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1.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 342, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: GRAS are plant-specific transcription factors that play important roles in plant growth and development. Although the GRAS gene family has been studied in many plants, there has been little research on the GRAS genes of Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum), which is an important crop rich in rutin. The recently published whole genome sequence of Tartary buckwheat allows us to study the characteristics and expression patterns of the GRAS gene family in Tartary buckwheat at the genome-wide level. RESULTS: In this study, 47 GRAS genes of Tartary buckwheat were identified and divided into 10 subfamilies: LISCL, HAM, DELLA, SCR, PAT1, SCL4/7, LAS, SHR, SCL3, and DLT. FtGRAS genes were unevenly distributed on 8 chromosomes, and members of the same subfamily contained similar gene structures and motif compositions. Some FtGRAS genes may have been produced by gene duplications; tandem duplication contributed more to the expansion of the GRAS gene family in Tartary buckwheat. Real-time PCR showed that the transcription levels of FtGRAS were significantly different in different tissues and fruit development stages, implying that FtGRAS might have different functions. Furthermore, an increase in fruit weight was induced by exogenous paclobutrazol, and the transcription level of the DELLA subfamily member FtGRAS22 was significantly upregulated during the whole fruit development stage. Therefore, FtGRAS22 may be a potential target for molecular breeding or genetic editing. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, this systematic analysis lays a foundation for further study of the functional characteristics of GRAS genes and for the improvement of Tartary buckwheat crops.


Assuntos
Fagopyrum/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/fisiologia , Fagopyrum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fagopyrum/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma de Planta , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sintenia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Triazóis/farmacologia
2.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 344, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the study, the trihelix family, also referred to as GT factors, is one of the transcription factor families. Trihelix genes play roles in the light response, seed maturation, leaf development, abiotic and biological stress and other biological activities. However, the trihelix family in tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum), an important usable medicinal crop, has not yet been thoroughly studied. The genome of tartary buckwheat has recently been reported and provides a theoretical basis for our research on the characteristics and expression of trihelix genes in tartary buckwheat based at the whole level. RESULTS: In the present study, a total of 31 FtTH genes were identified based on the buckwheat genome. They were named from FtTH1 to FtTH31 and grouped into 5 groups (GT-1, GT-2, SH4, GTγ and SIP1). FtTH genes are not evenly distributed on the chromosomes, and we found segmental duplication events of FtTH genes on tartary buckwheat chromosomes. According to the results of gene and motif composition, FtTH located in the same group contained analogous intron/exon organizations and motif organizations. qRT-PCR showed that FtTH family members have multiple expression patterns in stems, roots, leaves, fruits, and flowers and during fruit development. CONCLUSIONS: Through our study, we identified 31 FtTH genes in tartary buckwheat and synthetically further analyzed the evolution and expression pattern of FtTH proteins. The structure and motif organizations of most genes are conserved in each subfamily, suggesting that they may be functionally conserved. The FtTH characteristics of the gene expression patterns indicate functional diversity in the time and space in the tartary buckwheat life process. Based on the discussion and analysis of FtTH gene function, we screened some genes closely related to the growth and development of tartary buckwheat. This will help us to further study the function of FtTH genes through experimental exploration in tartary buckwheat growth and improve the fruit of tartary buckwheat.


Assuntos
Fagopyrum/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Evolução Molecular , Fagopyrum/metabolismo , Duplicação Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
3.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 299, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SPL (SQUAMOSA promoter binding protein-like) is a class of plant-specific transcription factors that play important roles in many growth and developmental processes, including shoot and inflorescence branching, embryonic development, signal transduction, leaf initiation, phase transition, and flower and fruit development. The SPL gene family has been identified and characterized in many species but has not been well studied in tartary buckwheat, which is an important edible and medicinal crop. RESULTS: In this study, 24 Fagopyrum tataricum SPL (FtSPL) genes were identified and renamed according to the chromosomal distribution of the FtSPL genes. According to the amino acid sequence of the SBP domain and gene structure, the SPL genes were divided into eight groups (group I to group VII) by phylogenetic tree analysis. A total of 10 motifs were detected in the tartary buckwheat SPL genes. The expression patterns of 23 SPL genes in different tissues and fruits at different developmental stages (green fruit stage, discoloration stage and initial maturity stage) were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). CONCLUSIONS: The tartary buckwheat genome contained 24 SPL genes, and most of the genes were expressed in different tissues. qRT-PCR showed that FtSPLs played important roles in the growth and development of tartary buckwheat, and genes that might regulate flower and fruit development were preliminarily identified. This work provides a comprehensive understanding of the SBP-box gene family in tartary buckwheat and lays a significant foundation for further studies on the functional characteristics of FtSPL genes and improvement of tartary buckwheat crops.


Assuntos
Fagopyrum/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Família Multigênica , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fagopyrum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fagopyrum/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
4.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 248, 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185913

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ZF-HD is a family of genes that play an important role in plant growth, development, some studies have found that after overexpression AtZHD1 in Arabidopsis thaliana, florescence advance, the seeds get bigger and the life span of seeds is prolonged, moreover, ZF-HD genes are also participate in responding to adversity stress. The whole genome of the ZF-HD gene family has been studied in several model plants, such as Arabidopsis thaliana and rice. However, there has been little research on the ZF-HD genes in Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum), which is an important edible and medicinal crop. The recently published whole genome sequence of Tartary buckwheat allows us to study the tissue and expression profiles of the ZF-HD gene family in Tartary buckwheat on a genome-wide basis. RESULTS: In this study, the whole genome and expression profile of the ZF-HD gene family were analyzed for the first time in Tartary buckwheat. We identified 20 FtZF-HD genes and divided them into MIF and ZHD subfamilies according to phylogeny. The ZHD genes were divided into 5 subfamilies. Twenty FtZF-HD genes were distributed on 7 chromosomes, and almost all the genes had no introns. We detected seven pairs of chromosomes with fragment repeats, but no tandem repeats were detected. In different tissues and at different fruit development stages, the FtZF-HD genes obtained by a real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed obvious expression patterns. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, 20 FtZF-HD genes were identified in Tartary buckwheat, and the structures, evolution and expression patterns of the proteins were studied. Our findings provide a valuable basis for further analysis of the biological function of the ZF-HD gene family. Our study also laid a foundation for the improvement of Tartary buckwheat crops.


Assuntos
Fagopyrum/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Família Multigênica , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fagopyrum/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
5.
Food Chem ; 295: 51-57, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174789

RESUMO

To discriminate the trace-rutinosidase variety of Tartary buckwheat 'Manten-Kirari', we developed DNA markers based on RNA polymorphism. Specifically, we mapped 17.76 GB RNA sequences, obtained using HiSeq2000, to create 11,358 large contigs constructed de novo from 'Manten-Kirari' RNA derived from GS-FLX+ titanium. From these, we developed eight DNA markers corresponding to single- to four-nucleotide polymorphisms between 'Manten-Kirari' and 'Hokkai T8', which is representative of normal rutinosidase content varieties in Japan. Using these markers, 'Manten-Kirari' was discriminated from 'Hokkai T8' by eight markers, from major Tartary buckwheat varieties by three markers, and from common buckwheats by two markers. We also performed direct PCR from flour and dried noodle made with 'Manten-Kirari' and 'Hokkai T8'. Based on the results, the DNA markers developed are promising for discriminating 'Manten-Kirari'. This is the first study to develop a DNA marker to discriminate varieties in the Polygonaceae family including buckwheat species.


Assuntos
Fagopyrum/genética , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Marcadores Genéticos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Fagopyrum/metabolismo , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/genética , Japão , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , RNA de Plantas , Rutina/genética , Rutina/metabolismo
6.
Food Chem ; 293: 438-445, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151632

RESUMO

In this study, deep eutectic solvents (DESs) coupled with ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) were evaluated and optimized for the extraction of major flavonoids from common buckwheat sprouts. Initially, 18 different choline chloride (CC)-based DESs were evaluated as potential extraction solvents, and 80% CCTG (CC-based DES composed of triethylene glycol and 20 vol% water) extracted significantly higher (p < 0.05) amounts of flavonoids than other DESs studied. The extraction efficiency of 80% CCTG was even higher (p < 0.05) than that of methanol for the extraction of vitexin and quercetin-3-O-robinobioside. Procedure using 80% CCTG and UAE were optimized; an extraction temperature of 56 °C and extraction time of 40 min were considered optimal. The optimized extraction procedure was reliable and efficient for the extraction of major flavonoids from common buckwheat sprouts. In addition, flavonoids could be efficiently recovered from DES extracts with high recovery yields (>97%) by using a C18 solid-phase extraction.


Assuntos
Fagopyrum/química , Flavonoides/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Solventes/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fagopyrum/metabolismo , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Extração em Fase Sólida , Sonicação , Temperatura Ambiente
7.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 263, 2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Because flavonoids and trichomes play crucial roles in plant defence, their formation requires fine transcriptional control by multiple transcription factor families. However, little is known regarding the mechanism of the R2R3-MYB transcription factors that regulate both flavonoid metabolism and trichome development. RESULTS: Here, we identified a unique SG4-like-MYB TF from Tartary buckwheat, FtMYB8, which harbours the C2 repression motif and an additional TLLLFR repression motif. The expression profiles of FtMYB8 combined with the transcriptional activity of PFtMYB8 promoter showed that FtMYB8 mRNA mainly accumulated in roots during the true leaf stage and flowering stage and in bud trichomes and flowers, and the expression of this gene was markedly induced by MeJA, ABA and UV-B treatments but repressed by dark treatment. Overexpression of FtMYB8 in Arabidopsis reduces the accumulation of anthocyanin/proanthocyanidin by specifically inhibiting TT12 expression, which may depend on the interaction between FtMYB8 and TT8. Interestingly, this interaction may also negatively regulate the marginal trichome initiation in Arabidopsis leaves. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our results suggest that FtMYB8 may fine-tune the accumulation of anthocyanin/proanthocyanidin in the roots and flowers of Tartary buckwheat by balancing the inductive effects of transcriptional activators, and probably regulate trichome distribution in the buds of Tartary buckwheat.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/metabolismo , Fagopyrum/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proantocianidinas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Tricomas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis , Fagopyrum/genética , Fagopyrum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Alinhamento de Sequência , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/fisiologia , Transcriptoma , Tricomas/metabolismo
8.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 29(6): 877-886, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154743

RESUMO

Brewing with buckwheat as an ingredient has been proven to be successful in several previous studies. However, few studies have focused on the effects of buckwheat on the rutin content and antioxidant activity of beer. In order to develop a lager beer with high rutin content and desirable sensory characteristics, tartary buckwheat malt was used as a brewing adjunct. The results showed that the rutin-degrading enzyme was the key factor affecting the rutin content in the wort and beer. Compared to beer made using the common mashing method, the rutin content in the buckwheat beers produced using an improved mashing method was approximately 60 times higher. The total flavonoid contents in buckwheat beers also depended strongly on the mashing methods, ranging from 530.75 to 1,704.68 mg QE/l. The rutin-rich beers also showed better oxidative stability during forced-aging. Meanwhile, the buckwheat beers were found to be acceptable in terms of the main quality attributes, flavor, and taste.


Assuntos
Cerveja/análise , Fagopyrum/química , Rutina/química , Amilases/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Fagopyrum/metabolismo , Fermentação , Flavonoides/química , Manipulação de Alimentos , Hordeum/química , Hordeum/metabolismo , Quercetina/química , Rutina/metabolismo , Plântula/química , Plântula/metabolismo , Sensação , Paladar
9.
Molecules ; 24(7)2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30939737

RESUMO

Buckwheat is a generous source of phenolic compounds, vitamins and essential amino acids. This paper discusses the procedure of obtaining innovative gluten-free, precooked pastas from roasted buckwheat grains flour, a fertile source of natural antioxidants, among them, phenolic acids. The authors also determined the effect of the extruder screw speed and the level of moisture content in the raw material on the quantity of free phenolic acids. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of phenolic acids in pasta was carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). The chromatographic method was validated. For extracts with the highest total content of free phenolic acids and unprocessed flour from roasted buckwheat grain, the TLC-DPPH test was also performed to determine the antioxidant properties of the tested pasta. The level of moisture in the raw material had an impact on the content of phenolic acids. All pastas made from buckwheat flour moistened up to 32% exhibited a higher total content of free phenolic acids than other mixes moistened to 30 and 34% of water.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Culinária , Fagopyrum/metabolismo , Farinha/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Glutens/química , Fenóis/análise , Fagopyrum/química
10.
Molecules ; 24(7)2019 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30987158

RESUMO

Flavonoids from plants are particularly important in our diet. Buckwheat is a special crop that is rich in flavonoids. In this study, four important buckwheat varieties, including one tartary buckwheat and three common buckwheat varieties, were selected as experimental materials. The total flavonoid content of leaves from red-flowered common buckwheat was the highest, followed by tartary buckwheat leaves. A total of 182 flavonoid metabolites (including 53 flavone, 37 flavonol, 32 flavone C-glycosides, 24 flavanone, 18 anthocyanins, 7 isoflavone, 6 flavonolignan, and 5 proanthocyanidins) were identified based on Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) system. Through clustering analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and orthogonal signal correction and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), different samples were clearly separated. Considerable differences were observed in the flavonoid metabolites between tartary buckwheat leaves and common buckwheat leaves, and both displayed unique metabolites with important biological functions. This study provides new insights into the differences of flavonoid metabolites between tartary buckwheat and common buckwheat leaves and provides theoretical basis for the sufficient utilization of buckwheat.


Assuntos
Fagopyrum/química , Flavonoides/química , Metaboloma , Metabolômica , Folhas de Planta/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Fagopyrum/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Metabolômica/métodos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(6)2019 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30934615

RESUMO

Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) is a valuable crop which can produce multiple human beneficial secondary metabolites, for example, the anthocyanins in sprouts and flowers. However, as the predominant group of visible polyphenols in pigmentation, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the anthocyanin biosynthesis within buckwheat. In this study, a comparative transcriptome analysis of green and red common buckwheat cultivars was carried out through RNA sequencing. Overall, 3727 and 5323 differently expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in flowers and cotyledons, respectively. Through GO and KEGG analysis, we revealed that DEGs in flowers and cotyledons are predominately involved in biosynthesis of anthocyanin. A total of 42 unigenes encoding 11 structural enzymes of the anthocyanin biosynthesis were identified as DEGs. We also identified some transcription factor families involved in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis. Real-time qPCR validation of candidate genes was performed in flowers and cotyledons, and the results suggested that the high expression level of structural genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway promotes anthocyanin accumulation. Our results provide the insight understanding for coloration of red common buckwheat.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/metabolismo , Cotilédone/genética , Fagopyrum/genética , Fagopyrum/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Antocianinas/química , Flores/anatomia & histologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ontologia Genética , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(7)2019 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30959807

RESUMO

Common buckwheat is a valuable crop, mainly due to the beneficial chemical composition of its seeds. However, buckwheat cultivation is limited because of unstable seed yield. The most important reasons for the low yield include embryo and flower abortion. The aim of this work is to verify whether high temperature affects embryological development in this plant species. The experiment was conducted on plants of a Polish cultivar 'Panda' and strain PA15, in which the percentage of degenerating embryo sacs was previously determined and amounted to 32% and 10%, respectively. The plants were cultivated in phytotronic conditions at 20 °C (control), and 30 °C (thermal stress). The embryological processes and hormonal profiles in flowers at various developmental stages (buds, open flowers, and wilted flowers) and in donor leaves were analyzed in two-month-old plants. Significant effects of thermal stress on the defective development of female gametophytes and hormone content in flowers and leaves were observed. Ovules were much more sensitive to high temperature than pollen grains in both genotypes. Pollen viability remained unaffected at 30 °C in both genotypes. The effect of temperature on female gametophyte development was visible in cv. Panda but not in PA15 buds. A drastic reduction in the number of properly developed embryo sacs was clear in open flowers at 30 °C in both genotypes. A considerable increase in abscisic acid in open flowers ready for fertilization may serve as a signal inducing flower senescence observed in the next few days. Based on embryological analyses and hormone profiles in flowers, we conclude that cv. 'Panda' is more sensitive to thermal stress than strain PA15, mainly due to a much earlier response to thermal stress involving impairment of embryological processes already in the flower buds.


Assuntos
Fagopyrum/embriologia , Fagopyrum/metabolismo , Flores/embriologia , Flores/metabolismo , Temperatura Alta , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/embriologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Óvulo Vegetal/citologia , Óvulo Vegetal/embriologia , Pólen/embriologia
13.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(9): 4353-4362, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30834531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The biofortification of crops can counteract human diseases, including selenium (Se) and iodine (I) deficiencies in the diet. Little is known about the effects of combinations of Se and I on microgreens and seeds, or on their accumulation in these tissues. The present study aimed to evaluate Se (SeO3 2- , SeO4 2- ) and I (I- , IO3 - ) biofortification of common buckwheat microgreens and seeds with respect to the effects of the addition of Se, I and Se + I on yield and on physiological and biochemical characteristics. RESULTS: In combination treatments, microgreens yield (600-800 g m-2 ) was 50-70% higher than for Se and I alone. The respiratory potential also increased by 60-120%. Fv /Fm was close to 0.8 in all samples. Se content [0.24 µg g-1 dry weight (DW)] was 50% higher for combination treatments than for Se and I alone. I content was highest for IO3 - treatment (216 µg g-1 DW) and decreased in combination treatments with Se by 50%. CONCLUSION: Biofortification of buckwheat microgreens with Se and I should be performed with care because there are synergistic and antagonistic effects of these elements with respect to their accumulation. IO3 - for the biofortification of microgreens should be kept low to prevent exceeding the recommended daily intake of I. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Biofortificação/métodos , Fagopyrum/metabolismo , Iodo/análise , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Selênio/análise , Fagopyrum/química , Fagopyrum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Iodo/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo
14.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 129: 799-808, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30731161

RESUMO

Nitrogen is an essential nutrient for Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn.) because this substance affects the yield and quality of Tartary buckwheat. The physicochemical characteristics of starch represent the important parameters of Tartary buckwheat quality. The effects of different levels of nitrogen application at different levels (0, 45, 135 and 225kg/ha in 2015 and 0, 90, 180 and 270kg/ha in 2017) on the physicochemical characteristics of Tartary buckwheat starch were studied. The amylose content, particle size and retrogradation of Tartary buckwheat starch with nitrogen were lower than those of without nitrogen. The structure complexity, pasting temperature, gelatinization enthalpy, relative crystallinity, light transmittance and solubility of the former were higher than those of the latter. Nitrogen application did not change the 'A'-type crystalline pattern of Tartary buckwheat starch. This study indicated that nitrogen level and years and the interactions among nitrogen fertilizer levels and years significantly affected the physicochemical properties of Tartary buckwheat starch. These integrated results also provided information about the management of fertilization conditions to obtain starches with special properties for applications in food or nonfood industries.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Químicos , Fagopyrum/química , Fagopyrum/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Amido/química , Amido/metabolismo , Amilose/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Solubilidade , Análise Espectral , Amido/isolamento & purificação , Amido/ultraestrutura , Temperatura Ambiente
15.
Food Chem ; 285: 240-251, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30797341

RESUMO

The effect of infrared roasting (130, 150 and 170 °C for 10 min) on antioxidant activity, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), Maillard reaction products (MRP) and phenolic profile in eight Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) varieties were investigated. TFC (23.74-28.67 mg RE/g) remained unchanged at 130 °C and 150 °C but exhibited a sharp decline at 170 °C. TPC (8.90-14.72 mg GAE/g) and TAA (11.37-12.74 µmol TE/g) decreased significantly with increase in roasting temperature. The lowest fluorescence of advanced MRP (FAST) index was observed for buckwheat roasted at 130 °C (230.76-338.55%) and the highest at 170 °C (420.30-523.72%). IC-341651 and IC-107994 had high antioxidant properties and SMLBW-4 exhibited lowest browning index (BI), free fluorescent intermediate compounds (FIC) and FAST index, indicating the least MRP formation. Gallic acid and quercetin were detected in only bound and free-form, respectively. Rutin was the most thermostable polyphenol detected in all buckwheat varieties.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Fagopyrum/metabolismo , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/química , Raios Infravermelhos , Fenóis/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fagopyrum/química , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/química , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/análise , Fenóis/análise , Polifenóis/análise , Análise de Componente Principal , Quercetina/análise , Temperatura Ambiente
16.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 113, 2019 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30727951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC2) transcription factor family represents a group of large plant-specific transcriptional regulators, participating in plant development and response to external stress. However, there is no comprehensive study on the NAC genes of Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum), a large group of extensively cultivated medicinal and edible plants. The recently published Tartary buckwheat genome permits us to explore all the FtNAC genes on a genome-wide basis. RESULTS: In the present study, 80 NAC (FtNAC) genes of Tartary buckwheat were obtained and named uniformly according to their distribution on chromosomes. Phylogenetic analysis of NAC proteins in both Tartary buckwheat and Arabidopsis showed that the FtNAC proteins are widely distributed in 15 subgroups with one subgroup unclassified. Gene structure analysis found that multitudinous FtNAC genes contained three exons, indicating that the structural diversity in Tartary buckwheat NAC genes is relatively low. Some duplication genes of FtNAC have a conserved structure that was different from others, indicating that these genes may have a variety of functions. By observing gene expression, we found that FtNAC genes showed abundant differences in expression levels in various tissues and at different stages of fruit development. CONCLUSIONS: In this research, 80 NAC genes were identified in Tartary buckwheat, and their phylogenetic relationships, gene structures, duplication, global expression and potential roles in Tartary buckwheat development were studied. Comprehensive analysis will be useful for a follow-up study of functional characteristics of FtNAC genes and for the development of high-quality Tartary buckwheat varieties.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Fagopyrum/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Família Multigênica/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fagopyrum/genética , Fagopyrum/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/fisiologia
17.
Planta ; 249(5): 1301-1318, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30617544

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Genome-wide identification, expression analysis and potential functional characterization of previously uncharacterized MADS family of tartary buckwheat, emphasized the importance of this gene family in plant growth and development. The MADS transcription factor is a key regulatory factor in the development of most plants. The MADS gene in plants controls all aspects of tissue and organ growth and reproduction and can be used to regulate plant seed cracking. However, there has been little research on the MADS genes of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum), which is an important edible and medicinal crop. The recently published whole genome sequence of tartary buckwheat allows us to study the tissue and expression profiles of the MADS gene in tartary buckwheat at a genome-wide level. In this study, 65 MADS genes of tartary buckwheat were identified and renamed according to the chromosomal distribution of the FtMADS genes. Here, we provide a complete overview of the gene structure, gene expression, genomic mapping, protein motif organization, and phylogenetic relationships of each member of the gene family. According to the phylogenetic relationship of MADS genes, the transcription factor family was divided into two subfamilies, the M subfamily (28 genes) and the MIKC subfamily (37 genes). The results showed that the FtMADS genes belonged to related sister pairs and the chromosomal map showed that the replication of FtMADSs was related to the replication of chromosome blocks. In different tissues and at different fruit development stages, the FtMADS genes obtained by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) showed obvious expression patterns. A comprehensive analysis of the MADS genes in tartary buckwheat was conducted. Through systematic analysis, the potential genes that may regulate the growth and development of tartary buckwheat and the genes that may regulate the easy dehulling of tartary buckwheat fruit were screened, which laid a solid foundation for improving the quality of tartary buckwheat.


Assuntos
Fagopyrum/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fagopyrum/genética , Frutas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/classificação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(3)2019 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30691178

RESUMO

Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) is considered a profitable crop that possesses medicinal properties, because of its flavonoid compounds. However, the dehulling issue is becoming the bottleneck for consumption of Tartary buckwheat seed. In this study, we investigated the relation between dehulling efficiency and content of lignin and cellulose in the seed hull. Moreover, the untargeted metabolomics analysis, including partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and principal component analysis (PCA), were performed to examine the pattern of metabolic changes in the hull of Tartary buckwheat seeds, XQ 1 and MQ 1, during seed development using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In mature seed hull the accumulation of highest lignin and lowest cellulose were observed in the hull of MQ 1 seed, a dehulling-friendly variety with highest dehulling efficiency (93%), than that in other dehulling recalcitrant varieties, such as XQ 1 with a range of dehulling efficiency from 2% to 6%. During seed development, the total content of lignin and cellulose increased. MQ 1 and XQ 1 displayed a similar trend in the change of lignin and cellulose that the content was decreased in lignin and increased in cellulose. PCA result showed the metabolic differentiations between MQ 1 and XQ 1 during seed development. The results of our study suggest the compensatory regulation of lignin and cellulose deposition in the hull of mature and developing seed, and deviation of MQ 1 from the ratio of lignin to cellulose of other dehulling recalcitrant varieties may have been a contributing factor that resulted in the dehulling differentia.


Assuntos
Celulose/biossíntese , Fagopyrum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lignina/biossíntese , Fagopyrum/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Análise de Componente Principal , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo
19.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(6): 3176-3185, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30548612

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the last decade buckwheat was reported to have positive health effects. The present study investigated a high-polyphenol buckwheat protein (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) prepared by enzyme-assisted processing, together with its physicochemical properties, in vitro digestibility, and antioxidant activity. RESULTS: Buckwheat protein prepared from the synergistic enzymatic action of α-amylase and amyloglucosidase (E-BWP) had much higher polyphenol content than buckwheat protein prepared by isoelectric precipitation (I-BWP) or salt extraction (S-BWP). Rutin degraded during the process, giving quercetin. The protein constituents and amino acid composition of E-BWP were very similar to those of native buckwheat and were able to meet the WHO/FAO requirements for both children and adults. During in vitro digestion, E-BWP showed anti-digestive behavior with a nitrogen release that was lower than that of I-BWP or S-BWP. The positive effect of the polyphenol content of E-BWP resulted in a higher 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) content and greater reducing activity. CONCLUSION: Buckwheat protein with high polyphenol content was successfully developed by enzyme-assisted processing. It had a well-balanced amino acid profile, antidigestive behavior, and high antioxidant activities. The results suggest that enzyme-assisted processing is promising in the production of polyphenol-enriched cereal protein, contributing higher functionality with good nutritional and antioxidant properties. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Fagopyrum/química , Fagopyrum/metabolismo , Glucana 1,4-alfa-Glucosidase/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Polifenóis/análise , alfa-Amilases/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biocatálise , Digestão , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo
20.
Chemosphere ; 216: 595-604, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30390590

RESUMO

The effect of lead (Pb)-induced oxidative stress was investigated in Fagopyrum kashmirianum. The seedlings absorbed the Pb readily by showing time (15 and 30 days) and concentration (0, 100, 200 and 300 µM) dependent effects. Pb caused reduction in both root and shoot lengths but its accumulation was more in roots (22.32 mg g-1 DW) than shoots (8.86 mg g-1 DW) at the highest concentration (300 µM) resulting in translocation factor (TF) < 1 at all concentrations. Thus the uptake and translocation of Pb between roots and shoots showed a positive correlation indicating the plant as root accumulator. Amongst the photosynthetic pigments, chlorophyll content showed a decline while the carotenoid and anthocyanin levels were elevated. The fresh mass and biomass showed a non-significant decrease at both the sampling times. The osmolyte and antioxidative enzymes (SOD, CAT, APX. POD, GR and GST) were positively correlated with Pb treatments except proline and CAT, which showed decline in 30-day-old plants. The alleviation of Pb-stress is an indication for existence of strong detoxification mechanism in F. kashmirianum, which suggest that it could be cultivated in Pb-contaminated soils.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fagopyrum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Chumbo/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Fagopyrum/efeitos dos fármacos , Fagopyrum/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo
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