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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 204: 111098, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798749

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is a detrimental element that can be toxic to plants. The physiological and biochemical responses of plants to Cd stress have been extensively studied, but the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The present study showed that Cd severely inhibited the growth of roots and shoots and reduced plant biomass of mung bean seedlings. To further investigate the gene profiles and molecular processes in response Cd stress, transcriptome analyses of mung bean roots exposed to 100 µM Cd for 1, 5, and 9 days were performed. Cd treatment significantly decreased global gene expression levels at 5 and 9 d compared with the control. A total of 6737, 10279, and 9672 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the 1-, 5-, and 9-day Cd-treated root tissues compared with the controls, respectively. Based on the analysis of DEG function annotation and enrichment, a pattern of mung bean roots response to Cd stress was proposed. The processes detoxification and antioxidative defense were involved in the early response of mung bean roots to Cd. Cd stress downregulated the expressions of a series of genes involved in cell wall biosynthesis, cell division, DNA replication and repair, and photosynthesis, while genes involved in signal transduction and regulation, transporters, secondary metabolisms, defense systems, and mitochondrial processes were upregulated in response to Cd, which might be contributed to the improvement of plant tolerance. Our results provide some novel insights into the molecular processes for growth and adaption of mung bean roots in response to Cd and many candidate genes for further biotechnological manipulations to improve plant tolerance to heavy metals.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Aclimatação , Adaptação Fisiológica , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cádmio/metabolismo , Poluição Ambiental , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Vigna/metabolismo
2.
J Plant Res ; 133(5): 639-648, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623531

RESUMO

Nitrogen (N) resorption from senescing leaves enables plants to reuse N, thereby making them less dependent on current N uptake from the environment. Therefore, N resorption is important for survival and fitness, particularly for plants growing under low N supply. We studied N resorption from senescing leaves of 25 legumes and 25 nonlegumes in a temperate region of Japan to test the hypothesis that high N resorption has not evolved in legumes that fix atmospheric N2. The extent of N resorption was quantified by N resorption proficiency that is measured as the level to which leaf N concentration was reduced during senescence, i.e., the lower the senesced leaf N concentration, the lower the N loss through leaf fall and higher the N resorption proficiency. In support of the hypothesis, senesced leaf N concentration was higher in legumes than in nonlegumes, but there was considerable overlap between the groups. The higher senesced leaf N concentration of legumes was associated with a lower proportion of leaf N resorbed during senescence, particularly in species with higher leaf N concentrations. According to a hierarchical partitioning analysis, there was a large contribution of species to the total variance in the senesced leaf N concentration as opposed to a minor contribution of functional group (legume/nonlegume). This study reveals that legumes are not proficient at resorbing N from senescing leaves but that N2-fixation might not be the single most important determinant of N resorption.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Nitrogênio , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Japão , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fósforo , Folhas de Planta
3.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 130(3): 233-238, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448733

RESUMO

Domains of unknown function protein family 1517 (DUF1517) in Ammopiptanthus mongolicus, could be induced by abiotic stresses, whose upstream regulatory sequence might be an ideal source of abiotic-induced promoter. In this study, a 1026-bp promoter of AmDUF1517 from A. mongolicus was cloned. Five deletion fragments (Full, Q1-Q4) of different length of the AmDUF1517 promoter were fused with the ß-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter and transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana. The deletion analysis showed that sequences Full, Q1 and Q3 responded well to mannitol, NaCl and 4 °C stresses, while Q2 and Q4 segments did not. The Q3 fragment (280 bp; -280 to -1 bp) showed the highest promoter activity under normal and mannitol, NaCl and 4 °C conditions. The result suggested that Q3 in the AmDUF1517 gene promoter could be a new source of induced promoters for abiotic resistance breeding in plant genetic engineering.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Clonagem Molecular , Temperatura Baixa , Fabaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Fabaceae/fisiologia , Manitol/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(18): 9822-9831, 2020 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32317381

RESUMO

Legumes tend to be nodulated by competitive rhizobia that do not maximize nitrogen (N2) fixation, resulting in suboptimal yields. Rhizobial nodulation competitiveness and effectiveness at N2 fixation are independent traits, making their measurement extremely time-consuming with low experimental throughput. To transform the experimental assessment of rhizobial competitiveness and effectiveness, we have used synthetic biology to develop reporter plasmids that allow simultaneous high-throughput measurement of N2 fixation in individual nodules using green fluorescent protein (GFP) and barcode strain identification (Plasmid ID) through next generation sequencing (NGS). In a proof-of-concept experiment using this technology in an agricultural soil, we simultaneously monitored 84 different Rhizobium leguminosarum strains, identifying a supercompetitive and highly effective rhizobial symbiont for peas. We also observed a remarkable frequency of nodule coinfection by rhizobia, with mixed occupancy identified in ∼20% of nodules, containing up to six different strains. Critically, this process can be adapted to multiple Rhizobium-legume symbioses, soil types, and environmental conditions to permit easy identification of optimal rhizobial inoculants for field testing to maximize agricultural yield.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/genética , Fixação de Nitrogênio/genética , Rhizobium leguminosarum/genética , Simbiose/genética , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Fabaceae/microbiologia , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Ervilhas/genética , Ervilhas/metabolismo , Plasmídeos/genética , Rhizobium leguminosarum/metabolismo , Nódulos Radiculares de Plantas/genética , Nódulos Radiculares de Plantas/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo , Biologia Sintética
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 195: 110450, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197181

RESUMO

Due to diverse human activities zinc (Zn) may reach phytotoxic levels in the soil. Here, we evaluated the differential sensibility of three Brazilian tree species from the Fabaceae to increasing soil Zn concentrations and its physiological response to cope with excess Zn. A greenhouse experiment was conducted with the species: Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia, Erythrina speciosa and Schizolobium parahyba, and the addition of 0, 200, 400 and 600 mg Zn kg-1 to the soil. Plants were harvested after three months of cultivation, and growth, root symbiosis, biochemical markers and elemental composition were analyzed. Soil Zn addition reduced seedling growth, irrespective of the species, with a strong reduction in M. caesalpiniaefolia. Regarding root symbiosis, in N2-fixing species, nitrogenase activity was reduced by the highest Zn concentrations. Zn addition caused plants nutritional imbalances, mainly in roots. The content of photosynthetic pigments in leaves decreased up to 40%, suggesting that high Zn contents interfered with its biosynthesis, and altered the content of foliar polyamines and free amino acids, depending on the species and the soil Zn concentration. Zn toxicity in M. caesalpiniaefolia plants was observed at available soil Zn concentrations greater than 100 mg kg-1 (DTPA-extractable), being the most sensitive species and E. speciosa was moderately sensitive. S. parahyba was a moderately tolerant species, which seems to be related to polyamines accumulation and to mycorrhizal association. This last species has the potential for revegetation of areas with moderately high soil Zn concentration and for phytostabilization purposes. Future research evaluating the tolerance to multiple metal stress under field conditions should confirm S. parayba suitability in Zn contaminated areas of tropical regions.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Zinco/toxicidade , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Brasil , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Fabaceae/microbiologia , Micorrizas/metabolismo , Nitrogenase/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Poliaminas/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/metabolismo , Simbiose , Árvores
6.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(4): 884-892, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32047925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Common bean and cowpea contain about 25% protein and 25% fiber, and are recommended as complementary foods in sub-Saharan Africa. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine if a daily legume supplement given to Malawian infants aged 6 to 12 mo alters the 16S configuration of the fecal microbiota as read out by amplicon sequence variants (ASVs). METHODS: This study was conducted within the context of a randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial to assess whether cowpea or common bean supplementation reduced intestinal permeability or increased linear growth. There were 2 village clusters in which the study was conducted. Fresh stool collections were flash frozen from 236 infants at ≤6 time points. The stools were sequenced using Earth Microbiome project protocols and data were processed using Qiime and Qiita, open-source, validated software packages. α-diversity was measured using the Faith's test. The 16S configuration was characterized by determining the weighted UniFrac distances of the ASVs and comparing them using permutational multivariate ANOVA. RESULTS: Among the 1249 samples analyzed, the α-diversity of the fecal microbiome was unchanged among subjects after initiation of legume supplementation. Neither cowpea nor common bean altered the overall 16S configuration at any age. The 16S configuration differed between children with adequate and poor linear growth aged from 6 to 9 mo, but no specific ASVs differed in relative abundance. The 16S configuration differed between children with normal and abnormal intestinal permeability at 9 mo, but no specific ASVs differed in relative abundance. Among categorical characteristics of the population associated with different 16S configurations, village cluster was most pronounced. CONCLUSION: Legume supplementation in breastfed, rural African infants did not affect the structure of the gut microbial communities until the children were aged 9 mo. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02472262.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Aleitamento Materno , Método Duplo-Cego , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Intestinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Intestinos/microbiologia , Malaui , Masculino , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 85, 2020 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phosphorus (P) deficiency is one of the major constraints limiting plant growth, especially in acid soils. Stylosanthes (stylo) is a pioneer tropical legume with excellent adaptability to low P stress, but its underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. RESULTS: In this study, the physiological, molecular and metabolic changes in stylo responding to phosphate (Pi) starvation were investigated. Under low P condition, the growth of stylo root was enhanced, which was attributed to the up-regulation of expansin genes participating in root growth. Metabolic profiling analysis showed that a total of 256 metabolites with differential accumulations were identified in stylo roots response to P deficiency, which mainly included flavonoids, sugars, nucleotides, amino acids, phenylpropanoids and phenylamides. P deficiency led to significant reduction in the accumulation of phosphorylated metabolites (e.g., P-containing sugars, nucleotides and cholines), suggesting that internal P utilization was enhanced in stylo roots subjected to low P stress. However, flavonoid metabolites, such as kaempferol, daidzein and their glycoside derivatives, were increased in P-deficient stylo roots. Furthermore, the qRT-PCR analysis showed that a set of genes involved in flavonoids synthesis were found to be up-regulated by Pi starvation in stylo roots. In addition, the abundances of phenolic acids and phenylamides were significantly increased in stylo roots during P deficiency. The increased accumulation of the metabolites in stylo roots, such as flavonoids, phenolic acids and phenylamides, might facilitate P solubilization and cooperate with beneficial microorganisms in rhizosphere, and thus contributing to P acquisition and utilization in stylo. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that stylo plants cope with P deficiency by modulating root morphology, scavenging internal Pi from phosphorylated metabolites and increasing accumulation of flavonoids, phenolic acids and phenylamides. This study provides valuable insights into the complex responses and adaptive mechanisms of stylo roots to P deficiency.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Compostos de Fósforo/metabolismo , Fósforo/deficiência , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Fabaceae/genética , Expressão Gênica , Genes de Plantas , Solo/química
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(4)2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075108

RESUMO

Apoptosis pathways in cells are classified into two pathways: the extrinsic pathway, mediated by binding of the ligand to a death receptor and the intrinsic pathway, mediated by mitochondria. Apoptosis is regulated by various proteins such as Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2) family and cellular FLICE (Fas-associated Death Domain Protein Interleukin-1ß-converting enzyme)-inhibitory protein (c-FLIP), which have been reported to inhibit caspase-8 activity. In this study, it was found that C5 (3ß-Acetyl-nor-erythrophlamide), a compound of cassaine diterpene amine from Erythrophleum fordii, induced cell apoptosis in a variety of types of cancer cells. Induction of apoptosis in cancer cells by C5 was inversely related to the level of Bcl-2 expression. Overexpression of Bcl-2 into cancer cells significantly decreased C5-induced apoptosis. It was also found that treatment of cancer cells with a caspase-8 inhibitor significantly suppressed C5-induced apoptosis; however, treatment with caspase-9 inhibitors did not affect C5-induced apoptosis, suggesting that C5 may induce apoptosis via the extrinsic pathway by activating caspase-8. It was confirmed that treatment with C5 alone induced an association of FADD with procaspase-8; however, overexpression of c-FLIP decreased C5-induced caspase-8 activation. In conclusion, C5 could be utilized as a new useful lead compound for the development of an anti-cancer agent that has the goal of apoptosis.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Alcaloides/química , Proteína Reguladora de Apoptosis Semelhante a CASP8 e FADD/genética , Proteína Reguladora de Apoptosis Semelhante a CASP8 e FADD/metabolismo , Caspase 8/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fabaceae/química , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Proteína de Domínio de Morte Associada a Fas/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Linfoma/metabolismo , Linfoma/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo
9.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0223699, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914457

RESUMO

Subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.) is a diploid self-pollinated annual pasture legume native to the Mediterranean region and widely sown in southern Australia and other countries with Mediterranean-type climates. This study utilised a core collection of 97 lines, representing around 80% of the genetic diversity of the species, to examine morphological diversity within subterranean clover. A total of 23 quantitative agro-morphological and 13 semi-quantitative morphological marker traits were assayed on the core collection and 28 diverse Australian cultivars as spaced plants in a replicated common garden experiment. Relationships between these traits and 24 climatic and edaphic parameters at their sites of origin were also examined within the core collection. Significant diversity was present for all traits. The Australian cultivars had similar levels of diversity to the core collection for several traits. Among the agro-morphological traits, time to flowering, leaf size and petiole diameter in mid-winter, plant area in late winter, maximum stem length, content of the oestogenic isoflavone biochanin A and total isoflavone content, were correlated with seven or more environmental variables. These can be considered highly adaptive, being the result of strong environmental selection pressure over time. For the first time in a clover species, morphological markers, including leaf mark, anthocyanin pigmentation and pubescence traits, have been associated with rainfall and soil parameters. This suggests they either have an adaptive role or the genes controlling them may be linked to other genes controlling adaptive traits. This study demonstrated the value of core collections to examine diversity within much larger global collections. It also identified adaptive traits from wild plants that can be utilised to develop more productive and persistent subterranean clover cultivars. The high heritability of these traits indicates that selection gains can be readily made.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/fisiologia , Polinização/fisiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Trifolium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Isoflavonas/metabolismo , Austrália do Sul , Trifolium/anatomia & histologia
10.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 39, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plants have been used as an important source of indispensable bioactive compounds in various cosmetics, foods, and medicines. However, the subsequent functional annotation of these compounds seems arduous because of the largely uncharacterized, vast metabolic repertoire of plant species with known biological phenotypes. Hence, a rapid multi-parallel screening and characterization approach is needed for plant functional metabolites. RESULTS: Fifty-one species representing three plant families, namely Asteraceae, Fabaceae, and Rosaceae, were subjected to metabolite profiling using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) and ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole orbitrap ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-orbitrap-MS/MS) as well as multivariate analyses. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) of the metabolite profiling datasets indicated a distinct clustered pattern for 51 species depending on plant parts (leaves and stems) and relative phylogeny. Examination of their relative metabolite contents showed that the extracts from Fabaceae plants were abundant in amino acids, fatty acids, and genistein compounds. However, the extracts from Rosaceae had higher levels of catechin and ellagic acid derivatives, whereas those from Asteraceae were higher in kaempferol derivatives and organic acids. Regardless of the different families, aromatic amino acids, branch chain amino acids, chlorogenic acid, flavonoids, and phenylpropanoids related to the shikimate pathway were abundant in leaves. Alternatively, certain amino acids (proline, lysine, and arginine) as well as fatty acids levels were higher in stem extracts. Further, we investigated the associated phenotypes, i.e., antioxidant activities, affected by the observed spatial (leaves and stem) and intra-family metabolomic disparity in the plant extracts. Pearson's correlation analysis indicated that ellagic acid, mannitol, catechin, epicatechin, and quercetin derivatives were positively correlated with antioxidant phenotypes, whereas eriodictyol was positively correlated with tyrosinase inhibition activity. CONCLUSIONS: This work suggests that metabolite profiling, including multi-parallel approaches and integrated bioassays, may help the expeditious characterization of plant-derived metabolites while simultaneously unraveling their chemodiversity.


Assuntos
Metaboloma , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/química , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Asteraceae/química , Asteraceae/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Fabaceae/química , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Metabolômica/métodos , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Rosaceae/química , Rosaceae/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
11.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(3): 677-688, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915830

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous findings on the associations of legume and soy intake with the risk of type 2 diabetes are conflicting. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to summarize the longitudinal associations between legume and soy intake and risk of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We searched for relevant prospective cohort studies in PubMed, EMBASE, and Ovid up to August 2019. Study-specific, multivariable-adjusted RRs and 95% CIs were pooled by random-effects models. RESULTS: We identified 15 unique cohorts including 565,810 individuals and 32,093 incident cases. The summary RRs (95% CIs) of incident type 2 diabetes were 0.95 (0.79, 1.14; NS) for total legumes, 0.83 (0.68, 1.01; NS) for total soy, 0.89 (0.71, 1.11; NS) for soy milk, 0.92 (0.84, 0.99) for tofu, 0.84 (0.75, 0.95) for soy protein, and 0.88 (0.81, 0.96) for soy isoflavones, respectively. High heterogeneity was found for total legumes (I2 = 84.8%), total soy (I2 = 90.8%), and soy milk (I2 = 91.7%). Potential sources of heterogeneity were not evident for total legumes or soy milk, whereas for total soy, geographic location (Asia, United States; P = 0.04) and study quality (high, moderate, or low; P = 0.02) significantly predicted heterogeneity. In dose-response analysis, significant linear inverse associations were observed for tofu, soy protein, and soy isoflavones (all P < 0.05). Overall quality of evidence was rated as moderate for total legumes and low for total soy and soy subtypes. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary intakes of tofu, soy protein, and soy isoflavones, but not total legumes or total soy, are inversely associated with incident type 2 diabetes. Our findings support recommendations to increase intakes of certain soy products for the prevention of type 2 diabetes. However, the overall quality of evidence was low and more high-quality evidence from prospective studies is needed. This trial was registered as PROSPERO CRD42019126403 (https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO).


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Soja/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Alimentos de Soja/análise
12.
Plant Mol Biol ; 102(4-5): 431-445, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907707

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Iron deficiency conditions as well as iron supplied as a Fe(III)-mimosine complex induced a number of strategy I and strategy II genes for iron uptake in leucaena. Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena) is a tree-legume that can grow in alkaline soils, where metal-cofactors like Fe(III) are sparingly available. Mimosine, a known chelator of Fe(III), may facilitate Fe(III) uptake in leucaena by serving as a phytosiderophore. To test if mimosine can serve as a phytosiderophore, three sets of experiments were carried out. First, the binding properties and solubility of metal-mimosine complexes were assessed through spectrophotometry. Second, to study mimosine uptake in plants, pole bean, common bean, and tomato plants were supplied with mimosine alone and metal-mimosine complexes. Third, the expression of strategy I (S1) and strategy II (S2) genes for iron uptake from the soil was studied in leucaena plants exposed to different Fe(III) complexes. The results of this study show that (i) mimosine has high binding affinity for metallic cations at alkaline pH, Fe(III)-mimosine complexes are water soluble at alkaline pH, and that mimosine can bind soil iron under alkaline pH; (ii) pole bean, common bean, and tomato plants can uptake mimosine and transport it throughout the plant; and (iii) a number of S1 and S2 genes were upregulated in leucaena under iron-deficiency condition or when Fe(III) was supplied as a Fe(III)-mimosine complex. These findings suggest that leucaena may utilize both S1 and S2 strategies for iron uptake; and mimosine may play an important role in both strategies.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Mimosina/farmacocinética , Transporte Biológico , Tampões (Química) , Cátions , Compostos Férricos/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Ferro/metabolismo , Metais/metabolismo , Nitrogênio , Phaseolus/efeitos dos fármacos , Phaseolus/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Sideróforos/metabolismo , Solo , Solanum/efeitos dos fármacos , Solanum/metabolismo , Solubilidade
13.
J Biotechnol ; 309: 113-130, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935417

RESUMO

Salicylic acid (SA) and nitric oxide (NO) are considered as putative plant growth regulators that are involved in the regulation of an array of plant's growth and developmental functions under environmental fluctuations when applied at lower concentrations. The possible involvement of NO in SA induced attenuation of high temperature (HT) induced oxidative stress in plants is however, still vague and need to be explored. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigates the biochemical and physiological changes induced by foliar spray of SA and NO combinations to ameliorate HT induced oxidative stress in Lablab purpureus L. Foliar application of combined SA and NO significantly improved relative water content (27.8 %), photosynthetic pigment content (67.2 %), membrane stability (45 %), proline content (1.0 %), expression of enzymatic antioxidants (7.1-18 %) along with pod yield (1.0 %). Heat Shock Factors (HSFs) play crucial roles in plants abiotic stress tolerance, however there structural and functional classifications in L. purpureus L. is still unknown. So, In-silico approach was also used for functional characterization and homology modelling of HSFs in L. purpureus. The experimental findings depicted that combine effect of SA and NO enhances tolerance in HT stressed L. purpureus L. plants by regulating physiological functions, antioxidants, expression and regulation of stress-responsive genes via transcriptional regulation of heat shock factor.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Temperatura Alta , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo , Antioxidantes , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Fabaceae/genética , Radicais Livres , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fatores de Transcrição de Choque Térmico/genética , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Prolina/metabolismo , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Alinhamento de Sequência , Estresse Fisiológico
14.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 84(3): 563-574, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790634

RESUMO

Two kinds of Kunitz-type protease inhibitors, AKPI1 and AKPI2, were purified from Apios americana tubers by four steps of column chromatographies and their cDNA cloning was performed. AKPI1 cDNA consist of 809 nucleotides, and the matured protein had 190 amino acids with 20,594 Da. AKPI2 cDNA consist of 794 nucleotides, and the matured protein had 177 amino acids with 19,336 Da. P1 site of AKPI2 was Leu88, suggested the target enzyme was chymotrypsin. On the other hand, Gly85-Ile86-Ser87 was positioned around P1 site of AKTI1. Sequence analysis suggested that two forms (single-chain and two-chain form) of AKPI2 protein were present in the tubers. Recombinant AKPI2 expressed by E.coli system showed inhibitory activity toward serine proteases and heat stability. The Ki values toward chymotrypsin and trypsin were 4 × 10-7 M and 6 × 10-6 M, respectively.Abbreviations: AAL: Apios americana lectin; AATI: Apios americana Bowman-Birk type trypsin inhibitor; ACE: angiotensin-converting enzyme; IPTG: isopropyl-ß-D-thio-galactopyranoside; Ki: inhibition constant; KPIs: Kunitz-type protease inhibitors; L-BAPA: Benzoyl-L-arginine p-nitroanilide monohydrochloride; L-BTPA: Benzoyl-L-tyrosine p-nitroanilide; PFLNA: Pyr-Phe-Leu-p-nitroanilide; RP-HPLC: reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography; RT-PCR: reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction; SDS-PAGE: sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; SLIC: sequence and ligation independent cloning; STANA: N-Succinyl-Ala-Ala-Ala-p-nitroanilide; SHR: spontaneously hypertensive rats; TFA: trifluoroacetic acid; UTR: untranslated region.


Assuntos
Clonagem Molecular , DNA Complementar/genética , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Peptídeos/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Tubérculos/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Escherichia coli/genética , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos
15.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(4): 1448-1457, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Baixi sufu (BS) is a traditional Chinese spicy fermented bean curd manufactured with a natural starter. In this study, the bacterial and fungal communities during BS fermentation were determined by culture and by the culture-independent method of high-throughput sequencing (HTS). Correlation analyses were performed to select the microorganisms potentially contributing to this fermentation. RESULTS: During the fermentation of BS, 162 bacterial and 97 fungal strains were isolated and identified, and a total of 268 314 bacterial and 287 844 fungal high-quality sequences were analyzed. In general, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), especially Enterococcus and Lactococcus, were dominant in the early stage of fermentation, and spore-forming bacteria, especially Bacillus spp., became the predominant bacteria by the end of fermentation. Geotrichum, Mortierella, and unclassified Ascomycota, were the major fungal populations, which could not be detected in the final product. Correlation analyses indicated that Enterococcus, Bacillus, Geotrichum, and unclassified Ascomycota correlated significantly and positively with amino nitrogen. However, due to the sporulation characteristics of Bacillus, they may have little effect on BS ripening. The presence of Bifidobacterium spp. in sufu is reported for the first time, but the excessive counts of the Bacillus cereus group (>105 CFU g-1 ) indicate a potential hazard to consumers. CONCLUSION: The profiles obtained from this study will contribute to the development of autochthonous starter cultures to control BS fermentation, and may lead to the development of novel strategies to shorten the fermentation time of sufu products. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/microbiologia , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/microbiologia , Fungos/metabolismo , Lactobacillales/metabolismo , Micobioma , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Fermentação , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Lactobacillales/classificação , Lactobacillales/genética , Lactobacillales/isolamento & purificação
16.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; 60(5): 826-843, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30632768

RESUMO

Plant-based foods gain more importance since they play a key role in sustainable, low-meat and healthy diets. In developing countries, these food products, especially legumes and cereals, are important staple foods. Nevertheless, the question arises on how efficient they are to deliver minerals and if it is useful to encourage their consumption to reduce the prevalence of mineral deficiencies? This review paper focuses on the discrepancy between the mineral content and the amount of minerals that can be released and absorbed from plant-based foods during human digestion which can be attributed to several inherent factors such as the presence of mineral antinutrients (phytic acid, polyphenols and dietary fiber) and physical barriers (surrounding macronutrients and cell wall). Further, this review paper summarizes the effects of different processing techniques (milling, soaking, dehulling, fermentation, germination and thermal processing) on mineral bioaccessibility and bioavailability of plant-based foods. The positive impact of these techniques mostly relies on the fact that antinutrients levels are reduced due to removal of fractions rich in antinutrients and/or due to their leaching into the processing liquid. Although processing can have a positive effect, it also can induce leaching out of minerals and a reduced mineral bioaccessibility and bioavailability.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Manipulação de Alimentos , Minerais/metabolismo , Disponibilidade Biológica , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Humanos , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo
17.
Carbohydr Polym ; 228: 115388, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635746

RESUMO

The structure of the arabinoglucuronoxylans from brea gum was elucidated through an chemical and NMR spectroscopical analysis. They are composed of xylose, arabinose, glucuronic acid and 4-O-methylglucuronic acid in a molar ratio 1:0.44:0.16:0.22. The structure consists of a central chain of (1→4)-ß-d-xylopyranose of which ca.70% are susbstituted in C2 with single stubs of others sugars (ß-d-Xylp, α-d-GlcpA and 4-O-Me-α-d-GlcpA), with disaccharides (α-l-Arap-(1→2)-4-O-Me-α-d-GlcpA-(1→, α-l-Arap-(1→2)-α-d-GlcpA-(1→, ß-l-Araf-(1→3)-α-l-Araf-(1→ and α-l-Araf-(1→3)-α-l-Araf-(1→5), and possibly with trisaccharides of xylose. The determination of the location of the acetyl groups and their quantification in these arabinoglucuronoxylans has been achieved for the first time. Brea gum presents a higher thickening effect than gum arabic in 5% aqueous solution, demonstrating its potential usefulness for food and pharmaceutical applications.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/metabolismo , Gomas Vegetais/química , Xilanos/química , Conformação Molecular , Reologia , Viscosidade
18.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 203: 111760, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884350

RESUMO

An environmentally sound approach towards the green synthesis of zinc oxide nanostructures has been achieved with an aqueous extract of Calliandra haematocephala leaves. The nanoparticles were characterized using various analytical techniques to substantiate the structural details. An absorption band at 358 nm corresponds to the formation of zinc oxide nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the nanoflower morphology of the nanoparticles. Energy dispersive spectral analysis portrayed the strong presence of zinc and oxygen, while X-ray diffraction showed the nanoparticles to conform to hexagonally-formed wurtzite structure. The crystallite size of the nanoflowers was estimated to be 19.45 nm. Vibrational frequencies, typical of zinc­oxygen and other functional groups, were revealed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. BET analysis revealed that the pores were of mesoporous nature with an estimated specific surface area of 9.18 m2/g. The photocatalytic nature of the nanoparticles was established by the degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye, under solar radiation. Up to 88% degradation was achieved in a duration of 270 min. Kinetic data from the studies proved that the reaction was compliant with first-order model, with rate constant as 0.01 min-1. The study illustrated the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using a novel source, viz., the leaves of C. haematocephala.


Assuntos
Corantes/química , Fabaceae/química , Luz , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Óxido de Zinco/química , Catálise , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Química Verde , Azul de Metileno/química , Oxirredução , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
19.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 1983137, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31827669

RESUMO

Ethnomedicinal studies in the Amazon community and in the Northeast region of Brazil highlight the use of Libidibia ferrea fruits for the treatment of gastric problems. However, there are no data in the literature of this pharmacological activity. Thus, the aim of this paper is to provide a scientific basis for the use of the dry extract of L. ferrea pods (DELfp) for the treatment of peptic ulcers. Phytochemical characterization was performed by HPLC/MS. In vitro antioxidant activity was assessed using DPPH, ABTS, phosphomolybdenum, and superoxide radical scavenging activity. The gastroprotective activity, the ability to stimulate mucus production, the antisecretory activity, and the influence of -SH and NO compounds on the antiulcerogenic activity of DELfp were evaluated. The healing activity was determined by the acetic acid-induced chronic ulcer model. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity was investigated. HPLC/MS results identified the presence of phenolic compounds, gallic acid and ellagic acid, in DELfp. The extract showed antioxidant activity in vitro. In ulcers induced by absolute ethanol and acidified ethanol, the ED50 values of DELfp were 113 and 185.7 mg/kg, respectively. DELfp (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) inhibited indomethacin-induced lesions by 66.7, 69.6, and 65.8%, respectively. DELfp (200 mg/kg) reduced gastric secretion and H+ concentration in the gastric contents and showed to be independent of nitric oxide (NO) and dependent on sulfhydryl (-SH) compounds in the protection of the gastric mucosa. In the chronic ulcer model, DELfp reduced the area of the gastric lesion. DELfp also showed anti-H. pylori activity. In conclusion, DELfp showed antioxidant, gastroprotective, healing, and antiulcerogenic activities. The mechanism of these actions seems to be mediated by different pathways and involves the reduction of gastric secretion and H+ concentration, dependence on sulfhydryl compounds, and anti-H. pylori activity. All these actions support the medicinal use of this species in the management of peptic ulcers.


Assuntos
Antiulcerosos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Fabaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ácido Acético/toxicidade , Animais , Antiulcerosos/farmacologia , Antiulcerosos/uso terapêutico , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Feminino , Mucosa Gástrica/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , Helicobacter pylori/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectrometria de Massas , Óxido Nítrico/química , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Úlcera Gástrica/patologia , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química , Compostos de Sulfidrila/metabolismo
20.
Planta ; 251(1): 9, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776671

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: The genus Rhynchosia is a rich source of natural compounds especially flavonoids and prenylated isoflavonoids. Further experimental studies on Rhynchosia members may be result new and novel secondary metabolites with potent biological activities. Traditionally, medicinal plants have played a significant role on human life since ancient days. At present, natural compounds are the major source for the modern drug discovery owing to their therapeutic selectivity, minutest of side effects, inexpensive source and serve as lead molecules for the discovery of new drugs. Rhynchosia species (Fabaceae) are extensively circulated throughout the tropical and subtropical areas around the world. A few plants of this genus were used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments such as antibacterial, antidiabetic, abortifacients, healing of wounds, hepatoprotective, remedial of boils, rheumatic pains and skin infections. The present review compiles traditional uses, isolated chemical compounds and pharmacological activities of Rhynchosia species. So far, in total, seventy-seven compounds were isolated from the genus Rhynchosia, including flavonoids, isoflavonoids, flavan-3-ols, xanthones, biphenyls, simple polyphenols and sterols. It is interesting to note that the genus Rhynchosia is a rich source of C-glycosylflavonoids and prenylated isoflavonoids. Further, phytochemical and pharmacological studies on this genus are required since only few species have been investigated so far.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Compostos Fitoquímicos
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