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1.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361758

RESUMO

Sulla (Hedysarum coronarium L.) is a biennal forage legume originated from the Mediterranean basin and used for animal feeding due to its high forage quality and palatability. Several species of Hedysarum have been considered for their nutritional, pharmaceutical, and biological properties, and different applications have been reported, both for human consumption and animal nutrition. Although a systematic investigation of the chemical constituents of Hedysarum spp. has been performed in order to provide chemotaxonomic evidences for the genus and to support the pharmacological application of several species within the genus, few data are available on the chemical constituents of H. coronarium, and only the content of condensed tannins and flavonoids in leaves has been previously reported. In the present paper, results from a detailed chemical analysis of the extracts from the leaves and flowers of H. coronarium grown wild in southern Italy are presented. Identification of the main specialized metabolites within the chemical classes of flavonoids, proanthocyanidins and saponins, is described, including considerations on their content in the two plant organs. Information acquired from this study expands the knowledge on H. coronarium as a source of valuable phytochemicals for different applications in human and animal health and nutrition.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Fabaceae/química , Flavonoides/química , Proantocianidinas/química , Saponinas/química , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Flavonoides/classificação , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flores/química , Humanos , Itália , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Proantocianidinas/classificação , Proantocianidinas/isolamento & purificação , Proantocianidinas/metabolismo , Saponinas/classificação , Saponinas/isolamento & purificação , Saponinas/metabolismo
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445112

RESUMO

Brassinosteroids (BRs) are steroid phytohormones that are known to regulate plant growth and nutrient uptake and distribution. However, how BRs regulate nutrient uptake and balance in legume species is not fully understood. Here, we show that optimal BR levels are required for soybean (Glycine max L.) seedling growth, as treatments with both 24-epicastasterone (24-epiCS) and the BR biosynthesis inhibitor propiconazole (PPZ) inhibit root growth, including primary root elongation and lateral root formation and elongation. Specifically, 24-epiCS and PPZ reduced the total phosphorus and potassium levels in the shoot and affected several minor nutrients, such as magnesium, iron, manganese, and molybdenum. A genome-wide transcriptome analysis identified 3774 and 4273 differentially expressed genes in the root tip after brassinolide and PPZ treatments, respectively. The gene ontology (GO) analysis suggested that genes related to "DNA-replication", "microtubule-based movement", and "plant-type cell wall organization" were highly responsive to the brassinolide and PPZ treatments. Furthermore, consistent with the effects on the nutrient concentrations, corresponding mineral transporters were found to be regulated by BR levels, including the GmPHT1s, GmKTs, GmVIT2, GmZIPs, and GmMOT1 genes. Our study demonstrates that optimal BR levels are important for growth and mineral nutrient homeostasis in soybean seedlings.


Assuntos
Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Homeostase/fisiologia , Minerais/metabolismo , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/metabolismo , Colestanóis/metabolismo , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/metabolismo , Esteroides Heterocíclicos/metabolismo
3.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(3): e20200252, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231757

RESUMO

Vuralia turcica (Fabaceae; Papilionoideae) is a critically endangered endemic plant species in Turkey. This plant grows naturally in saline environments, although the photosynthesis and physiological functions of many plants are affected by salt stress. Molecular control mechanisms and identification of genes involved in these mechanisms constitute the critical field of study in plant science. Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) is one of the essential enzyme genes involved in trehalose biosynthesis, which is protective against salt stress. Also, the vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter gene (NHX) is known to be useful in salt tolerance. In this study, the TPS and NHX-like genes in V. turcica were partially sequenced using degenerate primers for the first time and submitted to the NCBI database (accession numbers MK120983 and MH757417, respectively). Also, the expression levels of the genes encoding TPS and NHX were investigated. The results indicate that the increase in both the level of applied salt and cadmium is coupled with the increase in the expression level of NHX and TPS genes. However, salt exposure significantly affected the expression level of the NHX gene. The findings suggest that the NHX gene might play a crucial role in the salt tolerance ability of V. turcica.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Fabaceae , Cádmio/toxicidade , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Glucosiltransferases , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Trocadores de Sódio-Hidrogênio/genética , Trocadores de Sódio-Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Turquia
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207734

RESUMO

Rhizobia are soil proteobacteria able to engage in a nitrogen-fixing symbiotic interaction with legumes that involves the rhizobial infection of roots and the bacterial invasion of new organs formed by the plant in response to the presence of appropriate bacterial partners. This interaction relies on a complex molecular dialogue between both symbionts. Bacterial N-acetyl-glucosamine oligomers called Nod factors are indispensable in most cases for early steps of the symbiotic interaction. In addition, different rhizobial surface polysaccharides, such as exopolysaccharides (EPS), may also be symbiotically relevant. EPS are acidic polysaccharides located out of the cell with little or no cell association that carry out important roles both in free-life and in symbiosis. EPS production is very complexly modulated and, frequently, co-regulated with Nod factors, but the type of co-regulation varies depending on the rhizobial strain. Many studies point out a signalling role for EPS-derived oligosaccharides in root infection and nodule invasion but, in certain symbiotic couples, EPS can be dispensable for a successful interaction. In summary, the complex regulation of the production of rhizobial EPS varies in different rhizobia, and the relevance of this polysaccharide in symbiosis with legumes depends on the specific interacting couple.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Raízes de Plantas , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/metabolismo , Rhizobium/metabolismo , Simbiose/fisiologia , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Fabaceae/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia
5.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0243118, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34019538

RESUMO

N-fixing leguminous species can reach atmospheric dinitrogen gas (N2), having an advantage under N-limited degraded environments. These N-fixers are constantly used as facilitative species. Chlorophyll a fluorescence (ChF) acknowledges how different species take up and use light energy during photosynthesis. These techniques assess stress and performance responses to photosynthesis and are used for the selection of species with potential for reforestation. Six Fabaceae species were selected for this study: three nonfixing species (Cenostigma tocantinum, Senna reticulata and Dipteryx odorata) and three N-fixing species (Clitoria fairchildiana, Inga edulis and Acacia spp.). Variations in chlorophyll fluorescence under high vs. low water and nutrient conditions were studied. Multivariate analysis was performed to detect the effects of seasonality and fertilization on dark-adapted ChF two years after the experiment was established. The correlation among ChF variables and growth, photosynthesis and foliar nutrient concentrations was evaluated. Under high water- and nutrient-availability conditions, plants exhibited an enhanced performance index on absorption basis values correlated with electron transport fluxes. Under drought and nutrient-poor conditions, most species exhibit increased energy dissipation as photoprotection. High interspecific variation was found; therefore, species-specific responses should be considered in future ChF studies. Corroborating the ability to colonize high-light environments, N-fixers showed an increased performance index correlated with electron transport and Zn and N foliar concentrations. Negative correlations were found between photosynthesis and trapped fluxes. Diameter growth was positively correlated with electron transport fluxes. Given the different responses among species, ChF is an effective technique to screen for seasonality, fertilization and species effects and should be considered for use during forest restoration. Finally, the addition of fertilization treatments may facilitate tropical forest restoration due to the importance of nutrients in physiological processes. N-fixers showed high photochemical performance and tolerance to abiotic stress in degraded areas and therefore should be included to support ecosystem biomass restoration.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/fisiologia , Fertilizantes , Florestas , Fixação de Nitrogênio , Fotossíntese , Estações do Ano , Clorofila/metabolismo , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Árvores/fisiologia , Zinco/metabolismo
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(11)2021 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33836596

RESUMO

Legume trees form an abundant and functionally important component of tropical forests worldwide with N2-fixing symbioses linked to enhanced growth and recruitment in early secondary succession. However, it remains unclear how N2-fixers meet the high demands for inorganic nutrients imposed by rapid biomass accumulation on nutrient-poor tropical soils. Here, we show that N2-fixing trees in secondary Neotropical forests triggered twofold higher in situ weathering of fresh primary silicates compared to non-N2-fixing trees and induced locally enhanced nutrient cycling by the soil microbiome community. Shotgun metagenomic data from weathered minerals support the role of enhanced nitrogen and carbon cycling in increasing acidity and weathering. Metagenomic and marker gene analyses further revealed increased microbial potential beneath N2-fixers for anaerobic iron reduction, a process regulating the pool of phosphorus bound to iron-bearing soil minerals. We find that the Fe(III)-reducing gene pool in soil is dominated by acidophilic Acidobacteria, including a highly abundant genus of previously undescribed bacteria, Candidatus Acidoferrum, genus novus. The resulting dependence of the Fe-cycling gene pool to pH determines the high iron-reducing potential encoded in the metagenome of the more acidic soils of N2-fixers and their nonfixing neighbors. We infer that by promoting the activities of a specialized local microbiome through changes in soil pH and C:N ratios, N2-fixing trees can influence the wider biogeochemical functioning of tropical forest ecosystems in a manner that enhances their ability to assimilate and store atmospheric carbon.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/microbiologia , Florestas , Microbiota/fisiologia , Minerais/metabolismo , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Clima Tropical , Acidobacteria/classificação , Acidobacteria/genética , Acidobacteria/metabolismo , Biomassa , Carbono/análise , Fabaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Compostos Férricos/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Microbiota/genética , Minerais/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fixação de Nitrogênio , Nutrientes/análise , Panamá , Fósforo/metabolismo , Silicatos/análise , Silicatos/metabolismo , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Simbiose , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Árvores/metabolismo , Árvores/microbiologia
7.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 289, 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33882825

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chickpea, pigeonpea, and groundnut are the primary legume crops of semi-arid tropics (SAT) and their global productivity is severely affected by drought stress. The plant-specific NAC (NAM - no apical meristem, ATAF - Arabidopsis transcription activation factor, and CUC - cup-shaped cotyledon) transcription factor family is known to be involved in majority of abiotic stresses, especially in the drought stress tolerance mechanism. Despite the knowledge available regarding NAC function, not much information is available on NAC genes in SAT legume crops. RESULTS: In this study, genome-wide NAC proteins - 72, 96, and 166 have been identified from the genomes of chickpea, pigeonpea, and groundnut, respectively, and later grouped into 10 clusters in chickpea and pigeonpea, while 12 clusters in groundnut. Phylogeny with well-known stress-responsive NACs in Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa (rice), Medicago truncatula, and Glycine max (soybean) enabled prediction of putative stress-responsive NACs in chickpea (22), pigeonpea (31), and groundnut (33). Transcriptome data revealed putative stress-responsive NACs at various developmental stages that showed differential expression patterns in the different tissues studied. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to validate the expression patterns of selected stress-responsive, Ca_NAC (Cicer arietinum - 14), Cc_NAC (Cajanus cajan - 15), and Ah_NAC (Arachis hypogaea - 14) genes using drought-stressed and well-watered root tissues from two contrasting drought-responsive genotypes of each of the three legumes. Based on expression analysis, Ca_06899, Ca_18090, Ca_22941, Ca_04337, Ca_04069, Ca_04233, Ca_12660, Ca_16379, Ca_16946, and Ca_21186; Cc_26125, Cc_43030, Cc_43785, Cc_43786, Cc_22429, and Cc_22430; Ah_ann1.G1V3KR.2, Ah_ann1.MI72XM.2, Ah_ann1.V0X4SV.1, Ah_ann1.FU1JML.2, and Ah_ann1.8AKD3R.1 were identified as potential drought stress-responsive candidate genes. CONCLUSION: As NAC genes are known to play role in several physiological and biological activities, a more comprehensive study on genome-wide identification and expression analyses of the NAC proteins have been carried out in chickpea, pigeonpea and groundnut. We have identified a total of 21 potential drought-responsive NAC genes in these legumes. These genes displayed correlation between gene expression, transcriptional regulation, and better tolerance against drought. The identified candidate genes, after validation, may serve as a useful resource for molecular breeding for drought tolerance in the SAT legume crops.


Assuntos
Cajanus , Cicer , Fabaceae , Cajanus/genética , Cicer/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Secas , Fabaceae/genética , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
8.
Molecules ; 26(6)2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802747

RESUMO

Secondary metabolites are essential for plant survival and reproduction. Wild undomesticated and tropical plants are expected to harbor highly diverse metabolomes. We investigated the metabolomic diversity of two morphologically similar trees of tropical Africa, Erythrophleum suaveolens and E. ivorense, known for particular secondary metabolites named the cassaine-type diterpenoids. To assess how the metabolome varies between and within species, we sampled leaves from individuals of different geographic origins but grown from seeds in a common garden in Cameroon. Metabolites were analyzed using reversed phase LC-HRMS(/MS). Data were interpreted by untargeted metabolomics and molecular networks based on MS/MS data. Multivariate analyses enabled us to cluster samples based on species but also on geographic origins. We identified the structures of 28 cassaine-type diterpenoids among which 19 were new, 10 were largely specific to E. ivorense and five to E. suaveolens. Our results showed that the metabolome allows an unequivocal distinction of morphologically-close species, suggesting the potential of metabolite fingerprinting for these species. Plant geographic origin had a significant influence on relative concentrations of metabolites with variations up to eight (suaveolens) and 30 times (ivorense) between origins of the same species. This shows that the metabolome is strongly influenced by the geographical origin of plants (i.e., genetic factors).


Assuntos
Fabaceae/química , Fabaceae/classificação , Metaboloma , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Árvores/química , Árvores/classificação , África , Camarões , Cromatografia Líquida , Diterpenos/análise , Diterpenos/química , Fabaceae/genética , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Análise Multivariada , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/genética , Análise de Componente Principal , Metabolismo Secundário , Sementes , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Árvores/metabolismo
9.
Plant Cell Rep ; 40(5): 805-818, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33811500

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Modified pEAQ-HT-DEST1 vectors were used for agroinfiltration in legumes. We demonstrate protein expression and export in pea, lentil, and faba bean; however, the method for chickpea was not successful. Agroinfiltration is a valuable research method for investigating virulence and avirulence effector proteins from pathogens and pests, where heterologous effector proteins are transiently expressed in plant leaves and hypersensitive necrosis responses and other effector functions can be assessed. Nicotiana benthamiana is widely used for agroinfiltration and the characterisation of broad-spectrum effectors. The method has also been used in other plant species including field pea, but not yet developed for chickpea, lentil, or faba bean. Here, we have modified the pEAQ-HT-DEST1 vector for expression of 6 × histidine-tagged green-fluorescent protein (GFP) and the known necrosis-inducing broad-spectrum effector necrosis and ethylene-inducing peptide (Nep1)-like protein (NLP). Modified pEAQ-based vectors were adapted to encode signal peptide sequences for apoplast targeting of expressed proteins. We used confocal microscopy to assess the level of GFP expression in agroinfiltrated leaves. While at 3 days after infiltration in N. benthamiana, GFP was expressed at a relatively high level, expression in field pea and faba bean at the same time point was relatively low. In lentil, an expression level of GFP similar to field pea and faba bean at 3 days was only observed after 5 days. Chickpea leaf cells were transformed at low frequency and agroinfiltration was concluded to not be successful for chickpea. We concluded that the pEAQ vector is suitable for testing host-specific effectors in field pea, lentil, and faba bean, but low transformation efficiency limits the utility of the method for chickpea.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/metabolismo , Tabaco/metabolismo , Agrobacterium tumefaciens/genética , Fabaceae/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Microscopia Confocal , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Tabaco/genética , Vicia faba/genética , Vicia faba/metabolismo
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33925559

RESUMO

The natural timing devices of organisms, commonly known as biological clocks, are composed of specific complex folding molecules that interact to regulate the circadian rhythms. Circadian rhythms, the changes or processes that follow a 24-h light-dark cycle, while endogenously programmed, are also influenced by environmental factors, especially in sessile organisms such as plants, which can impact ecosystems and crop productivity. Current knowledge of plant clocks emanates primarily from research on Arabidopsis, which identified the main components of the circadian gene regulation network. Nonetheless, there remain critical knowledge gaps related to the molecular components of circadian rhythms in important crop groups, including the nitrogen-fixing legumes. Additionally, little is known about the synergies and trade-offs between environmental factors and circadian rhythm regulation, especially how these interactions fine-tune the physiological adaptations of the current and future crops in a rapidly changing world. This review highlights what is known so far about the circadian rhythms in legumes, which include major as well as potential future pulse crops that are packed with nutrients, particularly protein. Based on existing literature, this review also identifies the knowledge gaps that should be addressed to build a sustainable food future with the reputed "poor man's meat".


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Fabaceae/fisiologia , Agricultura/métodos , Agricultura/tendências , Relógios Circadianos/genética , Relógios Circadianos/fisiologia , Fabaceae/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Fotoperíodo
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800482

RESUMO

Homoisoflavonoids (3-benzylidene-4-chromanones) are considered as an infrequent flavonoid class, possessing multi-beneficial bioactivities. The present study gives an overview on phytochemical aspects of homoisoflavonoids, including utilized plant species, parts, extracts, and separation techniques. Overall, these compounds have mainly been isolated and identified from bulbs and rhizomes of the plants belonging to Asparagaceae and Fabaceae families, particularly the genera of Ophiopogon, Dracaena, Scilla, Polygonatum, and Caesalpinia.


Assuntos
Asparagaceae , Fabaceae , Flavonoides , Rizoma , Asparagaceae/química , Asparagaceae/metabolismo , Fabaceae/química , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/classificação , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Rizoma/química , Rizoma/metabolismo
12.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(13): 5487-5497, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33682152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-diary beverages with probiotic properties are of great interest nowadays. In this research, we evaluated the suitability of carob kibbles in the manufacture of kvass. Kvass is a low-alcohol drink popular in Central and Eastern Europe and indicated as a potential non-diary beverage with probiotic properties. Therefore, the viability of probiotic strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Saccharomyces boulardii during 4 weeks' storage in manufactured beverages was tested. RESULTS: Carob kibbles introduced significant amounts of phenolic compounds into kvasses, especially gallic acid (up to 117.45 ± 10.56 mg L-1 ), and improved antiradical activity up to 78% after fermentation. Moreover, fermentation efficiently reduced furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural content in samples up to 12.9% and 29.9%, respectively. Kvasses with rye malt extract possessed coffee-like, chocolate-like, roasted and caramel-like odours and a more bitter taste. Whereas kvass with carob kibbles was characterized by fruit-like odour and sweeter taste. Fermentation contributed to a creation as well as degradation of volatiles. L. plantarum exhibited higher general mortality during storage, whereas, in the case of S. boulardii, the viability was significantly higher regardless of the sample composition. CONCLUSION: This is the first study reporting the use of carob kibbles for kvass production. The obtained results showed that carob kibbles can replace rye malt extract, at least partially, in the production of kvass, giving to the product added health benefits. Moreover, S. boulardii is a better choice for production of kvass with probiotic properties. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Fabaceae/microbiologia , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolismo , Probióticos/análise , Saccharomyces boulardii/metabolismo , Adulto , Bebidas Alcoólicas/microbiologia , Fabaceae/química , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Feminino , Fermentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Galactanos/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactobacillus plantarum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Mananas/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gomas Vegetais/metabolismo , Probióticos/metabolismo , Saccharomyces boulardii/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Paladar
13.
PLoS Genet ; 17(2): e1009099, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539353

RESUMO

Regulation by oxygen (O2) in rhizobia is essential for their symbioses with plants and involves multiple O2 sensing proteins. Three sensors exist in the pea microsymbiont Rhizobium leguminosarum Rlv3841: hFixL, FnrN and NifA. At low O2 concentrations (1%) hFixL signals via FxkR to induce expression of the FixK transcription factor, which activates transcription of downstream genes. These include fixNOQP, encoding the high-affinity cbb3-type terminal oxidase used in symbiosis. In free-living Rlv3841, the hFixL-FxkR-FixK pathway was active at 1% O2, and confocal microscopy showed hFixL-FxkR-FixK activity in the earliest stages of Rlv3841 differentiation in nodules (zones I and II). Work on Rlv3841 inside and outside nodules showed that the hFixL-FxkR-FixK pathway also induces transcription of fnrN at 1% O2 and in the earliest stages of Rlv3841 differentiation in nodules. We confirmed past findings suggesting a role for FnrN in fixNOQP expression. However, unlike hFixL-FxkR-FixK, Rlv3841 FnrN was only active in the near-anaerobic zones III and IV of pea nodules. Quantification of fixNOQP expression in nodules showed this was driven primarily by FnrN, with minimal direct hFixL-FxkR-FixK induction. Thus, FnrN is key for full symbiotic expression of fixNOQP. Without FnrN, nitrogen fixation was reduced by 85% in Rlv3841, while eliminating hFixL only reduced fixation by 25%. The hFixL-FxkR-FixK pathway effectively primes the O2 response by increasing fnrN expression in early differentiation (zones I-II). In zone III of mature nodules, near-anaerobic conditions activate FnrN, which induces fixNOQP transcription to the level required for wild-type nitrogen fixation activity. Modelling and transcriptional analysis indicates that the different O2 sensitivities of hFixL and FnrN lead to a nuanced spatiotemporal pattern of gene regulation in different nodule zones in response to changing O2 concentration. Multi-sensor O2 regulation is prevalent in rhizobia, suggesting the fine-tuned control this enables is common and maximizes the effectiveness of the symbioses.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Histidina Quinase/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Rhizobium leguminosarum/metabolismo , Simbiose/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Fabaceae/genética , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/genética , Histidina Quinase/genética , Mutação , Fixação de Nitrogênio/genética , Óperon/genética , Rhizobium leguminosarum/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
14.
Molecules ; 26(3)2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33540661

RESUMO

Legume sprouts are a fresh nutritive source of phytochemicals of increasing attention worldwide owing to their many health benefits. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was utilized for the metabolite fingerprinting of 4 major legume sprouts, belonging to family Fabaceae, to be exploited for quality control purposes. Thirty-two metabolites were identified belonging to different classes, i.e., fatty acids, sugars, amino acids, nucleobases, organic acids, sterols, alkaloids, and isoflavonoids. Quantitative NMR was employed for assessing the major identified metabolite levels and multivariate data analysis was utilized to assess metabolome heterogeneity among sprout samples. Isoflavones were detected exclusively in Cicer sprouts, whereas Trigonella was characterized by 4-hydroxyisoleucine. Vicia sprouts were distinguished from other legume sprouts by the presence of L-Dopa versus acetate abundance in Lens. A common alkaloid in all sprouts was trigonelline, detected at 8-25 µg/mg, suggesting its potential role in legume seeds' germination. Trigonelline was found at highest levels in Trigonella sprouts. The aromatic NMR region data (δ 11.0-5.0 ppm) provided a better classification power than the full range (δ 11.0-0.0 ppm) as sprout variations mostly originated from secondary metabolites, which can serve as chemotaxonomic markers.


Assuntos
Quimioinformática , Fabaceae/química , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Metabolômica
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9, 2021 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420059

RESUMO

Callerya speciosa (Champ. ex Benth.) Schot is a traditional Chinese medicine characterized by tuberous roots as the main organ of isoflavonoid accumulation. Root thickening and isoflavonoid accumulation are two major factors for yield and quality of C. speciosa. However, the underlying mechanisms of root thickening and isoflavonoid biosynthesis have not yet been elucidated. Here, integrated morphological, hormonal and transcriptomic analyses of C. speciosa tuberous roots at four different ages (6, 12, 18, 30 months after germination) were performed. The growth cycle of C. speciosa could be divided into three stages: initiation, rapid-thickening and stable-thickening stage, which cued by the activity of vascular cambia. Endogenous changes in phytohormones were associated with developmental changes during root thickening. Jasmonic acid might be linked to the initial development of tuberous roots. Abscisic acid seemed to be essential for tuber maturation, whereas IAA, cis-zeatin and gibberellin 3 were considered essential for rapid thickening of tuberous roots. A total of 4337 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified during root thickening, including 15 DEGs participated in isoflavonoid biosynthesis, and 153 DEGs involved in starch/sucrose metabolism, hormonal signaling, transcriptional regulation and cell wall metabolism. A hypothetical model of genetic regulation associated with root thickening and isoflavonoid biosynthesis in C. speciosa is proposed, which will help in understanding the underlying mechanisms of tuberous root formation and isoflavonoid biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/genética , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Isoflavonas/biossíntese , Sinalização do Cálcio , Fabaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Modelos Biológicos , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Medicinais/genética , Plantas Medicinais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , Sacarose/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(2)2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419062

RESUMO

Forisomes are giant fusiform protein complexes composed of sieve element occlusion (SEO) protein monomers, exclusively found in sieve elements (SEs) of legumes. Forisomes block the phloem mass flow by a Ca2+-induced conformational change (swelling and rounding). We studied the forisome reactivity in four different legume species-Medicago sativa, Pisum sativum, Trifolium pratense and Vicia faba. Depending on the species, we found direct relationships between SE diameter, forisome surface area and distance from the leaf tip, all indicative of a developmentally tuned regulation of SE diameter and forisome size. Heat-induced forisome dispersion occurred later with increasing distance from the stimulus site. T. pratense and V. faba dispersion occurred faster for forisomes with a smaller surface area. Near the stimulus site, electro potential waves (EPWs)-overlapping action (APs), and variation potentials (VPs)-were linked with high full-dispersion rates of forisomes. Distance-associated reduction of forisome reactivity was assigned to the disintegration of EPWs into APs, VPs and system potentials (SPs). Overall, APs and SPs alone were unable to induce forisome dispersion and only VPs above a critical threshold were capable of inducing forisome reactions.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Fabaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Medicago sativa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Medicago sativa/metabolismo , Ervilhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ervilhas/metabolismo , Floema/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Temperatura , Vicia faba/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vicia faba/metabolismo
17.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 61, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop) is not only a high-quality legume forage, but also a nectar-producing plant. Therefore, the flower color of sainfoin is an important agronomic trait, but the factors affecting its flower phenotype are still unclear. To gain insights into the regulatory networks associated with metabolic pathways of coloration compounds (flavonoids or anthocyanins) and identify the key genes, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of the phenotype, metabolome and transcriptome of WF and AF of sainfoin. RESULTS: Delphinidin, petunidin and malvidin derivatives were the main anthocyanin compounds in the AF of sainfoin. These substances were not detected in the WF of sainfoin. The transcriptomes of WF and AF in sainfoin at the S1 and S3 stages were obtained using the Illumina HiSeq4000 platform. Overall, 10,166 (4273 upregulated and 5893 downregulated) and 15,334 (8174 upregulated and 7160 downregulated) DEGs were identified in flowers at S1 and S3 stages, respectively (WF-VS-AF). KEGG pathway annotations showed that 6396 unigenes were annotated to 120 pathways and contained 866 DEGs at S1 stages, and 6396 unigenes were annotated to 131 pathways and included 1546 DEGs at the S3 stage. Nine DEGs belonging to the "flavonoid biosynthesis"and "phenylpropanoid biosynthesis" pathways involved in flower color formation were identified and verified by RT-qPCR analyses. Among these DEGs, 4CL3, FLS, ANS, CHS, DFR and CHI2 exhibited downregulated expression, and F3H exhibited upregulated expression in the WF compared to the AF, resulting in a decrease in anthocyanin synthesis and the formation of WF in sainfoin. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to use transcriptome technology to study the mechanism of white flower formation in sainfoin. Our transcriptome data will be a great enrichment of the genetic information for sainfoin. In addition, the data presented herein will provide valuable molecular information for genetic breeding and provide insight into the future study of flower color polymorphisms in sainfoin.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/genética , Metaboloma , Pigmentação , Pigmentos Biológicos/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Fabaceae/química , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flores/química , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Fenótipo
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111750, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396075

RESUMO

Contamination of agricultural land and water by heavy metals due to rapid industrialization and urbanization including various natural processes have become one of the major constraints to crop growth and productivity. Several studies have reported that to counteract heavy metal stress, plants should be able to maneuver various physiological, biochemical and molecular processes to improve their growth and development under heavy metal stress. With the advent of modern biotechnological tools and techniques it is now possible to tailor legume and other plants overexpressing stress-induced genes, transcription factors, proteins, and metabolites that are directly involved in heavy metal stress tolerance. This review provides an in-depth overview of various biotechnological approaches and/or strategies that can be used for enhancing detoxification of the heavy metals by stimulating phytoremediation processes. Synthetic biology tools involved in the engineering of legume and other crop plants against heavy metal stress tolerance are also discussed herewith some pioneering examples where synthetic biology tools that have been used to modify plants for specific traits. Also, CRISPR based genetic engineering of plants, including their role in modulating the expression of several genes/ transcription factors in the improvement of abiotic stress tolerance and phytoremediation ability using knockdown and knockout strategies has also been critically discussed.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/fisiologia , Fabaceae/fisiologia , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biotecnologia , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Verduras/metabolismo
19.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 159: 322-334, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421908

RESUMO

Excess moisture in the form of waterlogging or full submergence can cause severe conditions of hypoxia or anoxia compromising several physiological and biochemical processes. A decline in photosynthetic rate due to accumulation of ROS and damage of leaf tissue are the main consequences of excess moisture. These effects compromise crop yield and quality, especially in sensitive species, such as soybean (Glycine max.). Phytoglobins (Pgbs) are expressed during hypoxia and through their ability to scavenge nitric oxide participate in several stress-related responses. Soybean plants over-expressing or suppressing the Pgb1 gene GmPgb1 were generated and their ability to cope with waterlogging and full submergence conditions was assessed. Plants over-expressing GmPgb1 exhibited a higher retention of photosynthetic rate during waterlogging and survival rate during submergence relative to wild type plants. The same plants also had lower levels of ROS due to a reduction in expression of Respiratory Burst Oxidase Homologs (RBOH), components of the NADPH oxidase enzyme, and enhanced antioxidant system characterized by higher expression of catalases (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as elevated expression and activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX). Plants over-expressing GmPgb1 also exhibited an expression pattern of aquaporins typical of excess moisture resilience. This was in contrast to plants downregulating GmPgb1 which were characterized by the lowest photosynthetic rates, higher ROS signal, and reduced expression and activities of many antioxidant enzymes. Results from these studies suggest that GmPgb1 exercises a protective role during conditions of excess moisture with similar mechanisms operating during waterlogging and submergence.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Plantas , Soja , Estresse Fisiológico , Antioxidantes , Ascorbato Peroxidases/genética , Ascorbato Peroxidases/metabolismo , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Soja/genética , Soja/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Água/química
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(1)2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406726

RESUMO

Iron is an essential nutrient for the legume-rhizobia symbiosis and nitrogen-fixing bacteroids within root nodules of legumes have a very high demand for the metal. Within the infected cells of nodules, the bacteroids are surrounded by a plant membrane to form an organelle-like structure called the symbiosome. In this review, we focus on how iron is transported across the symbiosome membrane and accessed by the bacteroids.


Assuntos
Bacteroides/fisiologia , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Organelas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Simbiose , Transporte Biológico , Fabaceae/microbiologia , Fixação de Nitrogênio , Organelas/microbiologia , Nódulos Radiculares de Plantas/metabolismo , Nódulos Radiculares de Plantas/microbiologia
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