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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(19)2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34640689

RESUMO

Previous studies have used the anaerobic threshold (AT) to non-invasively predict muscle fatigue. This study proposes a novel method for the automatic classification of muscle fatigue based on surface electromyography (sEMG). The sEMG data were acquired from 20 participants during an incremental test on a cycle ergometer using sEMG sensors placed on the vastus rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), and gastrocnemius (GA) muscles of the left leg. The ventilation volume (VE), oxygen uptake (VO2), and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) data of each participant were collected during the test. Then, we extracted the time-domain and frequency-domain features of the sEMG signal denoised by the improved wavelet packet threshold denoising algorithm. In this study, we propose a new muscle fatigue recognition model based on the long short-term memory (LSTM) network. The LSTM network was trained to classify muscle fatigue using sEMG signal features. The results showed that the improved wavelet packet threshold function has better performance in denoising sEMG signals than hard threshold and soft threshold functions. The classification performance of the muscle fatigue recognition model proposed in this paper is better than that of CNN (convolutional neural network), SVM (support vector machine), and the classification models proposed by other scholars. The best performance of the LSTM network was achieved with 70% training, 10% validation, and 20% testing rates. Generally, the proposed model can be used to monitor muscle fatigue.


Assuntos
Fadiga Muscular , Músculo Esquelético , Algoritmos , Eletromiografia , Humanos , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte
2.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 831, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579699

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical activity may benefit health and reduce risk for chronic complications in normal and people with diabetes and peripheral vascular diseases. However, it is unclear whether leg muscle fatigue after weight-bearing physical activities, such as brisk walking, may increase risk for plantar tissue injury. In the literature, there is no evidence on the effect of muscle fatigue on plantar pressure after various walking intensities. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of various walking intensities on leg muscle fatigue and plantar pressure patterns. METHODS: A 3 × 2 factorial design, including 3 walking speeds (1.8 (slow and normal walking), 3.6 (brisk walking), and 5.4 (slow running) mph) and 2 walking durations (10 and 20 min) for a total of 6 walking intensities, was tested in 12 healthy participants in 3 consecutive weeks. The median frequency and complexity of electromyographic (EMG) signals of tibialis anterior (TA) and gastrocnemius medialis (GM) were used to quantify muscle fatigue. Fourier transform was used to compute the median frequency and multiscale entropy was used to calculate complexity of EMG signals. Peak plantar pressure (PPP) values at the 4 plantar regions (big toe, first metatarsal head, second metatarsal head, and heel) were calculated. RESULTS: Two-way ANOVA showed that the walking speed (at 1.8, 3.6, 5.4 mph) significantly affected leg muscle fatigue, and the duration factor (at 10 and 20 min) did not. The one-way ANOVA showed that there were four significant pairwise differences of the median frequency of TA, including walking speed of 1.8 and 3.6 mph (185.7 ± 6.1 vs. 164.9 ± 3.0 Hz, P = 0.006) and 1.8 and 5.4 mph (185.7 ± 6.1 vs. 164.5 ± 5.5 Hz, P = 0.006) for the 10-min duration; and walking speed of 1.8 and 3.6 mph (180.0 ± 5.9 vs. 163.1 ± 4.4 Hz, P = 0.024) and 1.8 and 5.4 mph (180.0 ± 5.9 vs. 162.8 ± 4.9 Hz, P = 0.023) for the 20-min duration. The complexity of TA showed a similar trend with the median frequency of TA. The median frequency of TA has a significant negative correlation with PPP on the big toe ( r = -0.954, P = 0.003) and the first metatarsal head ( r = -0.896, P = 0.016). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that brisk walking and slow running speeds (3.6 and 5.4 mph) cause an increase in muscle fatigue of TA compared to slow walking speed (1.8 mph); and the increased muscle fatigue is significantly related to a higher PPP.


Assuntos
Fadiga Muscular , Caminhada , Eletromiografia , Marcha , Humanos , Perna (Membro) , Músculo Esquelético
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502073

RESUMO

Though effective in treating various types of cancer, the chemotherapeutic doxorubicin (DOX) is associated with skeletal muscle wasting and fatigue. The purpose of this study was to assess muscle function in situ following DOX administration in mice. Furthermore, pre-treatments with exercise (EX) or metformin (MET) were used in an attempt to preserve muscle function following DOX. Mice were assigned to the following groups: control, DOX, DOX + EX, or DOX + MET, and were given a single injection of DOX (15 mg/kg) or saline 3 days prior to sacrifice. Preceding the DOX injection, DOX + EX mice performed 60 min/day of running for 5 days, while DOX + MET mice received 5 daily oral doses of 500 mg/kg MET. Gastrocnemius-plantaris-soleus complex function was assessed in situ via direct stimulation of the sciatic nerve. DOX treatment increased time to half-relaxation following contractions, indicating impaired recovery (p < 0.05). Interestingly, EX prevented any increase in half-relaxation time, while MET did not. An impaired relaxation rate was associated with a reduction in SERCA1 protein content (p = 0.07) and AMPK phosphorylation (p < 0.05). There were no differences between groups in force production or mitochondrial respiration. These results suggest that EX, but not MET may be an effective strategy for the prevention of muscle fatigue following DOX administration in mice.


Assuntos
Metformina/farmacologia , Fadiga Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Corrida , Animais , Doxorrubicina/toxicidade , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mitocôndrias Musculares/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias Musculares/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo
4.
J Electromyogr Kinesiol ; 60: 102586, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450379

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since the unergonomic postures cannot be changed during a surgery, it seems reasonable to externally support the surgeon's posture in order to relieve the musculature. To evaluate this matter, we conducted a pilot study to investigate if a prototype of an external surgeon support system (S3) relieves the musculature in an objectively measurable manner. METHODS: Simultaneous surface electromyography (EMG) was used alongside a combination of a laser Doppler flowmeter and a tissue spectrometer to record back and leg muscles during a simulated surgical situation. FINDINGS: With S3, muscle activity was significantly lower (p < 0.05) and also fatigue decreased when compared to without S3. Muscle blood flow and oxygenation were relatively close to baseline with S3, but increased without S3. INTERPRETATION: An ergonomic S3 is a possible approach to reduce muscle activity and fatigue and may therefore prevent chronic back pain amongst surgeons in the long term.


Assuntos
Músculo Esquelético , Cirurgiões , Eletromiografia , Ergonomia , Fadiga , Humanos , Fadiga Muscular , Projetos Piloto
5.
J Bodyw Mov Ther ; 27: 493-499, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391277

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hamstring strain often occurs at the end of a match or during practice in sports activities. The gluteus maximus muscle is an important muscle for hip extension along with the hamstring. Gluteus maximus muscle dysfunction may be involved in the occurrence of hamstring strain. Therefore, we focused on gluteus maximus muscle fatigue and investigated gluteus maximus and hamstring coordination. METHODS: He activities of the right side of the erector spinae, internal oblique, upper, and lower gluteus maximus fibers, gluteus medius, rectus femoris, semitendinosus, and medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle were measured in 21 young healthy men during single-leg landing before and after fatigue intervention. Fatigue intervention of the gluteus maximus muscle was performed using electrical muscle stimulation. Electromyography data were analyzed using non-negative matrix factorization. Additionally, to evaluate gluteus maximus fatigue, an isometric hip extension strength test and frequency analysis were performed before and after the intervention. RESULTS: The isometric strength power and median frequency significantly decreased after intervention. Two muscle synergies were extracted and the contribution of semitendinosus of a synergy that was activated just before landing, significantly increased due to the intervention. DISCUSSION: The results of the isometric hip strength test and frequency analysis, the gluteus maximus fatigued by the intervention. The hip extensor muscles eccentrically contract to absorb the ground reaction force during landing. Therefore, our results may suggest that the eccentric load increases for the hamstring due to gluteus maximus muscle fatigue and may be a risk factor for hamstring strain.


Assuntos
Perna (Membro) , Fadiga Muscular , Nádegas , Eletromiografia , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético , Músculos Paraespinais
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360424

RESUMO

Downhill running has an important effect on performance in trail running competitions, but it is less studied than uphill running. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cardiorespiratory response during 15 min of downhill running (DR) and to evaluate the neuromuscular consequences in a group of trail runners. Before and after a 15-min DR trial (slope: -25%) at ~60% of maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2max), we evaluated maximal voluntary contraction torque (MVCt) and muscle contractility in a group of seventeen trail running athletes. Additionally, during the DR trial, we measured V̇O2 and heart rate (HR). V̇O2 and HR increased as a function of time, reaching +19.8 ± 15.9% (p < 0.001; ES: 0.49, medium) and +15.3 ± 9.9% (p < 0.001; ES: 0.55, large), respectively, in the last minute of DR. Post-exercise, the MVCt decreased (-22.2 ± 12.0%; p < 0.001; ES = 0.55, large) with respect to the pre-exercise value. All the parameters related to muscle contractility were impaired after DR: the torque evoked by a potentiated high frequency doublet decreased (-28.5 ± 12.7%; p < 0.001; ES: 0.61, large), as did the torque response from the single-pulse stimulation (St, -41.6 ± 13.6%; p < 0.001; ES: 0.70, large) and the M-wave (-11.8 ± 12.1%; p < 0.001; ES: 0.22, small). We found that after 15 min of DR, athletes had a decreased MVCt, which was ascribed mainly to peripheral rather than central alterations. Additionally, during low-intensity DR exercise, muscle fatigue and exercise-induced muscle damage may contribute to the development of O2 and HR drift.


Assuntos
Corrida , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Contração Muscular , Fadiga Muscular , Músculo Esquelético , Consumo de Oxigênio
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360030

RESUMO

This case study was conducted to assess muscle pattern, as measured by surface electromyography (sEMG), and its changes during a controlled superbike closed-road track training session. The sEMG signals were recorded unilaterally from biceps brachii (BB), triceps brachii (TB), anterior and posterior part of the deltoid (DA and DP respectively), flexor digitorum superficialis (FS), extensor carpi radialis (CR), extensor digitorum communis (ED) and pectoralis major (PM) during three rounds of 30 min. sEMG signals selected for analysis came from the beginning of the braking action to the way-out of the curves of interest. Considering the laps and rounds as a whole and focusing on the forearm muscles, ED was more systematically (84%) assigned to a state of fatigue than FS (44%) and CR (39%). On the opposite, the TB and DP muscles showed a predominant state of force increase (72%). Whereas the BB showed alternatively a state of fatigue or force increase depending on the side of the curve, when taking into account only the sharpest curves, it showed a predominant state of force increase. In conclusion, the fact that forearm muscles must endure a long-lasting maintenance of considerable activity levels explains why they easily got into a state of fatigue. Moreover, TB and DA are particularly relevant when cornering.


Assuntos
Motocicletas , Fadiga Muscular , Eletromiografia , Antebraço , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360219

RESUMO

Despite a reduction in the maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVCisom) observed systematically in intermittent fatigue protocols (IFP), decrements of the median frequency, assessed by surface electromyography (sEMG), has not been consistently verified. This study aimed to determine whether recovery periods of 60 s were too long to induce a reduction in the normalized median frequency (MFEMG) of the flexor digitorum superficialis and carpi radialis muscles. Twenty-one road racing motorcycle riders performed an IFP that simulated the posture and braking gesture on a motorcycle. The MVCisom was reduced by 53% (p < 0.001). A positive and significant relationship (p < 0.005) was found between MFEMG and duration of the fatiguing task when 5 s contractions at 30% MVCisom were interspersed by 5 s recovery in both muscles. In contrast, no relationship was found (p > 0.133) when 10 s contractions at 50% MVC were interspersed by 1 min recovery. Comparative analysis of variance (ANOVA) confirmed a decrement of MFEMG in the IFP at 30% MVCisom including short recovery periods with a duty cycle of 100% (5 s/5 s = 1), whereas no differences were observed in the IFP at 50% MVCisom and longer recovery periods, with a duty cycle of 16%. These findings show that recovery periods during IFP are more relevant than the intensity of MVCisom. Thus, we recommend the use of short recovery periods between 5 and 10 s after submaximal muscle contractions for specific forearm muscle training and testing purposes in motorcycle riders.


Assuntos
Antebraço , Fadiga Muscular , Eletromiografia , Gestos , Força da Mão , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Motocicletas , Músculo Esquelético
9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(16)2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34451104

RESUMO

This work investigates elimination methods for cardiogenic artifacts in respiratory surface electromyographic (sEMG) signals and compares their performance with respect to subsequent fatigue detection with different fatigue algorithms. The analysis is based on artificially constructed test signals featuring a clearly defined expected fatigue level. Test signals are additively constructed with different proportions from sEMG and electrocardiographic (ECG) signals. Cardiogenic artifacts are eliminated by high-pass filtering (HP), template subtraction (TS), a newly introduced two-step approach (TSWD) consisting of template subtraction and a wavelet-based damping step and a pure wavelet-based damping (DSO). Each method is additionally combined with the exclusion of QRS segments (gating). Fatigue is subsequently quantified with mean frequency (MNF), spectral moments ratio of order five (SMR5) and fuzzy approximate entropy (fApEn). Different combinations of artifact elimination methods and fatigue detection algorithms are tested with respect to their ability to deliver invariant results despite increasing ECG contamination. Both DSO and TSWD artifact elimination methods displayed promising results regarding the intermediate, "cleaned" EMG signal. However, only the TSWD method enabled superior results in the subsequent fatigue detection across different levels of artifact contamination and evaluation criteria. SMR5 could be determined as the best fatigue detection algorithm. This study proposes a signal processing chain to determine neuromuscular fatigue despite the presence of cardiogenic artifacts. The results furthermore underline the importance of selecting a combination of algorithms that play well together to remove cardiogenic artifacts and to detect fatigue. This investigation provides guidance for clinical studies to select optimal signal processing to detect fatigue from respiratory sEMG signals.


Assuntos
Artefatos , Fadiga Muscular , Algoritmos , Eletrocardiografia , Eletromiografia , Contração Muscular , Músculos Respiratórios , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador
10.
Biomolecules ; 11(7)2021 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34356674

RESUMO

The discovery and application of antibiotics in the common clinical practice has undeniably been one of the major medical advances in our times. Their use meant a drastic drop in infectious diseases-related mortality and contributed to prolonging human life expectancy worldwide. Nevertheless, antibiotics are considered by many a double-edged sword. Their extensive use in the past few years has given rise to a global problem: antibiotic resistance. This factor and the increasing evidence that a wide range of antibiotics can damage mammalian mitochondria, have driven a significant sector of the medical and scientific communities to advise against the use of antibiotics for purposes other to treating severe infections. Notwithstanding, a notorious number of recent studies support the use of these drugs to treat very diverse conditions, ranging from cancer to neurodegenerative or mitochondrial diseases. In this context, there is great controversy on whether the risks associated to antibiotics outweigh their promising beneficial features. The aim of this review is to provide insight in the topic, purpose for which the most relevant findings regarding antibiotic therapies have been discussed.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos Mentais/microbiologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Doenças Mitocondriais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Mitocondriais/patologia , Fadiga Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/induzido quimicamente , Transplantes
11.
J Biomech ; 125: 110598, 2021 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246910

RESUMO

The Short-Time Fourier transform (STFT) is a helpful tool to identify muscle fatigue with clinical and sports applications. However, the choice of STFT parameters may affect the estimation of myoelectrical manifestations of fatigue. Here, we determine the effect of window length and overlap selections on the frequency slope and the coefficient of variation from EMG spectrum features in fatiguing contractions. We also determine whether STFT parameters affect the relationship between frequency slopes and task failure. Eighty-eight healthy adult men performed one-leg heel-rise until exhaustion. A factorial design with a window length of 50, 100, 250, 500, and 1000 ms with 0, 25, 50, 75, and 90% of overlap was used. The frequency slope was non-linearly fitted as a task failure function, followed by a dimensionality reduction and clustering analysis. The STFT parameters elicited five patterns. A small window length produced a higher slope frequency for the peak frequency (p < 0.001). The contrary was found for the mean and median frequency (p < 0.001). A larger window length elicited a higher slope frequency for the mean and peak frequencies. The largest frequency slope and dispersion was found for a window length of 50 ms without overlap using peak frequency. A combination of 250 ms with 50% of overlap reduced the dispersion both for peak, median, and mean frequency, but decreased the slope frequency. Therefore, the selection of STFT parameters during dynamic contractions should be accompanied by a mechanical measure of the task failure, and its parameters should be adjusted according to the experiment's requirements.


Assuntos
Fadiga Muscular , Músculo Esquelético , Adulto , Análise por Conglomerados , Eletromiografia , Análise de Fourier , Humanos , Contração Isométrica , Masculino , Contração Muscular
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Functional fitness training (FFT) is a new exercise modality that targets functional multi-joint actions via both muscle-strengthening exercises and aerobic training intervals. The aim of the study was to examine muscle recovery over a 20 min period after an FFT workout in trained adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants were 28 healthy trained subjects. In a single session, a countermovement jump (CMJ) was performed to determine several mechanical variables (jump height, maximum velocity, power) before (preFFT) and 4, 10, and 20 min after the FFT workout (postFFT). In parallel, capillary blood lactate concentrations were measured pre- and 3 min postFFT. Heart rate was also measured before and after the workout, and perceived exertion was measured postFFT. RESULTS: Significant differences between the time points preFFT and 4 min and 10 min postFFT, respectively, were produced in jump height (p = 0.022, p = 0.034), maximum velocity (p = 0.016, p = 0.005), average power relative (p = 0.018, p = 0.049), and average power total (p = 0.025, p = 0.049). No differences were observed in any of the variables recorded preFFT and 20 min postFFT. CONCLUSIONS: While mechanical variables indicating muscle fatigue were reduced 4 and 10 min postFFT, pre-exercise jump ability only really started to recover 20 min after FFT although not reaching pre-exercise levels. This means that ideally intervals of around 20 min of rest should be implemented between training bouts.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Fadiga Muscular , Adulto , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Ácido Láctico , Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético , Músculos
13.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 11(7)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208947

RESUMO

Wearable robotic devices have been proved to considerably reduce the energy expenditure of human walking. It is not only suitable for healthy people, but also for some patients who require rehabilitation exercises. However, in many cases, the weight of soft exosuits are relatively large, which makes it difficult for the assistant effect of the system to offset the metabolic consumption caused by the extra weight, and the heavy weight will make people uncomfortable. Therefore, reducing the weight of the whole system as much as possible and keeping the soft exosuit output power unchanged, may improve the comfort of users and further reduce the metabolic consumption. In this paper, we show that a novel lightweight soft exosuit which is currently the lightest among all known powered exoskeletons, which assists hip flexion. Indicated from the result of experiment, the novel lightweight soft exosuit reduces the metabolic consumption rate of wearers when walking on the treadmill at 5 km per hour by 11.52% compared with locomotion without the exosuit. Additionally, it can reduce more metabolic consumption than the hip extension assisted (HEA) and hip flexion assisted (HFA) soft exosuit which our team designed previously, which has a large weight. The muscle fatigue experiments show that using the lightweight soft exosuit can also reduce muscle fatigue by about 10.7%, 40.5% and 5.9% for rectus femoris, vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius respectively compared with locomotion without the exosuit. It is demonstrated that decreasing the weight of soft exosuit while maintaining the output almost unchanged can further reduce metabolic consumption and muscle fatigue, and appropriately improve the users' comfort.


Assuntos
Exoesqueleto Energizado , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Metabolismo Energético , Terapia por Exercício , Marcha/fisiologia , Humanos , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Robótica/instrumentação , Caminhada/fisiologia , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis
14.
J Sports Sci Med ; 20(2): 300-309, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34211323

RESUMO

Non-local muscle fatigue (NLMF) studies have examined crossover impairments of maximal voluntary force output in non-exercised, contralateral muscles as well as comparing upper and lower limb muscles. Since prior studies primarily investigated contralateral muscles, the purpose of this study was to compare NLMF effects on elbow flexors (EF) and plantar flexors (PF) force and activation (electromyography: EMG). Secondly, possible differences when testing ipsilateral or contralateral muscles with a single or repeated isometric maximum voluntary contractions (MVC) were also investigated. Twelve participants (six males: (27.3 ± 2.5 years, 186.0 ± 2.2 cm, 91.0 ± 4.1 kg; six females: 23.0 ± 1.6 years, 168.2 ± 6.7 cm, 60.0 ± 4.3 kg) attended six randomized sessions where ipsilateral or contralateral PF or EF MVC force and EMG activity (root mean square) were tested following a dominant knee extensors (KE) fatigue intervention (2×100s MVC) or equivalent rest (control). Testing involving a single MVC (5s) was completed by the ipsilateral or contralateral PF or EF prior to and immediately post-interventions. One minute after the post-intervention single MVC, a 12×5s MVCs fatigue test was completed. Two-way repeated measures ANOVAs revealed that ipsilateral EF post-fatigue force was lower (-6.6%, p = 0.04, d = 0.18) than pre-fatigue with no significant changes in the contralateral or control conditions. EF demonstrated greater fatigue indexes for the ipsilateral (9.5%, p = 0.04, d = 0.75) and contralateral (20.3%, p < 0.01, d = 1.50) EF over the PF, respectively. There were no significant differences in PF force, EMG or EF EMG post-test or during the MVCs fatigue test. The results suggest that NLMF effects are side and muscle specific where prior KE fatigue could hinder subsequent ipsilateral upper body performance and thus is an important consideration for rehabilitation, recreation and athletic programs.


Assuntos
Cotovelo/fisiologia , Pé/fisiologia , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Quadríceps/fisiologia , Adulto , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Joelho/fisiologia , Masculino , Contração Muscular , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Sports Sci Med ; 20(2): 339-348, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34211327

RESUMO

Post-activation performance enhancement (PAPE) is an improvement to voluntary muscle performance following a conditioning activity. There is evidence of fatigue resistance deficits in non-exercised muscles following unilateral fatiguing exercise of a contralateral muscle. The purpose of this study was to determine if a unilateral conditioning exercise protocol could induce PAPE in a contralateral, non-exercised muscle in young healthy adults. Thirty-two recreationally trained (n = 16) and athletically trained (n = 16) participants (16 males; age: 22.9 ± 2.03 years; height: 1.81 ± 0.06 m; weight: 82.8 ± 9.43 kg, and 16 females; age: 23.1 ± 2.80 years; height: 1.67 ± 0.07 m; weight: 66.4 ± 11.09 kg) were randomly allocated into two groups (dominant or non-dominant limb intervention). The experimental intervention, involved a conditioning exercise (4-repetitions of 5-seconds knee extension maximal voluntary isometric contractions: MVIC) with either the dominant (DOM) (n = 16) or non-dominant (ND) (n = 16) knee extensors with testing of the same (exercised) or contralateral (non-exercised) leg as well as a control (no conditioning exercise: n = 32) condition. Testing was performed before, 1-minute and 10-minutes after a high intensity, low volume, conditioning protocol (2 sets of 2x5-s MVIC). Pre- and post-testing included MVIC force and F100 (force developed in the first 100 ms: a proxy measure of rate of force development) and unilateral drop jump (DJ) height and contact time. There were no significant MVIC peak force or EMG nor DJ height or contact time interactions (intervention x limb dominance x time). The pre-test (0.50 ± 0.13) dominant leg MVIC F100 forces exceeded (p = 0.02) both post-test and post-10 min by a small magnitude 8.7% (d = 0.31). There was also a significant (p = 0.02) time x intervention leg x testing leg intervention, although it was observed that the control condition was as likely to demonstrate small to large magnitude changes as were the dominant and non-dominant legs. Following the conditioning activity, there was no significant evidence for non-local improvements (PAPE), or performance decreases.


Assuntos
Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Eletromiografia , Humanos , Contração Isométrica , Joelho/fisiologia , Masculino , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 53(8): 1606-1614, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34261991

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The mechanism(s) of exercise intolerance at V˙O2max remain poorly understood. In health, standard ramp-incremental (RI) exercise is limited by fatigue-induced reductions in maximum voluntary cycling power. Whether neuromuscular fatigue also limits exercise when the RI rate is slow and RI peak power at intolerance is lower than standard RI exercise, is unknown. METHODS: In twelve healthy participants, maximal voluntary cycling power was measured during a short (~6 s) isokinetic effort at 80 rpm (Piso) at baseline and, using an instantaneous switch from cadence-independent to isokinetic cycling, immediately at the limit of RI exercise with RI rates of 50, 25, and 10 W·min-1 (RI-50, RI-25, and RI-10). Breath-by-breath pulmonary gas exchange was measured throughout. RESULTS: Baseline Piso was not different among RI rates (analysis of variance; P > 0.05). Tolerable duration increased with decreasing RI rate (RI-50, 411 ± 58 s vs RI-25, 732 ± 93 s vs RI-10, 1531 ± 288 s; P < 0.05). At intolerance, V˙O2peak was not different among RI rates (analysis of variance; P > 0.05), but RI peak power decreased with RI rate (RI-50, 361 ± 48 W vs RI-25, 323 ± 39 W vs RI-10, 275 ± 38 W; P < 0.05). Piso at intolerance was 346 ± 43 W, 353 ± 45 W, and 392 ± 69 W for RI-50, RI-25, and RI-10, respectively (P < 0.05 for RI-10 vs RI-50 and RI-25). At intolerance, in RI-50 and RI-25, Piso was not different from RI peak power (P > 0.05), thus there was no "power reserve." In RI-10, Piso was greater than RI peak power at intolerance (P < 0.001), that is, there was a "power reserve." CONCLUSIONS: In RI-50 and RI-25, the absence of a power reserve suggests the neuromuscular fatigue-induced reduction in Piso coincided with V˙O2max and limited the exercise. In RI-10, the power reserve suggests neuromuscular fatigue was insufficient to limit the exercise, and additional mechanisms contributed to intolerance at V˙O2max.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Fadiga Muscular , Consumo de Oxigênio , Adulto , Teste de Esforço , Tolerância ao Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Troca Gasosa Pulmonar , Adulto Jovem
17.
Percept Mot Skills ; 128(5): 2326-2345, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34313524

RESUMO

The purpose of the current study was to determine if, and to what extent, sex differences in performance fatigability after a sustained, bilateral leg extension, anchored to a moderate rating of perceived exertion (RPE), could be attributed to muscle size, muscular strength, or pain pressure threshold (PPT) in young, healthy adults. Thirty adults (men: n = 15, women: n = 15) volunteered to complete a sustained leg extension task anchored to RPE = 5 (10-point OMNI scale) as well as pretest and posttest maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) trials. The fatigue-induced decline in MVIC force was defined as performance fatigability. We used muscle cross-sectional area (mCSA) to quantify muscle size and a dolorimeter to assess PPT. The sustained task induced fatigue such that both men and women exhibited significant (p < 0.05) decreases in MVIC force from pretest to posttest (M = 113.3, SD =24.2 kg vs. M = 98.3, SD = 23.1 kg and M = 73.1, SD =14.5 kg vs. M = 64.1, SD = 16.2 kg, respectively), with no significant sex differences in performance fatigability (grand M = 12.6, SD =10.6%). Men, however, exhibited significantly (p < 0.05) longer time to task failure (TTF) than women (M = 166.1, SD =83.0 seconds vs. M = 94.6, SD =41.7) as well as greater PPT (M = 5.9, SD = 2.2 kg vs. M = 3.4, SD =1.1 kg). The only significant predictor of performance fatigability was PPT. In conclusion, differences in PPT, at least in part, mediate variations in TTF during self-paced exercise anchored to a specific RPE and resulting in performance fatigability.


Assuntos
Fadiga Muscular , Músculo Esquelético , Adulto , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Contração Isométrica , Masculino , Dor
18.
J Sports Sci Med ; 20(3): 391-397, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267577

RESUMO

The purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of an acute bout of high-intensity resistance exercise on measures of cognitive function. Ten men (Mean ± SD: age = 24.4 ± 3.2 yrs; body mass = 85.7 ± 11.8 kg; height = 1.78 ± 0.08 m; 1 repetition maximum (1RM) = 139.0 ± 24.1 kg) gave informed consent and performed a high-intensity 6 sets of 10 repetitions of barbell back squat exercise at 80% 1RM with 2 minutes rest between sets. The Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (ANAM) was completed to assess various cognitive domains during the familiarization period, immediately before, and immediately after the high-intensity resistance exercise bout. The repeated measures ANOVAs for throughput scores (r·m-1) demonstrated significant mean differences for the Mathematical Processing task (MTH; p < 0.001, η2 p = 0.625) where post hoc pairwise comparisons demonstrated that the post-fatigue throughput (32.0 ± 8.8 r·m-1) was significantly greater than the pre-fatigue (23.8 ± 7.4 r·m-1, p = 0.003, d = 1.01) and the familiarization throughput (26.4 ± 5.3 r·m-1, p = 0.024, d = 0.77). The Coded Substitution-Delay task also demonstrated significant mean differences (CDD; p = 0.027, η2 p = 0.394) with post hoc pairwise comparisons demonstrating that the post-fatigue throughput (49.3 ± 14.4 r·m-1) was significantly less than the pre-fatigue throughput (63.2 ± 9.6 r·m-1, p = 0.011, d = 1.14). The repeated measures ANOVAs for reaction time (ms) demonstrated significant mean differences for MTH (p < 0.001, η2 p = 0.624) where post hoc pairwise comparisons demonstrated that the post-fatigue reaction time (1885.2 ± 582.8 ms) was significantly less than the pre-fatigue (2518.2 ± 884.8 ms, p = 0.005, d = 0.85) and familiarization (2253.7 ± 567.6 ms, p = 0.009, d = 0.64) reaction times. The Go/No-Go task demonstrated significant mean differences (GNG; p = 0.031, η2 p = 0.320) with post hoc pairwise comparisons demonstrating that the post-fatigue (285.9 ± 16.3 ms) was significantly less than the pre-fatigue (298.5 ± 12.1 ms, p = 0.006, d = 0.88) reaction times. High-intensity resistance exercise may elicit domain-specific influences on cognitive function, characterized by the facilitation of simple cognitive tasks and impairments of complex cognitive tasks.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Treinamento de Força/métodos , Adulto , Atenção , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Memória , Rememoração Mental , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Força Muscular , Tempo de Reação , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Sports Sci Med ; 20(3): 438-447, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267583

RESUMO

This study examined the effects of two or four weekly campus board training sessions among highly accomplished lead climbers. Sixteen advanced-to-elite climbers were randomly allocated to two (TG2), or four weekly campus board training sessions (TG4), or a control group (CG). All groups continued their normal climbing routines. Pre- and post-intervention measures included bouldering performance, maximal isometric pull-up strength using a shallow rung and a large hold (jug), and maximal reach and moves to failure. Rate of force development (RFD; absolute and 100ms) was calculated in the rung condition. TG4 improved maximal force in the jug condition (effect size (ES) = 0.40, p = 0.043), and absolute RFD more than CG (ES = 2.92, p = 0.025), whereas TG2 improved bouldering performance (ES = 2.59, p = 0.016) and maximal moves to failure on the campus board more than CG (ES = 1.65, p = 0.008). No differences between the training groups were found (p = 0.107-1.000). When merging the training groups, the training improved strength in the rung condition (ES = 0.87, p = 0.002), bouldering performance (ES = 2.37, p = 0.006), maximal reach (ES = 1.66, p = 0.006) and moves to failure (ES = 1.43, p = 0.040) more than CG. In conclusion, a five-week campus board training-block is sufficient for improving climbing-specific attributes among advanced-to-elite climbers. Sessions should be divided over four days to improve RFD or divided over two days to improve bouldering performance, compared to regular climbing training.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Montanhismo/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Adulto , Braço/anatomia & histologia , Braço/fisiologia , Dedos/fisiologia , Força da Mão , Humanos , Masculino , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Força Muscular , Fatores de Tempo
20.
J Electromyogr Kinesiol ; 59: 102564, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34102382

RESUMO

We sought to evaluate sex-specific 1) muscle activation patterns, hemodynamics, and swelling responses to short-cycle repetitive fatigue; 2) relationships between muscular responses and perceived fatigability. Asymptomatic participants (N = 26, 13 females) completed a repetitive pointing task until 8/10 on the Borg CR10 scale. Upper trapezius (UT), supraspinatus (SUPRA), and biceps brachii (BIC) muscle activation, activation variability (CV), median power frequency (MdPF) and thickness, and UT oxygenation were recorded. Males had higher BIC CV, UT and SUPRA MdPF, and UT and BIC thickness. Longer time to fatigue-terminal was correlated to greater SUPRA activation increase (ρ = 0.624) and BIC MdPF decrease (ρ = -0.674) in males, while in females it was correlated to greater (ρ = -0.657) and lower (ρ = 0.683) decrease of SUPRA and BIC CV, respectively. Male's greater increase in SUPRA thickness correlated to greater increase in UT thickness and tissue oxygenation index, and to lower increase of UT deoxyhemoglobin. Females' greater decrease of SUPRA MdPF correlated to greater decrease of UT MdPF, while greater UT activation increase was related to lower UT thickness increase. Results suggest that despite comparable time to fatigue-terminal, males have greater force-generating capacity and neuromuscular reliance on recruitment and excitation rates, while females have greater reliance on activation variability. Further, there are relationships between hemodynamic and swelling patterns in males, while there are relationships between activation and swelling patterns in females. Although there were no differences in experimental task-induced changes, there are sex-specific relationships between muscular patterns and perceived fatigability, which may help explain sex-specific mechanisms of musculoskeletal disorders.


Assuntos
Fadiga Muscular , Músculos Superficiais do Dorso , Braço , Eletromiografia , Fadiga , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético , Adulto Jovem
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