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1.
J Anesth Hist ; 6(3): 143-150, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921484

RESUMO

After the first successful public demonstration of modern anesthesia in 1846, most female anesthetists were nurses by trade since none were yet allowed to attend medical school to become physicians. The turn of the twentieth century, however, brought about greater opportunity for female physician-anesthetists. We explore the life and career of Barbara E. Waud (1931-), a pioneering woman physician and researcher in the field of anesthesiology. Waud chose to pursue a career in medicine at a time when most women did not even attend college, and for most of her training and practice, she was the only woman in her department. Personal interviews with Waud, her daughter, and her colleagues highlight her rebellious and resilient nature that helped her overcome the obstacles put forth by male colleagues, and the judgment she received from female acquaintances for being a working mother. Waud's impressive career of dedicated clinical practice and ground-breaking research spanned four decades and inspired generations of physicians.


Assuntos
Anestesiologistas/história , Docentes de Medicina/história , Médicas/história , Anestesiologia/educação , Anestesiologia/história , Pesquisa Biomédica/história , Canadá , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Massachusetts , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/história , Faculdades de Medicina/história , Sexismo/história
2.
J Anesth Hist ; 6(3): 133-142, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921483

RESUMO

After a brief "golden age" in the late 1800s, the patriarchal establishment fought back and women faced increasing restrictions in practicing medicine. In 1900, 18.2% of all physicians in the city of Boston were women, but this number decreased to 8.7% by 1930. The relatively young field of anesthesiology was one of the more welcoming specialties for women during this time. History has been unkind to these early female trailblazers who have often been overlooked in favor of the men in their fields. Julia Gordon Arrowood (1900-1984) was a forerunner for women in medicine and a prominent anesthesiologist in Boston from the 1930s until the 1950s. Her work included not only clinical medicine, but also research and teaching. She attended Boston University School of Medicine, graduating as valedictorian in the class of 1933. She interned at Belmont Hospital in Worcester, MA where she decided on a career in anesthesiology. She was accepted as a resident at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) by chief-anesthetist Henry Beecher in 1935, thereby becoming the first woman anesthesiology resident in Massachusetts. She remained at MGH and was named Acting Chief of Anesthesia in 1943. In 1944, she became president of the New England Society of Anesthesiologists, another first for a woman. In 1946, she joined Reginald Smithwick's team as Chief of Anesthesia at Massachusetts Memorial Hospital, Boston, and concurrently held the position of Professor of Anesthesiology at Boston University School of Medicine. Arrowood led many of the earliest studies on spinal anesthesia, muscle relaxants, and spinal headaches. In 1957, she moved to Kentucky and joined the United Mine Workers hospital system where she worked until her retirement in 1970. Women such as Julia Arrowood remain underrepresented in the annals of the history of medicine. Much work is needed to recognize the many contributions made by women physicians and to provide equal opportunities, pay, and status.


Assuntos
Anestesiologistas/história , Médicas/história , Anestesiologia/história , Boston , História do Século XX , Internato e Residência/história , Faculdades de Medicina/história , Sexismo/história , Estados Unidos
4.
J Anesth Hist ; 6(2): 38-41, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593375

RESUMO

Milton Antony (1789-1839), an apprenticed trained physician, began educating medical apprentices in 1826 and helped to establish the Medical College of Georgia (MCG) in 1829. Antony recruited additional faculty, Louis Dugas (anatomy and physiology), and Paul Eve (surgery), and together they worked to promote the dissemination of new medical knowledge and enhance and reform medical education. As a result of their efforts, the Southern Medical and Surgical Journal (SMSJ) was established in 1836. The SMSJ became the most successful and widely read regional medical journal. Unfortunately, upon the death of Milton Antony because of the Augusta yellow fever epidemic, the SMSJ ceased publication in 1839. Paul Eve then became Dean of MCG and revived the SMSJ in 1844. Crawford Long (1815-1878) administered ether anesthesia for surgical removal of a neck tumor to James Venable in 1842. For several possible reasons, he did not publish his experience with ether until after Morton's demonstration of ether in Boston in 1846. Crawford Long did meet with Paul Eve, in Augusta at MCG, and was encouraged to publish his experiences with ether in the revived SMSJ, which he did in 1849. It is quite possible that if Milton Antony had lived, and the SMSJ had been continuously published, that Crawford Long may have published his use of ether well in advance of Morton's ether demonstration in 1846. Had that occurred, the great controversy during the mid-nineteenth century over who first used ether for surgical anesthesia would not have existed, and Crawford Long would have received appropriate credit during his lifetime.


Assuntos
Anestesiologia/história , Anestésicos Inalatórios/história , Éter/história , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/história , Faculdades de Medicina/história , Pessoal Administrativo/história , Georgia , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Faculdades de Medicina/organização & administração
5.
Tex Med ; 116(4): 32-35, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353159

RESUMO

Houston internist Edith Irby Jones, MD, broke barriers in all-white medical schools in the South and in her hometown of Houston.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/história , Dessegregação/história , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/história , Médicas/história , Faculdades de Medicina/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Texas
6.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(2): 194-200, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428155

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the current distribution and historical evolution of undergraduate courses in medicine in Brasil. METHODS: Analytical cross-sectional study of secondary data. Through the Ministry of Education, the data of the medical courses were obtained, and through the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, the population and economic data of the Brazilian states were obtained. RESULTS: In Brasil, there were 298 medical courses (1,42 courses / million inhabitants) in January 2018, totaling 31,126 vacancies per year, with 9,217 gratuitous vacancies (29.6%) and 17,963 vacancies in the hinterland (57, 7%). In Brazilian states, there are positive and statistically significant (p <0.001) correlations of the variables: "vacancies" and "population" (R 0.92); "vacancies" and "gross domestic product" ("GDP") (R 0.83); "percentage of vacancies in the hinterland" and "population in the hinterland" (R 0.71) and "percentage of vacancies in the hinterland" and "GDP" (R 0.64). There was a negative and statistically significant correlation between "gratuitous vacancy percentage" and "GDP" (R -0.54, p = 0.003). More paid courses than gratuitous courses and more courses in the hinterland than in the capitals have been created since 1964, in proportions that have remained similar since then, but in higher numbers since 2002. CONCLUSIONS: The distribution of medical courses in Brasil correlates with the population and economical production of each state. The expansion of Brazilian medical education, which has been accelerated since 2002, is based mainly on paid courses in the hinterland, in the same pattern since 1964.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina/história , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Faculdades de Medicina/história , Faculdades de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Demografia/história , Demografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Geografia , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos
7.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 63(2): 64-70, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32297502

RESUMO

Issues related to the beginning of teaching forensic medicine in Russia, the date of foundation of the first department and the emergence of the first professors of forensic medicine are considered. We studied publications on forensic medicine of the 18th-19th centuries, the work of authoritative researchers in the history of medicine of this period. Study methods: systemic, comparative historical, analytical. An original periodization of the formation of the teaching of forensic medicine in Russia is proposed. The first period (since 1707) is the universal period of hospital schools; without isolation of forensic medicine as a separate medical discipline. The second period (from 1765) is the course period; the one of primary university education and hospital schools, or the initial isolation of forensic medicine. The third period (1798-1805) - the departmental period; the one of academic and university education, or the completion of the separation of forensic medicine. The names of the first domestic forensic professors who taught it as a separate medical discipline are established: Francis Keresturi, Johann Conradi, Johann Ringebroig, the first adjunct professors: Gabriel Popov Grigory Sukharev. It was confirmed that the first department of forensic medicine in Russia was the Department of Matter of Medicine and Forensic Medical Science of the St. Petersburg Medical and Surgical Academy, formed in 1798. The first head of the department was Professor Johann Ringebroig.


Assuntos
Medicina Legal/educação , Faculdades de Medicina/história , Universidades , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Federação Russa , Ensino
8.
J Hist Med Allied Sci ; 75(2): 135-150, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101286

RESUMO

The anatomical textbook in the late Middle Ages was one part of a greater pedagogical process that involved students' seeing, hearing, reading, and eventually knowing information about the human body. By examining the role of the anatomical textbook and accompanying bodily images in anatomical learning, this article illuminates the complexity and self-consciousness of anatomical education in the medieval university, as professors focused on ways to enhance student memory of the material. Traditionally, the history of anatomy has been heavily influenced by the anatomical Renaissance of the late-sixteenth century, highlighting a focus on innovative medical knowledge and the scientific method. However, if we engage a pedagogical lens when looking at these medieval authors, it becomes quickly obvious that the whole point of university medicine was not to explore unknown boundaries and discover new ideas of medicine, but rather to communicate the current and established body of knowledge to those not familiar with it.


Assuntos
Anatomia/história , Educação Médica/história , Faculdades de Medicina/história , Estudantes de Medicina/história , Anatomia/educação , Educação Médica/organização & administração , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História Medieval , Itália , Universidades/história
10.
J Hist Med Allied Sci ; 75(1): 24-53, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31750919

RESUMO

This paper addresses a gap in our understanding of medical history - the architecture of medical schools - and demonstrates the ways in which architectural form can be used to better understand medical epistemology and pedagogy. It examines an instructive case study - the late-nineteenth-century medical school buildings in Manchester - and examines the concepts that were drawn together and expressed in the buildings. Through its exploration, the paper argues first, that medical schools and spaces for medical education should be given greater consideration as a significant category in the history of medical buildings. Second, that buildings such as its case study are an important source of evidence and means to understand the role of medicine in society and the ideas with which its contemporary practitioners and educators were concerned. Third, the paper argues that, to make best use of buildings as sources, we should view them as agents which have assembled divergent ideas and incorporated them into the built form. In this way, such buildings have woven into them an inventory of ideas which can be untangled using designs and physical evidence.


Assuntos
Arquitetura/história , Ambiente Construído/história , Faculdades de Medicina/história , Cidades , Educação Médica , Inglaterra , História do Século XIX
12.
Zhonghua Yi Shi Za Zhi ; 49(5): 265-268, 2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795592

RESUMO

This paper referenced to a number of classic Tibetan medical works and some old Tibetan sources to list 26 Tibetan Medical Schools in Tibet before 10(th) century, that including the Tibetan Proper School (bod kyi lugs nad thar gso bar bye pa gnyen po bzhi ldan gyi rgyud), Ancient Zhang Zhung School (zhang zhung gi lugs nad thur du sbyong ba bshal gyi rgyud), Persian-Arabica School (ta zig gyi lugs), Indian Vedic School (rgya gar gyi lugs la rig pa ye she), Turkic School (dru gu'i dpyad lcags kyi sur phug) , Sinic School (rgya nag lugs la 'khor 'das rtsis kyi rgyud) and Greek School (khrom gyi lugs la chu dpyad zla ba bsil gyi rgyud) etc.


Assuntos
Internacionalidade , Faculdades de Medicina , História Medieval , Faculdades de Medicina/história , Tibet
13.
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 26(4): 1263-1280, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800841

RESUMO

Homeopathy arrived from the United States to Peruvian soil in the last decades of the nineteenth century, broadening the repertoire of existing medical knowledge, which included an emerging medical profession, Chinese herbalists, and indigenous practitioners. This article examines the circulation and use of homeopathic therapies and medicines in Lima from the time when the American homeopath George Deacon initiated his practice, in the 1880s, until his death, in 1915. Although homeopathy was not the most widely used medical therapy in the country, it nevertheless posed a threat to professional medicine and the School of Medicine's desired monopoly of the field of medicine.


Assuntos
Homeopatia/história , Governo Federal/história , Regulamentação Governamental/história , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Homeopatia/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Licenciamento em Medicina/história , Peru , Faculdades de Medicina/história , Estados Unidos
14.
Infez Med ; 27(4): 461-467, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847001

RESUMO

The aim of this narrative review is to provide an overview of the connection between Thessaly and the development of medicine from ancient Greek mythology to contemporary times. From Chiron to Asclepius, from Asclepius to Hippocrates, and from Hippocrates to the true Hippocratic epidemiologist Dimitrios Trichopoulos, a plethora of myths and facts indicate the strong and perpetual alignment between Thessaly and the science of medicine.


Assuntos
História da Medicina , Mitologia , Faculdades de Medicina/história , Grécia , Grécia Antiga , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , História Antiga
16.
J Anesth Hist ; 5(4): 115-125, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735276

RESUMO

Horst Otto Stoeckel was born September 26, 1930, in Lodz, Poland, which was part of the newly founded Second Republic of Poland until it was occupied by Nazi Germany in 1939. After World War II, his family immigrated to Meiningen, Germany, where he obtained his primary and secondary education. He attended Humboldt University and the University Hospital Charité of Berlin for his medical degree. Profs Theodor Brugsch, Karl Lohmann, and Friedrich Dost were important individuals who helped develop his interest in quantitative clinical pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Prior to anesthesiology, Stoeckel trained in surgery, internal medicine, and obstetrics and gynecology in addition to clinical anesthesiology at a community hospital in East Germany. He completed 2 years of obligatory training to become an anesthesia specialist at the Teaching Hospital Hufeland and the Research Institute for Lung Diseases at Berlin-Buch. He also received training in anesthesia at the Humboldt University of Berlin. After escaping East Berlin through the Brandenburg Gate in August 1961, he obtained a position at the University of Heidelberg and obtained his West German board certification in anesthesiology in 1962. In the following 12-year period, Stoeckel was married, was promoted, passed his "habilitation" or lectureship period, started a family, and was granted the title of "Professor." His administrative career began in February 1974 when he was selected as the first Chair of Anesthesiology at the University of Bonn, a position he held for 22 years. He also served as Dean of the medical school from 1980 to 1981. As Chair, he developed three areas: patient care, teaching, and research. He developed a long-term research program in the field of "Quantitative Clinical Pharmacology in Anesthesia and the Quantitative Modeling and Control in Anesthesia," which required an interdisciplinary team of specialists in biochemistry, physics, and modern analytical methods. Over 20 years, the group's research program led to the discovery of basic algorithms providing the foundation of the automatic regulation of dosing control by the closed-loop feedback system, which is a concept important to the target-controlled infusion of intravenous and inhalation anesthetics. Following his career as a clinician, administrator, and researcher, he pursued a second career as a collector and museum founder.


Assuntos
Anestesiologia/história , Pesquisa Biomédica/história , Pessoal Administrativo/história , Distinções e Prêmios , Alemanha Ocidental , História do Século XX , Polônia , Faculdades de Medicina/história , Faculdades de Medicina/organização & administração
17.
Salud Colect ; 15: e2106, 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664340

RESUMO

In this essay, we seek to evaluate the impact of the Cabanis reform on the configuration of the health education model that became hegemonic in Argentina. First, we analyze the restructuring of the French educational system triggered by the revolution of 1789, primarily in its political and institutional dimensions. Second, we briefly discuss the process of the social, ideological and institutional reconstruction of the health system in post-revolutionary France. Third, we introduce the Cabanis reform, a proposal for medical education based on professionalism, disciplinarity and specialization that resulted in a higher education system without universities, looking into its main curricular and pedagogical aspects. Finally, we evaluate the sequence of events and processes that, throughout the 19th century, with strong Cabanisian influence through the Idéologie, shaped both the principal features of teaching health and medicine and the higher education model based on faculties currently predominant in the Argentine Republic.


Assuntos
Educação Médica/história , Revolução Francesa , Faculdades de Medicina/história , Argentina , Educação Médica/métodos , França , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Humanos
18.
Cir Cir ; 87(5): 595-599, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448776

RESUMO

The Royal College of Surgery of New Spain, in Mexico City, was established by decree of King Carlos III, in Spain, on March 17, 1768. Two surgeons from the Royal Colleges of Surgery of Cádiz and Barcelona were sent to the new continent, to start the activities of this school. The peninsular Spanish surgeons brought with them the most recent knowledge of European surgery, as well as more rational methods in the surgical treatment of some diseases. The Royal College of Surgery allowed to regulate and professionalize the practice of Surgery in New Spain.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Geral/educação , Faculdades de Medicina/história , Docentes de Medicina/história , História do Século XVIII , Cooperação Internacional , México , Espanha , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/educação
20.
Acta Med Hist Adriat ; 17(1): 55-64, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315408

RESUMO

In an era when medicine in Greece was dominated by men, at the end of the 19th and during the first decades of 20th century, two women, Maria Kalapothakes [in Greek: Μαρία Καλαποθάκη] (1859-1941) and Angélique Panayotatou [in Greek: Αγγελική Παναγιωτάτου] (1878-1954), managed to stand out and contribute to the evolution of medicine. Maria Kalapothakes received medical education in Paris and then she returned to Greece. Not only did she contribute to several fields of medicine, but also exercised charity and even undertook the task of treating war victims on many occasions. Angélique Panayotatou studied medicine at the University of Athens and then moved to Alexandria in Egypt, where she specialized in tropical medicine and also engaged in literature. Panayotatou became the first female professor of the Medical School of Athens and the first female member of the Academy of Athens. In recognition for their contributions, Kalapothakes and Panayotatou received medals and honors for both their scientific work and social engagement.


Assuntos
Academias e Institutos/história , Médicas/história , Faculdades de Medicina/história , Egito , Grécia , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Paris
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