Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 605
Filtrar
1.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235354, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609773

RESUMO

The Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima Bl.) was introduced into Japan about 100 years ago. Since then, a number of Chinese chestnut cultivars and Japanese-Chinese hybrid cultivars have been selected by farmers and plant breeders, but little information has been available about their origins and genetic relationships. A classification based on simple sequence repeat markers was conducted using 230 cultivars including Japanese chestnut (Castanea crenata Sieb. et Zucc.) cultivars originated in Japan, Japanese-Chinese hybrid cultivars, and Chinese chestnut cultivars originated in both Japan and China. First, a search for synonyms (cultivars with identical genotypes) revealed 23 synonym groups among the Chinese chestnut cultivars, and all but one cultivar from each synonym group was omitted from further analyses. Second, genetic structure analysis showed a clear division between Japanese and Chinese chestnut, and most of the Japanese and Chinese cultivars had a simple genetic structure corresponding to the expected species. On the other hand, most Japanese-Chinese hybrid cultivars had admixed genetic structure. Through a combination of parentage and chloroplast haplotype analyses, 16 of the 18 hybrid cultivars in this study were inferred to have parent-offspring relationships with other cultivars originated in Japan. Finally, Bayesian clustering and chloroplast haplotype analysis showed that the 116 Chinese chestnut cultivars could be divided into two groups: one originated in the Hebei region of China and the other originated in the Jiangsu and Anhui regions of China. The Chinese chestnut cultivars selected in Japan showed various patterns of genetic structure including Hebei origin, Jiangsu or Anhui origin, and admixed. The chestnut cultivar genetic classifications obtained in this study will be useful for both Japanese and Chinese chestnut breeding programs.


Assuntos
Cloroplastos/genética , Fagaceae/classificação , Fagaceae/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , China , Deriva Genética , Genótipo , Japão , Filogenia , Melhoramento Vegetal
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3375, 2020 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632155

RESUMO

Hybridization can drive speciation. We examine the hypothesis that Castanea henryi var. omeiensis is an evolutionary lineage that originated from hybridization between two near-sympatric diploid taxa, C. henryi var. henryi and C. mollissima. We produce a high-quality genome assembly for mollissima and characterize evolutionary relationships among related chestnut taxa. Our results show that C. henryi var. omeiensis has a mosaic genome but has accumulated divergence in all 12 chromosomes. We observe positive correlation between admixture proportions and recombination rates across the genome. Candidate barrier genomic regions, which isolate var. henryi and mollissima, are re-assorted in the hybrid lineage. We further find that the putative barrier segments concentrate in genomic regions with less recombination, suggesting that interaction between natural selection and recombination shapes the evolution of hybrid genomes during hybrid speciation. This study highlights that reassortment of parental barriers is an important mechanism in generating biodiversity.


Assuntos
Diploide , Fagaceae/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Hibridização Genética , Mosaicismo , Ploidias , Algoritmos , Evolução Molecular , Fagaceae/classificação , Especiação Genética , Modelos Genéticos , Recombinação Genética , Seleção Genética , Especificidade da Espécie , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos
3.
Carbohydr Polym ; 240: 116323, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32475583

RESUMO

A new water-soluble polysaccharide, CMP90, with a molecular weight of 23.9 kDa was isolated from Castanea mollissima Blume and the preliminary structural characteristics and antitumor effects of CMP90 in vitro and in vivo were investigated in the research. CMP90 consists of arabinose, galactose, glucose, xylose and mannose (molar ratio: 0.08:0.11:5.14:0.12:0.08) with α- and ß-anomeric units. The results of in vitro experiments indicated that CMP90 exhibited a significant inhibitory effect on the proliferation of HL-60 cells with typical apoptotic characteristics by inducing cell cycle arrested at G1/M phase. Additionally, the results in vivo suggested CMP90 was able to inhibit the growth of S180 solid tumors via protecting immune organs, improving the levels of serum cytokines (TNF-α, IL-2 and IFN-γ), enhancing the activities of immune cells (macrophages, lymphocytes and NK cells) and inducing cell apoptosis or death. Taken together, these combined data clearly indicated that CMP90 may be used as a potential candidate agent for cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Fagaceae/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Feminino , Células HL-60 , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Neoplasias Experimentais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Experimentais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Experimentais/patologia , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
4.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(4): 1073-1082, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530180

RESUMO

Biodegradability of dissolved organic matter (DOM) affects stabilization and mineralization of soil organic matter, which is of great significance to soil nutrient cycling. In order to explore the effects of forest regeneration on soil DOM degradation, soil DOM solution was sampled in a natural Castanopsis carlesii forest (NF), a secondary forest of C. carlesii (SF), and an artificial-assisted regeneration forest of C. carlesii (AR) in a sub-tropical area and conducted 42-day laboratory incubation. The results showed that: 1) both the degradation rate of soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and the ratio of labile DOC were as follows: SF>AR>NF; dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) are the factors significantly affecting the ratio of labile DOC; 2) stable DOC accounted for the majority of soil DOC in all the three forest types (72.3%-94.6%), which had long turnover time and contributed to the formation of stable soil organic matter (SOC); 3) the initial humification index in emission mode (HIXem) of soil DOM would affect the turnover time of labile DOC. The spectral structure of DOM changed dynamically during the degradation process, indicating that microorganism would turn to degrade aromatic and hydrophobic fractions for carbon source after the depletion of labile DOM. Overall, the transformation from NF of C. carlesii into SF and AR could increase the proportion of the easily degradable DOC, and enhance the biodegradability of soil DOM, which were not conducive to the accumulation of SOC.


Assuntos
Fagaceae , Solo , Carbono , China , Florestas , Nitrogênio
5.
J Food Sci ; 85(7): 2114-2123, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32519374

RESUMO

Chitosan (CHI) and whey protein are usually used to prepare edible films for food preservation. However, the composite film composed of the two components does not yield satisfactory properties for chestnut preservation. In this study, nano-cellulose and cinnamaldehyde (CMA) were added to CHI and whey protein, creating a new composite film with strong water retention, bacteriostatic, and mechanical properties. The water vapor permeability (WVP) of the film decreased by 21.61% with the addition of 0.5% (w/v) nano-cellulose, and 23.02% with the addition of 0.3% (w/v) CMA. Furthermore, water solubility (WS) decreased 22.05%, and the density of the film was significantly improved with the addition of 0.3% (w/v) CMA. The optimized formula of the film was CHI 2.5% (w/v), whey protein 3.0% (w/v), nano-cellulose 0.5% (w/v), CMA 0.3% (w/v), and pH 3.8, as determined by orthogonal testing L9(34 ), with fuzzy comprehensive assessment, of WVP, WS, tensile strength, and elongation at break. The film clearly inhibited the growth of E. coli, S. aureus, and Chinese chestnut fungus, destroying the mycelial structure of the fungus. In addition, coating effectively reduced the weight loss, mildew rate, and calcification index during 16 days of storage of chestnuts at 25 °C.


Assuntos
Quitosana/química , Fagaceae/química , Embalagem de Alimentos/instrumentação , Conservação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Frutas/microbiologia , Nanocompostos/química , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/química , Celulose/química , Filmes Comestíveis , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fagaceae/microbiologia , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/química , Permeabilidade , Solubilidade , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vapor/análise , Resistência à Tração
6.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234315, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516353

RESUMO

Stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of raw pollen sampled from nine abundant tree species growing in natural habitats of central and northern Europe were investigated to understand the intra- and inter-specific variability of pollen-isotope values. All species yielded specific δ13Cpollen and δ18Opollen values and patterns, which can be ascribed to their physiology and habitat preferences. Broad-leaved trees flowering early in the year before leaf proliferation (Alnus glutinosa and Corylus avellana) exhibited on average 2.6‰ lower δ13Cpollen and 3.1‰ lower δ18Opollen values than broad-leaved and coniferous trees flowering during mid and late spring (Acer pseudoplatanus, Betula pendula, Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica, Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris and Quercus robur). Mean species-specific δ13Cpollen values did not change markedly over time, whereas δ18Opollen values of two consecutive years were often statistically distinct. An intra-annual analysis of B. pendula and P. sylvestris pollen revealed increasing δ18Opollen values during the final weeks of pollen development. However, the δ13Cpollen values remained consistent throughout the pollen-maturation process. Detailed intra-individual analysis yielded circumferential and height-dependent variations within carbon and oxygen pollen-isotopes and the sampling position on a tree accounted for differences of up to 3.5‰ for δ13Cpollen and 2.1‰ for δ18Opollen. A comparison of isotope ranges from different geographic settings revealed gradients between maritime and continental as well as between high and low altitudinal study sites. The results of stepwise regression analysis demonstrated, that carbon and oxygen pollen-isotopes also reflect local non-climate environmental conditions. A detailed understanding of isotope patterns and ranges in modern pollen is necessary to enhance the accuracy of palaeoclimate investigations on δ13C and δ18O of fossil pollen. Furthermore, pollen-isotope values are species-specific and the analysis of species growing during different phenophases may be valuable for palaeoweather reconstructions of different seasons.


Assuntos
Carbono/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Pólen/metabolismo , Betulaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Clima , Ecossistema , Fagaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Isótopos de Oxigênio/análise , Pinaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pólen/genética , Sapindaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estações do Ano , Especificidade da Espécie , Árvores/genética , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Árvores/metabolismo
7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 8111, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415177

RESUMO

A Ran binding protein (RanBP) homolog, CpRbp1, from Cryphonectria parasitica, has been identified as a protein that is affected by hypovirus infection or tannic acid supplementation. In this study, functional analyses of CpRbp1 were performed by constructing a knockout mutant and analyzing the resulting heterokaryon. Transformation-mediated gene replacement resulted in two putative CpRbp1-null mutants and genotype analyses identified these two mutants as heterokaryotic transformants consisting of two types of nuclei, one with the wild-type CpRbp1 allele and another with the CpRbp1-null mutant allele. Although stable mycelial growth of the heterokaryotic transformant was observed on selective medium containing hygromycin B, neither germination nor growth of the resulting conidia, which were single-cell monokaryotic progeny, was observed on the medium. In trans complementation of heterokaryons using a full-length wild-type allele of the CpRbp1 gene resulted in complemented transformants. These transformants sporulated single-cell monokaryotic conidia that were able to grow on media selective for replacing and/or complementing markers. These results clearly indicate that CpRbp1 is an essential gene, and heterokaryons allowed the fungus to maintain lethal CpRbp1-null mutant nuclei. Moreover, in trans complementation of heterokaryons using chimeric structures of the CpRbp1 gene allowed for analysis of its functional domains, which was previously hampered due to the lethality of the gene. In addition, in trans complementation using heterologous RanBP genes from Aspergillus nidulans was successful, suggesting that the function of RanBP is conserved during evolution. Furthermore, in trans complementation allowed for functional analyses of lethal orthologs. This study demonstrates that our fungal heterokaryon system can be applied effectively to determine whether a gene of interest is essential, perform functional analyses of a lethal gene, and analyze corresponding heterologous genes.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/genética , Núcleo Celular/genética , Fagaceae/microbiologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Virulência/genética , Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Teste de Complementação Genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética
8.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232936, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442164

RESUMO

Natural history collections and tropical tree diversity are both treasure troves of biological and evolutionary information, but their accessibility for scientific study is impeded by a number of properties. DNA in historical specimens is generally highly fragmented, complicating the recovery of high-grade genetic material. Furthermore, our understanding of hyperdiverse, wide-spread tree assemblages is obstructed by extensive species ranges, fragmented knowledge of tropical tree diversity and phenology, and a widespread lack of species-level diagnostic characters, prohibiting the collecting of readily identifiable specimens which can be used to build, revise or strengthen taxonomic frameworks. This, in turn, delays the application of downstream conservation action. A sizable component of botanical collections are sterile-thus eluding identification and are slowing down progress in systematic treatments of tropical biodiversity. With rapid advances in genomics and bioinformatic approaches to biodiversity research, museomics is emerging as a new field breathing life into natural collections that have been built up over centuries. Using MIGseq (multiplexed ISSR genotyping by sequencing), we generated 10,000s of short loci, for both freshly collected materials and museum specimens (aged >100 years) of Lithocarpus-a widespread tropical tree genus endemic to the Asian tropics. Loci recovery from historical and recently collected samples was not affected by sample age and preservation history of the study material, underscoring the reliability and flexibility of the MIGseq approach. Phylogenomic inference and biogeographic reconstruction across insular Asia, highlights repeated migration and diversification patterns between continental regions and islands. Results indicate that co-occurring insular species at the extremity of the distribution range are not monophyletic, raising the possibility of multiple independent dispersals along the outer edge of Wallacea. This suggests that dispersal of large seeded tree genera throughout Malesia and across Wallacea may have been less affected by large geographic distances and the presence of marine barriers than generally assumed. We demonstrate the utility of MIGseq in museomic studies using non-model taxa, presenting the first range-wide genomic assessment of Lithocarpus and tropical Fagaceae as a proof-of-concept. Our study shows the potential for developing innovative genomic approaches to improve the capture of novel evolutionary signals using valuable natural history collections of hyperdiverse taxa.


Assuntos
Genômica/métodos , Quercus/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Biodiversidade , Evolução Biológica , DNA/genética , Fagaceae/genética , Museus/tendências , Filogenia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
9.
Food Chem ; 324: 126847, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32344340

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect of chestnut inner skin extract (CISE) on the activity of postprandial blood sugar-related enzymes. In total, 12 flavonoids were identified by HPLC-TOF-MS. CISE showed strong and weak inhibition on α-amylase and α-glucosidase, with the IC50 of 27.2 and 2.3 µg/mL, respectively. The inhibition modes of CISE against α-amylase and α-glucosidase were mixed-type and non-competitive type, respectively. Epicatechin gallate noncompetitively inhibited α-amylase, α-glucosidase and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV). Analysis by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism suggested that flavonoids altered the hydrophobicity and microenvironment of these enzymes. CISE decreased the starch bioavailability by reducing the enzymatic hydrolysis rate and increasing the fraction of undigested starch. The extract reduced the rapidly digestible starch and increased the resistant starch after incorporation into A-, B- or C- crystallinity starch. Thus, the chestnut inner skin is a useful resource for regulating postprandial blood sugar level.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/farmacologia , Fagaceae/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Disponibilidade Biológica , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Catequina/farmacologia , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/química , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/metabolismo , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/química , Flavonoides/análise , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Nozes/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Amido/farmacocinética , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores , alfa-Amilases/química , alfa-Glucosidases/química
10.
Phytopathology ; 110(6): 1180-1188, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207662

RESUMO

Cryphonectria parasitica is the causal agent of chestnut blight, a fungal disease that almost entirely eliminated mature American chestnut from North America over a 50-year period. Here, we formally report the genome of C. parasitica EP155 using a Sanger shotgun sequencing approach. After finishing and integration with simple-sequence repeat markers, the assembly was 43.8 Mb in 26 scaffolds (L50 = 5; N50 = 4.0Mb). Eight chromosomes are predicted: five scaffolds have two telomeres and six scaffolds have one telomere sequence. In total, 11,609 gene models were predicted, of which 85% show similarities to other proteins. This genome resource has already increased the utility of a fundamental plant pathogen experimental system through new understanding of the fungal vegetative incompatibility system, with significant implications for enhancing mycovirus-based biological control.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Fagaceae , Micovírus , América do Norte , Doenças das Plantas
11.
Phytopathology ; 110(7): 1280-1293, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212893

RESUMO

This study combined phytosanitary surveys, laboratory analyses, and mathematical modeling to show how hail-induced wounds can foster the infections of the blight pathogen Cryphonectria parasitica, locally associated with extensive dieback of chestnut (Castanea sativa). Orchards and coppices located within and outside the assessed dieback area in a single location in the North West of Italy were inspected to appraise the abundance of hail-induced wounds and C. parasitica infections. The incidence of C. parasitica was significantly higher within the dieback area compared with outside (92% versus 60%; P < 0.05). Hail-induced wounds were observed on small branches and shoots of all trees sampled within the dieback area, whereas they were less abundant outside (20% of trees), suggesting either that the dieback was directly associated with the injuries caused by the hailstorms or that those injuries may have facilitated infections of C. parasitica. Isolations conducted on 359 branches and shoots showed that hail-induced wounds served as infection courts for C. parasitica and that infections depended on the size rather than on the number of hail wounds. We fitted a logistic model showing that hail-induced wounds whose perimeter was larger than 66 mm were at particular risk of C. parasitica infection. A newly designed geometrical-based model is proposed to relate hailstones size, hail wound perimeter, and the risk of infection. We established that hail-induced wounds are entry points for virulent and hypovirulent strains of C. parasitica, since 6.5% of isolates were infected by Cryphonectria hypovirus-1.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Fagaceae , Infecções , Humanos , Itália , Doenças das Plantas
12.
Food Chem ; 316: 126370, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062229

RESUMO

Castanopsis lamontii is used as functional herbal tea in southwest China. Usually, only buds rather than mature leaves are applied. To figure out whether mature leaves were suitable for producing herbal tea, chemical composition, sensory properties and bioactivities of Castanopsis lamontii bud infusion (CLB) and mature leaf infusion (CLM) were investigated. According to the results, CLB and CLM had similar non-volatile composition, but in different proportion. Meanwhile, CLB contained more types of volatiles than CLM, leading to distinguishable volatile profiles between them. Sensory assessment showed that CLB had sweet aftertaste and floral aroma. CLM tasted astringent and smelled grassy. Bioactivity evaluation indicated that CLB exhibited higher activities in scavenging free radicals and suppressing lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation. Taken together, CLB had better overall acceptability in sensory quality and higher bioactivity, implying that Castanopsis lamontii buds were more suitable for producing herbal tea.


Assuntos
Fagaceae/química , Animais , Adstringentes/análise , Humanos , Inflamação , Camundongos , Folhas de Planta/química , Células RAW 264.7 , Paladar
13.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0214267, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106264

RESUMO

The development of alternatives to antibiotics is crucial to limiting the incidence of antimicrobial resistance, especially in prophylactic and metaphylactic use to control post-weaning diarrhea (PWD). Feed additives, including bioactive compounds, could be a promising alternative. This study aimed to test two bioactive compounds, sodium salicylate (SA) and a chestnut extract (CE) containing hydrolysable tannins, on the occurrence of PWD. At weaning, 72 piglets were assigned to four treatments that combined two factors: CE supplementation (with 2% of CE (CE+) or without (CE-)) and SA supplementation (with 35 mg/kg BW of SA (SA+) or without (SA-)). Then, 4 days after weaning, all piglets were infected with a suspension at 108 CFU/ml of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC F4ac). Each piglet had free access to an electrolyte solution containing, or not, SA. This SA supplementation was administered for 5 days (i.e., from the day of infection (day 0) to 4 days post-infection (day 4). During the 2 weeks post-infection, supplementation with SA had no effect (P > 0.05) on growth performances nor on fecal scores. A significant SA × time interaction (P < 0.01) for fecal scores and the percentage of diarrhea indicated that piglets with SA did not recover faster and did have a second episode of diarrhea. In contrast to SA treatment, inclusion of CE increased (P < 0.05) growth performances and feed intake. In the first week post-infection, CE decreased (P < 0.001) the overall fecal scores, the percentage of piglets with diarrhea, the days in diarrhea, and ETEC shedding in the feces. There was a SA×CE interaction (P < 0.05) for ETEC shedding, suggesting a negative effect of combining SA with CE. This study highlighted that, in contrast to SA, CE could represent a promising alternative to antibiotics immediately after weaning for improving growth performance and reducing PWD.


Assuntos
Diarreia/veterinária , Escherichia coli Enteropatogênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Salicilato de Sódio/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Suínos/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Derrame de Bactérias , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Diarreia/microbiologia , Fagaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Salicilato de Sódio/farmacologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia
14.
Food Funct ; 11(3): 2208-2217, 2020 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32096517

RESUMO

Replacing artificial additives by natural compounds is a current trend in the food industry. In addition to their preserving effect, naturally obtained ingredients often exhibit important levels of bioactivities. Generally, plant species represent better sources of natural ingredients, since their compounds are less prone to causing unpleasant taste or odour. Chestnut male flower (CMF) was reported to have high antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Hence, it was tested as an alternative to potassium sorbate in the most treasured Portuguese delicacy: "pastel de nata". Different nutritional, chemical, physical and bioactive parameters were compared in two different periods: baking day and two days after baking. All samples presented similar nutritional and chemical profiles, but those added with CMF revealed higher contents of reducing agents and radical scavengers. Accordingly, the newly obtained formulation is expected to have better effects on consumers' health, maintaining the chemical characteristics, besides rendering a novel, economically profitable, application to CMF.


Assuntos
Fagaceae , Manipulação de Alimentos , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Flores , Humanos , Portugal
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(4)2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32093295

RESUMO

Starch is the most important form of carbohydrate storage and is the major energy reserve in some seeds, especially Castanea henryi. Seed germination is the beginning of the plant's life cycle, and starch metabolism is important for seed germination. As a complex metabolic pathway, the regulation of starch metabolism in C. henryi is still poorly understood. To explore the mechanism of starch metabolism during the germination of C. henryi, we conducted a comparative gene expression analysis at the transcriptional level using RNA-seq across four different germination stages, and analyzed the changes in the starch and soluble sugar contents. The results showed that the starch content increased in 0-10 days and decreased in 10-35 days, while the soluble sugar content continuously decreased in 0-30 days and increased in 30-35 days. We identified 49 candidate genes that may be associated with starch and sucrose metabolism. Three ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) genes, two nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterases (NPPS) genes and three starch synthases (SS) genes may be related to starch accumulation. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to validate the expression levels of these genes. Our study combined transcriptome data with physiological and biochemical data, revealing potential candidate genes that affect starch metabolism during seed germination, and provides important data about starch metabolism and seed germination in seed plants.


Assuntos
Fagaceae , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Genes de Plantas , Sementes , Amido , Fagaceae/genética , Fagaceae/metabolismo , Germinação/fisiologia , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Amido/genética , Amido/metabolismo
16.
J Plant Res ; 133(2): 217-229, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016652

RESUMO

Stone oaks, or Lithocarpus species of Fagaceae are ecologically important canopy trees in the tropical and subtropical forests over East Asia, and the fruits of which are important food sources for insects and vertebrates there. The great fruit morphological variation of this genus represents two fruit types, acorn and enclosed receptacle fruit types. However, the evolutionary mechanisms of differentiation into these two fruit types with contrasting morphology remain a puzzle. To reveal the morphogenetic properties of two fruit types, we observed tissue differentiation and development among 20 Lithocarpus species from fruit set to maturity. Unlike in fruits of Quercus, the endocarp differentiation in Lithocarpus fruits occurred later than exocarp and mesocarp. Cupules provided further protection of developing seeds, particularly of acorn-type fruits. Fruits of Lithocarpus and Quercus acorns share similar insect predators. At fruit set, both acorn and enclosed receptacle types were largely identical, with similar tissue morphology and the sequence of differentiation. The distinct difference between two fruit types at maturity came from varied rates and degrees of development between the pericarp and receptacle tissues. We found that heterochrony between two tissues could create substantially divergent ecological strategies for protection and dispersal of their seeds, which is essential for the evolution of two fruit types.


Assuntos
Fagaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Extremo Oriente , Florestas , Quercus
17.
J Plant Res ; 133(2): 257-270, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036472

RESUMO

The Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume) 'Huaihuang' was chosen as the experimental material to observe embryogenesis and the dynamic changes of cell wall components during this process. Various developmental stages of embryos, including globular embryos, heart embryos, torpedo embryos and cotyledon embryos, were observed. The results showed that during embryogenesis, cellulose increased, and callose rapidly degraded. In the cell walls of developing embryos, pectic homogalacturonan (HG), especially low-esterified HG, was abundant, suggesting rapid synthesis and de-methyl-esterification of HG. Extensin and galactan increased with the development of the embryos. In contrast, the arabinan epitopes decreased in developing embryos but were more abundant than galactan epitopes at all stages. Xylan epitopes showed explicit boundaries between the outer epidermal wall and the rest of the inner tissues, and the fluorescence intensity of the outer epidermal wall was significantly higher than that of the inner tissues. Furthermore, the results indicated that the outer epidermal wall contained high amounts of cellulose, HG pectin and hemicellulose, especially arabinan and xylan. These results suggested the presence of rapid pectin metabolism, cellulose synthesis, rapid degradation of callose, different distributive patterns and dynamic changes of hemicellulose (galactan, arabinan and xylan) and extensin during embryogenesis. Various cell wall components exist in different tissues of the embryo, and dynamic changes in cell wall components are involved in the embryonic development process.


Assuntos
Parede Celular/química , Fagaceae/fisiologia , Sementes/fisiologia , Celulose , Epitopos , Galactanos , Pectinas , Xilanos
18.
Molecules ; 25(1)2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31906347

RESUMO

In this study, the phytochemical profiles, total and cellular antioxidant activities of five different Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima BL.) cultivars were analyzed. Phenolics, flavonoids as well as phytochemical compounds in five cultivars of chestnut kernels were determined. Results showed that the free forms played a dominant role in total phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant activities of all five cultivars of chestnut kernels. The cultivar 'Fyou' showed the highest total and free phenolic contents, 'Heguoyihao' showed the highest total and free flavonoids contents, and 'Chushuhong' showed the highest total and cellular antioxidant activities. Eight phenolic compounds were detected, and chlorogenic acid, gallic acid, and quercetin were shown as three predominant components in all five cultivars. These results provide valuable information which may be a guidance for selection of good chestnut variety to be used as functional food.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fagaceae/química , Flavonoides/análise , Fenóis/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Flavonoides/química , Frutas/química , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Fenóis/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química
19.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(6): 2512-2521, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study investigated the volatile composition of a Pedro Ximénez sweet wine that had been aged in barrels made of different types of wood (Spanish oak, French oak, American oak and chestnut) and subjected to different degrees of toasting (medium toasting and intense toasting). The analyses were carried out using stir bar sorptive extraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after validation of the matrix in this case. RESULTS: Good values of linearity, precision, limits of detection and limits of quantification were obtained for the 36 compounds studied, six of which were identified for the first time in Pedro Ximénez (propyl acetate, cis-3-hexenyl acetate, benzyl acetate, guaiacol, trans-whiskeylactone and 4-ethylguaiacol). The volatile composition of the samples varied as the ageing process progressed, and higher volatile concentrations were obtained in samples aged in barrels that had been intensely toasted compared to in those with medium toasting. A multivariate statistical study allowed the samples to be correctly classified according to ageing time, wood toasting and the type of wood used for ageing. CONCLUSION: The organoleptic analysis performed on the Pedro Ximénez sweet wine samples resulted in differences between the wines aged in the different types of wood during the early weeks of ageing, and scarce differences towards the end of the study period. At the end of the process, all of the wines were better valued and wines aged in medium toasted barrels were the best rated by the panel of judges for all four woods under investigation. This fact could indicate the suitability of alternative woods for the ageing of Pedro Ximénez sweet wines. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Vinho/análise , Madeira , Adulto , Fagaceae , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sensação , Vitis
20.
Microb Ecol ; 79(1): 148-163, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053974

RESUMO

Transmissible hypovirulence associated with Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 (CHV1) has been used for biological control of chestnut blight, devastating disease of chestnut caused by the fungus Cryphonectria parasitica. The main aims of this study were to provide molecular characterization of CHV1 from Croatia and Slovenia and to reveal its genetic variability, phylogeny, and diversification of populations. Fifty-one CHV1 haplotypes were detected among 54 partially sequenced CHV1 isolates, all belonging to Italian subtype (I). Diversity was mainly generated by point mutations while evidence of recombination was not found. The level of conservation over analyzed parts of ORF-A proteins p29 and p40 varied, but functional sites were highly conserved. Phylogenetic analysis revealed close relatedness and intermixing of Croatian and Slovenian CHV1 populations. Our CHV1 isolates were also related to Swiss and Bosnian hypoviruses supporting previously suggested course of CHV1 invasion in Europe. Overall, this study indicates that phylogeny of CHV1 subtype I in Europe is complex and characterized with frequent point mutations resulting in many closely related variants of the virus. Possible association between variations within CHV1 ORF-A and growth of the hypovirulent fungal isolates is tested and presented.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Ascomicetos/virologia , Fagaceae/microbiologia , Micovírus/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Croácia , Micovírus/classificação , Micovírus/fisiologia , Variação Genética , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Eslovênia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA