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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19620, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36380072

RESUMO

There is now scientific evidence that, in dogs, distinctive facial actions are produced in response to different emotionally-arousing stimuli suggesting a relationship between lateralized facial expressions and emotional states. Although in humans, relationships between facial asymmetry and both emotional and physiological distress have been reported, there are currently no data on the laterality of dogs' facial expressions in response to social stimuli with respect to canine behavioral disorders. The aim of the present work was to investigate the facial asymmetries of dogs with fear and aggressive behavior towards humans during two different emotional situations: (1) while the dogs were alone in the presence of their owners and (2) during the approach of an unfamiliar human being. Overall, our results demonstrated high levels of asymmetries in facial expressions of dogs displaying fear and aggressive behaviors towards humans indicating that measuring facial asymmetries in dogs could prove to be a useful non-invasive tool for investigating physiology-based behavioral disorders.


Assuntos
Assimetria Facial , Expressão Facial , Cães , Humanos , Animais , Medo/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Face/fisiologia
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 16876, 2022 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36207524

RESUMO

Using a novel wearable surface electromyography (sEMG), we investigated induced affective states by measuring the activation of facial muscles traditionally associated with positive (left/right orbicularis and left/right zygomaticus) and negative expressions (the corrugator muscle). In a sample of 38 participants that watched 25 affective videos in a virtual reality environment, we found that each of the three variables examined-subjective valence, subjective arousal, and objective valence measured via the validated video types (positive, neutral, and negative)-sEMG amplitude varied significantly depending on video content. sEMG aptitude from "positive muscles" increased when participants were exposed to positively valenced stimuli compared with stimuli that was negatively valenced. In contrast, activation of "negative muscles" was elevated following exposure to negatively valenced stimuli compared with positively valenced stimuli. High arousal videos increased muscle activations compared to low arousal videos in all the measured muscles except the corrugator muscle. In line with previous research, the relationship between sEMG amplitude as a function of subjective valence was V-shaped.


Assuntos
Músculos Faciais , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Afeto/fisiologia , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Eletromiografia , Emoções/fisiologia , Face/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , Músculos Faciais/fisiologia , Humanos
3.
Int J Cosmet Sci ; 44(6): 636-649, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35838276

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Ideal complexion is a perceptual skin quality that is strongly influenced by cultural and ethnic background. The objectives of this study are to quantitatively characterise skin ideal complexion based on clinical image cues and to compare the perceptions of ideal complexion among multiple ethnicities. METHODS: Facial images of Indian, Chinese, Caucasian and Latino females collected using VISIA®-CR were presented to naïve panels of the same ethnicity following a two-alternative forced choice design and responses on skin 'ideal complexion' were obtained from 336 panellists. Panel perception was transformed logistically (d') and projected onto a continuum (ω) following Bradley-Terry model. Image cues including skin colour and unevenness, skin shine and surface smoothness and pigmentary blotches and spots were computed using image analysis, and their relationship with ω was evaluated through multiple regression analysis. A novel skin index, namely ideal complexion score (ICS), was developed and correlated against age using linear regression. Finally, ICS was applied to evaluate treatment efficacy of a skin brightening kit on 35 female Caucasian subjects. RESULTS: Panel perception d' showed statistically significant (p < 0.05) correlation with the contrast of image cues for all ethnic panels (R2  = 0.74, 0.76, 0.62 and 0.46 for Indian, Chinese, Caucasian and Latino respectively) and strong correlations between perception ω and linear combinations of image cues were observed (R2 > 0.88 for all). Main effects of facial image visual cues on ideal complexion were compared: contrast of skin redness and pigmented spots and visual smoothness were important in determining ICS for all ethnicities; skin colour unevenness was more pronounced for Indian and Caucasian; skin lightness was important for Indian and Chinese; skin shine was critical for Chinese and Latino; and skin hue angle ranked higher for Caucasian. Correlations between ICS and age were observed for Indian and Caucasian (R2  = 0.55) in which ICS decreased as age increased. Twenty-nine percent improvement on ICS was observed after 12 weeks' treatment using the brightening kit compared with the baseline. CONCLUSION: Mathematical models were successfully established to describe subjective perception towards skin ideal complexion based on objectively measured image cues for multiple ethnicities.


OBJECTIF: Le teint idéal est une qualité de peau perceptuelle qui est fortement influencée par l'origine culturelle et ethnique. Les objectifs de cette étude consistent à caractériser quantitativement le teint idéal de la peau en se basant sur des repères d'image clinique et à comparer les perceptions du teint idéal parmi plusieurs origines ethniques. MÉTHODES: Des images faciales de femmes indiennes, chinoises, caucasiennes et latino-américaines recueillies à l'aide de VISIA®-CR ont été présentées à des panels naïfs de même origine ethnique, suivant une conception à choix forcé en deux alternatives, et les réponses concernant le «teint idéal¼ de la peau ont été obtenues de 336 membres du panel. La perception du panel a été transformée sur le plan logistique (d') et projetée sur un continuum (ω) selon le modèle de BradleyTerry. Les repères d'image, y compris la couleur, l'uniformité et la brillance de la peau, et la douceur de la surface de la peau, ainsi que les taches et rougeurs pigmentaires, ont été calculés à l'aide d'une analyse d'image, et leur relation avec ω a été évaluée par le biais d'une analyse de régression multiple. Un nouvel indice cutané, à savoir le score de teint idéal (STI), a été développé et corrélé à l'âge à l'aide d'une régression linéaire. Enfin, un STI a été appliqué pour évaluer l'efficacité du traitement d'un kit d'éclaircissement de la peau chez 35 sujets caucasiens de sexe féminin. RÉSULTATS: La perception du panel d' a montré une significativité statistique (p de 0.88 pour tous). Les principaux effets des repères visuels de l'image faciale sur le teint idéal ont été comparés : le contraste des rougeurs cutanées, les taches pigmentées et la douceur visuelle étaient importants pour déterminer les STI pour toutes les origines ethniques; l'inégalité de la couleur de la peau était plus prononcée pour les Indiens et les Caucasiens; la luminosité de la peau était importante pour les Indiens et les Chinois ; et l'angle de teinte de la peau était plus élevée pour les sujets caucasiens. Des corrélations entre les STI et l'âge ont été observées pour les populations indienne et caucasienne (R2  = 0.55) chez lesquelles les STI ont diminué avec l'âge. Une amélioration de vingt-neuf pour cent des STI a été observée après 12 semaines de traitement à l'aide du kit d'éclaircissement par rapport à la référence. CONCLUSION: Des modèles mathématiques ont été établis avec succès afin de décrire la perception subjective du teint idéal de la peau sur la base d'indices d'image mesurés objectivement pour plusieurs origines ethniques.


Assuntos
Sinais (Psicologia) , Etnicidade , Humanos , Face/fisiologia , Pigmentação da Pele , Percepção
4.
J Orthod ; 49(4): 463-471, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35437070

RESUMO

The article reviews the ageing changes of the midfacial and maxillary bones, the mandible, the overlaying soft tissues and the smile, and presents clinical guidelines aiming to rejuvenate older faces by means of orthodontic therapy. With regard to the ageing changes, the maxillary skeleton appears to rotate clockwise inferior to the orbit and becomes retrusive, and as a general pattern the midface contracts and deteriorates with age. Resorption below the mental foramen, reduction in alveolar height, loss of bone at the chin region, and relative increase in size and shape are signs of an aged mandible. Epidermal thinning and decrease in collagen in combination with the effect of gravity and various external factors contribute to the ageing of the skin. Atrophy of the superficial and deep fat, changes in ligamentous tissues and changes in muscle structure, position and tone, all contribute to the stigmata of the aged face. In the article, two late adulthood orthodontic cases are discussed as examples, and general guidelines for orthodontic management of the older face aiming at reversing the 'shrinkage' of the tissues by restoring the facial shape and tightening the soft tissue mask are described. The possible mechanisms explaining the changes observed on the faces of the clinical cases are also discussed. A properly planned and executed orthodontic intervention reversing changes from the inside-out before embarking on cosmetic surgery might have a synergistic effect multiplying the benefits for adult patients.


Assuntos
Ortodontia , Rejuvenescimento , Humanos , Adulto , Idoso , Rejuvenescimento/fisiologia , Face/fisiologia , Face/cirurgia , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Maxila
5.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0262286, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35192638

RESUMO

Computer vision (CV) is widely used in the investigation of facial expressions. Applications range from psychological evaluation to neurology, to name just two examples. CV for identifying facial expressions may suffer from several shortcomings: CV provides indirect information about muscle activation, it is insensitive to activations that do not involve visible deformations, such as jaw clenching. Moreover, it relies on high-resolution and unobstructed visuals. High density surface electromyography (sEMG) recordings with soft electrode array is an alternative approach which provides direct information about muscle activation, even from freely behaving humans. In this investigation, we compare CV and sEMG analysis of facial muscle activation. We used independent component analysis (ICA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) to quantify the similarity and disparity between the two approaches for posed muscle activations. The comparison reveals similarity in event detection, but discrepancies and inconsistencies in source identification. Specifically, the correspondence between sEMG and action unit (AU)-based analyses, the most widely used basis of CV muscle activation prediction, appears to vary between participants and sessions. We also show a comparison between AU and sEMG data of spontaneous smiles, highlighting the differences between the two approaches. The data presented in this paper suggests that the use of AU-based analysis should consider its limited ability to reliably compare between different sessions and individuals and highlight the advantages of high-resolution sEMG for facial expression analysis.


Assuntos
Eletromiografia/métodos , Face/diagnóstico por imagem , Expressão Facial , Músculos Faciais/diagnóstico por imagem , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão/métodos , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Adulto , Eletrodos , Face/anatomia & histologia , Face/fisiologia , Músculos Faciais/anatomia & histologia , Músculos Faciais/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(5)2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35074880

RESUMO

Despite our fluency in reading human faces, sometimes we mistakenly perceive illusory faces in objects, a phenomenon known as face pareidolia. Although illusory faces share some neural mechanisms with real faces, it is unknown to what degree pareidolia engages higher-level social perception beyond the detection of a face. In a series of large-scale behavioral experiments (ntotal = 3,815 adults), we found that illusory faces in inanimate objects are readily perceived to have a specific emotional expression, age, and gender. Most strikingly, we observed a strong bias to perceive illusory faces as male rather than female. This male bias could not be explained by preexisting semantic or visual gender associations with the objects, or by visual features in the images. Rather, this robust bias in the perception of gender for illusory faces reveals a cognitive bias arising from a broadly tuned face evaluation system in which minimally viable face percepts are more likely to be perceived as male.


Assuntos
Face/fisiologia , Ilusões/fisiologia , Adulto , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos
7.
Emotion ; 22(5): 931-944, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757566

RESUMO

A large body of research on emotion communication has demonstrated that facial muscle movements (i.e., facial expressions) influence social perceptions made from faces. However, new research suggests that head position can also affect the way that faces are perceived, by systematically changing the appearance of the face. More specifically, according to the action-unit imposter account, tilting one's head downward causes the eyebrows to appear lower and take on a V shape-the same appearance cues associated with a particular facial muscle movement (corrugator activity, or Action Unit 4 [AU4]). Drawing on this account, four studies (two of which were preregistered) tested whether a downward head tilt intensifies perceptions of facial expressions of emotion that include V-shaped eyebrows from AU4 but weaken perceptions of expressions that do not. Supporting this hypothesis, findings showed that (a) when the head is tilted downward, anger expressions-which include V-shaped eyebrows from AU4-are perceived as more intense, whereas expressions of happiness, disgust, fear, and surprise-which do not include V-shaped eyebrows from AU4-are perceived as less intense; (b) visually apparent changes to the eyebrows caused by the action-unit imposter effect account for the effect of a downward head tilt on perceptions of anger; and (c) this head movement is spontaneously used by individuals seeking to encode facial expressions of anger. Together, findings suggest that head movements play an important role in communicating emotion expressions from the face, especially anger. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Expressão Facial , Reconhecimento Facial , Ira , Emoções/fisiologia , Face/fisiologia , Humanos , Percepção Social
8.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 75(7): 1314-1329, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34609225

RESUMO

People tend to evaluate their own traits and abilities favourably and such favourable self-perceptions extend to attractiveness. However, the exact mechanism underlying this self-enhancement bias remains unclear. One possibility could be the identification with attractive others through blurring of self-other boundaries. Across two experiments, we used the enfacement illusion to investigate the effect of others' attractiveness in the multisensory perception of the self. In Experiment 1 (N = 35), participants received synchronous or asynchronous interpersonal visuo-tactile stimulation with an attractive and non-attractive face. In Experiment 2 (N = 35), two new faces were used and spatial incongruency was introduced as a control condition. The results showed that increased ratings of attractiveness of an unfamiliar face lead to blurring of self-other boundaries, allowing the identification of our psychological self with another's physical self and specifically their face, and this seems to be unrelated to perceived own attractiveness. The effect of facial attractiveness on face ownership showed dissociable mechanisms, with multisensory integration modulating the effect on similarity but not identification, an effect that may be purely based on vision. Overall, our findings suggest that others' attractiveness may lead to positive distortions of the self. This research provides a psychophysical starting point for studying the impact of others' attractiveness on self-face recognition, which can be particularly important for individuals with malleable, embodied self-other boundaries and body image disturbances.


Assuntos
Ilusões , Percepção do Tato , Face/fisiologia , Humanos , Ilusões/fisiologia , Autoimagem , Tato/fisiologia , Percepção do Tato/fisiologia
9.
Neurobiol Aging ; 110: 1-12, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34837869

RESUMO

Impaired memory is a hallmark of prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD). Prior knowledge associated with the memoranda improves memory in healthy individuals, but we ignore whether the same occurs in early AD. We used functional MRI to investigate whether prior knowledge enhances memory encoding in early AD, and whether the nature of this prior knowledge matters. Patients with early AD and Controls underwent a task-based fMRI experiment where they learned face-scene associations. Famous faces carried pre-experimental knowledge (PEK), while unknown faces with which participants were familiarized prior to learning carried experimental knowledge (EK). Surprisingly, PEK strongly enhanced subsequent memory in healthy controls, but importantly not in patients. Partly nonoverlapping brain networks supported PEK vs. EK associative encoding in healthy controls. No such networks were identified in patients. In addition, patients displayed impaired activation in a right sub hippocampal region where activity predicted successful associative memory formation for PEK stimuli. Despite the limited sample sizes of this study, these findings suggest that the role prior knowledge in new learning might have been so far overlooked and underestimated in AD patients. Prior knowledge may drive critical differences in the way healthy elderly and early AD patients learn novel associations.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Aprendizagem por Associação/fisiologia , Comportamento/fisiologia , Face/fisiologia , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Conhecimento , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Memória/fisiologia , Idade de Início , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Envelhecimento Saudável/psicologia , Voluntários Saudáveis/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa
10.
Behav Brain Res ; 416: 113560, 2022 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461163

RESUMO

Past research reveals left-hemisphere dominance for linguistic processing and right-hemisphere dominance for emotional prosody processing during auditory language comprehension, a pattern also found in visuospatial attention studies where listeners are presented with a view of the talker's face. Is this lateralization pattern for visuospatial attention and language processing upheld when listeners are experiencing a stress response? To investigate this question, participants completed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) between administrations of a visuospatial attention and language comprehension dual-task paradigm. Subjective anxiety, cardiovascular, and saliva cortisol measures were taken before and after the TSST. Higher language comprehension scores in the post-TSST neutral prosody condition were associated with lower cortisol responses, differences in blood pressure, and less subjective anxiety. In this challenging task, visuospatial attention was most focused at the mouth region, both prior to and after stress induction. Greater visuospatial attention on the left side of the face image, compared to the right side, indicated greater right hemisphere activation. In the Fear, but not the Neutral, prosody condition, greater cortisol response was associated with greater visuospatial attention to the left side of the face image. Results are placed into theoretical context, and can be applied to situations where stressed listeners must interpret emotionally evocative language.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Atenção , Medo/fisiologia , Hidrocortisona/análise , Idioma , Fala/fisiologia , Adulto , Face/fisiologia , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Humanos , Linguística , Masculino , Testes Psicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Saliva/química , Adulto Jovem
11.
Cells ; 10(11)2021 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34831216

RESUMO

Craniofacial bone defects can result from various disorders, including congenital malformations, tumor resection, infection, severe trauma, and accidents. Successfully regenerating cranial defects is an integral step to restore craniofacial function. However, challenges managing and controlling new bone tissue formation remain. Current advances in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine use innovative techniques to address these challenges. The use of biomaterials, stromal cells, and growth factors have demonstrated promising outcomes in vitro and in vivo. Natural and synthetic bone grafts combined with Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSCs) and growth factors have shown encouraging results in regenerating critical-size cranial defects. One of prevalent growth factors is Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (BMP-2). BMP-2 is defined as a gold standard growth factor that enhances new bone formation in vitro and in vivo. Recently, emerging evidence suggested that Megakaryocytes (MKs), induced by Thrombopoietin (TPO), show an increase in osteoblast proliferation in vitro and bone mass in vivo. Furthermore, a co-culture study shows mature MKs enhance MSC survival rate while maintaining their phenotype. Therefore, MKs can provide an insight as a potential therapy offering a safe and effective approach to regenerating critical-size cranial defects.


Assuntos
Face/fisiologia , Crânio/fisiologia , Engenharia Tecidual , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Regeneração Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Crânio/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21449, 2021 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34728650

RESUMO

The World Health Organisation has called for a 40% increase in personal protective equipment manufacturing worldwide, recognising that frontline workers need effective protection during the COVID-19 pandemic. Current devices suffer from high fit-failure rates leaving significant proportions of users exposed to risk of viral infection. Driven by non-contact, portable, and widely available 3D scanning technologies, a workflow is presented whereby a user's face is rapidly categorised using relevant facial parameters. Device design is then directed down either a semi-customised or fully-customised route. Semi-customised designs use the extracted eye-to-chin distance to categorise users in to pre-determined size brackets established via a cohort of 200 participants encompassing 87.5% of the cohort. The user's nasal profile is approximated to a Gaussian curve to further refine the selection in to one of three subsets. Flexible silicone provides the facial interface accommodating minor mismatches between true nasal profile and the approximation, maintaining a good seal in this challenging region. Critically, users with outlying facial parameters are flagged for the fully-customised route whereby the silicone interface is mapped to 3D scan data. These two approaches allow for large scale manufacture of a limited number of design variations, currently nine through the semi-customised approach, whilst ensuring effective device fit. Furthermore, labour-intensive fully-customised designs are targeted as those users who will most greatly benefit. By encompassing both approaches, the presented workflow balances manufacturing scale-up feasibility with the diverse range of users to provide well-fitting devices as widely as possible. Novel flow visualisation on a model face is presented alongside qualitative fit-testing of prototype devices to support the workflow methodology.


Assuntos
Face/fisiologia , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Fotogrametria/métodos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/virologia , Desenho Assistido por Computador , Desenho de Equipamento , Face/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Impressão Tridimensional , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(37)2021 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493677

RESUMO

The common marmoset has enormous promise as a nonhuman primate model of human brain functions. While resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) has provided evidence for a similar organization of marmoset and human cortices, the technique cannot be used to map the functional correspondences of brain regions between species. This limitation can be overcome by movie-driven fMRI (md-fMRI), which has become a popular tool for noninvasively mapping the neural patterns generated by rich and naturalistic stimulation. Here, we used md-fMRI in marmosets and humans to identify whole-brain functional correspondences between the two primate species. In particular, we describe functional correlates for the well-known human face, body, and scene patches in marmosets. We find that these networks have a similar organization in both species, suggesting a largely conserved organization of higher-order visual areas between New World marmoset monkeys and humans. However, while face patches in humans and marmosets were activated by marmoset faces, only human face patches responded to the faces of other animals. Together, the results demonstrate that higher-order visual processing might be a conserved feature between humans and New World marmoset monkeys but that small, potentially important functional differences exist.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Callithrix/fisiologia , Face/fisiologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Vias Neurais , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Animais , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Face/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Physiol Anthropol ; 40(1): 12, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Facial cooling (FC) is effective in improving endurance exercise performance in hot environments. In this study, we evaluated the impact of intermittent short-lasting FC on the ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) during exercise. METHODS: Ten healthy men performed 40 continuous minutes of ergometric cycle exercise at 65% of the peak heart rate in a climatic chamber controlled at an ambient temperature of 35 °C and a relative humidity of 50%. In the control (CONT) trial, the participants performed the exercise without FC. In two cooling trials, each participant underwent 10 s of FC at 2- (FC2) and 4-min (FC4) intervals while continuing to exercise. FC was achieved by applying two soft-gel packs (cooled to 0 °C) directly and bilaterally on the forehead, eyes, and cheeks. In another cooling trial, 10 s of FC was performed at 2-min intervals using two soft-gel packs cooled to 20 °C (FC2-20). RESULTS: The RPE values in the FC4 trial were significantly lower than those in the CONT trial at 20 min (FC4, 11.6 ± 2.2 points; CONT, 14.2 ± 1.3 points; P < 0.01). Further, significant differences in the RPE values were observed between the FC4 and CONT trials at 5-15 min and 25-40 min (P < 0.05). RPE values were also significantly lower in the FC2 trial than in the CONT trial (5-40 min). Although the RPE values in the FC2-20 trial were significantly lower (5-10 min; 15-20 min) than those in the CONT trial, there were no significant differences in the RPE between the FC2-20 and CONT trials at 25-40 min. At 35 min, the RPE values were significantly higher in the FC2-20 trial than in the FC2 trial (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Intermittent short-lasting FC was associated with a decrease in RPE, with shorter intervals and lower temperatures eliciting greater attenuation of increase in the RPE.


Assuntos
Regulação da Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Temperatura Baixa , Face/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Temperatura Cutânea/fisiologia , Adulto , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
16.
Forensic Sci Int ; 327: 110960, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455397

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the potential use of cutaneous facial temperature change as measured by an infrared camera as a marker of postmortem interval (PMI) in the minutes immediately following death. METHODS: This was a prospective, observational pilot study using a convenience sample of all deaths which occurred in a room in an Intensive Care Unit equipped with a ceiling mounted thermal camera. Cutaneous temperature measurements were taken from 60 min antemortem to as long as possible postmortem. RESULTS: A total of 134 separate measurements was taken from 5 patients, with 65 occurring antemortem, and 69 occurring post-mortem. The longest recorded post-mortem time was 130 min. A Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA testing the hypothesis that there was a difference in facial temperature at each of the different timepoints showed significance (p = 0.029). Post-Hoc comparisons were then performed to compare median temperature values at each timeframe to the baseline value. Compared to baseline, there was a significant difference in facial temperature at 30, 60, and 90 min (p = 0.007, p = 0.01, p = 0.016) (Table 2). CONCLUSION: There is a statistically significant cutaneous facial temperature change in patients immediately following death as measured by a thermal camera. There is potential for infrared thermography to identify changes immediately before and after death in environments where traditional temperature measurement cannot be accomplished. More work needs to be done to confirm whether a precise postmortem interval (PMI) could be derived from these values.


Assuntos
Face/fisiologia , Temperatura Cutânea , Termografia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 148(2): 320-331, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The number of soft-tissue filler injections performed in the United States is constantly increasing and reflects the high demand for enhanced facial and body attractiveness. The objective of the present study was to measure the viscoelastic properties of soft-tissue fillers when subjected to different testing frequencies. The range of tested frequencies represents clinically different facial areas with more [lips (high frequency)] or less [zygomatic arch (low frequency)] soft-tissue movement. METHODS: A total of 35 randomly selected hyaluronic acid-based dermal filler products were tested in an independent laboratory for their values of G', G″, tan δ, and G* at angular frequencies between 0.1 and 100 radian/second. RESULTS: The results of the objective analyses revealed that the viscoelastic properties of all tested products changed between 0.1 and 100 radian/second angular frequency. Changes in G' ranged from 48.5 to 3116 percent, representing an increase in their initial elastic modulus, whereas changes in G″ ranged from -53.3 percent (i.e., decrease in G″) to 7741 percent (i.e., increase in G″), indicating both an increase and a decrease in their fluidity, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The increase in G' would indicate the transition from a "softer" to a "harder" filler, and the observed decrease in G″ would indicate an increase in the filler's "fluidity." Changes in the frequency of applied shear forces such as those occurring in the medial versus the lateral face will influence the aesthetic outcome of soft-tissue filler injections.


Assuntos
Técnicas Cosméticas , Preenchedores Dérmicos/química , Face/fisiologia , Ácido Hialurônico/química , Movimento/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Preenchedores Dérmicos/administração & dosagem , Elasticidade , Humanos , Ácido Hialurônico/administração & dosagem , Reologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Viscosidade
18.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5037, 2021 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34413313

RESUMO

It is long hypothesized that there is a reliable, specific mapping between certain emotional states and the facial movements that express those states. This hypothesis is often tested by asking untrained participants to pose the facial movements they believe they use to express emotions during generic scenarios. Here, we test this hypothesis using, as stimuli, photographs of facial configurations posed by professional actors in response to contextually-rich scenarios. The scenarios portrayed in the photographs were rated by a convenience sample of participants for the extent to which they evoked an instance of 13 emotion categories, and actors' facial poses were coded for their specific movements. Both unsupervised and supervised machine learning find that in these photographs, the actors portrayed emotional states with variable facial configurations; instances of only three emotion categories (fear, happiness, and surprise) were portrayed with moderate reliability and specificity. The photographs were separately rated by another sample of participants for the extent to which they portrayed an instance of the 13 emotion categories; they were rated when presented alone and when presented with their associated scenarios, revealing that emotion inferences by participants also vary in a context-sensitive manner. Together, these findings suggest that facial movements and perceptions of emotion vary by situation and transcend stereotypes of emotional expressions. Future research may build on these findings by incorporating dynamic stimuli rather than photographs and studying a broader range of cultural contexts.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Face/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , Medo/fisiologia , Comportamento Estereotipado/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Felicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
19.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255570, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351981

RESUMO

We form impressions of others by observing their constant and dynamically-shifting facial expressions during conversation and other daily life activities. However, conventional aging research has mainly considered the changing characteristics of the skin, such as wrinkles and age-spots, within very limited states of static faces. In order to elucidate the range of aging impressions that we make in daily life, it is necessary to consider the effects of facial movement. This study investigated the effects of facial movement on age impressions. An age perception test using Japanese women as face models was employed to verify the effects of the models' age-dependent facial movements on age impression in 112 participants (all women, aged 20-49 years) as observers. Further, the observers' gaze was analyzed to identify the facial areas of interests during age perception. The results showed that cheek movement affects age impressions, and that the impressions increase depending on the model's age. These findings will facilitate the development of new means of provoking a more youthful impression by approaching anti-aging from a different viewpoint of facial movement.


Assuntos
Bochecha/fisiologia , Face/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , Músculos Faciais/fisiologia , Movimento , Envelhecimento da Pele/fisiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15853, 2021 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34349151

RESUMO

From a socio-psychological standpoint, improving the morphology of the facial soft-tissues is regarded as an important therapeutic goal in modern orthodontic treatment. Currently, many of the algorithms used in commercially available software programs that are said to provide the function of performing profile prediction are based on the false assumption that the amount of movement of hard-tissue and soft-tissue has a proportional relationship. The specification of the proportionality constant value depends on the operator, and there is little evidence to support the validity of the prediction result. Thus, the present study attempted to develop artificial intelligence (AI) systems that predict the three-dimensional (3-D) facial morphology after orthognathic surgery and orthodontic treatment based on the results of previous treatment. This was a retrospective study in a secondary adult care setting. A total of 137 patients who underwent orthognathic surgery (n = 72) and orthodontic treatment with four premolar extraction (n = 65) were enrolled. Lateral cephalograms and 3-D facial images were obtained before and after treatment. We have developed two AI systems to predict facial morphology after orthognathic surgery (System S) and orthodontic treatment (System E) using landmark-based geometric morphometric methods together with deep learning methods; where cephalometric changes during treatment and the coordinate values of the faces before treatment were employed as predictive variables. Eleven-fold cross-validation showed that the average system errors were 0.94 mm and 0.69 mm for systems S and E, respectively. The total success rates, when success was defined by a system error of < 1 mm, were 54% and 98% for systems S and E, respectively. The total success rates when success was defined by a system error of < 2 mm were both 100%. AI systems to predict facial morphology after treatment were therefore confirmed to be clinically acceptable.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Face/anatomia & histologia , Cirurgia Ortognática/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Cefalometria , Face/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imageamento Tridimensional , Japão , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
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