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1.
Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am ; 30(2): 183-191, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501056

RESUMO

Nasal enhancement is one of the most challenging and intriguing of aesthetic procedures. Although the nose is the most central and prominent facial feature, it should not be dominant while maintaining both a harmonious relationship with the face and its own intrinsic beauty. In this article, the first author shares his experience on how to specifically apply intradermal soft-tissue fillers (for particular indications) in nasal enhancement and incorporates patient assessment, anatomy of the nose, and injection techniques to provide guidance. Intradermal injections are required for specific regions, as for example in the treatment of internal and external valve collapse; however, several precautionary measures need to be implemented to minimize risks resulting in vascular compromise.


Assuntos
Técnicas Cosméticas , Rinoplastia , Face/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Injeções , Nariz/anatomia & histologia , Rinoplastia/métodos
2.
Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am ; 30(2): 233-237, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501061

RESUMO

The demand and use of injectable fillers are increasing and performed by practitioners at different levels. They are frequently used to rejuvenate and volumize the face, but there are well-known complications that can occur with intraluminal injection or compression of the facial vessels. The knowledge of the vascular anatomy of the face, particularly the predictable depth, can prevent these devastating complications.


Assuntos
Técnicas Cosméticas , Face/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Injeções
3.
J Forensic Odontostomatol ; 1(40): 34-41, 2022 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35499535

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to collect soft tissue thickness (STT) values of an Italian population from 12 bone landmarks, to improve the facial approximation process for identification purposes. 100 Italian adults (50 males and 50 females), who had undergone head CT for clinical purposes, were analysed in order to expand the database of the Italian population. Average values, standard deviation and range were collected according to gender and age and the obtained values were statistically analysed in order to evaluate any possible significant difference. Only one landmark was statistically significant associated with sex, females showed significantly higher values for para-zygomaxillary. Two landmarks were statistically significant associated with age, upper incisor and pogonion. The obtained results were compared with the existing literature. Such information can be useful in the forensic craniofacial reconstruction process and can facilitate choosing the most suitable STT values according to osteological analysis of the human remains.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Facial Automatizado , Antropologia Forense , Adulto , Face/anatomia & histologia , Face/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Antropologia Forense/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
4.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 3019194, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35463246

RESUMO

A novel multimodal biometric system is proposed using three-dimensional (3D) face and ear for human recognition. The proposed model overcomes the drawbacks of unimodal biometric systems and solves the 2D biometric problems such as occlusion and illumination. In the proposed model, initially, the principal component analysis (PCA) is utilized for 3D face recognition. Thereafter, the iterative closest point (ICP) is utilized for 3D ear recognition. Finally, the 3D face is fused with a 3D ear using score-level fusion. The simulations are performed on the Face Recognition Grand Challenge database and the University of Notre Dame Collection F database for 3D face and 3D ear datasets, respectively. Experimental results reveal that the proposed model achieves an accuracy of 99.25% using the proposed score-level fusion. Comparative analyses show that the proposed method performs better than other state-of-the-art biometric algorithms in terms of accuracy.


Assuntos
Identificação Biométrica , Biometria , Algoritmos , Identificação Biométrica/métodos , Biometria/métodos , Face/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Análise de Componente Principal
5.
IEEE Trans Image Process ; 31: 3224-3235, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35412980

RESUMO

In our daily life, a large number of activities require identity verification, e.g., ePassport gates. Most of those verification systems recognize who you are by matching the ID document photo (ID face) to your live face image (spot face). The ID vs. Spot (IvS) face recognition is different from general face recognition where each dataset usually contains a small number of subjects and sufficient images for each subject. In IvS face recognition, the datasets usually contain massive class numbers (million or more) while each class only has two image samples (one ID face and one spot face), which makes it very challenging to train an effective model (e.g., excessive demand on GPU memory if conducting the classification on such massive classes, hardly capture the effective features for bisample data of each identity, etc.). To avoid the excessive demand on GPU memory, a two-stage training method is developed, where we first train the model on the dataset in general face recognition (e.g., MS-Celeb-1M) and then employ the metric learning losses (e.g., triplet and quadruplet losses) to learn the features on IvS data with million classes. To extract more effective features for IvS face recognition, we propose two novel algorithms to enhance the network by selecting harder samples for training. Firstly, a Cross-Batch Hard Example Mining (CB-HEM) is proposed to select the hard triplets from not only the current mini-batch but also past dozens of mini-batches (for convenience, we use batch to denote a mini-batch in the following), which can significantly expand the space of sample selection. Secondly, a Pseudo Large Batch (PLB) is proposed to virtually increase the batch size with a fixed GPU memory. The proposed PLB and CB-HEM can be employed simultaneously to train the network, which dramatically expands the selecting space by hundreds of times, where the very hard sample pairs especially the hard negative pairs can be selected for training to enhance the discriminative capability. Extensive comparative evaluations conducted on multiple IvS benchmarks demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.


Assuntos
Identificação Biométrica , Reconhecimento Facial , Algoritmos , Benchmarking , Identificação Biométrica/métodos , Face/anatomia & histologia , Face/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos
6.
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 57(4): 358-365, 2022 Apr 09.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35368162

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the establishment of an efficient and automatic method to determine anatomical landmarks in three-dimensional (3D) facial data, and to evaluate the effectiveness of this method in determining landmarks. Methods: A total of 30 male patients with tooth defect or dentition defect (with good facial symmetry) who visited the Department of Prosthodontics, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology from June to August 2021 were selected, and these participants' age was between 18-45 years. 3D facial data of patients was collected and the size normalization and overlap alignment were performed based on the Procrustes analysis algorithm. A 3D face average model was built in Geomagic Studio 2013 software, and a 3D face template was built through parametric processing. MeshLab 2020 software was used to determine the serial number information of 32 facial anatomical landmarks (10 midline landmarks and 22 bilateral landmarks). Five male patients with no mandibular deviation and 5 with mild mandibular deviation were selected from the Department of Orthodontics or Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology from June to August 2021. 3D facial data of patients was collected as test data. Based on the 3D face template and the serial number information of the facial anatomical landmarks, the coordinates of 32 facial anatomical landmarks on the test data were automatically determined with the help of the MeshMonk non-rigid registration algorithm program, as the data for the template method to determine the landmarks. The positions of 32 facial anatomical landmarks on the test data were manually determined by the same attending physician, and the coordinates of the landmarks were recorded as the data for determining landmarks by the expert method. Calculated the distance value of the coordinates of facial anatomical landmarks between the template method and the expert method, as the landmark localization error, and evaluated the effect of the template method in determining the landmarks. Results: For 5 patients with no mandibular deviation, the landmark localization error of all facial anatomical landmarks by template method was (1.65±1.19) mm, the landmark localization error of the midline facial anatomical landmarks was (1.19±0.45) mm, the landmark localization error of bilateral facial anatomical landmarks was (1.85±1.33) mm. For 5 patients with mild mandibular deviation, the landmark localization error of all facial anatomical landmarks by template method was (2.55±2.22) mm, the landmark localization error of the midline facial anatomical landmarks was (1.85±1.13) mm, the landmark localization error of bilateral facial anatomical landmarks was (2.87±2.45) mm. Conclusions: The automatic determination method of facial anatomical landmarks proposed in this study has certain feasibility, and the determination effect of midline facial anatomical landmarks is better than that of bilateral facial anatomical landmarks. The effect of determining facial anatomical landmarks in patients without mandibular deviation is better than that in patients with mild mandibular deviation.


Assuntos
Má Oclusão , Ortodontia , Adolescente , Adulto , Algoritmos , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos , Cefalometria/métodos , Face/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Software , Adulto Jovem
7.
Nat Genet ; 54(4): 403-411, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35393595

RESUMO

Facial morphology-a conspicuous feature of human appearance-is highly heritable. Previous studies on the genetic basis of facial morphology were performed mainly in European-ancestry cohorts (EUR). Applying a data-driven phenotyping and multivariate genome-wide scanning protocol to a large collection of three-dimensional facial images of individuals with East Asian ancestry (EAS), we identified 244 variants in 166 loci (62 new) associated with typical-range facial variation. A newly proposed polygenic shape analysis indicates that the effects of the variants on facial shape in EAS can be generalized to EUR. Based on this, we further identified 13 variants related to differences between facial shape in EUR and EAS populations. Evolutionary analyses suggest that the difference in nose shape between EUR and EAS populations is caused by a directional selection, due mainly to a local adaptation in Europeans. Our results illustrate the underlying genetic basis for facial differences across populations.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , /genética , Face/anatomia & histologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
8.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 25(4): 454-465, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35439904

RESUMO

Aim: This cross-sectional observational retrospective study aimed at assessing the cephalometric skeleto-dental features of class I, II, and III skeletal relationship of Saudi female school children sample and comparing the results to the established British Caucasian cephalometric standards. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 205 retrospective lateral cephalometric radiographs of female school children. The age range of the subjects were between 10 and 13 years old with a mean age of 11 ± 1 years. Several cephalometric and constructed points were identified. Angular, linear, and proportional measurements were obtained and analyzed. The skeleto-dental features of class II and class III were compared to class I of this sample and then compared with the established British Caucasian population. Different angular, linear, and proportional variables were investigated. Descriptive statistics and Student's t-test were used for data analysis. Results: The distribution of the skeletal relationship revealed that 68.3% of the sample showed class I relationship, 16.1% class II, and 15.6% class III. The result indicates significant differences among the different classes. A greater tendency towards class II facial pattern and more convex profile among Saudis were detected in the present study compared to Caucasians. Furthermore, The dento-alveolar relationship results showed more bi-maxillary protrusion among Saudi females compared to the British Caucasians. Conclusion: The results of the study can serve as a base-line for future investigations in Saudi Arabia. Furthermore, the results obtained can also be of great value in distinguishing the various skeleto-dental features in the different skeletal classes among the Saudi females, and in the clinical diagnosis and treatment planning.


Assuntos
Face , Adolescente , Cefalometria/métodos , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Face/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(7)2022 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35408203

RESUMO

A problem with biometric information is that it is more sensitive to external leakage, because it is information that cannot be changed immediately compared to general authentication methods. Regarding facial information, a case in which authentication was permitted by facial information output by a 3D printer was found. Therefore, a method for minimizing the leakage of biometric information to the outside is required. In this paper, different levels of identification information according to the authority of the user are provided by the de-identification of metadata and face information in stages. For face information and metadata, the level of de-identification is determined and achieved according to the risk level of the de-identified subject. Then, we propose a mechanism to minimize the leakage path by preventing reckless data access by classifying access rights to unidentified data according to four roles. The proposed mechanism provides only differentially de-identified data according to the authority of the accessor, and the required time to perform the de-identification of one image was, on average, 3.6 ms for 300 datapoints, 3.5 ms for 500 datapoints, and 3.47 ms for 1000 datapoints. This confirmed that the required execution time was shortened in proportion to the increase in the size of the dataset. The results for the metadata were similar, and it was confirmed that it took 4.3 ms for 300 cases, 3.78 ms for 500 cases, and 3.5 ms for 1000 cases.


Assuntos
Identificação Biométrica , Anonimização de Dados , Identificação Biométrica/métodos , Biometria , Atenção à Saúde , Face/anatomia & histologia
10.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 2774713, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35252441

RESUMO

This work proposes a 3D normative database of facial ranges of motion in adults free from facial disorders. Ten facial movements were analyzed, each targeting the activity of specific muscle groups innervated by the facial nerve. The experimental protocol included a test-retest reliability positioning procedure of 25 skin markers based on clinical expertise in facial morphology. Three maximal voluntary contractions were recorded for each facial movement studied, using a 3D facial motion capture helmet. We included 53 adults free from facial disorders (26 men; age 43 ± 14), evaluated twice one week apart. The reliability of marker positioning was expressed as absolute measurement errors. The range of motion vectors of all markers from the best rest to the maximal voluntary contraction was calculated for each muscle group. Primary, secondary, and tertiary markers were extracted for each facial movement. 3D Procruste and asymmetry indices were developed. This allowed the identification of common thresholds of 10% for the asymmetry index and of 6 mm for the Procruste index, beyond which facial motions would be considered abnormally asymmetric. The normative database quantifies facial motions and allows assessment of the degree of clinical disorders by comparison. This protocol is currently being investigated in patients with chronic unilateral peripheral facial paresis.


Assuntos
Paralisia Facial , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Adulto , Face/anatomia & histologia , Músculos Faciais , Dispositivos de Proteção da Cabeça , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Movimento , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
11.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 4695193, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35229002

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the width and height ratios of maxillary anterior teeth at different crown levels through photographs, 3D, and plaster dental model techniques in a subset of the Pakistani population. Material and Methods. This clinical study consisted of 230 participants. The maxillary impression, standardized photographs, and models were constructed for crown width and height analysis. The SPSS version 25 was used for statistical analysis. Descriptive statistics were carried out for mean, standard deviation, and percentage calculation of teeth width and height, gender, and age of participants. Paired t-test analysis was carried out to compare the dependent variables (teeth size, width, and height ratios) with independent variables (techniques applied, side disparity). A p value of ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: The mean width and height of maxillary anterior teeth obtained through photographs, 3D, and plater models were statistically different. The 3D dental model analysis showed reliable and accurate results. The mean width and height ratio of teeth were different on both sides of the arch. There was a significant difference (p = 0.001) in crown width-height ratios at different crown levels. CONCLUSION: The width and height ratios in the studied population were different at various crown levels. The dimensions of teeth varied from the incisal to the cervical part of the crown. Hence, rather than relying on a single, fixed ratio of 78% to 80% suggested by researchers for anterior teeth, the clinician should adopt different crown width-height ratios to restore teeth with the optimum esthetic outcome.


Assuntos
Dente Canino/anatomia & histologia , Estética Dentária , Face/anatomia & histologia , Incisivo/anatomia & histologia , Coroa do Dente/anatomia & histologia , Adulto , Estatura , Estética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Odontometria , Fotografia Dentária , Fatores Sexuais
12.
Proc Biol Sci ; 289(1971): 20220143, 2022 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35317674

RESUMO

The broad autism phenotype commonly refers to sub-clinical levels of autistic-like behaviour and cognition presented in biological relatives of autistic people. In a recent study, we reported findings suggesting that the broad autism phenotype may also be expressed in facial morphology, specifically increased facial masculinity. Increased facial masculinity has been reported among autistic children, as well as their non-autistic siblings. The present study builds on our previous findings by investigating the presence of increased facial masculinity among non-autistic parents of autistic children. Using a previously established method, a 'facial masculinity score' and several facial distances were calculated for each three-dimensional facial image of 192 parents of autistic children (58 males, 134 females) and 163 age-matched parents of non-autistic children (50 males, 113 females). While controlling for facial area and age, significantly higher masculinity scores and larger (more masculine) facial distances were observed in parents of autistic children relative to the comparison group, with effect sizes ranging from small to medium (0.16 ≤ d ≤ .41), regardless of sex. These findings add to an accumulating evidence base that the broad autism phenotype is expressed in physical characteristics and suggest that both maternal and paternal pathways are implicated in masculinized facial morphology.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico , Face/anatomia & histologia , Pai , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Masculinidade , Fenótipo
13.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 4623368, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35310577

RESUMO

Heterogeneous face recognition (HFR) aims to match face images across different imaging domains such as visible-to-infrared and visible-to-thermal. Recently, the increasing utility of nonvisible imaging has increased the application prospects of HFR in areas such as biometrics, security, and surveillance. HFR is a challenging variate of face recognition due to the differences between different imaging domains. While the current research has proposed image preprocessing, feature extraction, or common subspace projection for HFR, the optimization of these multi-stage methods is a challenging task as each step needs to be optimized separately and the performance error accumulates over each stage. In this paper, we propose a unified end-to-end Cross-Modality Discriminator Network (CMDN) for HFR. The proposed network uses a Deep Relational Discriminator module to learn deep feature relations for cross-domain face matching. Simultaneously, the CMDN is used to extract modality-independent embedding vectors for face images. The CMDN parameters are optimized using a novel Unit-Class Loss that shows higher stability and accuracy over other popular metric-learning loss functions. The experimental results on five popular HFR datasets demonstrate that the proposed method achieves significant improvement over the existing state-of-the-art methods.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Facial , Algoritmos , Biometria , Face/anatomia & histologia
14.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 5818180, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35341177

RESUMO

The existing face image recognition algorithm can accurately identify underexposed facial images, but the abuse of face image recognition technology can associate face features with personally identifiable information, resulting in privacy disclosure of the users. The paper puts forward a method for private face image generation based on deidentification under low light. First of all, the light enhancement and attenuation networks are pretrained using the training set, and low-light face images in the test set are input into the light enhancement network for photo enhancement. Then the facial area is captured by the face interception network, and corresponding latent code will be created through the latent code generation network and feature disentanglement will be done. Tiny noise will be added to the latent code by the face generation network to create deidentified face images which will be input in a light attenuation network to generate private facial images in a low-lighting style. At last, experiments show that, compared with other state-of-the-art algorithms, this method is more successful in generating low-light private face images with the most similar structure to original photos. It protects users' privacy effectively by reducing the accuracy of the face recognition network, while also ensuring the practicability of the images.


Assuntos
Anonimização de Dados , Reconhecimento Facial , Algoritmos , Face/anatomia & histologia , Iluminação
15.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0262286, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35192638

RESUMO

Computer vision (CV) is widely used in the investigation of facial expressions. Applications range from psychological evaluation to neurology, to name just two examples. CV for identifying facial expressions may suffer from several shortcomings: CV provides indirect information about muscle activation, it is insensitive to activations that do not involve visible deformations, such as jaw clenching. Moreover, it relies on high-resolution and unobstructed visuals. High density surface electromyography (sEMG) recordings with soft electrode array is an alternative approach which provides direct information about muscle activation, even from freely behaving humans. In this investigation, we compare CV and sEMG analysis of facial muscle activation. We used independent component analysis (ICA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) to quantify the similarity and disparity between the two approaches for posed muscle activations. The comparison reveals similarity in event detection, but discrepancies and inconsistencies in source identification. Specifically, the correspondence between sEMG and action unit (AU)-based analyses, the most widely used basis of CV muscle activation prediction, appears to vary between participants and sessions. We also show a comparison between AU and sEMG data of spontaneous smiles, highlighting the differences between the two approaches. The data presented in this paper suggests that the use of AU-based analysis should consider its limited ability to reliably compare between different sessions and individuals and highlight the advantages of high-resolution sEMG for facial expression analysis.


Assuntos
Eletromiografia/métodos , Face/diagnóstico por imagem , Expressão Facial , Músculos Faciais/diagnóstico por imagem , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão/métodos , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Adulto , Eletrodos , Face/anatomia & histologia , Face/fisiologia , Músculos Faciais/anatomia & histologia , Músculos Faciais/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino
16.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0259329, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35192639

RESUMO

By identifying homogeneity in bone and soft tissue covariation patterns in living hominids, it is possible to produce facial approximation methods with interspecies compatibility. These methods may be useful for producing facial approximations of fossil hominids that are more realistic than currently possible. In this study, we conducted an interspecific comparison of the nasomaxillary region in chimpanzees and modern humans with the aim of producing a method for predicting the positions of the nasal tips of Plio-Pleistocene hominids. We addressed this aim by first collecting and performing regression analyses of linear and angular measurements of nasal cavity length and inclination in modern humans (Homo sapiens; n = 72) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes; n = 19), and then performing a set of out-of-group tests. The first test was performed on four subjects that belonged to the same genus as the training sample, i.e., Homo (n = 2) and Pan (n = 2), and the second test, which functioned as an interspecies compatibility test, was performed on Pan paniscus (n = 1), Gorilla gorilla (n = 3), Pongo pygmaeus (n = 1), Pongo abelli (n = 1), Symphalangus syndactylus (n = 3), and Papio hamadryas (n = 3). We identified statistically significant correlations in both humans and chimpanzees with slopes that displayed homogeneity of covariation. Prediction formulae combining these data were found to be compatible with humans and chimpanzees as well as all other African great apes, i.e., bonobos and gorillas. The main conclusion that can be drawn from this study is that our set of regression models for approximating the position of the nasal tip are homogenous among humans and African apes, and can thus be reasonably extended to ancestors leading to these clades.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Face/anatomia & histologia , Nariz/anatomia & histologia , Pan troglodytes/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Fósseis/história , Gorilla gorilla/anatomia & histologia , Gorilla gorilla/classificação , História Antiga , Humanos , Hylobatidae/anatomia & histologia , Hylobatidae/classificação , Masculino , Pan paniscus/anatomia & histologia , Pan paniscus/classificação , Papio hamadryas/anatomia & histologia , Papio hamadryas/classificação , Filogenia , Pongo abelii/anatomia & histologia , Pongo abelii/classificação , Pongo pygmaeus/anatomia & histologia , Pongo pygmaeus/classificação , Análise de Regressão
17.
Codas ; 34(1): e20200114, 2022.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35019062

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare orofacial anthropometric measurements, with weight, height and sex of newborns. METHODS: Observational cross-sectional study carried out with 130 newborns on exclusive breastfeeding. Data collection was performed by properly trained and calibrated speech therapists. The orofacial measurements of the newborns were performed with flexible and transparent ruler 10 cm long, in the following segments: heights of the upper third(tr-g), the middle third(g-sn) and the lower third on the face (sn-gn); filter height (sn-Is), distance between the corner of the eye and the labial commissure on the right and left side (ex-ch). Weight and height measurements were collected from the newborns' medical records. The data were submitted to statistical analysis, using the Mann-Whitney test, adopting a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: Of the 130 newborns, 61 were male and 69 female. The median weight was 3.3 kg and the median height was 49 cm. There was significant difference between weight and measurement distance between the corner of the eye and the left and right labial commissure (ex-ch). There was no significant difference in orofacial measurements with sex and height. CONCLUSION: There was no difference in orofacial anthropometric measurements of full-term newborns when compared with sex and height; however, when compared to weight, there is a difference in the measurements of the distance between the corner of the eye and the labial commissure on the right and left side.


OBJETIVO: Comparar as medidas antropométricas orofaciais, com peso, altura e sexo de recém-nascidos. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal observacional realizado com 130 recém-nascidos em aleitamento materno exclusivo. A coleta de dados foi realizada por fonoaudiólogas devidamente treinadas e calibradas. As medidas orofaciais dos recém-nascidos foram realizadas com uma régua maleável e transparente de 10 cm de comprimento, nos seguintes segmentos: alturas do terço superior (tr-g), do terço médio (g-sn) e do terço inferior da face (sn-gn); altura do filtro (sn-Is); distância entre o canto do olho e a comissura labial do lado direito e esquerdo (ex-ch). A medida do peso e da altura foram coletadas nos prontuários dos recém-nascidos. Os dados foram submetidos à análise estatística, sendo aplicado o teste de Mann-Whitney, adotando nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: Dos 130 recém-nascidos, 61 eram do sexo masculino e 69 do sexo feminino. A mediana do peso foi de 3,3 kg e da altura de 49 cm. Houve diferença significativa entre o peso e a medida da distância entre o canto do olho e a comissura labial do lado direito e esquerdo (ex-ch). Não foi encontrada diferença significativa das medidas orofaciais com sexo e altura. CONCLUSÃO: Não houve diferença nas medidas antropométricas orofaciais de recém-nascidos a termo quando comparadas com sexo e altura; porém, quando comparadas com peso, há diferença nas medidas da distância entre o canto do olho e a comissura labial do lado direito e esquerdo.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Face , Antropometria , Estatura , Estudos Transversais , Face/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Cabeça , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino
18.
J Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 80(5): 838-849, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35033506

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to investigate whether there were differences in perception of facial profile esthetics at the upper lip, gnathic, and genial levels according to observer gender and age in the Korean layperson population. METHODS: Ten male (M1 to M10) and 10 female (F1 to F10) silhouettes with differing facial profiles at the level of the upper lip, mandibular, and chin were created from a male and female facial profile deemed well-balanced and orthognathic by reviewer consensus. These silhouettes were presented to 288 participants who were asked to rank the 5 most attractive male and female profiles. The participants were composed of 144 males and 144 females divided into 4 age groups: group I (under 20 years), group II (20 to 39 years), group III (40 to 59 years), and group IV (over 60 years). The most preferred profile and observer scores were investigated and calculated. Descriptive analysis, χ2 test, and analysis of variance were used for statistical analysis according to age and gender. RESULTS: The most preferred male and female silhouettes were orthognathic profiles. There was no significant difference according to gender when rating male (P = .281) and female (P = .442) silhouettes. No statistically significant difference was observed even when analyzed according to age groups. Although the difference in observer scores among each ranking showed a statistical difference according to age groups, the overall rankings showed a similar pattern both in male and female silhouettes. In the same age group, no difference in rank scores according to gender was observed. Severe concave profiles were found to have the lowest rank. CONCLUSIONS: An orthognathic profile was rated as the most desirable in the Korean layperson population, with few differences in perception of esthetic facial profile according to age and gender.


Assuntos
Estética Dentária , Face , Adulto , Cefalometria , Face/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lábio/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Percepção , República da Coreia , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Physiol Anthropol ; 41(1): 3, 2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34996526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this paper, we investigate facial sexual dimorphism and its' association with body dimorphism in Maasai, the traditional seminomadic population of Tanzania. We discuss findings on other human populations and possible factors affecting the developmental processes in Maasai. METHODS: Full-face anthropological photographs were obtained from 305 Maasai (185 men, 120 women) aged 17-90 years. Facial shape was assessed combining geometric morphometrics and classical facial indices. Body parameters were measured directly using precise anthropological instruments. RESULTS: Sexual dimorphism in Maasai faces was low, sex explained 1.8% of the total shape variance. However, male faces were relatively narrower and vertically prolonged, with slightly wider noses, narrower-set and lower eyebrows, wider mouths, and higher forehead hairline. The most sexually dimorphic regions of the face were the lower jaw and the nose. Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR), measured in six known variants, revealed no significant sexual dimorphism. The allometric effects on facial traits were mostly related to the face growth, rather than the growth of the whole body (body height). Significant body dimorphism was demonstrated, men being significantly higher, with larger wrist diameter and hand grip strength, and women having higher BMI, hips circumferences, upper arm circumferences, triceps skinfolds. Facial and body sexual dimorphisms were not associated. CONCLUSIONS: Facial sex differences in Maasai are very low, while on the contrary, the body sexual dimorphism is high. There were practically no associations between facial and body measures. These findings are interpreted in the light of trade-offs between environmental, cultural, and sexual selection pressures.


Assuntos
Constituição Corporal , Face/anatomia & histologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Força da Mão , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tanzânia/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 149(2): 303e-312e, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35077430

RESUMO

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: After studying this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Recognize facial muscle contraction direction and muscle morphology based on skin surface movements and facial rhytides. 2. Classify different muscle contraction patterns and target respectively with the recommended dosage and injection technique. 3. Apply the presented injection techniques to the patients' individual anatomy with greater precision and without affecting adjacent muscles or causing other adverse events. SUMMARY: Facial muscular anatomy has recently gained increased attention, with new investigative methodologies and new injection techniques arising on the market. These recent advancements have increased our understanding about the functional anatomy of facial muscles and have changed the way health care professionals see and understand their interplay during various facial expressions and in determining facial shape. This new anatomical understanding of facial muscles and their interaction has resulted in superior neuromodulator treatment outcomes with fewer side effects and with increased precision. The latter is of greatest importance, as all facial muscles act as a unit and connect with each other. It is therefore paramount to target during neuromodulator treatments only the muscle responsible for the aesthetic effect desired and not other adjacent muscles, which can have different or even antagonistic effects. Conventional anatomy was previously limited to two-dimensional explanations of muscle locations without incorporating their detailed action or their three-dimensional location of extent. The "new" anatomy incorporates those novel concepts and, once understood, will help health care providers to understand better and to "read" the underlying muscular anatomy based on the wrinkle status and based on the change in skin surface landmarks based on the actions of the underlying musculature. The following article summarizes tips and tricks, pearls and pitfalls, and dos and don'ts during facial neuromodulator injections along with a guide toward adverse event management and patient outcome assessment with special focus on the underlying anatomy.


Assuntos
Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/administração & dosagem , Técnicas Cosméticas , Face/anatomia & histologia , Músculos Faciais/anatomia & histologia , Músculos Faciais/fisiologia , Contração Muscular , Envelhecimento da Pele , Humanos , Injeções/métodos
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