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3.
Int J Esthet Dent ; 15(1): 92-106, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994538

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to create mathematical modeling to generate statistical models that reliably and quickly identify facial type while smiling. This analysis enables the creation of a digital design for the prosthetic restoration of the anterior teeth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study involved the computer analysis of 91 facial images. Through mathematical modeling, digital facial maps were generated consisting of 27 landmark points and 12 basic lines determining the facial type. Four main facial types were defined for the purposes of this study: strong, dynamic, delicate, and calm. Selected data were recorded in a database and analyzed using IBM SPSS Modeler software. RESULTS: A varying number of combinations characterize the face; 61.5% of people have the features of two facial types, and 38.5% of three facial types. The overall analysis of the data for both genders shows the most accurate model for predicting facial type by digital facial map is the created algorithm C5.1 (classification tree), with a general prediction accuracy of 84.3%. CONCLUSION: Dental Anatomical Combinations with Rebel Simplicity systems is a constructive way to ensure harmonious unity between the teeth and the facial type. Digital facial maps provide reliable and fast identification of the facial type while smiling. This analysis enables the creation of a digital design for the prosthetic restoration of the anterior teeth.


Assuntos
Sorriso , Dente , Estética Dentária , Face , Feminino , Masculino
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(2): e18069, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914012

RESUMO

This study aims to find and locate foramens exactly in maxilla and mandible in case of complications during surgeries.Computer topographic angiography (CTA) images of 120 cases were reviewed. The measurements were performed on coronal, sagittal and axial planes after the 3 dimension volume reconstruction. The distances among foramens, bony landmarks, teeth, and facial artery were all measured with the angles as adjustments.The incisive foramen (IF) was measured 20.55 ±â€Š2.81 mm to margo inferior of incisor, and 45.27 ±â€Š5.27 degree from the axial midline. The greater palatine foramen located 43.17 ±â€Š2.55 mm from the IF, while 21.08 ±â€Š3.75 degree from the midline in axial plane. The lesser palatine foramina located 44.56 ±â€Š5.74 mm from the IF and 20.05 ±â€Š3.59 degree to the midline. The Mandibular foramen (MBF) was 91.15 ±â€Š1.86 mm horizontally to the margo inferior of incisor. The angle that the MBF-margo inferior of incisor line made with the axial midline was 31.25 ±â€Š2.89 degree. The shortest horizontal distance from the mental foramen (MF) to the facial artery in sagittal plane was 21.90 ±â€Š1.86 mm, while it became 13.00 ±â€Š2.05 mm in coronary section. The horizontal distance from the MF to the margo inferior of incisor in sagittal plane was 22.04 ±â€Š3.22 mm. It turned out to be 25.78 ±â€Š5.23 mm between MF and mid-sagittal line in coronary section. The vertical distance was 25.20 ±â€Š3.06 mm from the upper margin of the second premolar to the MF.The foramens were clearly seen through CTA. Moreover, linear and angular measurements were presented, which makes it safer and wiser for surgeons to consider the biometric data before operations.


Assuntos
Pontos de Referência Anatômicos/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Mandíbula/anatomia & histologia , /diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artérias , Osso e Ossos/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso e Ossos/cirurgia , Criança , Face/irrigação sanguínea , Face/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Incisivo/anatomia & histologia , Incisivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagem , Mandíbula/patologia , Mandíbula/cirurgia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
5.
Orthod Craniofac Res ; 23(1): 50-58, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465622

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify trajectories of ontogenetic change in the mandibular plane angle (MPA) and to describe the influence of sex and other factors on MPA during growth. SETTING/SAMPLE: The data consisted of 7026 MPA measurements from lateral cephalographs representing longitudinal series from ages 6 to 21 for 728 individuals from the Craniofacial Growth Consortium Study (CGCS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Facial type was determined from MPA for each assessment, with the assessment closest to age 18 representing the adult facial type. The sample includes 366 males and 362 females, each with between 2 and 15 cephalographs. The mean number of cephalographs per individual is 10. Variation in childhood MPA (earliest assessment between 6 and 9 years of age) and adult MPA (closest assessment to age 18 between 15 and 21 years of age), and change in MPA from childhood to adulthood were compared by sex and adult facial type using ANOVA and post hoc t tests. RESULTS: Mandibular plane angle decreased from childhood to adulthood in 92% of males and 81% of females, yet increased in 36% of males and 50% of females with the hyper-divergent adult facial type. Childhood MPA and overall change in MPA were significantly different by adult facial type. CONCLUSIONS: Adult facial type is associated with differences in childhood MPA and change in MPA during growth. There are multiple ontogenetic pathways by which an individual can achieve a normo-divergent adult facial type, and an individual's childhood MPA does not necessarily correspond to his or her adult facial type.


Assuntos
Face , Mandíbula , Adolescente , Adulto , Cefalometria , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Desenvolvimento Maxilofacial , Adulto Jovem
6.
Orthod Craniofac Res ; 23(1): 110-117, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566877

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that sagittal anomalies have an effect on the perception of mandibular asymmetry. Secondly, it aimed to determine the asymmetry perception threshold of orthodontist and laypeople. SETTING AND SAMPLE POPULATION: A total of 90 individuals were included in the study from different professions (Orthodontist: n:45, layperson: n:45). MATERIALS & METHODS: The reference image was obtained with 3dMD device and selected from among the individuals with class I soft tissue relationship. In the sagittal direction, the chin area has been moved as to produce 5 and 10 degrees of change in facial convexity angle. Similarly, 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 mm changes were made and recorded in video format. Manipulated images were scored by participants with VAS method. RESULTS: When differences between the groups were evaluated, the reference image was scored similarly by orthodontists and layperson (P: .017). No statistically significant difference was observed between the groups in other parameters (P > .05). Asymmetry in 0-2 mm range was evaluated by orthodontist and layperson and statistically insignificant (P > .05). Similarly, the change between 8 mm and 10 mm was different in both groups and statistically insignificant (P > .05). Also, when there was no asymmetry, the sagittal direction was differently scored by the participants in both groups and statistically insignificant (P > .05). CONCLUSIONS: It was observed that the effect of sagittal direction changes on asymmetry perception was not statistically significant.


Assuntos
Mandíbula , Fotogrametria , Cefalometria , Queixo , Face , Assimetria Facial , Humanos , Imagem Tridimensional
7.
Orthod Craniofac Res ; 23(1): 82-91, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529611

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: (a) To quantify longitudinal 3D changes in facial soft tissue movements in adults with unilateral facial paralysis, and (b) to compare the patients' movements with an age- and sex-frequency matched control group. SETTINGS AND SAMPLE POPULATION: Prospective 3D facial movement data of 36 patients and 68 control participants. Patients' data were collected within 6 weeks of onset of symptoms (baseline) and then at 3 and 12 weeks after baseline. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The 3D facial movement data were collected during different facial animations. Mean group measurements of displacement, velocity and asymmetry were computed. Two sample t tests were used to test for significant group differences, and linear mixed models were fit to test for significant changes over time in the patient group. Also, 3D dynamic modelling and vector plots were computed to isolate the patients' abnormal movements and/or paralysis. RESULTS: The patients' mean baseline movements were significantly less for both the paralysed and contralateral sides of the face with much greater movement asymmetry than the controls. Patients' mean measures improved significantly from baseline to 12 weeks. The measures were closer to, but fell short of, the control values. CONCLUSION: In unilateral facial paralysis, the contralateral facial side was affected by the paralysis and may be tethered or limited in its movement by the paralysed side. The comprehensive measurement set and 3D facial mapping effectively tracked patient recovery and isolated paralysed facial regions. The 3D measures can be used for diagnosis and outcome assessment of different treatments.


Assuntos
Paralisia Facial , Adulto , Face , Músculos Faciais , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Amplitude de Movimento Articular
8.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 49(1): 7-12, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221472

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of younger and older patients with palatal cancer undergoing reconstruction using the pedicled facial-submental artery island flap (FSAIF) following cancer ablation. Fifty-eight patients with palatal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) were divided into two age groups: ≤60 years (n=31) and >60 years (n=27). By clinical SCC stage, 6.4%, 83.9%, and 9.7% of the younger group and 3.7%, 85.2%, and 11.1% of the older group were stage I, II, and III, respectively. The incidence of comorbid conditions was 35.5% (11/31) in those ≤60 years and 137.0% (37/27) in those >60 years. Brown class II maxillary defects (four class IIa, 44 class IIb, three class IIc, and seven class IId) were repaired using FSAIFs following cancer ablation. There were two flap failures; thus the success rate was 96.6%. Significant differences in mean age and the incidence of comorbid conditions were evident between the groups. No significant differences in TNM stage, maxillary defect classification, flap size, overall flap survival, rates of local and general complications, or survival status was evident between the groups. The FSAIF is a reliable and safe method for repairing Brown class II maxillary defects following cancer ablation, particularly in older patients.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , Idoso , Artérias , Face , Humanos , Retalhos Cirúrgicos
9.
J Surg Res ; 245: 483-491, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446190

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study investigated the efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave (ESW) application in stimulating dermal thickness, vascularity, and collagen synthesis of facial skin in a large animal model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The facial skin of the maxillary and mandibular areas of goats (n = 6 per group) was treated with ESWs of different intensities (0.15 and 0.45 mJ/mm2; 1000 pulses). After 4 d, histology and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate the following: dermal thickness, total number and abundance of microvessels, amount of type 1 collagen, and α-smooth muscle actin expression. RESULTS: Dermal thickness, number and abundance of microvessels, and collagen synthesis increased after ESW application at both intensities (each P < 0.05). When comparing ESW groups, the highest collagen abundance was seen after 0.15 mJ/mm2 (P = 0.034), whereas the highest number of microvessels was detected after treatment with 0.45 mJ/mm2 (P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: A single-session application of focused low-energy ESWs to facial skin can increase dermal thickness by stimulating collagen production and local microcirculation. These findings commend the technique for future investigation for pretreatment of local or microvascular skin flaps to enhance tissue healing.


Assuntos
Colágeno/metabolismo , Face/cirurgia , Ondas de Choque de Alta Energia/uso terapêutico , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos da radiação , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cabras , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Pele/irrigação sanguínea , Pele/metabolismo , Retalhos Cirúrgicos/irrigação sanguínea , Ferida Cirúrgica/radioterapia , Cicatrização/efeitos da radiação
10.
Dent Clin North Am ; 64(1): 11-23, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735222

RESUMO

Deviations from anthropometric norms related to facial skeletal development are a relatively normal occurrence in the dental management of the vast majority of patients. A consideration for correction is usually warranted only when there is associated morbidity, functional impairment, or psychosocial detriment. The vast majority of jaw and dental abnormalities are developmental and present themselves within a continuum of clinically conspicuous to overtly obvious. This article highlights a variety of developmental abnormalities that present with structural disharmony of the maxillomandibular complex and secondarily associated dental structures.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial , Fissura Palatina , Face , Humanos
11.
Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am ; 32(1): 153-165, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685342

RESUMO

Many of the aesthetic facial procedures can be performed simultaneously at the time of initial orthognathic surgery. Correction of any residual deformities after surgery, such as mandibular notching, malar asymmetry, labiomental crease, and any camouflage treatment, should be performed as a delayed procedure, when the outcome is more predictable. Additionally, these procedures could be used to enhance the orthodontic result, without the need of osteotomies to reposition the bones.


Assuntos
Estética Dentária , Face/cirurgia , Lipectomia , Ortodontia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ortognáticos/métodos , Rinoplastia , Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/uso terapêutico , Metas , Humanos , Cirurgia Ortognática
12.
Soins ; 64(839): 30-32, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783945

RESUMO

Allotransplantation of the face both summarises and deploys the history of organ transplantation. It's a history of successes and disappointments, bringing scientific advances and promises, but also calls for caution and consideration beyond transplantation.


Assuntos
Transplante de Face , Transplante de Órgãos , Face , Humanos , Transplante Homólogo
13.
Soins ; 64(839): 33-35, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783946

RESUMO

Is disfigurement a medical or social problem? Trajectories of people in facial surgery services reveal the privilege of normality. Since 2005, four out of ten transplant patients in France have died. In England, a charity campaigns for the right to live with a facial disfigurement.


Assuntos
Transplante de Face , Inglaterra , Face , França , Humanos
14.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 156(6): 823-831, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784016

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: An accurate prediction in the soft tissue changes is of great importance for orthodontic treatment planning. Previous studies on the accuracy of the Dolphin visual treatment objective (VTO) in predicting treatment results were mainly focused on orthognathic treatment. The accuracy of Dolphin VTO prediction for orthodontic treatment is, however, poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of Dolphin VTO prediction in soft tissue changes after orthodontic treatment by comparing the changes between predicted and actual values. METHODS: A total of 157 patients were screened for eligibility, and 34 young adult patients (8 males, 26 females; mean age 24.8 ± 3.9 years) were finally included in the study based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The landmarks and parameters of the Holdaway soft tissue analysis were used for the cephalometric analyses. The cephalometric tracings of the actual treatment result and the Dolphin predicted treatment outcome were superimposed to calculate the prediction errors. Paired t test was used to compare the statistical differences between the predicted and actual treatment outcomes of the parameters used in the Holdaway soft tissue analysis. RESULTS: There were significant differences between the predicted and actual values in parameters of the Holdaway soft tissue analysis (P < 0.05). The prediction of the landmarks in the lips region (ie, subnasale, soft tissue A-point, upper lip, lower lip, and soft tissue B-point) was inclined to be overestimated horizontally and underestimated vertically, whereas the prediction of the landmarks belonging to the chin region (ie, soft tissue pogonion, soft tissue gnathion, and soft tissue menton) was inclined to be underestimated horizontally and overestimated vertically. The most accurate prediction was found in the soft tissue A-point, whereas the least accurate one was found in the soft tissue in the chin region. The prediction was relatively more accurate in the vertical direction than in the horizontal direction. CONCLUSIONS: The Dolphin VTO prediction in soft tissue changes after the orthodontic treatment in patients with bimaxillary protrusion is the most accurate for the soft tissue A-point and the least accurate for the soft tissue chin region.


Assuntos
Face , Má Oclusão , Ortodontia Corretiva , Adulto , Cefalometria , Queixo , Face/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Lábio , Masculino , Software , Adulto Jovem
15.
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 33(12): 1578-1583, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823562

RESUMO

Objective: To summarize the progress of diagnosis and treatment of upper respiratory obstruction in patients with Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS). Methods: The domestic and abroad literature about the diagnosis and treatment of upper respiratory obstruction in patients with TCS was extensively reviewed and analyzed. Results: TCS is an autosomal-dominant craniofacial developmental syndrome. It is often accompanied by midface and/or mandibular hypoplasia, soft tissue hypertrophy, and other respiratory tissue developmental abnormalities, which can lead to different degrees of upper respiratory obstruction symptoms. Respiratory obstruction in patients with TCS is affected by many factors, and the obstructive degree are different. Early detection of the causes and obstructive sites and adopted targeted treatments can relieve the symptoms of respiratory obstruction and avoid severe complications. Conclusion: Due to the low incidence of TCS, there is still a lack of high-quality research evidence to guide clinical treatment. Large-scale and prospective clinical studies are needed to provide new ideas for the treatment and prevention of upper respiratory obstruction.


Assuntos
Disostose Mandibulofacial , Doenças Respiratórias , Face , Ossos Faciais , Humanos , Disostose Mandibulofacial/complicações , Disostose Mandibulofacial/diagnóstico , Disostose Mandibulofacial/terapia , Estudos Prospectivos , Doenças Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Doenças Respiratórias/etiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/terapia
16.
Prog Orthod ; 20(1): 44, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31788737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different nose types on the perception of facial aesthetics following camouflage treatment and orthognathic surgery for skeletal class II female patients. METHODS: A pre-treatment profile photograph of a skeletal class II adult patient was selected from the department archive. Two constructed photographs were created to represent orthognathic surgery and camouflage treatments with the aid of computer software. A total of 18 constructed images was composed using three profiles (pre-treatment, post-camouflage, and post-orthognathic surgery) and six nose types. These photographs were shown to the three groups (orthodontists, plastic surgeons, and lay people), and they were asked to assign an attractiveness score to each photo ranging from 0 to 100, with 0 indicating the least attractive and 100 indicating the most attractive. RESULTS: For the convex nose profiles, anterior movement of the mandible obtained by orthognathic surgery did not result in a significant change in the scores given by the lay people. When surgical or camouflage treatment was not implemented and, instead, just rhinoplasty was performed for these profiles, there was a significant increase in the aesthetic scores given by all groups. For the straight nose profiles, orthognathic surgery increased the attractiveness scores given by all groups. Furthermore, for all the profiles, extraction treatment did not affect the aesthetic scores given by any of the groups (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The lay people perceived that having a convex-bridged nose was a bigger problem than having a retrognathic profile. Overall, in terms of skeletal and dental orthodontic treatments, nose shape should be considered during the treatment planning process.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Ortognática , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ortognáticos , Adulto , Estética Dentária , Face , Feminino , Humanos , Nariz
17.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(12): 1629-1634, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793467

RESUMO

Defects in the face area caused by trauma, accident, tumor or congenital defects are treated with special facial prostheses. Besides esthetics, the most common problem with these prostheses is the retention of prostheses. In the present article review, the methods used for the retention of prostheses from past to present were researched, and the advantages of adhesives and implants, which are the most commonly used current methods, were evaluated. Current techniques, new materials, treatment options, and implementation procedures are described. The success of maxillofacial prostheses in meeting the expectations of patients and dentist doctors is increasing day by day with the development of adhesive material science, the emergence of technical knowledge, and the development of implant technology. Increasing the retention provides both ease of use and acceptance by the patient. Therefore, the chosen method for retention has great importance in the long-term prognosis of the prosthesis.


Assuntos
Adesivos , Face/cirurgia , Prótese Maxilofacial , Próteses e Implantes , Desenho de Prótese , Implantação de Prótese/métodos , Retenção da Prótese/instrumentação , Estética , Humanos
19.
Head Face Med ; 15(1): 29, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31829202

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is a medical condition that results from genomic loss at chromosome 22. Affected patients exhibit large variability that ranges from a severe condition to mild symptoms. In addition, the spectrum of clinical features differs among populations and even within family members. The facial features related to this syndrome are not an exception, and although part of its variation arises through development, few studies address this topic in order to understand the intra and inter-population heterogeneities. Here, we analyze the ontogenetic dynamics of facial morphology of Mexican patients with del22q11.2 syndrome. METHODS: Frontal facial photographs of 37 patients (mean age = 7.65 ± 4.21 SE) with del22q11.2DS and 200 control subjects (mean age = 7.69 ± 4.26 SE) were analyzed using geometric morphometric methods. Overall mean shape and size differences between patients and controls were analyzed, as well as differences in ontogenetic trajectories (i.e. development, growth, and allometry). RESULTS: We found that Mexican patients show typical traits that have been reported for the Caucasian population. Additionally, there were significant differences between groups in the facial shape and size when all the ontogenetic stages were considered together and, along ontogeny. The developmental and allometric trajectories of patients and controls were similar, but they differed in allometric scaling. Finally, patients and controls showed different growth trajectories. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the typical face of patients with del22q11.2DS is established prenatally; nonetheless, the postnatal ontogeny could influence the dysmorphology and its variability through size-related changes.


Assuntos
Craniossinostoses , Síndrome de DiGeorge , Face , Síndrome de Marfan , Variação Biológica da População , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Síndrome de DiGeorge/complicações , Face/anormalidades , Humanos , Fenótipo
20.
J Cosmet Sci ; 70(6): 277-290, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31829921

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown that the date palm kernel contains plenty of phytochemicals of potential rejuvenation benefits to skin. The aim of this study was to investigate a cream form containing date palm kernel extract (DPKE) on facial wrinkle reduction and objective skin parameters in healthy subjects. A cream form containing 5% DPKE was prepared and applied twice daily for 8 weeks on the facial skin of 43 volunteers. Biophysical measurements including skin hydration, elasticity, and pigmentation as well as optical scanning of skin surface were carried out after 4 and 8 weeks. Significant improvement in facial skin hydration, elasticity, and melanin concentration together with reduction in the wrinkle size and depth were observed at the two time points of measurements. In addition, DPKE cream was extremely well tolerated by the facial skin of study participants. The work herein demonstrates and validates the use of cream form containing 5% DPKE over placebo against fine lines and wrinkles, skin pigmentations, skin hydration, and elasticity. This effect may be attributed to synergism of major phytochemicals and phytosterols present in DPKE.


Assuntos
Phoeniceae , Envelhecimento da Pele , Face , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais , Pele
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