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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5037, 2021 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34413313

RESUMO

It is long hypothesized that there is a reliable, specific mapping between certain emotional states and the facial movements that express those states. This hypothesis is often tested by asking untrained participants to pose the facial movements they believe they use to express emotions during generic scenarios. Here, we test this hypothesis using, as stimuli, photographs of facial configurations posed by professional actors in response to contextually-rich scenarios. The scenarios portrayed in the photographs were rated by a convenience sample of participants for the extent to which they evoked an instance of 13 emotion categories, and actors' facial poses were coded for their specific movements. Both unsupervised and supervised machine learning find that in these photographs, the actors portrayed emotional states with variable facial configurations; instances of only three emotion categories (fear, happiness, and surprise) were portrayed with moderate reliability and specificity. The photographs were separately rated by another sample of participants for the extent to which they portrayed an instance of the 13 emotion categories; they were rated when presented alone and when presented with their associated scenarios, revealing that emotion inferences by participants also vary in a context-sensitive manner. Together, these findings suggest that facial movements and perceptions of emotion vary by situation and transcend stereotypes of emotional expressions. Future research may build on these findings by incorporating dynamic stimuli rather than photographs and studying a broader range of cultural contexts.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Face/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , Medo/fisiologia , Comportamento Estereotipado/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Felicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4745, 2021 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362883

RESUMO

Spatial processing by receptive fields is a core property of the visual system. However, it is unknown how spatial processing in high-level regions contributes to recognition behavior. As face inversion is thought to disrupt typical holistic processing of information in faces, we mapped population receptive fields (pRFs) with upright and inverted faces in the human visual system. Here we show that in face-selective regions, but not primary visual cortex, pRFs and overall visual field coverage are smaller and shifted downward in response to face inversion. From these measurements, we successfully predict the relative behavioral detriment of face inversion at different positions in the visual field. This correspondence between neural measurements and behavior demonstrates how spatial processing in face-selective regions may enable holistic perception. These results not only show that spatial processing in high-level visual regions is dynamically used towards recognition, but also suggest a powerful approach for bridging neural computations by receptive fields to behavior.


Assuntos
Face/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Orientação/fisiologia , Processamento Espacial/fisiologia , Adulto , Comportamento , Encéfalo , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Córtex Visual/fisiologia , Campos Visuais/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071720

RESUMO

The oral cavity is a portal into the digestive system, which exhibits unique sensory properties. Like facial skin, the oral mucosa needs to be exquisitely sensitive and selective, in order to detect harmful toxins versus edible food. Chemosensation and somatosensation by multiple receptors, including transient receptor potential channels, are well-developed to meet these needs. In contrast to facial skin, however, the oral mucosa rarely exhibits itch responses. Like the gut, the oral cavity performs mechanical and chemical digestion. Therefore, the oral mucosa needs to be insensitive, to some degree, in order to endure noxious irritation. Persistent pain from the oral mucosa is often due to ulcers, involving both tissue injury and infection. Trigeminal nerve injury and trigeminal neuralgia produce intractable pain in the orofacial skin and the oral mucosa, through mechanisms distinct from those seen in the spinal area, which is particularly difficult to predict or treat. The diagnosis and treatment of idiopathic chronic pain, such as atypical odontalgia (idiopathic painful trigeminal neuropathy or post-traumatic trigeminal neuropathy) and burning mouth syndrome, remain especially challenging. The central integration of gustatory inputs might modulate chronic oral and facial pain. A lack of pain in chronic inflammation inside the oral cavity, such as chronic periodontitis, involves the specialized functioning of oral bacteria. A more detailed understanding of the unique neurobiology of pain from the orofacial skin and the oral mucosa should help us develop novel methods for better treating persistent orofacial pain.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica , Mucosa Bucal , Boca , Animais , Face/fisiologia , Dor Facial , Humanos , Camundongos , Boca/patologia , Boca/fisiologia , Mucosa Bucal/patologia , Mucosa Bucal/fisiologia , Neuralgia , Periodontite , Pele , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele , Traumatismos do Nervo Trigêmeo , Neuralgia do Trigêmeo
4.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249782, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831099

RESUMO

People make judgments of others based on appearance, and these inferences can affect social interactions. Although the importance of facial appearance in these judgments is well established, the impact of the body morphology remains unclear. Specifically, it is unknown whether experimentally varied body morphology has an impact on perception of threat in others. In two preregistered experiments (N = 250), participants made judgments of perceived threat of body stimuli of varying morphology, both in the absence (Experiment 1) and presence (Experiment 2) of facial information. Bodies were perceived as more threatening as they increased in mass with added musculature and portliness, and less threatening as they increased in emaciation. The impact of musculature endured even in the presence of faces, although faces contributed more to the overall threat judgment. The relative contributions of the faces and bodies seemed to be driven by discordance, such that threatening faces exerted the most influence when paired with non-threatening bodies, and vice versa. This suggests that the faces and bodies were not perceived as entirely independent and separate components. Overall, these findings suggest that body morphology plays an important role in perceived threat and may bias real-world judgments.


Assuntos
Face/fisiologia , Julgamento/fisiologia , Percepção/fisiologia , Adulto , Expressão Facial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção Social
5.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0240284, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711068

RESUMO

Sexual selection researchers have traditionally focused on adult sex differences; however, the schedule and pattern of sex-specific ontogeny can provide insights unobtainable from an exclusive focus on adults. Recently, it has been debated whether facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR; bi-zygomatic breadth divided by midface height) is a human secondary sexual characteristic (SSC). Here, we review current evidence, then address this debate using ontogenetic evidence, which has been under-explored in fWHR research. Facial measurements were collected from 3D surface images of males and females aged 3 to 40 (Study 1; US European-descent, n = 2449), and from 2D photographs of males and females aged 7 to 21 (Study 2; Bolivian Tsimane, n = 179), which were used to calculate three fWHR variants (which we call fWHRnasion, fWHRstomion, and fWHRbrow) and two other common facial masculinity ratios (facial width-to-lower-face-height ratio, fWHRlower, and cheekbone prominence). We test whether the observed pattern of facial development exhibits patterns indicative of SSCs, i.e., differential adolescent growth in either male or female facial morphology leading to an adult sex difference. Results showed that only fWHRlower exhibited both adult sex differences as well as the classic pattern of ontogeny for SSCs-greater lower-face growth in male adolescents relative to females. fWHRbrow was significantly wider among both pre- and post-pubertal males in the Bolivian Tsimane sample; post-hoc analyses revealed that the effect was driven by large sex differences in brow height, with females having higher placed brows than males across ages. In both samples, all fWHR measures were inversely associated with age; that is, human facial growth is characterized by greater relative elongation in the mid-face and lower face relative to facial width. This trend continues even into middle adulthood. BMI was also a positive predictor of most of the ratios across ages, with greater BMI associated with wider faces. Researchers collecting data on fWHR should target fWHRlower and fWHRbrow and should control for both age and BMI. Researchers should also compare ratio approaches with multivariate techniques, such as geometric morphometrics, to examine whether the latter have greater utility for understanding the evolution of facial sexual dimorphism.


Assuntos
Face/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Antropometria/métodos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Face/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Masculino , Fotografação , Seleção Sexual , Adulto Jovem
6.
Med Leg J ; 89(2): 93-98, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33715521

RESUMO

National Health Service employers are subject to legal duties to protect the health and safety of their employees and third parties who come into contact with their staff. In order to discharge these duties, National Health Service employers must implement a range of protective measures to mitigate risk. One such measure is to require staff to wear personal protective equipment, including respiratory protective equipment, in certain circumstances. This is of particular importance during the Covid-19 pandemic. However, the presence of facial hair has a negative impact on the effectiveness of respiratory protective equipment. This article discusses whether a requirement to be clean shaven could amount to discrimination under the Equality Act 2010.


Assuntos
Face/fisiologia , Cabelo/fisiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/normas , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/transmissão , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Medicina Estatal/organização & administração , Medicina Estatal/tendências
7.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248344, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690719

RESUMO

Physical attractiveness has been shown to reflect women's current fecundity level, allowing a man to choose a potentially more fertile partner in mate choice context. However, women vary not only in terms of fecundity level at reproductive age but also in reproductive longevity, both influencing a couple's long-term reproductive success. Thus, men should choose their potential partner not only based on cues of current fecundity but also on cues of reproductive longevity, and both may be reflected in women's appearance. In this study, we investigated if a woman's facial attractiveness at reproductive age reflects anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) level, a hormone predictor of age at menopause, similarly as it reflects current fecundity level, estimated with estradiol level (E2). Face photographs of 183 healthy women (Mage = 28.49, SDage = 2.38), recruited between 2nd - 4th day of the menstrual cycle, were assessed by men in terms of attractiveness. Women's health status was evaluated based on C-reactive protein level and biochemical blood test. Serum AMH and E2 were measured. The results showed that facial attractiveness was negatively correlated with AMH level, a hormone indicator of expected age at menopause, and positively with E2, indicator of current fecundity level, also when controlled for potential covariates (testosterone, BMI, age). This might result from biological trade-off between high fecundity and the length of reproductive lifespan in women and greater adaptive importance of high fecundity at reproductive age compared to the length of reproductive lifespan.


Assuntos
Face/fisiologia , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Menopausa/fisiologia , Ciclo Menstrual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Hormônio Antimülleriano/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos
8.
Development ; 148(9)2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757991

RESUMO

In the face, symmetry is established when bilateral streams of neural crest cells leave the neural tube at the same time, follow identical migration routes and then give rise to the facial prominences. However, developmental instability exists, particularly surrounding the steps of lip fusion. The causes of instability are unknown but inability to cope with developmental fluctuations are a likely cause of congenital malformations, such as non-syndromic orofacial clefts. Here, we tracked cell movements over time in the frontonasal mass, which forms the facial midline and participates in lip fusion, using live-cell imaging of chick embryos. Our mathematical examination of cell velocity vectors uncovered temporal fluctuations in several parameters, including order/disorder, symmetry/asymmetry and divergence/convergence. We found that treatment with a Rho GTPase inhibitor completely disrupted the temporal fluctuations in all measures and blocked morphogenesis. Thus, we discovered that genetic control of symmetry extends to mesenchymal cell movements and that these movements are of the type that could be perturbed in asymmetrical malformations, such as non-syndromic cleft lip. This article has an associated 'The people behind the papers' interview.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular , Face/fisiologia , Mesoderma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Crista Neural/fisiologia , Actomiosina , Animais , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Divisão Celular , Proliferação de Células , Embrião de Galinha , Galinhas , Fenda Labial/genética , Fissura Palatina/genética , Olho/anatomia & histologia , Olho/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Face/anormalidades , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Mesoderma/anatomia & histologia , Morfogênese/genética , Crista Neural/anatomia & histologia
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1927, 2021 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33479387

RESUMO

Faces can be categorized in various ways, for example as male or female or as belonging to a specific biogeographic ancestry (race). Here we tested the importance of the main facial features for race perception. We exchanged inner facial features (eyes, mouth or nose), face contour (everything but those) or texture (surface information) between Asian and Caucasian faces. Features were exchanged one at a time, creating for each Asian/Caucasian face pair ten facial variations of the original face pair. German and Korean participants performed a race classification task on all faces presented in random order. The results show that eyes and texture are major determinants of perceived biogeographic ancestry for both groups of participants and for both face types. Inserting these features in a face of another race changed its perceived biogeographic ancestry. Contour, nose and mouth, in that order, had decreasing and much weaker influence on race perception for both participant groups. Exchanging those features did not induce a change of perceived biogeographic ancestry. In our study, all manipulated features were imbedded in natural looking faces, which were shown in an off-frontal view. Our findings confirm and extend previous studies investigating the importance of various facial features for race perception.


Assuntos
Face/anatomia & histologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/classificação , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/classificação , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Olho/anatomia & histologia , Face/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Boca/anatomia & histologia , Nariz/anatomia & histologia , Percepção Visual/genética , Adulto Jovem
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 550, 2021 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436663

RESUMO

It has been demonstrated that sociocultural environment has a significant impact on human behavior. This contribution focuses on differences in the perception of attractiveness of European (Czech) faces as rated by Czechs of European origin, Vietnamese persons living in the Czech Republic and Vietnamese who permanently reside in Vietnam. We investigated whether attractiveness judgments and preferences for facial sex-typicality and averageness in Vietnamese who grew up and live in the Czech Republic are closer to the judgements and preferences of Czech Europeans or to those of Vietnamese born and residing in Vietnam. We examined the relative contribution of sexual shape dimorphism and averageness to the perception of facial attractiveness across all three groups of raters. Czech Europeans, Czech Vietnamese, and Asian Vietnamese raters of both sexes rated facial portraits of 100 Czech European participants (50 women and 50 men, standardized, non-manipulated) for attractiveness. Taking Czech European ratings as a standard for Czech facial attractiveness, we showed that Czech Vietnamese assessments of attractiveness were closer to this standard than assessments by the Asian Vietnamese. Among all groups of raters, facial averageness positively correlated with perceived attractiveness, which is consistent with the "average is attractive" hypothesis. A marginal impact of sexual shape dimorphism on attractiveness rating was found only in Czech European male raters: neither Czech Vietnamese nor Asian Vietnamese raters of either sex utilized traits associated with sexual shape dimorphism as a cue of attractiveness. We thus conclude that Vietnamese people permanently living in the Czech Republic converge with Czechs of Czech origin in perceptions of facial attractiveness and that this population adopted some but not all Czech standards of beauty.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Beleza , Diversidade Cultural , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Face/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Julgamento/fisiologia , Meio Social , Adulto , República Tcheca/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais , Fatores Sexuais , Vietnã/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
IEEE Trans Image Process ; 30: 2016-2028, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33439841

RESUMO

Facial expression recognition is of significant importance in criminal investigation and digital entertainment. Under unconstrained conditions, existing expression datasets are highly class-imbalanced, and the similarity between expressions is high. Previous methods tend to improve the performance of facial expression recognition through deeper or wider network structures, resulting in increased storage and computing costs. In this paper, we propose a new adaptive supervised objective named AdaReg loss, re-weighting category importance coefficients to address this class imbalance and increasing the discrimination power of expression representations. Inspired by human beings' cognitive mode, an innovative coarse-fine (C-F) labels strategy is designed to guide the model from easy to difficult to classify highly similar representations. On this basis, we propose a novel training framework named the emotional education mechanism (EEM) to transfer knowledge, composed of a knowledgeable teacher network (KTN) and a self-taught student network (STSN). Specifically, KTN integrates the outputs of coarse and fine streams, learning expression representations from easy to difficult. Under the supervision of the pre-trained KTN and existing learning experience, STSN can maximize the potential performance and compress the original KTN. Extensive experiments on public benchmarks demonstrate that the proposed method achieves superior performance compared to current state-of-the-art frameworks with 88.07% on RAF-DB, 63.97% on AffectNet and 90.49% on FERPlus.


Assuntos
Expressão Facial , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão/métodos , Algoritmos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Emoções/classificação , Face/fisiologia , Humanos
12.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245117, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411716

RESUMO

Facial expressions are complex and subtle signals, central for communication and emotion in social mammals. Traditionally, facial expressions have been classified as a whole, disregarding small but relevant differences in displays. Even with the same morphological configuration different information can be conveyed depending on the species. Due to a hardwired processing of faces in the human brain, humans are quick to attribute emotion, but have difficulty in registering facial movement units. The well-known human FACS (Facial Action Coding System) is the gold standard for objectively measuring facial expressions, and can be adapted through anatomical investigation and functional homologies for cross-species systematic comparisons. Here we aimed at developing a FACS for Japanese macaques, following established FACS methodology: first, we considered the species' muscular facial plan; second, we ascertained functional homologies with other primate species; and finally, we categorised each independent facial movement into Action Units (AUs). Due to similarities in the rhesus and Japanese macaques' facial musculature, the MaqFACS (previously developed for rhesus macaques) was used as a basis to extend the FACS tool to Japanese macaques, while highlighting the morphological and appearance changes differences between the two species. We documented 19 AUs, 15 Action Descriptors (ADs) and 3 Ear Action Units (EAUs) in Japanese macaques, with all movements of MaqFACS found in Japanese macaques. New movements were also observed, indicating a slightly larger repertoire than in rhesus or Barbary macaques. Our work reported here of the MaqFACS extension for Japanese macaques, when used together with the MaqFACS, comprises a valuable objective tool for the systematic and standardised analysis of facial expressions in Japanese macaques. The MaqFACS extension for Japanese macaques will now allow the investigation of the evolution of communication and emotion in primates, as well as contribute to improving the welfare of individuals, particularly in captivity and laboratory settings.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Face/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , Músculos Faciais/fisiologia , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Animais , Feminino , Macaca fuscata , Masculino
13.
Psychol Res ; 85(4): 1713-1723, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32436049

RESUMO

Whether people have insight into their face recognition ability has been intensely debated in recent studies using self-report measures. Although some studies showed people's good insight, other studies found the opposite. The discrepancy might be caused by the difference in the questionnaire used and/or the bias induced using an extreme group such as suspected prosopagnosics. To resolve this issue, we examined the relationship between the two representative self-report face recognition questionnaires (Survey, N = 855) and then the extent to which the questionnaires differ in their relationship with face recognition performance (Experiment, N = 180) in normal populations, which do not include predetermined extreme groups. We found a very strong correlation (r = 0.82), a dominant principal component (explains > 90% of the variance), and comparable reliability between the questionnaires. Although these results suggest a strong common factor underlying them, the residual variance is not negligible (33%). Indeed, the follow-up experiment showed that both questionnaires have significant but moderate correlations with actual face recognition performance, and that the correlation was stronger for the Kennerknecht's questionnaire (r = - 0.38) than for the PI20 (r = - 0.23). These findings not only suggest people's modest insight into their face recognition ability, but also urge researchers and clinicians to carefully assess whether a questionnaire is suitable for estimating an individual's face recognition ability.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Prosopagnosia/psicologia , Autorrelato , Adulto , Face/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Bioessays ; 43(3): e2000158, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33215727

RESUMO

We animals have evolved a variety of mechanisms to avoid conspecifics who might be infected. It is currently unclear whether and why this "behavioral immune system" targets unfamiliar individuals more than familiar ones. Here I answer this question in humans, using publicly available data of a recent study on 1969 participants from India and 1615 from the USA. The apparent health of a male stranger, as estimated from his face, and the comfort with contact with him were a direct function of his similarity to the men in the local community. This held true regardless of whether the face carried overt signs of infection. I conclude that our behavioral immune system is finely tuned to degrees of outgroupness - and that cues of outgroupness are partly processed as cues of infectiousness. These findings, which were consistent across the two cultures, support the notion that the pathogens of strangers are perceived as more dangerous.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem da Esquiva , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Reconhecimento Facial , Adulto , Animais , COVID-19/etnologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Grupos Étnicos , Face/fisiologia , Face/fisiopatologia , Expressão Facial , Humanos , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade
15.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 147(1S-2): 38S-42S, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347073

RESUMO

SUMMARY: Facial aging is a multifactorial process governed by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors that impart a change to each component of the facial anatomy. Our understanding of the science of aging has evolved over the years. A recent and valuable addition to our understanding is the knowledge of both the superficial and deep facial fat compartments. The deep compartments provide structural support to the midface and the superficial fat compartments. Understanding the anatomy and the spectrum of their changes helps to tailor management options for facial rejuvenation. The authors present a review on facial aging as it relates to these fat compartments and provide a management algorithm based on the longitudinal changes seen during aging.


Assuntos
Rejuvenescimento , Ritidoplastia/métodos , Envelhecimento da Pele/fisiologia , Gordura Subcutânea/anatomia & histologia , Preenchedores Dérmicos/administração & dosagem , Face/anatomia & histologia , Face/fisiologia , Humanos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Gordura Subcutânea/fisiologia
16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 22273, 2020 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33335230

RESUMO

Behavioural studies revealed that the dog-human relationship resembles the human mother-child bond, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we report the results of a multi-method approach combining fMRI (N = 17), eye-tracking (N = 15), and behavioural preference tests (N = 24) to explore the engagement of an attachment-like system in dogs seeing human faces. We presented morph videos of the caregiver, a familiar person, and a stranger showing either happy or angry facial expressions. Regardless of emotion, viewing the caregiver activated brain regions associated with emotion and attachment processing in humans. In contrast, the stranger elicited activation mainly in brain regions related to visual and motor processing, and the familiar person relatively weak activations overall. While the majority of happy stimuli led to increased activation of the caudate nucleus associated with reward processing, angry stimuli led to activations in limbic regions. Both the eye-tracking and preference test data supported the superior role of the caregiver's face and were in line with the findings from the fMRI experiment. While preliminary, these findings indicate that cutting across different levels, from brain to behaviour, can provide novel and converging insights into the engagement of the putative attachment system when dogs interact with humans.


Assuntos
Ira/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , Adulto , Animais , Mapeamento Encefálico , Cães , Emoções/fisiologia , Tecnologia de Rastreamento Ocular , Face/anatomia & histologia , Face/fisiologia , Feminino , Felicidade , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243929, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326458

RESUMO

It has been widely accepted that moral violations that involve impurity (such as spitting in public) induce the emotion of disgust, but there has been a debate about whether moral violations that do not involve impurity (such as swearing in public) also induce the same emotion. The answer to this question may have implication for understanding where morality comes from and how people make moral judgments. This study aimed to compared the neural mechanisms underlying two kinds of moral violation by using an affective priming task to test the effect of sentences depicting moral violation behaviors with and without physical impurity on subsequent detection of disgusted faces in a visual search task. After reading each sentence, participants completed the face search task. Behavioral and electrophysiological (event-related potential, or ERP) indices of affective priming (P2, N400, LPP) and attention allocation (N2pc) were analyzed. Results of behavioral data and ERP data showed that moral violations both with and without impurity promoted the detection of disgusted faces (RT, N2pc); moral violations without impurity impeded the detection of neutral faces (N400). No priming effect was found on P2 and LPP. The results suggest both types of moral violation influenced the processing of disgusted faces and neutral faces, but the neural activity with temporal characteristics was different.


Assuntos
Comportamento/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Face/fisiologia , Princípios Morais , Adulto , Atenção/fisiologia , Asco , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Julgamento Moral Retrospectivo , Adulto Jovem
18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20626, 2020 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33244081

RESUMO

This study focuses on the individual and joint contributions of two nonverbal channels (i.e., face and upper body) in avatar mediated-virtual environments. 140 dyads were randomly assigned to communicate with each other via platforms that differentially activated or deactivated facial and bodily nonverbal cues. The availability of facial expressions had a positive effect on interpersonal outcomes. More specifically, dyads that were able to see their partner's facial movements mapped onto their avatars liked each other more, formed more accurate impressions about their partners, and described their interaction experiences more positively compared to those unable to see facial movements. However, the latter was only true when their partner's bodily gestures were also available and not when only facial movements were available. Dyads showed greater nonverbal synchrony when they could see their partner's bodily and facial movements. This study also employed machine learning to explore whether nonverbal cues could predict interpersonal attraction. These classifiers predicted high and low interpersonal attraction at an accuracy rate of 65%. These findings highlight the relative significance of facial cues compared to bodily cues on interpersonal outcomes in virtual environments and lend insight into the potential of automatically tracked nonverbal cues to predict interpersonal attitudes.


Assuntos
Face/fisiologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Adulto , Comunicação , Sinais (Psicologia) , Emoções/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Interface Usuário-Computador
19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16588, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33024137

RESUMO

Human facial attractiveness is evaluated by using multiple cues. Among others, sexual dimorphism (i.e. masculinity for male faces/femininity for female faces) is an influential factor of perceived attractiveness. Since facial attractiveness is judged by incorporating sexually dimorphic traits as well as other cues, it is theoretically possible to dissociate sexual dimorphism from facial attractiveness. This study tested this by using a data-driven mathematical modelling approach. We first analysed the correlation between perceived masculinity/femininity and attractiveness ratings for 400 computer-generated male and female faces (Experiment 1) and found positive correlations between perceived femininity and attractiveness for both male and female faces. Using these results, we manipulated a set of faces along the attractiveness dimension while controlling for sexual dimorphism by orthogonalisation with data-driven mathematical models (Experiment 2). Our results revealed that perceived attractiveness and sexual dimorphism are dissociable, suggesting that there are as yet unidentified facial cues other than sexual dimorphism that contribute to facial attractiveness. Future studies can investigate the true preference of sexual dimorphism or the genuine effects of attractiveness by using well-controlled facial stimuli like those that this study generated. The findings will be of benefit to the further understanding of what makes a face attractive.


Assuntos
Beleza , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Face/fisiologia , Feminilidade , Masculinidade , Modelos Teóricos , Caracteres Sexuais , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16408, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009471

RESUMO

Day-old domestic chicks approach the larger of two groups of identical objects, but in a 3 vs 4 comparison, their performance is random. Here we investigated whether adding individually distinctive features to each object would facilitate such discrimination. Chicks reared with 7 objects were presented with the operation 1 + 1 + 1 vs 1 + 1 + 1 + 1. When objects were all identical, chicks performed randomly, as expected (Experiment 1). In the remaining experiments, objects differed from one another due to additional features. Chicks succeeded when those features were differently oriented segments (Experiment 2) but failed when the features were arranged to depict individually different face-like displays (Experiment 3). Discrimination was restored if the face-like stimuli were presented upside-down, disrupting global processing (Experiment 4). Our results support the claim that numerical discrimination in 3 vs 4 comparison benefits from the presence of distinctive features that enhance object individuation due to individual processing. Interestingly, when the distinctive features are arranged into upright face-like displays, the process is susceptible to global over local interference due to configural processing. This study was aimed at assessing whether individual object processing affects numerical discrimination. We hypothesise that in humans similar strategies aimed at improving performance at the non-symbolic level may have positive effects on symbolic mathematical abilities.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Aprendizagem por Discriminação/fisiologia , Animais , Cognição/fisiologia , Face/fisiologia , Feminino , Percepção Visual/fisiologia
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