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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528459

RESUMO

Although it is generally accepted that a prosthetic restoration must take into account the gingiva, smile, and patient's face, it is often difficult to determine precisely what facial references must be considered. The purpose of this study was to determine the correct vertical and horizontal facial reference planes in esthetic prosthetic treatment. Using photographic analysis of 160 individuals, the different facial reference planes (interpupillary, intermeatic, intercommissural, and incisal edge lines; facial midline; and Camper and Frankfort planes) were compared to the ideal prosthetic reconstruction axis. Additional measurements, including the human eye's ability to perceive parallelism, were recorded. Most participants (64%) exhibited facial asymmetry. Asymmetry was horizontal (difference between widths of the right and left sides; 52.4%), vertical (difference between heights of the right and left sides; 6.9%), or mixed (4.7%). The interpupillary line is the main horizontal reference in 88.4% of situations, with the intercommissural line the second most important. In the profile view, the horizontal plane was on average 6.5 degrees above the Camper plane and 9 degrees below the Frankfort plane. The human eye's ability to perceive parallelism between two lines was found to be limited to differences of approximately 1 degree. During anterior tooth reconstruction, it is necessary to take into account the right horizontal and vertical esthetic references. Knowledge of the biometric facial parameters in natural dentition is necessary to define the right reconstruction axes based on the facial symmetry or asymmetry.


Assuntos
Estética Dentária , Face , Cefalometria , Face/anatomia & histologia , Assimetria Facial/terapia , Humanos , Sorriso
2.
Angle Orthod ; 90(6): 866-872, 2020 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378519

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To test the hypotheses that mechanobehavior scores (MBS) were correlated with mandibular ramus lengths (Co-Go) and differed between facial phenotypes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subjects gave informed consent to participate. Co-Go (mm), mandibular plane angles (SN-GoGn, °), and three-dimensional anatomy were derived from cephalometric radiography or cone beam computed tomography. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) energy densities (ED) (mJ/mm3) were measured using dynamic stereometry and duty factors (DF) (%) were measured from electromyography, to calculate MBS (= ED2 × DF,) for each TMJ. Polynomial regressions, K-means cluster analysis, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Tukey post-hoc tests were employed. RESULTS: Fifty females and 23 males produced replete data. Polynomial regressions showed MBS were correlated with Co-Go (females, R2 = 0.57; males, R2 = 0.81). Cluster analysis identified three groups (P < .001). Dolichofacial subjects, with shorter normalized Co-Go, clustered into two subgroups with low and high MBS compared to brachyfacial subjects with longer Co-Go. SN-GoGn was significantly larger (P < .03) in the dolichofacial subgroups combined (33.0 ± 5.9°) compared to the brachyfacial group (29.8 ± 5.5°). CONCLUSIONS: MBS correlated with Co-Go within sexes and differed significantly between brachyfacial and dolichofacial subjects.


Assuntos
Face , Mandíbula , Cefalometria , Face/anatomia & histologia , Face/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagem , Fenótipo , Articulação Temporomandibular
3.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(6): 711-719, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142595

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction: In the pediatric population, computed tomography examination of the upper cervical spine plays an important role in the diagnosis of neurological injuries involving that region. Due to the interconnected nature of the craniofacial structures, a structural change in one is expected to also cause changes in the other structures. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate relationships between atlantodental interval, cervical vertebral morphology, and facial structure in healthy adolescents using cone beam computed tomography. Methods: Thirty subjects aged 14-20 years (10 males, mean age: 17.2 years; 20 females, mean age: 17.9 years) were included in the study. The anterior, lateral and posterior atlantodental intervals, and vertical and anteroposterior dimensions of the first and second cervical vertebrae were evaluated from cone beam computed tomography images. Facial morphology was evaluated using 7 parameters on lateral cephalometric cone beam computed tomography images and 6 parameters on posteroanterior images. The Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon test were used for statistical analyses. Results: Comparisons between males and females showed that most parameters were larger in males, with significant differences in vertical facial dimensions (anterior lower face height: p= 0.05; anterior upper face height: p= 0.001), (distance between the most internal point of the frontozygomatic suture and midsagittal reference plane; p= 0.01), (the distance between the deepest point of the right alveolar maxillar process and midsagittal reference plane; p= 0.001), and C2 vertebral dimensions. The anterior and lateral atlantodental interval values correlated with maxilla position relative to the mandible angle, and the anterior atlantodental interval correlated with lower anterior facial height (p= 0.05). Dimensional measurements of the C1 and C2 vertebrae were correlated with both anterior facial heights and some posteroanterior parameters. Conclusion: Sagittal, vertical, and transverse facial dimensions and positions were strongly associated with C1 and C2 vertebral dimensions, and the maxillomandibular relationship may affect atlantodental interval. Therefore, including craniofacial features in assessment of the atlantodental area and vertebral distances in adolescents may be beneficial.


Resumo Introdução: Na população pediátrica, a tomografia computadorizada da coluna cervical alta tem um importante papel no diagnóstico de lesões neurológicas que envolvem essa região. Devido à natureza interconectada das estruturas craniofaciais, espera-se que uma mudança estrutural em uma delas também cause alterações nas outras estruturas. Objetivo: Avaliar as relações entre o intervalo atlantodental, a morfologia vertebral cervical e a estrutura facial em adolescentes saudáveis com a tomografia computadorizada de feixe cônico. Método: Trinta indivíduos entre 14 e 20 anos (10 homens, média de 17,2 anos; 20 mulheres, média de 17,9 anos) foram incluídos no estudo. O intervalo atlantodental anterior, lateral e posterior e as dimensões vertical e anteroposterior da primeira e segunda vértebras cervicais foram avaliados a partir de imagens de tomografia computadorizada de feixe cônico. A morfologia facial foi avaliada utilizando-se sete parâmetros em imagens de tomografia computadorizada de feixe cônico cefalométricas laterais e seis parâmetros em imagens posteroanteriores. O teste U de Mann-Whitney e o teste de Wilcoxon foram utilizados para as análises estatísticas. Resultados: As comparações entre homens e mulheres mostraram que em sua maioria os parâmetros foram maiores no sexo masculino, com diferenças significantes nas dimensões faciais verticais (altura facial anterior inferior: p = 0,05; altura facial anterior superior: p = 0,001), distância entre o ponto mais interno da sutura fronto-zigomática e plano de referência médio-sagital; p = 0,01distância entre o ponto mais profundo do processo alveolar do maxilar direito e o plano de referência médio-sagital; p = 0,001) e as dimensões do corpo vertebral C2. O intervalo atlantodental anterior e lateral correlacionaram-se com o ângulo da posição da maxila em relação à mandíbula e o intervalo atlantodental anterior correlacionou-se com altura facial anterior inferior (p = 0,05). Medidas das dimensões das vértebras C1 e C2 foram correlacionadas com as alturas faciais anteriores e alguns parâmetros póstero-anteriores. Conclusão: As dimensões e posições faciais sagitais, verticais e transversais foram fortemente associadas às dimensões dos corpos vertebrais C1 e C2 e a relação maxilomandibular pode afetar o intervalo atlantodental. Portanto, incluir características craniofaciais na avaliação da área atlantodental e das distâncias vertebrais em adolescentes pode ser benéfico.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Face/anatomia & histologia , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Mandíbula , Vértebras Cervicais/diagnóstico por imagem , Cefalometria
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4728, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963237

RESUMO

Social trust is linked to a host of positive societal outcomes, including improved economic performance, lower crime rates and more inclusive institutions. Yet, the origins of trust remain elusive, partly because social trust is difficult to document in time. Building on recent advances in social cognition, we design an algorithm to automatically generate trustworthiness evaluations for the facial action units (smile, eye brows, etc.) of European portraits in large historical databases. Our results show that trustworthiness in portraits increased over the period 1500-2000 paralleling the decline of interpersonal violence and the rise of democratic values observed in Western Europe. Further analyses suggest that this rise of trustworthiness displays is associated with increased living standards.


Assuntos
Sinais (Psicologia) , Face/anatomia & histologia , Expressão Facial , Aprendizado de Máquina , Algoritmos , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pinturas , Percepção Social , Confiança
5.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 158(4): 518-526, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988567

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of 3 different fixed or removable functional appliances on the soft tissue changes in patients with Class II Division 1 malocclusion using 3-dimensional images. METHODS: A total of 60 patients with Class II Division 1 malocclusion (38 girls and 22 boys; mean age, 12.35 ± 1.01 years) were treated with 3 different functional appliances, namely, Twin-block (TB) (group TB, n = 20), mono-block (MB) (group MB, n = 20), or Herbst (H) (group H, n = 20) for 9.55 ± 1.46 months. Three-dimensional photographs of each patient were taken at the baseline and the end of the therapy with a 3dMD Face system (3dMD, Atlanta, Ga). Statistical analyses were performed using the dependent samples t test, 1-way analysis of variance, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U, and Wilcoxon signed rank tests. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences were detected for soft tissue changes except for the lower facial width found, at least in group H (P <0.05). Volumetric differences in the mandible were similar between the groups (P >0.05). A statistically significant decrease in total facial height and an increase in convexity angle and facial depth were detected in all groups after treatment compared with the baseline (P <0.05). The upper and lower facial height, lower lip height, and nasal width were statistically significantly increased in the TB and MB groups after treatment compared with the baseline (P <0.05) and similar to those in group H (P >0.05). CONCLUSIONS: TB, MB, and H appliances may promote the facial soft tissue profile, including volumetric improvement, in the mandibular region.


Assuntos
Face/anatomia & histologia , Face/diagnóstico por imagem , Má Oclusão de Angle Classe II/diagnóstico por imagem , Má Oclusão de Angle Classe II/terapia , Adolescente , Cefalometria , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lábio/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Mandíbula
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933221

RESUMO

Background: Upper lip appearance received major attention with the introduction of diverse treatment modalities, including lip augmentation, rhinoplasty surgery, and dental treatment designed to support the upper lip. Our objectives were to define the prevalence and characteristics of the upper lip horizontal line (ULHL), which is a dynamic line appearing during a smile, in relation to gender, malocclusions, aging, and facial morphology. Methods: First, the prevalence and gender distribution of ULHL was examined from standardized en-face imaging at full smile of 643 randomly selected patients. Second, cephalometric and dental cast model analyses were made for 97 consecutive patients divided into three age groups. Results: ULHL appears in 13.8% of the population examined, and prevailed significantly more in females (78%). The prevalence of ULHL was not related to age nor to malocclusion. Patients presenting ULHL showed shorter upper lip and deeper lip sulcus. The skeletal pattern showed longer mid-face, shorter lower facial height and greater prevalence of a gummy smile. Conclusions: Female patients with short upper lip, concavity of the upper lip, and gummy smile are more likely to exhibit ULHL. The ULHL is not age-related and can be identified in children and young adults. Therefore, it should be considered when selecting diverse treatment modalities involving the upper lip.


Assuntos
Face/anatomia & histologia , Lábio/anatomia & histologia , Má Oclusão , Cefalometria/métodos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Distribuição por Sexo , Sorriso , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238427, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936816

RESUMO

In Graeco-Roman times in the Lower-Egyptian Fayoum region, a painted portrait was traditionally placed over the face of a deceased individual. These mummy portraits show considerable inter-individual diversity. This suggests that those portraits were created separately for each individual. In the present study, we investigated a completely wrapped young infant mummy with a typical mummy portrait by whole body CT analysis. This was used to obtain physical information on the infant and provided the basis for a virtual face reconstruction in order to compare it to the mummy portrait. We identified the mummy as a 3-4 years old male infant that had been prepared according to the typical ancient Egyptian mummification rites. It most probably suffered from a right-sided pulmonary infection which may also be the cause of death. The reconstructed face showed considerable similarities to the portrait, confirming the portrait's specificity to this individual. However, there are some differences between portrait and face. The portrait seems to show a slightly older individual which may be due to artistic conventions of that period.


Assuntos
Face/diagnóstico por imagem , Múmias/diagnóstico por imagem , Retratos como Assunto/história , Arte , Pré-Escolar , Egito , Face/anatomia & histologia , História Antiga , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Lactente , Masculino , Múmias/história , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Imagem Corporal Total
9.
BMC Evol Biol ; 20(1): 102, 2020 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women's morphological femininity is perceived to develop under the influence of sex hormones and to serve as a cue of estradiol level, fertility and health in mating context. However, as the studies on direct relationship between femininity and sex steroid levels have reported mixed results, it is still not well understood what factors contribute to inter-women variation in morphological femininity. Epidemiological studies show that indicators of adverse conditions during intrauterine growth and development in utero, such as low birthweight or relative thinness at birth, influence women's physiology ovarian functioning and may be associated with life-time exposure to estradiol in women. Thus, here we tested if birth parameters are also related with the level of morphological femininity in adult women. RESULTS: One hundred sixty-five healthy women of mean age 28.47 years (SD = 2.39) participated in the study. Facial femininity was estimated based on facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) and facial shape sexual dimorphism measured in the photos. Body femininity was estimated based on waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and breast size. Birth weight and birth length were obtained from medical records and ponderal index at birth was calculated. No relationship between birth parameters and facial or body femininity in women of reproductive age was found, also when controlled for adult sex steroid levels and BMI. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that, although previous research showed that birth parameters predict reproductive development and adult oestradiol level, they do not explain the variance in morphological femininity in women of reproductive age, trait that is thought to be a cue of a woman's estradiol level and fertility in mating context.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Face/anatomia & histologia , Feminilidade , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto , Mama , Feminino , Fertilidade , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Relação Cintura-Quadril
10.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 47: 101770, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A missing mandible is a common problem in facial identification cases requiring forensic facial approximation or reconstruction. The Sassouni and Sassouni-Plus methods which are currently used to predict the missing mandible from the cranium produce low levels of accuracy. AIMS: This study proposes a new method for the estimation of the overall dimensions of the mandible based upon linear cranial measurements, the proposed method has the potential to be utilised in the facial reconstruction of a range of adult skulls with dentition. SAMPLE AND METHOD: 21 measurements were taken from a sample of 90 skulls, 44 male, 43 female and three juvenile, originating from 9 different geographical areas. Ordinary least-squares regression, hierarchical cluster analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to investigate trends in the data and to produce equations for the estimation of condylar height, corpus length and anterior height. CONCLUSION: When tested the equations produced an overall mean error of 0.09 mm with a standard deviation of ±4.84. The proposed method offers an improvement upon the currently used methods. It can be used to estimate the overall mandibular dimensions with a good level of accuracy.


Assuntos
Restos Mortais/anatomia & histologia , Cefalometria/métodos , Face/anatomia & histologia , Antropologia Forense/métodos , Mandíbula/anatomia & histologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Yi Chuan ; 42(7): 680-690, 2020 Jul 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32694107

RESUMO

Human facial morphology is one of the important visible biological characteristics. Understanding the genetic basis underlying facial shape traits has important implications in population genetics, developmental biology, and forensic science. This study extracted 136 Euclidean distance phenotypes from 17 facial features of high-resolution 3D facial images in 1177 Chinese Han adult males. Based on 3× low-depth sequencing data, linear regression was used to analyze the correlation between 125 reported SNPs significantly associated with facial morphology and 136 facial phenotypes. As a result, a total of twelve SNPs from ten genes demonstrated significant association with one or more facial shape traits after adjusting for multiple testing (significance threshold P < 1.35 × 10 -3 ), together explaining up to 3.89% of age-, and BMI-adjusted facial phenotype variance. These included TEX41 rs17479393, PAX3 rs974448, RAB7A/ACAD9 rs2977562, DCHS2 rs9995821, DCHS2 rs2045323, C5orf50 rs6555969, SUPT3H/RUNX2 rs1852985, MSRA rs11782517, EYA1 rs10504499, GSC rs2224309, DICER1 rs7161418 and DHX35 rs2206437.These results revealed the genetics basis of facial morphology of Han Chinese population, and provided reference data for DNA-based face prediction.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Face , Genótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , China , RNA Helicases DEAD-box , Face/anatomia & histologia , Genética Populacional , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Ribonuclease III
12.
Wiad Lek ; 73(6): 1103-1107, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32723934

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim is development and analysis of regression models of linear dimensions necessary for the construction of the correct form of dental arches in young men with a wide face, depending on the features of odontometric and cephalometric indicators. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Material and methods: Primary computed tomographic indices of tooth size and cephalometric parameters of 44 young men with normal occlusion were obtained from the data bank of the National Pirogov Memorial Medical University, Vinnytsya. Face type was determined using the Garson morphological index. In licensed statistical package "Statistica 6,0" developed regression models of linear dimensions necessary for the construction of the correct form of dental arches. RESULTS: Results: As a result of researches, it is established that all 18 reliable models of the sizes used for construction of the correct form of dental arches, depending on peculiarities of odontometric and cephalometric indices with a coefficient from 0.645 to 0.944 are constructed. Built models in adolescents with a broad face type more often include odontometric than cephalometric indicators. The most commonly used odontometric indices are: the width of the crowns of the teeth in the mesio-distal and vestibulo-oral directions, as well as the distance from the middle of the cutting edge to the apex of the root of the teeth in the vestibulo-oral direction. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: In adolescents with a broad type of face with normal occlusion, all 18 possible reliable regression models of reproduction of the individual characteristics of the dental arches of the upper and lower jaws were determined and analyzed.


Assuntos
Arco Dental , Dente , Adolescente , Cefalometria , Face/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Masculino , Mandíbula
13.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 47: 101743, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659706

RESUMO

The aim in this study was to evaluate the influence of skeletal class, facial type, and sex on soft tissue thickness (STT) of the craniofacial midline in a Brazilian subpopulation. Thus, 121 cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans (54 males and 67 females, age 21 to 40 yrs) composed the study sample. Patients were classified according to skeletal class (class I, II, and III) and facial type (brachycephalic, mesocephalic, and dolichocephalic), and STT was measured (mm) in 10 landmarks in the craniofacial midline for each CBCT scan. Multivariate analysis of covariance evaluated facial STT with regard to multiple independent variables (sex, age - covariate, facial type, and skeletal class). TEM and rTEM assessed the intra-examiner agreement. STT was significantly greater in males than in females for all regions measured (p < 0.05), except for the pogonion-pogonion' landmark (p>0.05). In general, class III individuals had significantly thicker soft tissue in the maxilla - subspinale-subnasale', prosthion-labrale superius', and incision-stomion' regions, while class II subjects had thicker soft tissue in the infradentale-labrale inferius' mandibular landmark (p < 0.05). Regarding facial type, dolichocephalic individuals showed significantly thicker soft tissue in the supramentale-supramentale' mandibular landmark, whereas brachycephalic subjects had thicker soft tissue in maxillary regions - prosthion-labrale superius' and incision-stomion' (p < 0.05). rTEM values were below 5% for most landmarks, and all TEM values were below 1 mm. Skeletal class and facial type influence STT, showing a soft tissue compensation, with deeper soft tissue in areas with lower skeletal development, and/or where bone is positioned more posteriorly.


Assuntos
Cefalometria/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/métodos , Tecido Conjuntivo/anatomia & histologia , Tecido Conjuntivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Face/anatomia & histologia , Face/diagnóstico por imagem , Ossos Faciais/anatomia & histologia , Ossos Faciais/diagnóstico por imagem , Antropologia Forense/métodos , Odontologia Legal/métodos , Adulto , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 181, 2020 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Facial esthetics is a major concern of orthodontic patients. This study aims to evaluate orthodontic treatment-related thickness changes of the masseter muscles and surrounding soft tissues and the potential factors that would influence these changes during orthodontic treatment in female adults. METHODS: Forty-two female adult patients were included in this retrospective study and were divided into extraction (n = 22) and nonextraction (n = 20) groups. Pretreatment and posttreatment cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were superimposed and reconstructed. The thickness changes of the masseter area of facial soft tissue (MAS), masseter muscles (MM) and surrounding fat tissue (FT) were measured. Pretreatment age, treatment duration, sagittal relationship (ANB), and vertical relationship (Frankfort-mandibular plane angle, FMA)-related MAS, MM and FT changes were compared between extraction and nonextraction groups. Spearman's correlation coefficient was calculated between the above variables. Regression analysis was conducted to confirm the causal relations of the variables. RESULTS: The thickness of MAS and MM significantly decreased in both groups, with larger decreases (> 1 mm) in the extraction group. There were strong correlations (r > 0.7) between the thickness decrease in MAS and MM in both groups and moderate correlations (r > 0.4) between MAS and FT in the nonextraction group. A significantly greater decrease of MAS and MM were found to be moderately correlated with a smaller FMA (r > 0.4) in the extraction group. Scatter plots and regression analysis confirmed these correlations. CONCLUSIONS: Masseter muscles and the surrounding soft tissue exhibited a significant decrease in thickness during orthodontic treatment in female adults. Low-angle patients experienced a greater decrease in soft tissue thickness in the masseter area in the extraction case. But the thickness changes were clinically very small in most patients.


Assuntos
Estética Dentária , Músculo Masseter/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Cefalometria , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Face/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue ; 29(1): 60-64, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32524123

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the profile self-perception of lower anterior facial height(LAFH) by patients seeking orthodontic treatment, and explore the influencial factors. METHODS: Profile photographs of two Chinese adults (one female and one male with normal profiles) were digitized to create two baseline templates. Changes in middle anterior facial height / lower anterior facial height ratio were made on the templates by altering lower anterior facial height from 0.5 to 1.5 in 0.1 increments. An electronic questionnaire survey was conducted among patients who met the sample criteria. They were asked to choose one from various photos that most resembled their own profile. Then profile photos of patients were taken and measured. Differences between self-perception profile and actual profile were compared using paired t test. Statistical analysis was employed for comparison between different age, genders, profile concerns, education backgrounds, orthodontic histories, marital status and facial types with SPSS 17.0 software package. RESULTS: Two hundred and twenty-six subjects (average age 19.2±6.0 years; 79 men, 147 women) were interviewed in this survey. The ratio of self-perception profile by the patients was lower than actual. Difference was significant between patients' actual profile and self-perception profile(P<0.01).Among the seven factors,profile concerns(P<0.01) and orthodontic history (P=0.002) were significantly correlated with profile self-perception of lower anterior facial height by the patients. CONCLUSIONS: There is a cognitive bias in profile self-perception of lower anterior facial height by patients seeking orthodontic treatment. The patients' self-perception of lower anterior facial height is influenced by profile concerns and orthodontic history, not by age, sex, education backgrounds, marital status and facial types.


Assuntos
Face/anatomia & histologia , Dente , Adolescente , Adulto , Cefalometria , Assistência Odontológica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Autoimagem , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233377, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502155

RESUMO

The biology of how faces are built and come to differ from one another is complex. Discovering normal variants that contribute to differences in facial morphology is one key to untangling this complexity, with important implications for medicine and evolutionary biology. This study maps quantitative trait loci (QTL) for skeletal facial shape using Diversity Outbred (DO) mice. The DO is a randomly outcrossed population with high heterozygosity that captures the allelic diversity of eight inbred mouse lines from three subspecies. The study uses a sample of 1147 DO animals (the largest sample yet employed for a shape QTL study in mouse), each characterized by 22 three-dimensional landmarks, 56,885 autosomal and X-chromosome markers, and sex and age classifiers. We identified 37 facial shape QTL across 20 shape principal components (PCs) using a mixed effects regression that accounts for kinship among observations. The QTL include some previously identified intervals as well as new regions that expand the list of potential targets for future experimental study. Three QTL characterized shape associations with size (allometry). Median support interval size was 3.5 Mb. Narrowing additional analysis to QTL for the five largest magnitude shape PCs, we found significant overrepresentation of genes with known roles in growth, skeletal and facial development, and sensory organ development. For most intervals, one or more of these genes lies within 0.25 Mb of the QTL's peak. QTL effect sizes were small, with none explaining more than 0.5% of facial shape variation. Thus, our results are consistent with a model of facial diversity that is influenced by key genes in skeletal and facial development and, simultaneously, is highly polygenic.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Ósseo/genética , Ossos Faciais/anatomia & histologia , Desenvolvimento Maxilofacial/genética , Alelos , Animais , Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Camundongos de Cruzamento Colaborativo/genética , Face/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Variação Genética/genética , Genótipo , Masculino , Camundongos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
17.
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 55(6): 388-393, 2020 Jun 09.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32486568

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate lower facial profile in females in different skeletal patterns. Methods: Investigation pictures of three females with beautiful lower facial profiles from Department of Orthodontics, Henan Stomatological Hospital were collected. The skeletal patterns of these females were classified as average, low and high angle, respectively.Upper lip process point (UL) was moved backwards horizontally to reach towards the E line and go even further gradually in above pictures. The distance changed according to E line was defined as DE value. If UL was in front of E line,DE value was denoted as positive, or else negative. Collectively, we obtained 30 pictures (10 pictures in each skeletal facial type) with different DE values (-5, -4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 mm), which were divided into average, low and high angle group according to the skeletal facial type. The pictures were evaluated by 144 randomly-selected adult orthodontic patients [66 males, 78 females, aged (29.4±7.7) years] who visited Department of Orthodontics, Henan Stomatological Hospital from June to September, 2019 and 138 orthodontists (including qualified orthodontists and postgraduate orthodontic students [60 males, 78 females, aged (32.2±7.1) years] who participated orthodontics conferences in Henan Stomatological Hospital in June, 2019. The acceptance rate was calculated and rate above 60% was deemed as acceptable DE range. Evaluators were also asked to choose the most esthetic profiles for the best DE value in each skeletal facial type.Data discrepancy was analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis analysis and chi-square test. Results: Most accepted DE was -2 mm among total investigators including orthodonticpatients and orthodontists. There was no difference in total acceptance rate between orthodontists and patients (P>0.05). There was statistic difference in total acceptance rate in different skeletal patterns between orthodontic patients and orthodontists (P<0.05). In total investigators, total acceptance rate was 62.1% (1 752/2 820) in average angle group, 55.4%(1 563/2 820) in high angle group and 33.5%(946/2 820) in low angle group, respectively. Acceptable DE range in three facial types was -4~2 mm (average angle), -2~2 mm (high angle) and -2~-1 mm (low angle), respectively. Conclusions: According to the evaluation of both orthodontic patients and orthodontists, the best DE was-2 mm.Total acceptance rate and acceptable DE range ranked first in average angle group, second in high angle group and third in low angle group.


Assuntos
Estética Dentária , Ortodontia , Adulto , Beleza , Cefalometria , Estética , Face/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lábio/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
18.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 659-664, June 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098303

RESUMO

Cephalofacial variables and the body height have priority importance in anthropological researches for a chronological study of the anthropological status of peoples. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the changeability of the cephalofacial variables and stature under the influence of exogenous factors during the over 80 years period-time. The realisation of the goal was done by comparing of some anthropometrical data (stature, 5 cephalofacial measurements and 2 cephalofacial indexes) done on the Albanian male population in three different time-line studies (Coon, 1950; Dhima, 1974-84; Rexhepi et al. 2018; cephalofacial measurements, 1997-2008, and stature, 2007-2017). Regarding the cephalofacial variables, some minor systematic differences were found between three different timeline studies, but without contradictions regarding the group's classification according to the corresponding scale. The major and meaningful differences between the three studies are noted in body height (Coon = 169.71 cm, Dhima=171.61cm; Rexhepi et al.=178.23 cm). The results of this study suggested that the timeline difference over 80 years, with all exogenous factor changes (environment, socioeconomic conditions, health, etc.) has a meaningful impact on body height, while not on the substantial changes on cephalofacial variables.


Las variables cefalofaciales y la altura del cuerpo tienen una importancia mayor en las investigaciones antropológicas para un estudio cronológico del estado antropológico de la población. El objetivo principal de esta investigación fue evaluar la capacidad de cambio de las variables cefalofaciales y la estatura de acuerdo a la influencia de factores exógenos durante un período de más de 80 años. El objetivo se llevó a cabo mediante la comparación de algunos datos antropométricos (estatura, 5 mediciones cefalofaciales y 2 índices cefalofaciales) realizados en la población masculina albanesa en tres estudios de línea de tiempo diferentes (Coon, 1929-30; Dhima, 1974-84; Mediciones cefalofaciales de Rexhepi et al., 1997-2008, y estatura, 2007-2017). Con respecto a las variables cefalofaciales, se encontraron algunas diferencias sistemáticas menores entre tres estudios de línea de tiempo diferentes, pero sin contradicciones con respecto a la clasificación del grupo, según la escala correspondiente. Las diferencias principales y significativas entre los tres estudios se observaron en la altura del cuerpo (Coon = 169,71 cm, Dhima = 171,61 cm; Rexhepi et al. = 178,23 cm). Los resultados de esta investigación sugieren que la diferencia en la línea de tiempo en un periodo de 80 años, junto a todos los cambios de factores exógenos (ambiente, condiciones socioeconómicas, salud, etc.) tienen un impacto significativo en la altura corporal, mientras que esto no ocurre en los cambios de las variables cefalofaciales.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Estatura , Cefalometria/métodos , Cabeça/anatomia & histologia , Antropologia , Fatores de Tempo , Albânia , Face/anatomia & histologia , Kosovo
19.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0231983, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407322

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study was to quantify gender-specific facial characteristics in younger and older adults and to determine how aging and body characteristics, such as height and body-mass index (BMI), influence facial sexual dimorphism. METHODS: The cohort study included 90 younger adults of Caucasian origin (average age of 45 females 23.2 ± 1.9 and 45 males 23.7 ± 2.4 years) and 90 older adults (average age of 49 females 78.1 ± 8.1 and 41 males 74.5 ± 7.7 years). Three-dimensional facial scans were performed with an Artec MHT 3D scanner. The data were analyzed using the software package Rapidform®. The parameters to evaluate facial symmetry, height, width, profile, facial shape, nose, eyes and mouth characteristics were determined based on 39 facial landmarks. Student's t-test was used to calculate the statistical differences between the genders in the younger and older adults and a multiple-linear-regression analysis was used to evaluate the impact of gender, age, body-mass index and body height. RESULTS: We found that the female faces were more symmetrical than the male faces, and this was statistically significant in the older adults. The female facial shape was more rounded and their faces were smaller, after normalizing for body size. The males had wider mouths, longer upper lips, larger noses and more prominent lower foreheads. Surprisingly, we found that all the gender-dependent characteristics were even more pronounced in the older adults. Increased facial asymmetry, decreased facial convexity, increased forehead angle, narrower vermilions and longer inter-eye distances occurred in both genders during aging. An increased BMI was associated with wider faces, more concave facial profiles and wider noses, while greater body height correlated with increased facial heights and wider mouths. CONCLUSION: Facial sexual dimorphism was confirmed by multiple parameters in our study, while the differences between the genders were more pronounced in the older adults.


Assuntos
Face/anatomia & histologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Olho/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Masculino , Boca/anatomia & histologia , Nariz/anatomia & histologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 157(5): 619-630, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354435

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to examine the role of dentofacial morphology in discriminating semi-isolated indigenous groups. These populations present a similar pattern of dietary habits. Studies in human genetics have reported a large intertribal genetic distance and low intratribal variation. METHODS: This study was conducted following the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines. Face dimensions were measured through facial photogrammetry, and dental arches and tooth size were evaluated using plaster models. A total of 98 subjects in the permanent dentition and belonging to 4 indigenous groups were analyzed: Arara-Iriri (n = 20), Arara-Laranjal (n = 33), Assurini (n = 25), and Xicrin-Kayapó (n = 20). The random and systematic errors were verified using the Dahlberg formula and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), respectively. In order to evaluate the discrimination of the variables to identify the indigenous groups, a discriminant analysis was performed (P <0.05). RESULTS: A small causal error (Dahlberg, 0.13-1.81) and excellent replicability (ICC, 0.75-0.99) for face dimensions as well as for models (Dahlberg, 0.10-0.68; ICC, 0.94-0.99) were observed. The discriminant analysis allowed the identification of 4 populations by facial and dental arch dimensions and tooth size. Dentofacial biometry revealed an accuracy of 98% for females and 100% for males, which confirms a high intragroup homogeneity and considerable intergroup heterogeneity for dentofacial features. CONCLUSIONS: Biometric measurements of the human face added with tooth size and dental arch dimensions are very useful to identify remote indigenous populations with high accuracy. Supported by previous studies in human genetics, these findings reinforce the role of genetic variation in the determination of dentofacial features.


Assuntos
Biometria , Grupos Populacionais , Arco Dental/anatomia & histologia , Face/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índios Sul-Americanos , Masculino , Fotogrametria
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