, better root growth performance and higher leaf and root APase activities were observed with RY2 compared to RY5. Subsequent RNA-seq analysis revealed 8,348 genes that were differentially expressed under P deficient and sufficient conditions in RY2 roots, with many Pi starvation regulated genes associated with P metabolic process, protein modification process, transport and other metabolic processes. A group of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) involved in Pi uptake and Pi homeostasis were identified, such as genes encoding Pi transporter (PT), purple acid phosphatase (PAP), and multidrug and toxin extrusion (MATE). Furthermore, a variety of genes related to transcription factors and regulators involved in Pi signaling, including genes belonging to the PHOSPHATE STARVATION RESPONSE 1-like (PHR1), WRKY and the SYG1/PHO81/XPR1 (SPX) domain, were also regulated by P deficiency in stylo roots. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals the possible mechanisms underlying the adaptation of stylo to P deficiency. The low-P tolerance in stylo is probably manifested through regulation of root growth, Pi acquisition and cellular Pi homeostasis as well as Pi signaling pathway. The identified genes involved in low-P tolerance can be potentially used to design the breeding strategy for developing P-efficient stylo cultivars to grow on acid soils in the tropics.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Deficiências Nutricionais/genética , Fabaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fabaceae/genética , Fósforo/deficiência , Transcriptoma , China , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genótipo
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638885

RESUMO

Legumes are a better source of proteins and are richer in diverse micronutrients over the nutritional profile of widely consumed cereals. However, when exposed to a diverse range of abiotic stresses, their overall productivity and quality are hugely impacted. Our limited understanding of genetic determinants and novel variants associated with the abiotic stress response in food legume crops restricts its amelioration. Therefore, it is imperative to understand different molecular approaches in food legume crops that can be utilized in crop improvement programs to minimize the economic loss. 'Omics'-based molecular breeding provides better opportunities over conventional breeding for diversifying the natural germplasm together with improving yield and quality parameters. Due to molecular advancements, the technique is now equipped with novel 'omics' approaches such as ionomics, epigenomics, fluxomics, RNomics, glycomics, glycoproteomics, phosphoproteomics, lipidomics, regulomics, and secretomics. Pan-omics-which utilizes the molecular bases of the stress response to identify genes (genomics), mRNAs (transcriptomics), proteins (proteomics), and biomolecules (metabolomics) associated with stress regulation-has been widely used for abiotic stress amelioration in food legume crops. Integration of pan-omics with novel omics approaches will fast-track legume breeding programs. Moreover, artificial intelligence (AI)-based algorithms can be utilized for simulating crop yield under changing environments, which can help in predicting the genetic gain beforehand. Application of machine learning (ML) in quantitative trait loci (QTL) mining will further help in determining the genetic determinants of abiotic stress tolerance in pulses.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Fabaceae/genética , Genômica , Melhoramento Vegetal , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fabaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Locos de Características Quantitativas
7.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257053, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587163

RESUMO

Due to increasing population growth and declining arable land on Earth, astroagriculture will be vital to terraform Martian regolith for settlement. Nodulating plants and their N-fixing symbionts may play a role in increasing Martian soil fertility. On Earth, clover (Melilotus officinalis) forms a symbiotic relationship with the N-fixing bacteria Sinorhizobium meliloti; clover has been previously grown in simulated regolith yet without bacterial inoculation. In this study, we inoculated clover with S. meliloti grown in potting soil and regolith to test the hypothesis that plants grown in regolith can form the same symbiotic associations as in soils and to determine if greater plant biomass occurs in the presence of S. meliloti regardless of growth media. We also examined soil NH4 concentrations to evaluate soil augmentation properties of nodulating plants and symbionts. Greater biomass occurred in inoculated compared to uninoculated groups; the inoculated average biomass in potting mix and regolith (2.23 and 0.29 g, respectively) was greater than the uninoculated group (0.11 and 0.01 g, respectively). However, no significant differences existed in NH4 composition between potting mix and regolith simulant. Linear regression analysis results showed that: i) symbiotic plant-bacteria relationships differed between regolith and potting mix, with plant biomass positively correlated to regolith-bacteria interactions; and, ii) NH4 production was limited to plant uptake yet the relationships in regolith and potting mix were similar. It is promising that plant-legume symbiosis is a possibility for Martian soil colonization.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/microbiologia , Marte , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Sinorhizobium/fisiologia , Solo , Simbiose/fisiologia , Compostos de Amônio/análise , Biomassa , Fabaceae/anatomia & histologia , Fabaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Modelos Lineares , Nodulação/fisiologia , Brotos de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Solo/química
8.
Cells ; 10(7)2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34359842

RESUMO

Noncoding RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs), small interference RNAs (siRNAs), circular RNA (circRNA), and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), control gene expression at the transcription, post-transcription, and translation levels. Apart from protein-coding genes, accumulating evidence supports ncRNAs playing a critical role in shaping plant growth and development and biotic and abiotic stress responses in various species, including legume crops. Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) interact with DNA, RNA, and proteins, modulating their target genes. However, the regulatory mechanisms controlling these cellular processes are not well understood. Here, we discuss the features of various ncRNAs, including their emerging role in contributing to biotic/abiotic stress response and plant growth and development, in addition to the molecular mechanisms involved, focusing on legume crops. Unravelling the underlying molecular mechanisms and functional implications of ncRNAs will enhance our understanding of the coordinated regulation of plant defences against various biotic and abiotic stresses and for key growth and development processes to better design various legume crops for global food security.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA Circular/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA de Plantas/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Fabaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Segurança Alimentar , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Humanos , MicroRNAs/classificação , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Especificidade de Órgãos , Biossíntese de Proteínas , RNA Circular/classificação , RNA Circular/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/classificação , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , RNA de Plantas/classificação , RNA de Plantas/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/classificação , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Transcrição Genética
9.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 31(10): 1373-1382, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34409947

RESUMO

Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are a group of bacteria that can increase plant growth; but due to unfavorable environmental conditions, PGPR are biologically unstable and their survival rates in soil are limited. Therefore, the suitable application of PGPR as a plant growth stimulation is one of the significant challenges in agriculture. This study presents an intelligent formulation based on Bacillus velezensis VRU1 encapsulation enriched with nanoparticles that was able to control Rhizoctonia solani on the bean. The spherical structure of the capsule was observed based on the Scanning Electron Microscope image. Results indicated that with increasing gelatin concentration, the swelling ratio and moisture content were increased; and since the highest encapsulation efficiency and bacterial release were observed at a gelatin concentration of 1.5%, this concentration was considered in mixture with alginate for encapsulation. The application of this formulation which is based on encapsulation and nanotechnology appears to be a promising technique to deliver PGPR in soil and is more effective for plants.


Assuntos
Bacillus/fisiologia , Agentes de Controle Biológico , Fabaceae/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Rhizoctonia/patogenicidade , Alginatos/química , Agentes de Controle Biológico/administração & dosagem , Fabaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gelatina/química , Nanopartículas/química , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Microbiologia do Solo
10.
Plant Cell Environ ; 44(10): 3347-3357, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34327717

RESUMO

It has been suggested that a trade-off between hydraulic efficiency and safety is related to drought adaptation across species. However, whether leaf hydraulic efficiency is sacrificed for safety during woody resprout regrowth after crown removal is not well understood. We measured leaf water potential (ψleaf ) at predawn (ψpd ) and midday (ψmid ), leaf maximum hydraulic conductance (Kleaf-max ), ψleaf at induction 50% loss of Kleaf-max (Kleaf P50 ), leaf area-specific whole-plant hydraulic conductance (LSC), leaf vein structure and turgor loss point (πtlp ) in 1- to 13-year-old resprouts of the aridland shrub (Caragana korshinskii). ψpd was similar, ψmid and Kleaf P50 became more negative, and Kleaf-max decreased in resprouts with the increasing age; thus, leaf hydraulic efficiency clearly traded off against safety. The difference between ψmid and Kleaf P50 , leaf hydraulic safety margin, increased gradually with increasing resprout age. More negative ψmid and Kleaf P50 were closely related to decreasing LSC and more negative πtlp , respectively, and the decreasing Kleaf-max arose from the lower minor vein density and the narrower midrib xylem vessels. Our results showed that a clear trade-off between leaf hydraulic efficiency and safety helps C. korshinskii resprouts adapt to increasing water stress as they approach final size.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Água/metabolismo , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Clima Desértico , Fabaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
11.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254584, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252159

RESUMO

Summer weed species, including Echinochloa colona, are becoming problematic in the eastern grain region of Australia, but cover crops can be useful to suppress weeds during the summer fallow period. The present study evaluated the growth and seed production of E. colona grown alone or with four and eight cover crop plants per pot (i.e., 80 and 160 plants m-2). Four legume (cowpea, lablab, pigeonpea, and soybean) and two grass (forage sorghum and Japanese millet) cover crops were used. Interference by cover crops reduced the height, the number of leaves and tillers, inflorescence number, seed production, and biomass of this weed than when it was grown alone. Cover crops differed in their ability to suppress the growth and seed production of E. colona. The effect of cover crop density on the studied attributes was non-significant in most cases. Pigeonpea as a cover crop was the least effective in suppressing the growth and seed production of E. colona. In general, leguminous cover crops exhibited less suppression of E. colona than grasses. Forage sorghum was most efficient in reducing the growth of this weed. Forage sorghum and Japanese millet reduced E. colona leaf and tiller numbers per plant by 90 and 87%, respectively. These cover crops reduced E. colona leaf number to only 17 per plant as against 160 per plant recorded without cover crops. Inflorescence number per E. colona plant growing alone was as high as 48. However, it was reduced by 20-92% when this weed was grown with cover crop plants. E. colona's seed production was significantly suppressed by all the cover crops, except pigeonpea. Biomass of E. colona was suppressed largely by forage sorghum and Japanese millet compared to other cover crops. Among the cover crops, pigeonpea produced the lowest biomass of 11 g pot-1, and the highest biomass (114 g pot-1) was produced by forage sorghum. The study demonstrated the usefulness of cover crops, especially forage sorghum and Japanese millet, to suppress the growth and seed output of E. colona.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Echinochloa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fabaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sorghum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15360, 2021 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34321544

RESUMO

The interest expressed by the agriculture in the category of innovative biostimulants is due to the intensive search for natural preparations. Our study is the first ever to report a complex approach to the use of allelopathic extracts from Levisticum officinale Koch. roots in soybean cultivation, includes analyses of morphological observations, and analyses of biochemical indicators. Hot method of aqueous extraction was applied. The extracts were administered via foliar application and soil treatment. Lovage extracts had high contents of polyphenolic compounds and rich micro- and macroelemental composition. The infusions did not contain gibberellic acid and indole-3-acetic acid but the abscisic acid and saccharose, glucose, and fructose were found. The extracts modified soybean plant physiology, as manifested by changes in biometric traits. Plants responded positively by increased yield. Seeds from the treated plants had higher contents of micro- and macroelements, as well as total concentrations of lipids (with a slight decrease in protein content). In addition, they featured changes in their amino acid profile and fatty acid composition. The application of allelopathic biostimulant caused increased concentrations of isoflavones and saponins. The natural biostimulants from Levisticum officinale may become a valuable tool in the sustainable agriculture.


Assuntos
Levisticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/química , Soja/química , Ácido Abscísico/química , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Fabaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Fabaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Giberelinas/química , Glucose/química , Glucose/farmacologia , Levisticum/química , Levisticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feromônios/química , Feromônios/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sementes/química , Sacarose/química , Sacarose/farmacologia , Água/química
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12585, 2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34131225

RESUMO

The dry matter partitioning is the product of the flow of assimilates from the source organs (leaves and stems) along the transport route to the storage organs (grains). A 2-year field experiment was conducted at the agronomy research farm of the University of Agriculture Peshawar, Pakistan during 2015-2016 (Y1) to 2016-2017 (Y2) having semiarid climate. Four summer crops, pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoidum L.), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) and mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) and pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) and four winter crops, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), fababean (Vicia faba) and rapeseed (Brassica napus) were grown under two irrigation regimes (full vs. limited irrigation) with the pattern of growing each crop either alone as sole crop or in combination of two crops in each intercropping system under both winter and summer seasons. The result showed that under full irrigated condition (no water stress), all crops had higher crop growth rate (CGR), leaf dry weight (LDW), stem dry weight (SDW), and spike/head dry weight (S/H/PDW) at both anthesis and physiological maturity (PM) than limited irrigated condition (water stress). In winter crops, both wheat and barley grown as sole crop or intercropped with fababean produced maximum CGR, LDW, SDW, S/H/PDW than other intercrops. Among summer crops, sorghum intercropped either with pigeon pea or with mungbean produced maximum CGR, LDW, SDW, and S/H/PDW at both growth stages. Sole mungbean and pigeon pea or pigeon pea and mungbean intercropping had higher CGR, LDW, SDW, S/H/PDW than millet and sorghum intercropping. On the other hand, wheat and barley grown as sole crops or intercropped with fababean produced maximum CGR, LDW, SDW, and S/H/PDW than other intercrops. Fababean grown as sole crop or intercropped with wheat produced higher CGR, LDW, SDW, and S/H/PDW at PM than intercropped with barley or rapeseed. From the results it was concluded that cereal plus legume intercropping particularly wheat/fababean in winter and sorghum/pigeon pea or sorgum/mungbean in summer are the most productive intercropping systems under both low and high moisture regimes.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola , Produção Agrícola , Produtos Agrícolas , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agricultura , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Fabaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Humanos , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fósforo/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Estações do Ano , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo , Vicia faba/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vicia faba/metabolismo
14.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 182: 1893-1905, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34081953

RESUMO

In this work, a number of glucose unites in polymeric structure of cellulose was converted to 2,4-dihydroxy-3-(1-hydroxy-2-oxoethoxy)butanal (cellulose containing di aldehyde units (CCDAUs)) by oxidation with sodium periodate, followed by condensation with acetone to produce 5,7-dihydroxy-6-((1-hydroxy-4-oxopent-2-en-1-yl)oxy)hept-3-en-2-one unites (cellulose containing di ene units (CCDEUs)). This modified cellulose was characterized by different methods and applied as a copolymer and grafting agent to synthesize an eco-friendly (CCDEUs-g-poly(AA)/urea) superabsorbent with slow-release urea fertilizer. The created double bonds in C2 and C3 positions of ß-d-glucose units increased the linkage between cellulose and acrylic acid, leading to the formation of a strong network for slow-release urea fertilizer. Also, this modification created an expanded network for storage a high amount of water by increasing the cellulose flexibility. The reaction conditions for modification and synthesis of the superabsorbent, the oxidation degree value of glucose units, kinetics models, the effect of different saline solutions, various pH and reswelling time on the water absorbency, water retention capacity, reusability, biodegradability, and slow-release property were investigated. Also, the effect of synthesized CCDEUs-g-poly(AA)/urea on plant growth was tested and excellent results were obtained.


Assuntos
Celulose/química , Fertilizantes/análise , Ureia/análise , Acrilamidas/química , Acrilatos/química , Adsorção , Sulfato de Amônio/química , Difusão , Elementos Químicos , Fabaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Oxirredução , Reologia , Sais/química , Solo/química , Soluções , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Temperatura , Termogravimetria , Ureia/síntese química , Ureia/química , Água/química
15.
Food Chem ; 362: 130206, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082289

RESUMO

Legumes are the main sources of folates which are not synthesized in the human body. The five folate species: 5-methyl tetrahydrofolate, tetrahydrofolate, pteroyl glutamate, 5-formyl tetrahydrofolate and 10-formyl tetrahydrofolate were quantitatively determined in legumes seeds and sprouts by a newly developed and validated high performance thin layer chromatography method. High resolution plate imaging hyphenated to mass spectrometry was exploited for fingerprint analysis of tested samples. Results indicated that germination of all seeds resulted in a 2.5-4 fold increase in the content of total folates as well as the individual vitamers. The total amount of folate reached a maximum on the fifth day in the case of black-eyed peas (861 µg/100 g Fresh Weight), white beans (755 µg/100 g FW) and brown lentils (681 µg/100 g FW). 5-CH3-H4 folate was found to be the most dominating folate species reaching its maximum content in day 5 sprouts of black-eyed peas (490 µg/100 g FW).


Assuntos
Cromatografia em Camada Delgada/métodos , Fabaceae/química , Ácido Fólico/análise , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Sementes/química , Fabaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Germinação , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Lens (Planta)/química , Leucovorina/análogos & derivados , Leucovorina/análise , Imagem Molecular/métodos , Análise Multivariada , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tetra-Hidrofolatos/análise
16.
Gene ; 791: 145722, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34010708

RESUMO

Plant height is a fundamentally crucial agronomic trait to control crop growth and high yield cultivation. Several studies have been conducted on the understanding ofmolecular genetic bases of plant height in model plants and crops. However, the molecular mechanism underlying peanut plant height development is stilluncertain. In the present study, we created a peanut mutant library by fast neutron irradiation using peanut variety SH13 and identified a semi-dwarf mutant 1 (sdm1). At 84 DAP (days after planting), the main stem of sdm1 was only about 62% of SH13. The internode length of sdm1 hydroponic seedlings was found significantly shorter than that of SH13 at 14 DAP. In addition, the foliar spraying of exogenous IAA could partially restore the semi-dwarf phenotype of sdm1. Transcriptome data indicated that the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between sdm1 and SH13 significantly enriched in diterpenoid biosynthesis, alpha-linolenic acid metabolism, brassinosteroid biosynthesis, tryptophan metabolism and plant hormone signal transduction. The expression trend of most of the genes involved in IAA and JA pathway showed significantly down- and up- regulation, which may be one of the key factors of the sdm1 semi-dwarf phenotype. Moreover, several transcription factorsand cell wall relatedgenes were expressed differentially between sdm1 and SH13. Conclusively, this research work not only provided important clues to unveil the molecular mechanism of peanut plant height regulation, but also presented basic materials for breeding peanut cultivars with ideal plant height.


Assuntos
Arachis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arachis/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Biometria/métodos , Fabaceae/genética , Fabaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Expressão Gênica/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Genômica/métodos , Fenótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , RNA-Seq/métodos , Plântula/genética , Transcriptoma/genética
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7597, 2021 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33828137

RESUMO

As a crop for the new millennium Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea [L.] Verdc.) considered as leading legumes in the tropical regions due to its versatile advantages. The main intent of this study was to find out the high yielding potential genotypes and considering these genotypes to develop pure lines for commercial cultivation in Malaysia. Considering the 14 qualitative and 27 quantitative traits of fifteen landraces the variation and genetic parameters namely, variability, heritability, genetic advance, characters association, and cluster matrix were determined. ANOVA revealed significant variation for all the agronomic traits (except plant height). Among the accessions, highly significant differences (P ≤ 0.01) were found for almost all the traits excluding fifty percent flowering date, seed length, seed width. The 16 traits out of the 27 quantitative traits had a coefficient of variation (CV) ≥ 20%. A positive and intermediate to perfect highly significant association (r = 0.23 to 1.00; P < 0.00) was found between yield and its related traits. The trait dry seed weight per plant (g) had the highest GCV = 59.91% and PCV = 59.57% whereas the trait fresh pod weight (99.55%), dry seed weight (98.86%), and yield (98.10%) were highly heritable. The genetic advance recorded the highest for dry seed weight (122.01%) and lowest (3.97%) for plant height. To validate the genetic disparity, an unweighted pair-group produce with arithmetic mean (UPGMA), principal component analysis (PCA), heatmap, and H'-index was performed considering 27 quantitative traits. The constructed dendrogram showed five distinct groups of accessions. Genotypes G2, G3, and G9 from Group IV consider as promising lines which gave 70.05% higher mean yield compared to grand mean yield (1180 kg ha-1) with desirable traits. Group II had a maximum number of accessions while group III and group V had one of each. However, findings declared that the availability of genetic variance will be beneficial for this crop improvement through cross breeding as well as the plant breeders to prefer desirable traits in V. subterranea L. Verdc. for further breeding purposes.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Vigna/genética , Análise por Conglomerados , Fabaceae/genética , Fabaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Variação Genética/genética , Genótipo , Malásia , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Análise de Componente Principal , Vigna/crescimento & desenvolvimento
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(11)2021 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33836596

RESUMO

Legume trees form an abundant and functionally important component of tropical forests worldwide with N2-fixing symbioses linked to enhanced growth and recruitment in early secondary succession. However, it remains unclear how N2-fixers meet the high demands for inorganic nutrients imposed by rapid biomass accumulation on nutrient-poor tropical soils. Here, we show that N2-fixing trees in secondary Neotropical forests triggered twofold higher in situ weathering of fresh primary silicates compared to non-N2-fixing trees and induced locally enhanced nutrient cycling by the soil microbiome community. Shotgun metagenomic data from weathered minerals support the role of enhanced nitrogen and carbon cycling in increasing acidity and weathering. Metagenomic and marker gene analyses further revealed increased microbial potential beneath N2-fixers for anaerobic iron reduction, a process regulating the pool of phosphorus bound to iron-bearing soil minerals. We find that the Fe(III)-reducing gene pool in soil is dominated by acidophilic Acidobacteria, including a highly abundant genus of previously undescribed bacteria, Candidatus Acidoferrum, genus novus. The resulting dependence of the Fe-cycling gene pool to pH determines the high iron-reducing potential encoded in the metagenome of the more acidic soils of N2-fixers and their nonfixing neighbors. We infer that by promoting the activities of a specialized local microbiome through changes in soil pH and C:N ratios, N2-fixing trees can influence the wider biogeochemical functioning of tropical forest ecosystems in a manner that enhances their ability to assimilate and store atmospheric carbon.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/microbiologia , Florestas , Microbiota/fisiologia , Minerais/metabolismo , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Clima Tropical , Acidobacteria/classificação , Acidobacteria/genética , Acidobacteria/metabolismo , Biomassa , Carbono/análise , Fabaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Compostos Férricos/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Microbiota/genética , Minerais/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fixação de Nitrogênio , Nutrientes/análise , Panamá , Fósforo/metabolismo , Silicatos/análise , Silicatos/metabolismo , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Simbiose , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Árvores/metabolismo , Árvores/microbiologia
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8458, 2021 04 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875741

RESUMO

Temperature stress restricts plant growth and development. Antifreeze protein (AFP) can improve plants antifreeze ability. In our previous study, the AnAFP gene cloned from Ammopiptanthus nanus was confirmed to be an excellent candidate enhancing plant cold resistance. But, AnAFP protein shared similar structures with KnS type dehydrins including K, N and S domains except ice crystal binding domain A. Here, we generated AnAFPΔA, AnAFPΔK, AnAFPΔN and AnAFPΔS, and transformed them into ordinary and cold sensitive strains of E. coli, and Arabidopsis KS type dehydrin mutant to evaluate their function. Expression of AnAFPΔA decreases cold and heat tolerance in E. coli, meanwhile, AnAFP enhances heat tolerance in Arabidopsis, suggesting that domain A is a thermal stable functional domain. AnAFP, AnAFPΔA and AnAFPΔS localize in whole cell, but AnAFPΔK and AnAFPΔN only localizes in nucleus and cytoplasm, respectively, exhibiting that K and N domains control localization of AnAFP. Likewise, K domain blocks interaction between AnAFP and AnICE1. The result of RT-qPCR showed that expression of AnAFP, AnICE1 and AnCBF genes was significantly induced by high-temperature, indicating that the AnAFP is likely regulated by ICE1-CBF-COR signal pathway. Taken together, the study provides insights into understanding the mechanism of AnAFP in response to temperature stress and gene resource to improve heat or cold tolerance of plants in transgenic engineering.


Assuntos
Proteínas Anticongelantes/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Temperatura Baixa , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Proteínas Anticongelantes/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Resposta ao Choque Frio , Fabaceae/genética , Fabaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Domínios Proteicos
20.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247931, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657159

RESUMO

Palisadegrass [Urochloa brizantha (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) R. D. Webster cv. Marandu] is widely used in Brazil and is typically managed with little or no N fertilizer, which often leads to pasture decline in the long-term. The current relationship between beef price and fertilizer cost in Brazil does not favor fertilizer use in pastures. Legume inclusion is an alternative to adding fertilizer N, but often legumes do not reach a significant proportion (> 30%) in pasture botanical composition. This study evaluated herbage responses to N inputs and pasture species composition, under intermittent stocking. Treatments included palisadegrass-forage peanut (Arachis pintoi Krapov. & W.C. Greg. cv. Amarillo) mixture (mixed), unfertilized palisadegrass (control), and palisadegrass fertilized with 150 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (fertilized). Treatments were applied over two rainy seasons with five growth cycle (GC) evaluations each season. Response variables included herbage biomass, herbage accumulation, morphological components, total aboveground N of forage peanut (TAGNFP), and contribution of biological N2 fixation (BNF). Herbage biomass was greater for fertilized palisadegrass [5850 kg dry matter (DM) ha-1] than for the palisadegrass-forage peanut mixture (3940 kg DM ha-1), while the unfertilized palisadegrass (4400 kg DM ha-1) did not differ from the mixed pasture. Nitrogen fertilizer increased leaf mass of palisadegrass (2490 kg DM ha-1) compared with the control and mixed treatments (1700 and 1310 kg DM ha-1, respectively). The contribution of BNF to the forage peanut ranged from 79 to 85% and 0.5 to 5.5 kg N ha-1 cycle-1. Overall, benefits from forage peanut were minimal because legume percentage was less than 10%, while N input in the system by N-fertilizer increased palisadegrass herbage biomass.


Assuntos
Arachis , Fertilizantes , Gado , Animais , Arachis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biomassa , Brasil , Bovinos , Fabaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fertilizantes/análise , Gado/crescimento & desenvolvimento
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...