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1.
Br J Anaesth ; 124(3): e63-e69, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980155

RESUMO

The under-representation of women in academic leadership roles, including in anaesthesiology, is a well-documented phenomenon that has persisted for decades despite more women attending medical school, participating in anaesthesiology residencies, and joining academic faculties. The percentage of female anaesthesiologists who hold senior academic ranks or leadership roles, such as chair, lags behind the percentage of female anaesthesiologists overall. Trends towards increasing the numbers of women serving in educational leadership roles, specifically residency programme directors, suggest that there are areas in which academic anaesthesiology has been, and can continue, improving gender imbalance. Continued institutional efforts to recruit women into anaesthesiology, reduce gender bias, and promote interventions that foster gender equity in hiring and promotion will continue to benefit women, academic anaesthesiology departments, and the healthcare system overall.


Assuntos
Anestesiologia/tendências , Internato e Residência/tendências , Médicas/tendências , Sexismo/tendências , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/organização & administração , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/tendências , Anestesiologia/educação , Anestesiologia/organização & administração , Escolha da Profissão , Mobilidade Ocupacional , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/organização & administração , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Internato e Residência/organização & administração , Liderança , Médicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Faculdades de Medicina/organização & administração , Faculdades de Medicina/tendências , Sexismo/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos
2.
Curr Urol Rep ; 20(11): 69, 2019 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606783

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Urology is an essential topic in undergraduate medical education (UME). The objective of this article is to review the current state of exposure to urology in medical school, to discuss why it is critical to maintain a urology curriculum, and to review methods in establishing an effective curriculum for all students with limited resources. RECENT FINDINGS: UME curriculum in urology should be geared toward the widest group of students, namely those entering primary care or internal medicine, where patients with urologic complaints are most likely to first present. Hands-on teaching should focus on skills such as the genitourinary exam and Foley catheter placement, while ancillary modules should be utilized for complex concepts. Medical schools do not sufficiently incorporate didactics in urology as part of their core curriculum. As such, educators in urology must develop curricula that provide fundamental knowledge to all students, especially those pursuing non-urologic specialties who will undoubtedly treat patients with urologic complaints.


Assuntos
Currículo , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Urologia/educação , Competência Clínica , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/tendências , Humanos , Faculdades de Medicina/tendências , Estados Unidos
3.
Tex Med ; 115(8): 21, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369141

RESUMO

Medical education made some gains in the 2019 legislative session, including the statutory approval of two new medical schools.


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/economia , Médicos/provisão & distribução , Faculdades de Medicina/tendências , Humanos , Texas
4.
Tex Med ; 115(7): 42-44, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31334824

RESUMO

Dell Medical School turned students' third year into a "growth year" in which they could pursue either an independent health care project or a dual degree. Here's how three Dell Med students spent this past year.


Assuntos
Currículo , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Faculdades de Medicina/tendências , Humanos , Estudantes de Medicina , Texas
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(4): e192200, 2019 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30977857

RESUMO

Importance: In response to rapidly growing interest in population health, academic medical centers are launching department-level initiatives that focus on this evolving discipline. This trend, with its potential to extend the scope of academic medicine, has not been well characterized. Objective: To describe the emergence of departments of population health at academic medical centers in the United States, including shared areas of focus, opportunities, and challenges. Design, Setting, and Participants: This qualitative study was based on a structured in-person convening of a working group of chairs of population health-oriented departments on November 13 and 14, 2017, complemented by a survey of core characteristics of these and additional departments identified through web-based review of US academic medical centers. United States medical school departments with the word population in their name were included. Centers, institutes, and schools were not included. Main Outcomes and Measures: Departments were characterized by year of origin, areas of focus, organizational structure, faculty size, teaching programs, and service engagement. Opportunities and challenges faced by these emerging departments were grouped thematically and described. Results: Eight of 9 population health-oriented departments in the working group were launched in the last 6 years. The 9 departments had 5 to 97 full-time faculty. Despite varied organizational structures, all addressed essential areas of focus spanning the missions of research, education, and service. Departments varied significantly in their relationships with the delivery of clinical care, but all engaged in practice-based and/or community collaboration. Common attributes include core attention to population health-oriented research methods across disciplines, emphasis on applied research in frontline settings, strong commitment to partnership, interest in engaging other sectors, and focus on improving health equity. Tensions included defining boundaries with other academic units with overlapping areas of focus, identifying sources of sustainable extramural funding, and facilitating the interface between research and health system operations. Conclusions and Relevance: Departments addressing population health are emerging rapidly in academic medical centers. In supporting this new framing, academic medicine affirms and strengthens its commitment to advancing population health and health equity, to improving the quality and effectiveness of care, and to upholding the social mission of medicine.


Assuntos
Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/tendências , Saúde da População , Faculdades de Medicina/tendências , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estados Unidos
6.
J Surg Res ; 240: 219-226, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30986637

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although interest in global surgery is increasing among medical students,1 several questions remain unanswered such as: the association of demographics with said interest, the extent that global surgical burden education has been integrated into medical education, and the availability of global surgery electives. This study aimed to assess the current state of global surgery education in the United States (U.S.) to support recommendations for future curriculum development. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An anonymous online survey was distributed to medical students currently enrolled in the U.S. Descriptive data were compiled regarding interest in and access to global surgery programs; demographic data were analyzed using chi-squared testing for categorical variables. RESULTS: A total of 754 students from 18 medical schools throughout the U.S. responded to the survey. Only complete responses were included in final analysis (n = 658). Most of the respondents (66%) reported interest in global surgery, with a higher proportion of those interested being in their preclinical years. However, the majority (79%) reported that global surgery issues are rarely or never addressed in their required curriculum. Over half of respondents were unaware of whether their school even offers such programs. CONCLUSIONS: Although interest in global surgery is on the rise among medical students, results suggest that many currently lack exposure to global surgery concepts in their medical education. To that end, early exposure may be most effective during the preclinical years, so that the next generation may align global surgery participation with clinical aspirations, with the ultimate goal of addressing global disparities.


Assuntos
Escolha da Profissão , Educação Médica/organização & administração , Cooperação Internacional , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Cirurgiões/educação , Currículo/estatística & dados numéricos , Currículo/tendências , Educação Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação Médica/tendências , Saúde Global , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Faculdades de Medicina/organização & administração , Faculdades de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Faculdades de Medicina/tendências , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
8.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 143(3): 940-949, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30817668

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior studies have shown a lack of diversity among plastic surgery trainees. The authors evaluate trends in minority representation among applicants to plastic surgery and the correlation with practicing residents, compared to other specialties. METHODS: The Association of American Medical Colleges Electronic Residency Application Service provided applicant data for integrated, independent plastic surgery, and other select specialties from 2010 to 2016. Journal of the American Medical Association Graduate Medical Education annual reports and Association of American Medical Colleges graduate student questionnaires provided resident and medical student data. Binomial distribution analysis was used to assess differences in Black, Hispanic, and female proportions of applicants and residents. Best-fit trend lines were compared among groups and specialties. RESULTS: Women have seen an increase in integrated and independent resident representation (+2.23 percent and +0.7 percent per year, respectively) over the past 7 years, despite a relative decrease in applicants. The proportion of female applicants and residents correlated yearly for all specialties (p > 0.05). Conversely, for all years and all specialties, the Black proportion of applicants was significantly higher than the resident representation of the same year (p < 0.05). Hispanic applicant and resident representation have seen a minimal change. CONCLUSIONS: Female representation among trainees has increased greatly, but there has been a decline in Black representation of integrated plastic surgery residents despite increases in medical school graduates and applicants. The data highlight a discrepancy between the population of applicants and residents suggesting that barriers starting from medical school may contribute to the lack of diversity in plastic surgery.


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Internato e Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Cirurgiões/estatística & dados numéricos , Cirurgia Plástica/educação , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Faculdades de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Faculdades de Medicina/tendências , Fatores Sexuais , Cirurgiões/educação , Cirurgiões/tendências , Cirurgia Plástica/estatística & dados numéricos , Cirurgia Plástica/tendências , Estados Unidos
12.
Anat Sci Educ ; 12(1): 97-104, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30255559

RESUMO

Anatomy education forms the foundation of a successful medical education. This has necessitated the development of innovative ideas to meet up with current realities. Despite these innovative ideas, there are challenges facing anatomy education, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Problems such as inadequate teaching experts and outdated curricula have made anatomy education in sub-Saharan Africa uninviting and disinteresting. Several interventions have been suggested, such as the procurement of teaching tools and upgrading of teaching infrastructure. However, in this age of information technology; anatomy education, especially in sub-Saharan Africa could benefit from the integration of electronic tools and resources. This article explores the electronic tools and resources such as three-dimensional printing, educational games, and short videos that are readily available for the teaching of anatomy in sub-Saharan Africa. The author concludes by discussing how these electronic tools and resources can be used to address many of the challenges facing anatomy education in sub-Saharan Africa.


Assuntos
Anatomia/educação , Instrução por Computador/métodos , Currículo/tendências , Educação Médica/métodos , Faculdades de Medicina/organização & administração , África ao Sul do Saara , Anatomia/legislação & jurisprudência , Instrução por Computador/instrumentação , Instrução por Computador/tendências , Educação Médica/legislação & jurisprudência , Educação Médica/tendências , Docentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Políticas , Melhoria de Qualidade/tendências , Faculdades de Medicina/legislação & jurisprudência , Faculdades de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Faculdades de Medicina/tendências , Recursos Humanos/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Anat Sci Educ ; 12(3): 257-263, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30395696

RESUMO

The United Kingdom is currently facing crisis due to a shortage of radiology consultants despite ever-increasing demand for medical imaging. The specifics of how best to teach radiology has generated increasing interest. This study aims to determine whether musculoskeletal (MSK) radiology teaching at the University of Nottingham (UoN) Medical School is perceived to be satisfactory by medical students, Foundation-Year doctors, and senior medical professionals in preparing students for the demands working as Foundation-Year doctors. Questionnaires were distributed to all medical students and Foundation-Year doctors that graduated from UoN (n = 307). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with consultants and teaching staff (n = 13). Forty-nine percent of preclinical medical students, 43% of clinical students and 27% of Foundation-Year doctors thought MSK radiology teaching was not sufficient in preparing them for the radiology challenges Foundation-Year doctors' face. This difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001). The consensus from senior medical professionals was that MSK Radiology teaching is currently adequate and producing competent students. Interestingly, only 5% of students were considering a career in radiology compared to 34% of Foundation-Year doctors. Overall, there seems to be concern among students regarding MSK radiology teaching and students have a lack of confidence with MSK radiology. Foundation-Year doctors and senior medical professionals do not share this view. This may be due to medical students' lack of clarity on what is required of them. Formal documentation of set learning objectives for MSK radiology throughout the curriculum may address this.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistema Musculoesquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiologia/educação , Faculdades de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Escolha da Profissão , Competência Clínica , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Médicos/psicologia , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Faculdades de Medicina/tendências , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Reino Unido
14.
Anat Sci Educ ; 12(2): 210-221, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30376608

RESUMO

The core values in medical practice which are essential for the humane outlook of a physician are clubbed within the domain of medical professionalism. Professionalism along with other discipline-independent skills (human skills) is propagated implicitly in medical schools as components of a "hidden curriculum." Evidence suggests a strong association between "hidden curriculum" delivery and development of professionalism in the human dissection room. In this review article, the authors have tried to highlight a few exclusive practices adopted by medical schools which enhance the implementation of the "hidden curriculum" within the practice of human dissection and successfully inculcate the key components of professionalism such as integrity, respect, and compassion among students. These distinctive concepts are aimed at humanizing the experience of anatomical dissection by revealing the identity of the donors along with their personal details either through display of video clips of donor interviews, interactions with the family members of the donor over a meal or recognition of the donor as a mentor and organizing memorial services in honor of donors after conclusion of the dissection in the presence of their family members. The resounding success of these good practices in building professionalism among medical students from the onset of the academic curriculum has signaled a new chapter in anatomical sciences education. It has become imperative to recognize the visionary efforts of a select few medical educators and begin incorporating these recent trends into the delivery of the "hidden curriculum" within the evolving gross anatomy education model.


Assuntos
Anatomia/educação , Currículo/tendências , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Profissionalismo , Faculdades de Medicina/organização & administração , Atitude , Dissecação , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/tendências , Humanos , Modelos Educacionais , Faculdades de Medicina/tendências , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia
15.
Anat Sci Educ ; 12(3): 236-244, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30332529

RESUMO

Within medical education a reduction in curriculum time for subjects, such as anatomy puts pressure on educators to ensure the same learning outcomes are conveyed in less time. This has the potential to impact negatively on student experience. Near-peer teaching (NPT) is often praised as an effective revision tool, but its use as a frontline teaching resource remains unreported. The study explores the potential for NPT to promote delivery of learning outcomes and maximize student experience within a neuroanatomy module for second year medical students. The study occurred in three educational settings, (1) frontline NPT of cranial nerves, (2) revision session NPT of cranial nerves, and (3) NPT alongside faculty staff in laboratory-based neuroanatomy practical exercises. For the first and second components, knowledge was measured using a pre- and post-session test and student perception was ascertained with a questionnaire. For the third component, student perception was assessed with an end-of-module survey. The results show that overall, NPT was well received by learners. A significant knowledge gain was seen between the pre- and post-session test of the frontline NPT session. The study presents evidence in favor of using NPTs to supplement the delivery of learning outcomes in a time and resource constrained curriculum. In particular, for the effective delivery of frontline material. Anat Sci Educ 0: 1-9. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists.


Assuntos
Anatomia/educação , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/organização & administração , Grupo Associado , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensino/organização & administração , Estudos Transversais , Currículo/estatística & dados numéricos , Currículo/tendências , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/tendências , Avaliação Educacional , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Faculdades de Medicina/organização & administração , Faculdades de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Faculdades de Medicina/tendências , Ensino/tendências
16.
Emerg Med Australas ; 31(1): 135-137, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30428507

RESUMO

In the past 5 years Botswana graduated its first home-grown doctors and emergency medicine specialists for the country. The postgraduate emergency medicine specialist training arrangement between Botswana and South Africa was challenging in development, implementation and maintenance. Numerous varied supports from ACEM and its International Emergency Medicine Network were integral to these successes. This article encourages further investment of ACEM grants and scholarships in Africa by describing how ACEM supported significant advances in Botswana emergency medicine.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina/classificação , Médicos/provisão & distribução , Faculdades de Medicina/tendências , Especialização/tendências , Botsuana , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicina de Emergência/educação , Medicina de Emergência/normas , Humanos , Médicos/organização & administração , Faculdades de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
Acad Med ; 94(4): 477-481, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30570497

RESUMO

As the U.S. health care system changes and physician responsibilities shift, medical educators must reconsider how best to prepare medical school graduates for the future practice of medicine. Thoughtful reexamination of the goals of undergraduate medical education (UME) and the roles of educators, medical students, and physicians is warranted to ensure that they align with evolving health care environments and delivery systems. In this Invited Commentary, the authors apply Jim Collins's "hedgehog concept" from Good to Great-a business-world framework designed to transform companies-to UME. The hedgehog concept is defined by the intersection of an organization's passion, area of expertise, and economic and resource engines. Focusing on this single concept can guide key decisions, reject what does not align conceptually, and drive overall organizational success. The authors use the hedgehog concept to frame the programmatic development of the Donald and Barbara Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell (Zucker SOM), a millennial medical school, as an organization with the passion to develop innovative UME curricula by challenging the status quo; the drive to be the best at leveraging health system resources to train graduates to excel in systems-based care; and the economic and resource engine of faculty time, financial and infrastructure support, and reputation building. The success of this approach is assessed at Zucker SOM through student and graduate outcomes data. The authors suggest that this hedgehog concept is generalizable to other UME programs whose leaders seek to transform medical education to meet 21st-century workforce and health care delivery needs.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/tendências , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Assistência à Saúde/normas , Administração Financeira , Humanos , Amor , Papel Profissional , Faculdades de Medicina/organização & administração , Faculdades de Medicina/tendências , Estados Unidos
18.
Anat Sci Educ ; 12(4): 425-431, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30580499

RESUMO

While time spent on anatomical education in medical school curricula has been diminishing over the last decades, the recognized role of anatomical dissection has expanded. It is perceived by many students and faculty not only as the means of learning the structure and function of the human body, but also as an opportunity for the acquisition of professional competencies such as team work, patient-doctor interaction, medical epistemology, self-awareness, and an understanding of medical ethics. This viewpoint article proposes that this learning process can be supported effectively through studying examples from the history of anatomy, as insights from this history can help illuminate contemporary ethical issues in anatomy and medicine. Anatomical education can thus provide not only the opportunity of gaining awareness of ethical questions, but also a chance to practice these new insights within the protected environment of the laboratories, in interaction with the dead and the living. Consequently, a new role has developed for anatomists, which includes the interweaving of the scholarly exploration of the history and ethics of anatomy with the practical application of research results into a reframed concept of anatomical education. Anatomy, as a foundational discipline in the medical curriculum, can thus provide a first step on the educational path of empathetic and humane medical caregivers.


Assuntos
Anatomia/ética , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Ética Médica/educação , Faculdades de Medicina/organização & administração , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Anatomistas/organização & administração , Anatomistas/psicologia , Anatomia/educação , Anatomia/história , Cadáver , Competência Clínica , Currículo/tendências , Dissecação , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/ética , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/tendências , Ética Médica/história , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Papel Profissional , Faculdades de Medicina/ética , Faculdades de Medicina/tendências
19.
Interface (Botucatu, Online) ; 23(supl.1): e170896, 2019. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002354

RESUMO

Abstract The 2014 National Curriculum Guidelines (DCN) for the medicine course provide for an education that focuses on primary care. The School of Medicine of Universidade Federal de Goiás, adapting itself to the new DCN, has developed a new Pedagogical Course Project (PCP). The objective of this study was to examine, through documentary analysis, the new PCP in the perspective of the 2014 DCN, based on the document "Guidelines for Primary Care Teaching in Undergraduate Medicine Courses". Although the PCP covers most of the aspects related to primary care teaching, there is no reference to the teaching of the person-centered clinical method, popular health education, respect for patient autonomy, and shared decision-making. We hope, therefore, to subsidize changes in the current PCP and to stimulate other universities to approach these issues.


Resumo As Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais (DCN) do curso de Medicina de 2014 preveem uma formação com maior foco na Atenção Primária à Saúde (APS). A Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Goiás, adaptando-se às novas DCN, elaborou um novo projeto pedagógico de curso (PPC). O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar e comparar, por meio de análise documental, o novo PPC nas perspectivas das DCN de 2014, tendo por base o documento "Diretrizes para o Ensino na Atenção Primária à Saúde na Graduação em Medicina". Embora o PPC contemple a maioria dos aspectos relacionados ao ensino da APS, observou-se a ausência de determinações para o ensino do método clínico centrado na pessoa, na educação popular, no respeito à autonomia do paciente e na tomada de decisão compartilhada. Espera-se, assim, subsidiar mudanças no PPC atual e estimular outras universidades a abordar esses temas.


RESUMEN Las Directrices Curriculares Nacionales (DCN) de 2014 prevén una formación con mayor foco en la Atención Primaria de la Salud (APS). La Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad Federal de Goiás, adaptándose a las nuevas DCN elaboró ​​un nuevo Proyecto Pedagógico de Curso (PPC). El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar y comparar, por medio de análisis documental, el nuevo PPC en las perspectivas de las DCN de 2014, teniendo como base el documento "Directrices para la Enseñanza en la Atención Primaria de la Salud en la Graduación en Medicina". Se observó la ausencia de determinaciones para la enseñanza del método clínico centrado en la persona, en la educación popular, en el respeto a la autonomía del paciente y en la toma de decisión compartida. Se espera, así, subsidiar cambios en el PPC actual e incentivar a otras universidades.


Assuntos
Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Faculdades de Medicina/tendências , Currículo/normas , Estratégia Saúde da Família
20.
BMC Med Educ ; 18(1): 310, 2018 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30563506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A substantial proportion of healthcare professionals have inadequate understanding of traditional and complementary medicine and often consider their use inappropriate. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative study to understand the perceptions and attitudes of medical students, medical school faculty and traditional and complementary medicine practitioners. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were used to collect data. Thematic approach was used in data analysis to identify emerging themes and sub themes. Data analysis was supported with use of Atlas.ti v6.1.1. RESULTS: The majority of participants commended the inclusion of traditional and complementary medicine principles into medical school curricula. The main reasons advanced were that: patients are already using these medicines and doctors need to understand them; doctors would be more accommodating to use and not rebuke patients, thereby minimizing delays in care due to pursuit of alternative therapies; promote patient safety; foster therapeutic alliance and adherence to therapy; uphold patients' right to self-determination; lead to discovery of new drugs from traditional medicines; and set ground for regulation of practices and quality control. However, participants anticipated operational and ethical challenges that include inadequate number of faculty to teach the subject, congested curricula, increased costs in research and development to produce evidence-base data, obstruction by pharmaceutical companies, inaccessibility to and depletion of medicinal plants, and potential conflicts due to diversity in culture and values. A substantial minority of participants thought traditional medicine need not be taught in medical schools because there is lack of scientific evidence on efficacy, safety, and side effects profiles. These shortfalls could make the determination of benefits (beneficence) and harm (maleficence) difficult, as well as compromise the ability of physicians to adequately disclose benefits and harms to patients and family, thereby undermining the process of informed consent and patient autonomy. CONCLUSIONS: Training medical students in principles of traditional and complementary medicine is considered reasonable, feasible, and acceptable; and could lead to improvement in health outcomes. There are anticipated challenges to implementing a hybrid medical school curricula, but these are surmountable and need not delay introducing traditional and complementary medicine principles into medical school curricula in Uganda.


Assuntos
Terapias Complementares/educação , Currículo , Médicos , Faculdades de Medicina , Participação dos Interessados/psicologia , Estudantes de Medicina , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Competência Cultural , Currículo/tendências , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Faculdades de Medicina/tendências , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
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