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1.
Food Chem ; 339: 128051, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32950899

RESUMO

Phytochelatins (PyCs) are metal-binding compounds produced by plants. PyCs may reduce bioavailability of dietary toxic metals such as cadmium. However, the PyC concentrations in foods are unknown. The objective of this study was to analyze PyC contents in a subset of commonly consumed plant foods. Foods (20) across five groups were analyzed and PyCs quantified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The impact of factors such as food processing were also explored. PyCs were in all 20 foods. Five PyC types were detected with PyC2-Gly, PyC3-Gly and PyC2-Ala at quantifiable concentrations. PyC2-Gly was found at the highest concentrations and most widely distributed. PyC2-Gly concentrations were highest in fruits and root vegetables. Foods with increased processing tended to have reduced PyC concentrations. This survey of commonly consumed plant foods in the United States demonstrates PyCs are widely distributed and provides a foundation for understanding their concentrations and impact in the human diet.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/química , Frutas/química , Fitoquelatinas , Verduras/química , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Grão Comestível/química , Manipulação de Alimentos , Fitoquelatinas/química , Inquéritos e Questionários , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Estados Unidos
2.
Food Chem ; 337: 127977, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919271

RESUMO

This study investigated the effect of powder made from tubers of the legume Apios americana (Apios) as a rice flour substitute in the making of gluten-free steamed bread. The carbohydrates of Apios powder were mainly starch and sucrose, and included legume-specific raffinose and stachyose. Apios powder contained almost no α-amylase but had a high level of ß-amylase activity. Substitution of rice flour with Apios powder delayed the hardening of bread on storage and helped to maintain cohesiveness. Apios powder-substituted bread had higher maltose content than unsubstituted control bread due to ß-amylase activity in the Apios powder. Bread substituted with 10% Apios powder had a significantly higher degree of gelatinization than the control even after storage, most likely due to lower amounts of recrystallized amylose as determined by differential scanning calorimetry. These results demonstrate Apios powder as promising a new food ingredient for improving the quality of gluten-free rice bread.


Assuntos
Pão , Fabaceae/química , Farinha , Oryza/química , Amilose/química , Pão/análise , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Dieta Livre de Glúten , Farinha/análise , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Maltose/análise , Tubérculos/química , Pós/análise , Pós/química , Amido/química , Vapor , Sacarose/análise , alfa-Amilases/análise
3.
Food Chem ; 338: 128074, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32950011

RESUMO

A separation and analysis method of fosthiazate stereoisomers was established utilizing supercritical fluid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SFC-MS/MS) with a CHIRALPAK AD-3 column. The determination of the four fosthiazate stereoisomers could be completed within 6 min. The environmental behaviors of fosthiazate stereoisomers were studied in legume vegetables. After applying fosthiazate granules to soil, the concentrations of fosthiazate stereoisomers in the legume vegetables increased with time, reached maximum values in 7-10 days, and then decreased gradually in all legumes except for in Glycine max. No obvious dissipation behaviors were observed in Glycine max. Interestingly, the stereoselective behaviors were species-specific. A-(-), B-(-) and B-(±)-fosthiazate were preferentially enriched in Phaseolus vulgaris Linn and Vigna unguiculata, while A-(+) and A-(±)-fosthiazate preferentially accumulated in Vicia faba Linn, Pisum sativum Linn and G. max. The opposite stereoselectivity of B-(±)-fosthiazate was observed in different growth stage of G. max. No stereoselective dissipation occurred in soil.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/química , Compostos Organofosforados/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Tiazolidinas/química , Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Ervilhas/química , Ervilhas/metabolismo , Phaseolus/química , Phaseolus/metabolismo , Soja/química , Soja/metabolismo , Estereoisomerismo , Vicia faba/química , Vicia faba/metabolismo
4.
Phytomedicine ; 80: 153366, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33080566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Corylin is an isoflavone extracted from Cullen corylifolium (L.) Medik., which is widely used anti-inflammatory and anticancer in Asian countries. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) plays an important role in the occurrence and development of CRC. PURPOSE: To analyze the antitumor activity of corylin in CRC and to elucidate its molecular mechanisms of action. METHODS: The human CRC cell lines HCT116, RKO, and SW480 and immunodeficient mice were used as models to study the antitumor effect of corylin. The potent anti-proliferative, anti-migration and proapoptotic effects of corylin were observed by cell viability, colony formation assays, wound-healing migration assay, and cell apoptosis assay. Immunostaining analysis and western blot analysis revealed inhibition of the STAT3 signaling axis. RESULTS: We found that corylin could significantly reduce the viability and stimulate apoptosis in human CRC cells in a dose-dependent manner. Corylin decreased the expression levels of P-STAT3 and STAT3 target proteins, such as myeloid cell leukemia-1(MCL-1), Survivin, VEGF and B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2). It also upregulated the expression levels of the proapoptotic proteins BCL-2-associated X protein (BAX) and Cl-caspase 3. Moreover, corylin reduced the nuclear localization of STAT3. Furthermore, corylin inhibited the growth of the tumor in CRC mouse models. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide convincing results that could support the role of corylin in the treatment of CRC through inhibiting the STAT3 pathway. It is conceivable that corylin should be further explored as a unique STAT3 inhibitor in antitumor therapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Fabaceae/química , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
5.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0242697, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33259524

RESUMO

Thermal degradation of sugars and amino acids, and depolymerization of macromolecules such as starch, proteins and fibre occasioned by high-temperature short-time extrusion cooking modify the physicochemical and functional properties of raw materials. High-temperature short-time extrusion cooking holds promise for the expanded use of non-conventional ingredients as food/feed due to its practicality, increased productivity and efficiency, and ability to retain thermally degradable nutrients during cooking. However, little is known about the effect of the high-temperature short-time extrusion cooking process on the physicochemical properties and starch digestibility of lesser-known grain legumes such as African yam beans (Sphenostylis stenocarpa), Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan), and Bambara peanut (Vigna subterranean). In this study, we investigate the effect of high-temperature short-time extrusion cooking and extrusion cooking temperature; low (100°C) vs high (140°C) temperatures in a single screw extruder, on hydration characteristics, viscoamylolytic properties, in vitro starch digestibility and digestion kinetics of these grain legumes. We show that water holding capacity and swelling power increased (p < 0.05) with increasing extrusion temperature for Sphenostylis stenocarpa and Vigna subterranean but not Cajanus cajan extrudates. Significant effects of extrusion cooking (i.e unextruded vs 100°C and unextruded vs 140°C) and extrusion temperatures (i.e. 100°C vs 140°C) were observed in peak, trough, final and setback viscosities of all extrudates. Starch digestibility and digestion characteristics were modified with increase in extrusion temperature, however, no effect of extrusion temperatures (i.e. 100°C vs 140°C) on starch digestion kinetics was observed for Sphenostylis stenocarpa and Vigna subterranean except for hydrolysis index (34.77 vs 40.77%). Nutritional and physiological implications of extruded grain legumes in monogastric animal feeding were also highlighted. The Information presented herein will influence expanded use of extruded grain legumes as feed ingredients for intensive monogastric animal feeding.


Assuntos
Culinária/normas , Digestão/fisiologia , Grão Comestível/química , Amido/química , Cajanus/química , Cajanus/metabolismo , Fabaceae/química , Fabaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Farinha/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Cinética , Sphenostylis/química , Sphenostylis/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , Temperatura , Verduras/química , Vigna/química , Vigna/metabolismo , Água/química
6.
Arq Bras Cir Dig ; 33(3): e1540, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is still a need for progress in the treatment of transsphincteric anal fistulae and the use of herbal medicines seems promising. AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of Stryphnodendron adstringens associated with fistulotomy and primary sphincteroplasty in the treatment of transsphincteric fistulae in rats. METHODS: Thirty Wistar rats were used, which were submitted to transsphincteric fistulas with steel wire 0; after 30 days a treatment was performed according to the group. Group A (n=10) was submitted to fistulotomy; group B (n=10), fistulotomy followed by primary sphincteroplasty with "U" stitch with polyglactin 911 4-0; group C(n=10) , similar to group B, but with the interposition between the muscular stumps of hemostatic sponge soaked in Stryphnodendron adstringens extract. Euthanasia was performed after 14 days, resecting a segment of the anal canal for histological analysis, which aimed to evaluate the closure of the fistula, the area of separation of the muscle cables, the inflammatory process and the degree of fibrosis. RESULTS: No animal had a remaining fistulous tract. About the spacing between the muscle cables, an average of 106.3 µm2 was observed in group A, 82.8 µm2 in group B and 51.8 µm2 in group C (p<0.05). There was no difference between the groups regarding the inflammatory process and, in relation to fibrosis, in group A there was a mean of 0.6, in group B 0.7 and in group C 0.2 (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Stryphnodendron adstringens extract was able to allow less spacing between muscle cables in rats submitted to fistulotomy followed by primary sphincteroplasty, in addition to providing less local fibrosis.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório , Fabaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Fístula Retal , Canal Anal/cirurgia , Animais , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Fístula Retal/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(11): 1367-1371, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055447

RESUMO

In this study, bioactive lipid components such as fatty acid composition, tocopherol and total phenolics content and antioxidant activity of few wild plant seed extracts were determined. The oil contents of seed samples changed between 3.75 g/100 g (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop) and 17.94 g/100 g (Pimpinella saxifrage L.). While oleic acid contents of seed oils change between 10.4% (Trifolium repens) and 29.5% (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop), linoleic acid contents of oil samples varied from 16.3% (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop) and 64.2% (Trifolium repens) (p < 0.05). While α-tocopherol contents of oil samples change between 2.112 (Pimpinella saxifrage L.) and 228.279 mg/100 g (Trifolium pratense), É£-tocopherol contents ranged from 0.466 (Phleum pratense) to 67.128 mg/100 g (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop). Also, α-tocotrienol contents of Onobrychis viciifolia Scop and Phleum pratense were 30.815 and 23.787 mg/100 g, respectively. Results showed some differences in total phenol contents and antioxidant activity values of extracts depending on plant species. The present study indicates that this seed oils are rich in fatty acid and tocopherol.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Fabaceae/química , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Phleum/química , Pimpinella/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Sementes/química , Tocoferóis/análise , Trifolium/química , Ácido Oleico/análise
8.
J Food Sci ; 85(10): 3406-3414, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935859

RESUMO

Pigeon pea is the most prominently used protein source for human consumption. This is one of the leading pulse utilized in various applications in food processing. Soaking is one of the mandatory unit operation required to convert it from raw to a consumable form. Insights into its mass transfer dynamics enable the design and optimization of processing conditions with due consideration of retention of its quality and nutrition. In the present investigation, the mass transfer dynamics of simultaneous water gain and solid loss taking place during soaking was studied . The experimental samples were soaked at 35, 50, 75, 85, and 100 °C to represent the lower and upper gelatinization temperatures. The water diffusivities varied from 5.492 × 10-10 to 13.84 × 10-10 m²/s when soaking temperature was increased from 35 to 100 °C. Similarly, solid diffusivities vary between 6.27 × 10-10 at 35 °C and 9.48 × 10-10 m²/s at 100 °C. The activation energies of both the phenomenon were estimated using the Arrhenius equation. The mass transfer process has been identified with three distinct stages. The first stage was characterized by void filling, expansion, and solid hydration. The second stage was marked at 5% of solid loss and characterized by solid loss, while the third stage contributed to the starch gelatinization process. Simultaneous water gain and solid loss in the grain was observed throughout the process at varying rates. The insights into mass transfers from this study can help in further modeling of pigeon pea soaking behavior. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Soaking is one of the mandatory step for further utilization of legume grains. Various desirable and undesirable changes take place during the soaking process. Pigeon pea being a leading legume, understanding of the dynamics of various chemical, physical, and compositional changes during soaking is very much required for a process design. Also the representation of these behaviors in mathematical models is essential to further understand and optimize the operations for maximum retention of quality attributes, minimum wastage, and low-energy consumption.


Assuntos
Cajanus/química , Fabaceae/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Água/química , Amido/química , Temperatura
9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15158, 2020 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938966

RESUMO

The combination of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine is the standard care in cases of congenital toxoplasmosis. However, therapy with these drugs is associated with severe and sometimes life-threatening side effects. The investigation of phytotherapeutic alternatives to treat parasitic diseases without acute toxicity is essential for the advancement of current therapeutic practices. The present study investigates the antiparasitic effects of oleoresins from different species of Copaifera genus against T. gondii. Oleoresins from C. reticulata, C. duckei, C. paupera, and C. pubiflora were used to treat human trophoblastic cells (BeWo cells) and human villous explants infected with T. gondii. Our results demonstrated that oleoresins were able to reduce T. gondii intracellular proliferation, adhesion, and invasion. We observed an irreversible concentration-dependent antiparasitic action in infected BeWo cells, as well as parasite cell cycle arrest in the S/M phase. The oleoresins altered the host cell environment by modulation of ROS, IL-6, and MIF production in BeWo cells. Also, Copaifera oleoresins reduced parasite replication and TNF-α release in villous explants. Anti-T. gondii effects triggered by the oleoresins are associated with immunomodulation of the host cells, as well as, direct action on parasites.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Fabaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Toxoplasmose/complicações , Toxoplasmose/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antiprotozoários/administração & dosagem , Antiprotozoários/isolamento & purificação , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Citocinas/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Fabaceae/classificação , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Fitoterapia , Placenta/efeitos dos fármacos , Placenta/parasitologia , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Gravidez , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/parasitologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Toxoplasma/citologia , Toxoplasma/efeitos dos fármacos , Toxoplasma/patogenicidade , Toxoplasmose/parasitologia , Trofoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Trofoblastos/parasitologia
10.
Cell Rep ; 32(6): 108016, 2020 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755598

RESUMO

The influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) and coronavirus spike (S) protein mediate virus entry. HA and S proteins are heavily glycosylated, making them potential targets for carbohydrate binding agents such as lectins. Here, we show that the lectin FRIL, isolated from hyacinth beans (Lablab purpureus), has anti-influenza and anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity. FRIL can neutralize 11 representative human and avian influenza strains at low nanomolar concentrations, and intranasal administration of FRIL is protective against lethal H1N1 infection in mice. FRIL binds preferentially to complex-type N-glycans and neutralizes viruses that possess complex-type N-glycans on their envelopes. As a homotetramer, FRIL is capable of aggregating influenza particles through multivalent binding and trapping influenza virions in cytoplasmic late endosomes, preventing their nuclear entry. Remarkably, FRIL also effectively neutralizes SARS-CoV-2, preventing viral protein production and cytopathic effect in host cells. These findings suggest a potential application of FRIL for the prevention and/or treatment of influenza and COVID-19.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Fabaceae/química , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/tratamento farmacológico , Lectinas de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Células A549 , Administração Intranasal , Animais , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Embrião de Galinha , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Pandemias , Lectinas de Plantas/administração & dosagem , Lectinas de Plantas/farmacologia , Ligação Proteica , Células Vero , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/metabolismo
11.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 12805, 2020 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732959

RESUMO

The scientific community is exploiting the use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in nanomedicine and other AgNPs combination like with biomaterials to reduce microbial contamination. In the field of nanomedicine and biomaterials, AgNPs are used as an antimicrobial agent. One of the most effective approaches for the production of AgNPs is green synthesis. Lysiloma acapulcensis (L. acapulcensis) is a perennial tree used in traditional medicine in Mexico. This tree contains abundant antimicrobial compounds. In the context of antimicrobial activity, the use of L. acapulcensis extracts can reduce silver to AgNPs and enhance its antimicrobial activity. In this work, we demonstrate such antimicrobial activity effect employing green synthesized AgNPs with L. acapulcensis. The FTIR and LC-MS results showed the presence of chemical groups that could act as either (i) reducing agents stabilizing the AgNPs or (ii) antimicrobial capping agents enhancing antimicrobial properties of AgNPs. The synthesized AgNPs with L. acapulcensis were crystalline with a spherical and quasi-spherical shape with diameters from 1.2 to 62 nm with an average size diameter of 5 nm. The disk diffusion method shows the magnitude of the susceptibility over four pathogenic microorganisms of clinical interest. The antimicrobial potency obtained was as follows: E. coli ≥ S. aureus ≥ P. aeruginosa > C. albicans. The results showed that green synthesized (biogenic) AgNPs possess higher antimicrobial potency than chemically produced AgNPs. The obtained results confirm a more significant antimicrobial effect of the biogenic AgNPs maintaining low-cytotoxicity than the AgNPs produced chemically.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Fabaceae/química , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Química Verde/métodos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Prata/química , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Prata/farmacologia
12.
J Food Sci ; 85(10): 3202-3213, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856304

RESUMO

Beans are a rich source of phosphatidylcholine (PC). This study aims to explore natural PC sources rich in polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) with nutritional interest. PCs from six beans were purified (purity > 98.2%) by thin layer chromatography (TLC), and subsequently identified by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-Quadrupole (Q)-high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-HRMS). Results showed that the PC content of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and soybean (Glycine max) was 50.0 and 34.0 mg/g, respectively, which was significantly higher than that of other beans (P < 0.05). Gas chromatographic analysis showed that soybean contained high proportion of PUFA (58.78%), and chickpea contained high proportion of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (2.73%). A total of 49 molecular species were identified by UHPLC-Q-HRMS. (18:2-18:2)PC was predominant in soybean, adzuki bean, runner bean, and common bean. (16:0-18:1)PC was the major species of chickpea PC, and many ether PC species and DHA-PC were identified. Discriminatory analysis by principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that the molecular profiles of chickpea PC were significantly different from other beans studied. The findings suggest that chickpea appears to be an interesting plant source of DHA and ether lipids for dietary supplement. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: In this study, we reported an UHPLC-Q-HRMS technique to identify PC molecular species of six beans. The diversity of PC molecular species in the different beans was classified using chemometrics. This analytical method not only provides comprehensive information to nutritionists about the PC distribution in different beans, but also can identify biomarkers for bean flour fraud identification in food supplementation. Furthermore, the approach gives fragmentation patterns of several PC species and could be further applied to determine the chemical structure of PC molecular species from many natural resources.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Fabaceae/química , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Fosfatidilcolinas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada , Fabaceae/classificação , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/química , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/isolamento & purificação , Fosfatidilcolinas/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
13.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(9): 2533-2542, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32656677

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytochemical constituents, antioxidant, antifungal, and anti-virulence activities of traditionally used Mezoneuron benthamianum leaves. Extracts were prepared using acetone and methanol, and the preliminary phytochemical screening was performed. The antioxidant activity was studied using the DPPH method. Anti-Candida albicans activity was established and the effect on the germ tube and phospholipase production, as well as on the host cell adherence was assessed. The extracts showed the presence of anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, reducing sugars, saponins, steroids, tannins, and terpenoids. Gallic acid and trans-resveratrol were among the predominant phytochemicals found in M. benthamianum. The crude extracts presented significantly higher antioxidant activity than the ascorbic acid standard. At 0.39 mg/mL, acetone extract inhibited the growth of Candida albicans. At lower concentrations (200-50 µg/mL), it significantly inhibited the adherence ability (up to 51%), formation of hyphae (up to 65%), and the production of phospholipase. In conclusion, at high concentrations, M. benthamianum kills C. albicans, and at lower concentrations, it can inhibit the virulence properties of this pathogen. This study on crude extract validates the traditional use of this plant. However, further research is required to establish the anti-virulence activity of the two compounds and their therapeutic potential.


Assuntos
Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fabaceae/química , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hifas/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/análise , Fosfolipases/genética , Fosfolipases/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Taninos
14.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 691: 108487, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710881

RESUMO

Antimicrobial peptides (AMP) are molecules with a broad spectrum of activities that have been identified in most living organisms. In addition, synthetic AMPs designed from natural polypeptides have been largely investigated. Here, we designed a novel AMP using the amino acid sequence of a plant trypsin inhibitor from Adenanthera pavonina seeds (ApTI) as a template. The 176 amino acid residues ApTI sequence was cleaved in silico using the Collection of Antimicrobial Peptides (CAMPR3), through the sliding-window method. Further improvements in AMP structure were carried out, resulting in adepamycin, an AMP designed from ApTI. Adepamycin showed antimicrobial activity from 0.9 to 3.6 µM against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus strains. Moreover, this peptide also displayed activity against Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis. No toxic effects were observed on healthy human cells. Studies on the mechanism of action of adepamycin were carried out using an E. coli and C. tropicalis. Adepamycin triggers membrane disturbances, leading to intracellular nucleic acids release in E. coli. For C. tropicalis, an initial interference with the plasma membrane integrity is followed by the formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to apoptosis. Structurally, adepamycin was submitted to circular dichroism spectroscopy, molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulations, revealing an environment-dependent α-helical structure in the presence of 2,2,2- trifluoroethanol (TFE) and in contact with mimetic vesicles/membranes. Therefore, adepamycin represents a novel lytic AMP with dual antibacterial and antifungal properties.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Antifúngicos/síntese química , Antifúngicos/toxicidade , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/síntese química , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/toxicidade , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida tropicalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fabaceae/química , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Bicamadas Lipídicas/química , Bicamadas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Fosfatidilgliceróis/química
15.
Food Chem ; 328: 127124, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485585

RESUMO

This work demonstrates the challenges for selenium (Se) determination in bean samples using high-resolution continuum source Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (HR-CS-GF-AAS) and line source Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (LS-GF-AAS). Different chemical modifiers were optimized namely; Ir, Ru, and Pd/Mg nitrates. At selenium contents <5 ng g-1, it cannot be quantified accurately. Spectral interferences of the molecular bands of PO and NO as well as the iron lines with Se line at 196.026 were demonstrated. The noticeable low energy of the continuum source of the HR-CS-GF-AAS at 196.026 nm gives high values of the limits of detection and quantification. The Se limits of detection were found to be 24, 33, and 29 ng g-1 for Ir, Ru, and Pd/Mg modifiers, respectively. In situ trapping hydride generation LS-GF-AAS gives better limits of detection and it reached 30 pg g-1 with Ir modifier.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/química , Selênio/análise , Grafite/química , Ferro/química , Espectrofotometria Atômica
16.
J Anim Sci ; 98(6)2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484865

RESUMO

The rising consumer demand for alternative and sustainable protein sources drives the popularity of the use of plant-based proteins in the pet food industry. Pulse crops, which include beans, peas, lentils, and chickpeas, have become an important addition to both human and animal diets due to their protein content and functional properties. However, knowledge of their nutrient composition and protein quality is necessary for the proper formulation of these ingredients in pet foods. The objective of this study was to determine the macronutrient composition and standardized amino acid digestibility and to describe the protein quality through the use of digestible indispensable amino acid scores (DIAAS-like) of five pulse ingredients. Black bean (BB) grits, garbanzo beans (GB), green lentils (GL), navy bean (NB) powder, and yellow peas (YP) were analyzed for dry matter (DM), ash and organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), gross energy (GE), acid hydrolyzed fat (AHF), and total dietary fiber (TDF) to determine the macronutrient composition. Precision-fed rooster assays were conducted using cecectomized roosters to calculate standardized amino acid digestibility and true metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen (TMEn). The essential amino acids, with the exception of methionine, were highly digestible with digestibility values of 80% to 90% (dry matter basis) for all selected pulse ingredients. BB grits had the lowest (P < 0.05) digestibility of arginine (86.5%) and histidine (80.6%) in contrast to GB (94.9% and 89.9%, respectively). The TMEn of GB was highest (P < 0.05) at 3.56 kcal/g compared with the other pulses. The DIAAS-like values for adult dogs were consistently the lowest for methionine for all pulses, making it the first-limiting amino acid in these ingredients. The DIAAS-like values for adult cats showed GL had lowest (P < 0.05) score in tryptophan compared with other pulses when using both AAFCO values and NRC recommended allowances as reference proteins. Methionine was the first-limiting amino acid for YP and tryptophan for GL. Based on macronutrient composition, protein quality, and amino acid digestibility, it can be concluded that pulse ingredients have the required nutritional characteristics to be viable protein sources in canine and feline foods. However, the use of complementary protein sources is recommended to counterbalance any potential limiting amino acids in pulse ingredients.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Gatos/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Cães/fisiologia , Fabaceae/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Aminoácidos Essenciais/metabolismo , Animais , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Nutrientes , Valor Nutritivo
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(28): 7369-7377, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574046

RESUMO

Proanthocyanidins (PAs) in forages may be present in either soluble (S-PA) or non-extractable (NE-PA) form. Despite potential benefits of the NE-PA in ruminant nutrition, few studies have analyzed NE-PA in forages. This study examined the impact of a range of conditions on S-PA as well as protein- and fiber-bound PA (the NE-PA fractions) in sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia). Thus, five sainfoin accessions in either generative or vegetative stage were subjected to drought for 18 weeks and sampled repeatedly for PA analysis. Drought-stressed plants increased S-PAs on average by 59% across all accessions yet only in the vegetative stage. In contrast, NE-PA concentrations were generally lower (on average 15% of the total PAs) and unaffected by drought. Thus, for sainfoin, the low and stable concentration of NE-PAs across accessions, growth stages, and drought conditions should have a low, predictable impact on the future sainfoin analyses and feeding studies.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/química , Fabaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Proantocianidinas/análise , Secas , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Proantocianidinas/metabolismo , Água/análise , Água/metabolismo
18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 9969, 2020 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561781

RESUMO

Protein and condensed tannin-rich foliage (TRF) are potentially useful as nutraceuticals. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the diet and anthelmintic properties of three TRF types both individually and in combination. We hypothesized that synergistic or antagonistic effects on feed and anthelmintic values related to associations between TRF types may occur. Nutritional and anthelmintic characteristics of Leucaena leucocephala, Manihot esculenta, Cajanus cajan and a mixture of the compounds were evaluated using alfalfa pellets as a control. TRF ingredients were combined with Dichantium hay (48 and 52% of dry matter intake respectively) in mixed diets were consumed by Creole goat kids. Measurements were carried out in animals without parasites and in animals artificially infected with Haemonchus contortus. Individual feed intake and the digestibility of each diet was measured along with kid growth. There were no significant differences between the growth rates of pre-infected animals and animals fed mixed diets that included alfalfa. A strong anthelmintic activity is observed with Leucaena leucocephala contrary to other TRFs. This work confirms variable dietary and anthelmintic properties of TRF. The combination of TRF did not have synergistic or antagonistic effects on feed value or the anthelmintic potential of TRF.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Cajanus/química , Fabaceae/química , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Hemoncose/tratamento farmacológico , Haemonchus/efeitos dos fármacos , Manihot/química , Ração Animal , Animais , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fezes/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Hemoncose/parasitologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/métodos , Taninos/farmacologia
19.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(8): 7028-7038, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32475672

RESUMO

A continuous-culture fermentor study was conducted to assess nutrient digestibilities, volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations, microbial protein synthesis, bacterial nitrogen (N) efficiency, and enteric methane (CH4) production of four 50:50 grass-legume diets, randomly assigned in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Four legumes with different concentrations of condensed tannins (CT) were tested: alfalfa [ALF; Medicago sativa L., non-CT legume]; birdsfoot trefoil [BFT; Lotus corniculatus L., low-CT legume]; crown vetch [CV; Securigera varia (L.) Lassen, moderate-CT legume]; and sericea lespedeza [SL; Lespedeza cuneata (Dum. Cours.) G. Don, high-CT legume]. Orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) was the common forage used in all diets. Four fermentors were evaluated over four 10-d periods by feeding 82 g of dry matter (DM)/d in 4 equal feedings. Methane output was recorded every 10 min. Effluent samples were collected during the last 3 d of the experiment, composited by fermentor and period, and analyzed for pH and VFA, as well as DM, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber for determination of apparent and true nutrient digestibilities. Microbial protein synthesis and bacterial efficiency were estimated by analysis of N flows and purines. The CT concentrations were 3, 21, 38 and 76 g/kg of DM for ALF, BFT, CV, and SL diets, respectively. The SL diet had decreased fiber digestibilities and total VFA concentrations compared with the other diets. This resulted in the least total CH4 production in the SL diet. Bacterial N efficiency per kilogram of organic matter truly digested was lower in the SL diet than in the BFT and CV diets. The lowest CH4 production per unit of digestible nutrients was also found in the SL diet. Further work should be conducted to find optimal diets (by testing other legumes, rations, and sources of CT) for reducing CH4 emissions without negatively affecting ruminal digestion to maintain or improve productivity.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bactérias/metabolismo , Dactylis/química , Fabaceae/química , Metano/metabolismo , Proantocianidinas/análise , Animais , Reatores Biológicos/veterinária , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Feminino , Fermentação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo
20.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232425, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365065

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of incorporating different legume flours (faba bean, lentil or split pea flours) on the pasta protein network and its repercussion on in vitro protein digestibility, in comparison with reference dairy proteins. Kinetics and yields of protein hydrolysis in legume enriched pasta and, for the first time, the peptidomes generated by the pasta at the end of the in vitro gastric and intestinal phases of digestion are presented. Three isoproteic (21%) legume enriched pasta with balanced essential amino acids, were made from wheat semolina and 62% to 79% of legume flours (faba bean or F-pasta; lentil or L-pasta and split pea or P-pasta). Pasta were prepared following the conventional pastification steps (hydration, mixing, extrusion, drying, cooking). Amino acid composition and protein network structure of the pasta were determined along with their culinary and rheological properties and residual trypsin inhibitor activity (3-5% of the activity initially present in raw legume flour). F- and L-pasta had contrasted firmness and proportion of covalently linked proteins. F-pasta had a generally weaker protein network and matrix structure, however far from the weakly linked soluble milk proteins (SMP) and casein proteins, which in addition contained no antitrypsin inhibitors and more theoretical cleavage sites for digestive enzymes. The differences in protein network reticulation between the different pasta and between pasta and dairy proteins were in agreement in each kinetic phase with the yield of the in vitro protein hydrolysis, which reached 84% for SMP, and 66% for casein at the end of intestinal phase, versus 50% for L- and P-pasta and 58% for F-pasta. The peptidome of legume enriched pasta is described for the first time and compared with the peptidome of dairy proteins for each phase of digestion. The gastric and intestinal phases were important stages of peptide differentiation between legumes and wheat. However, peptidome analysis revealed no difference in wheat-derived peptides in the three pasta diets regardless of the digestion phase, indicating that there was a low covalent interaction between wheat gluten and legume proteins.


Assuntos
Proteínas na Dieta/química , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacocinética , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/farmacocinética , Animais , Culinária , Digestão/fisiologia , Fabaceae/química , Farinha/análise , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Humanos , Hidrólise , Técnicas In Vitro , Cinética , Lens (Planta)/química , Proteínas do Leite/química , Proteínas do Leite/farmacocinética , Valor Nutritivo , Ervilhas/química , Agregados Proteicos , Triticum/química , Vicia faba/química
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