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1.
Eur J Paediatr Dent ; 23(2): 128-130, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35722851

RESUMO

AIM: Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is a common clinical condition in which the throat narrows or collapses repeatedly during sleep, causing obstructive sleep apnoea events. This disorder is present in the paediatric population with a prevalence estimated between 1.2% and 5.8%. Down Syndrome (DS) is the most common chromosomal alteration associated with mental disability and characterised by other clinical manifestations, and its incidence is estimated at 1/800 births worldwide. Most of the craniofacial features typical of DS represent a risk factor for the development of OSAS. Routine screening has been recommended in some countries but it is still not a standard practice. The aim of this study is the Italian linguistic validation of a questionnaire for the diagnosis of OSAS in children with Down Syndrome. METHODS: After careful review of the existing scientific literature, a specific questionnaire was selected for the diagnosis of OSAS in children with DS. The questionnaire was then translated into Italian and administered to 111 parents of children with Down syndrome, for online completion. The last part of the questionnaire was dedicated to the comprehension of the questionnaire itself, with a specific focus on its clarity, accuracy and difficulty in completing it. CONCLUSION: The positive feedback registered in the comprehension part of the questionnaire, certified the good quality of the Italian translation and confirmed the questionnaire as a useful screening method to identify the comorbidity of OSAS and DS.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Down , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Criança , Síndrome de Down/complicações , Síndrome de Down/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Down/epidemiologia , Humanos , Linguística , Faringe , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682117

RESUMO

Background-The recent burden of lip and oral cavity, nasopharynx and other pharynx cancer (LOCP) has not been specifically investigated in Europe. Methods-In this descriptive epidemiological study, LOCP was categorised into lip and oral cavity cancer, nasopharynx cancer and other pharynx cancer, with European trends documented using the 2019 Global Burden of Disease (GBD). Summary statistics included deaths, age-standardised incidence rates (ASIR), mortality rates, YLLs (years of life lost), YLDs (years of life lived with disability) and DALYS (disability-adjusted life years). Results-Lip and oral cavity cancer (LO) is the most dominant with the incidence decreasing from 6.2 new cases per 100,000 (95% UI: 6.1-6.4) in 1990 to 5.3 new cases per 100,000 (95% UI: 4.6-6.1). However, nasopharynx cancer (NP) and other pharynx cancer (OP) increased from 1 and 2.2 new cases per 100,000 in 1990 to 1.1 and 3.3 new cases per 100,000 in 2019, respectively. It was noted that LOCP YLLs is much higher than YLDs. In Europe, eastern European countries, specifically Hungary, have the highest burden of LOCP. When LOCP attributable to tobacco in Ireland was compared with the EU, the percentage decrease in OP DALYs attributable to tobacco is below the EU average, whereas the percentage decrease in LO attributable to tobacco in Ireland was above the EU average. Conclusions-There has been a significant increase in ASIR in categories other pharynx and nasopharynx cancer since 1990, with significant geographic variations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas , Neoplasias Faríngeas , União Europeia , Carga Global da Doença , Saúde Global , Humanos , Lábio , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Faríngeas/epidemiologia , Faringe , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
3.
Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd ; 129(6): 289-292, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35670462

RESUMO

A 55-year-old woman was seen at an oral and maxillofacial surgery department because of a large oral swelling and complaints about difficulty eating, nasal speech and fatigue. She had full dentures in her upper jaw. Intraorally, a pain-free, pedunculated, combined solid-elastic and bone-hard tumour was found in the left maxillary tubercle region. A large, fibroepithelial polyp was diagnosed based on clinical and histopathological findings. Six weeks post-operatively, the complaints had disappeared. Chronic irritation of the oral mucosa can result in an oral fibroepithelial polyp that can be distinguished from peripheral ossifying fibroma or giant cell fibroma after histopathological examination. Such a polyp can grow to a large size if the source of irritation is not removed.


Assuntos
Pólipos , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mucosa Bucal/patologia , Faringe/patologia , Pólipos/diagnóstico , Pólipos/patologia , Pólipos/cirurgia
4.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 23(1): 66-73, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35656660

RESUMO

AIM: In this study, we sought to evaluate the effect of the twin-block appliance on pharyngeal airway dimensions, sleep patterns, and lung volumes in growing children with class II malocclusion with a retrognathic mandible. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty children aged 9-12 years with class II malocclusion with a retrognathic mandible participated in the study. A validated sleep questionnaire assessed the sleep patterns and the sleep problems of the children. The pre-treatment cephalometric variables and the pharyngeal airway passage (PAP) dimensions were analyzed. Spirometry tests were performed to evaluate lung volumes. A custom-made twin-block appliance was fabricated, and children were instructed to wear it for a minimum of 10 months. All variables including sleep problems, cephalometric variables, and pharyngeal airway measurements were evaluated post-treatment. Spirometry tests were re-evaluated at the end of the twin-block treatment. All data were statistically analyzed. RESULTS: Post-twin-block appliance treatment, there was a definite decrease in snoring, noisy breathing, and sleeping with mouth open. The sella-nasion to B point angle (SNB), mandibular length, the depths of oropharynx, nasopharynx, and hypopharynx as well as the height of nasopharynx (HNP) were significantly increased post-treatment (p <0.001). The length and thickness of soft palate (SPI) increased significantly (p <0.001), while its inclination decreased significantly (p <0.001). We found improvements in forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume at 1 second (FEV1); however, the changes were statistically not significant (p = 0.88 and p = 0.78). CONCLUSION: Twin-block appliance significantly increased the pharyngeal airway dimensions and improved the length and thickness of the soft palate in children with class II malocclusion. Post-twin-block treatment showed a considerable reduction in the sleep problems of the children. The lung volume measurements showed improvement; however, it was not statistically significant. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Twin block may be used not only to correct the facial disharmony of children with a retrognathic mandible but also to improve the airway dimensions and lung volume as well as to reduce the sleep-disordered symptoms.


Assuntos
Má Oclusão Classe II de Angle , Faringe , Cefalometria , Criança , Humanos , Medidas de Volume Pulmonar , Má Oclusão Classe II de Angle/terapia , Sono
7.
Trials ; 23(1): 502, 2022 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35710440

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is a frequent colonizer of the human skin and mucous membranes but can also cause a variety of serious infections. Antimicrobial resistance is an increasing worldwide challenge and is mainly driven by an overuse of antimicrobials. To avoid the spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Denmark, the Danish Health Authority recommends decolonization treatment of MRSA carriers and their household contacts. Standard decolonization treatment includes chlorhexidine body wash and mupirocin nasal ointment, especially throat carriage is difficult to treat. The broad-spectrum antibiotic, clindamycin, is often added to the decolonization treatment, but there is currently low scientific evidence for this treatment. AIM: To investigate whether the addition of clindamycin to the standard decolonization treatment increases decolonization success in MRSA throat carriers. METHODS: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded trial, including patients ≥ 18 years, who tested MRSA positive in the throat after completing one standard decolonization treatment. All carriers included in the trial receive standard decolonization treatment and are randomized to treatment with either placebo or clindamycin capsules for 10 days. We plan to include 40 participants in each of the two treatment arms. DISCUSSION: Due to the lack of consistent scientific evidence of clindamycin's effect in MRSA decolonization and the worldwide urgent need to reduce the use of antibiotics, we judged that a 30% increase in the decolonization success rate in carriers treated with clindamycin is appropriate to justify prescribing clindamycin as part of the decolonization treatment of asymptomatic MRSA carriers. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT number 2019-002631-29.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Clorexidina , Clindamicina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Mupirocina/efeitos adversos , Faringe , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico
8.
J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv ; 35(3): 109-120, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35699409

RESUMO

Traditionally, empirical correlations for predicting respiratory tract deposition of inhaled aerosols have been developed using limited available in vivo data. More recently, advances in medical image segmentation and additive manufacturing processes have allowed researchers to conduct extensive in vitro deposition experiments in realistic replicas of the upper and central branching airways. This work has led to a collection of empirical equations for predicting regional aerosol deposition, especially in the upper, nasal and oral airways. The present section reviews empirical correlations based on both in vivo and in vitro data, which may be used to predict total and regional deposition. Equations are presented for predicting total respiratory deposition fraction, mouth-throat fraction, nasal, and nose-throat fractions for a large variety of aerosol sizes, subject age groups, and breathing maneuvers. Use of these correlations to estimate total lung deposition is also described.


Assuntos
Pulmão , Faringe , Administração por Inalação , Aerossóis , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Tamanho da Partícula
10.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 102(21): 1559-1563, 2022 Jun 07.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35644954

RESUMO

With the continuous update of anesthesia techniques, equipment and research field, the techniques and concepts of anesthesia in eye and ear-nose-throat (ENT) surgery are constantly optimized and developed. Eye and ENT anesthesia has its unique technical characteristics and problems. By reviewing related literature extensively and combining with our experience, this article analyzed and discussed the challenges of ENT anesthesia, such as difficult airway, airway hyperactivity, controlled hypotension and so on, as well as summarizing and evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of the techniques applied in ENT anesthesia.


Assuntos
Anestesia , Faringe , Nariz
11.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 102(21): 1596-1602, 2022 Jun 07.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35644961

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the risk factors of anxiety during anesthesia induction in children undergoing eye and ear-nose-throat (ENT) surgeries. Methods: The clinical data of 930 children who underwent eye and ENT surgeries in the Eye & ENT Hospital of Fudan University from January to December 2019 were collected. The outcome variable was the degree of anxiety during anesthesia induction. Demographic information about the children and their family members, anxiety scores and the usage of preoperative sedative drugs were collected as the exposure factors. The risk factors of anxiety during anesthesia induction were determined by logistic regression analysis. Results: A total of 930 children were included in the study, of which 56(6.0%) cases developed anxiety during the induction period. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that age (OR=0.72, 95%CI:0.61-0.86, P<0.001), anxiety grading of children by medical evaluation method (mild as the reference, moderate OR=5.42, 95%CI:2.92-10.07, P<0.001; severe OR=7.53, 95%CI: 2.54-22.29, P<0.001), Modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (mYPAS) score at arrival in the preoperative waiting room (OR=1.05, 95%CI:1.02-1.07, P<0.001) and sedation score (OR=0.48, 95%CI: 0.30-0.76, P<0.001) were risk factors for the development of anxiety during the induction period. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that anxiety grading of children by medical evaluation method was a risk factor for affecting anxiety in the induction period (mild as the reference, moderate OR=4.08, 95%CI:1.81-9.18, P<0.01; severe OR=4.95, 95%CI:1.26-19.44, P=0.022). Conclusion: Anxiety grading of children by medical evaluation method is an essential risk factor for predicting anxiety during induction period.


Assuntos
Faringe , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Anestesia Geral , Ansiedade , Criança , Humanos , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Fatores de Risco
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 8991, 2022 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35637284

RESUMO

Knowledge about contagiousness is key to accurate management of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Epidemiological studies suggest that in addition to transmission through droplets, aerogenic SARS-CoV-2 transmission contributes to the spread of infection. However, the presence of virus in exhaled air has not yet been sufficiently demonstrated. In pandemic situations low tech disposable and user-friendly bedside devices are required, while commercially available samplers are unsuitable for application in patients with respiratory distress. We included 49 hospitalized COVID-19 patients and used a disposable modular breath sampler to measure SARS-CoV-2 RNA load in exhaled air samples and compared these to SARS-CoV-2 RNA load of combined nasopharyngeal throat swabs and saliva. Exhaled air sampling using the modular breath sampler has proven feasible in a clinical COVID-19 setting and demonstrated viral detection in 25% of the patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , RNA Viral , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Humanos , Nasofaringe , Faringe , RNA Viral/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética
14.
J Clin Microbiol ; 60(6): e0039922, 2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35510509

RESUMO

The number of days until pharyngeal Neisseria gonorrhoeae nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) results become negative after treatment remains unknown. Between March 2019 and April 2021, we enrolled men who have sex with men (MSM) who had a clinical positive pharyngeal N. gonorrhoeae Aptima Combo 2 test result but had not yet been treated in a prospective longitudinal cohort study. MSM were enrolled on their day of treatment and self-collected daily pharyngeal specimens for 21 days at home. We used Kaplan-Meier estimates to determine the median time to clearance and the >95% time to clearance and the log rank test for equality to evaluate factors associated with time to clearance. Sixty-four men were enrolled in the study. Analyses excluded 8 men (12.5%) who were N. gonorrhoeae negative by NAAT at enrollment and 11 (17%) who failed to return any home-collected specimens. Among the 45 men included in the analysis, the median time to N. gonorrhoeae NAAT clearance was 3 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 2 to 5 days). Time to clearance for >95% of the cohort was 12 days (95% CI, 10 days to an undefined time). Men with a history of N. gonorrhoeae infection cleared faster than men without such history (8 days versus 17 days for >95% time to clearance; P = 0.03). In the absence of reexposure, positive N. gonorrhoeae Aptima Combo 2 assay results obtained prior to 12 days after treatment are likely false-positive results.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia , Gonorreia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Chlamydia trachomatis/genética , Gonorreia/diagnóstico , Gonorreia/tratamento farmacológico , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/genética , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Faringe , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA/uso terapêutico
15.
Vestn Otorinolaringol ; 87(2): 17-21, 2022.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35605267

RESUMO

Acute tonsillopharyngitis (ATP) is an infectious inflammation of the mucous membrane and lymphadenoid structures of the oropharynx. Sore throat, as the main symptom of ATP, is the most common reason for seeking outpatient medical care or self-medication. Topical therapy of sore throat in the treatment of non-streptococcal ATP is the most effective and safe. In the article, based on their own experience and literature data, the problem of treating patients with sore throat with ATP of non-streptococcal etiology is presented. At the Department of Otorhinolaryngology of the Evdokimov Moscow State Medical University conducted a study to study the clinical features of the course of ATP and improve the results of local treatment of patients with this pathology. In the course of the study, 75 people were examined, in whom subjective and objective symptoms were assessed. Our study showed that the use of the drug Doritricin demonstrated high efficacy in the treatment of patients with ATP, which contributed to an earlier regression of inflammatory-infiltrative changes in the pharynx, as well as a faster decrease in the level of pain syndrome according to the scores of the visual-analog pain scale.


Assuntos
Otolaringologia , Faringite , Trifosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Dor , Faringite/diagnóstico , Faringite/tratamento farmacológico , Faringe
16.
Codas ; 34(5): e20210208, 2022.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35584414

RESUMO

Obstructive Sleep Apnea is characterized by recurrent episodes of partial or complete collapse of the pharynx, followed by decreased oxyhemoglobin saturation and frequent arousals. It is regarded as a public health issue with important night and day symptoms that impact life quality. Its effects are associated with the areas of competence of Speech and Language Pathologists. To establish efficient diagnosis and treatment methods, professionals must know the pathogenesis of upper airway obstruction during sleep. This study seeks to enlarge the understanding of obstructive sleep apnea pathophysiology, eligibility of individualized therapeutic procedures and guidance for orofacial myofunctional therapy by describing and illustrating the locations and types of upper airway collapse during sleep. We analyzed original records of Drug Induced Sleep Endoscopy exams of a series of cases with polysomnographic diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea following the proper ethical processes. The images of the exam recordings were analyzed by five professionals with expertise in the sleep area. Obstructive sites and types of collapse were presented according to the current classification. The videos were divided into screenshots, originating figures from each anatomical site: without collapse and collapsed. The results are visualized in the images of the cases showing a predominance of velopharyngeal collapse: anteroposterior, lateral, or concentric; oropharyngeal lateral collapse; tongue anteroposterior collapse and anteroposterior collapse of the epiglottis. Understanding the obstruction sites and types of collapse illustrated in this study may help to predict therapeutic responses and learn the limitations or direct individual proposals patient.


A Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono caracteriza-se por episódios recorrentes de colapso parcial ou completo da faringe, seguidos de diminuição da saturação de oxihemoglobina e despertares frequentes. É considerada problema de saúde pública com importantes sintomas noturnos e diurnos, impactando qualidade de vida. Seus efeitos associam-se as áreas de competência da Fonoaudiologia. Para estabelecer diagnóstico e métodos de tratamento eficientes, profissionais devem conhecer a patogênese da obstrução da via aérea superior durante o sono. Visando contribuir para a compreensão da fisiopatologia da apneia obstrutiva do sono, elegibilidade de procedimentos terapêuticos individualizados e direcionamento para terapêutica miofuncional orofacial, o presente estudo tem como objetivo descrever e ilustrar os locais e tipos de colapso da via aérea superior durante o sono. Após processos éticos, foram analisados registros originais das sonoendoscopias de uma série de casos com diagnóstico polissonográfico de apneia obstrutiva do sono. As imagens das gravações dos exames foram analisadas por cinco profissionais com expertise na área do sono. Os locais obstrutivos e tipos de colapso foram apresentados conforme classificação vigente. Os vídeos foram divididos em capturas de tela, originando figuras de cada sítio anatômico: sem colapso e com colapso. Os resultados foram apresentados por imagens dos casos, que ilustram cada colapso, predominando colapso velofaríngeo: anteroposterior, lateral ou concêntrico; seguido por colapso orofaríngeo lateral; colapso anteroposterior na hipofaringe e colapso anteroposterior da epiglote. O entendimento dos locais de obstrução e tipos de colapso ilustrados nesse estudo pode ser um preditor de respostas terapêuticas, auxiliando a compreensão das limitações ou direcionando propostas para cada paciente.


Assuntos
Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Endoscopia/métodos , Humanos , Faringe , Polissonografia/métodos , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Língua
17.
BMJ Open ; 12(5): e056081, 2022 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35584870

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Infant upper respiratory microbiota are derived partly from the maternal respiratory tract, and certain microbiota are associated with altered risk of infections and respiratory disease. Neisseria lactamica is a common pharyngeal commensal in young children and is associated with reduced carriage and invasive disease by Neisseria meningitidis. Nasal inoculation with N. lactamica safely and reproducibly reduces N. meningitidis colonisation in healthy adults. We propose nasal inoculation of pregnant women with N. lactamica, to establish if neonatal pharyngeal colonisation occurs after birth, and to characterise microbiome evolution in mother-infant pairs over 1 month post partum. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: 20 healthy pregnant women will receive nasal inoculation with N. lactamica (wild type strain Y92-1009) at 36-38 weeks gestation. Upper respiratory samples, as well as optional breastmilk, umbilical cord blood and infant venous blood samples, will be collected from mother-infant pairs over 1 month post partum. We will assess safety, N. lactamica colonisation (by targeted PCR) and longitudinal microevolution (by whole genome sequencing), and microbiome evolution (by 16S rRNA gene sequencing). ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study has been approved by the London Central Research Ethics Committee (21/PR/0373). Findings will be published in peer-reviewed open-access journals as soon as possible. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04784845.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Neisseria lactamica , Neisseria meningitidis , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Microbiota/genética , Mães , Neisseria lactamica/genética , Faringe , Projetos Piloto , Gravidez , RNA Ribossômico 16S
19.
Ann Plast Surg ; 88(3 Suppl 3): S152-S155, 2022 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35513313

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI), a stigmatizing hallmark of palatal dysfunction, occurs in a wide spectrum of pediatric craniofacial conditions. The mainstays for surgical correction include palate repair and/or pharyngeal surgery. However, primary pharyngoplasty has a failure rate of 15% to 20%. Although revision pharyngoplasty may be necessary in those with persistent VPI, little is known regarding the indications for and outcomes after such procedures. The purpose of this study is to describe the authors' experience with indications for and outcomes after revision pharyngoplasty. METHODS: A single-center retrospective review was performed of all patients undergoing revision pharyngoplasty between 2002 and 2019. Demographic data and Pittsburgh Weighted Speech Scores, diagnoses, comorbidities, and complications were tabulated. Two-tailed Student t test was used, and a P value of 0.05 or less was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Thirty-two patients (65.6% male) met inclusion criteria for this study. The most common diagnoses included cleft palate (68.8%), submucous cleft palate (SMCP, 18.8%), and congenital VPI (6.3%, likely occult SMCP). Most patients (84.4%) underwent palatoplasty before their initial pharyngoplasty. The primary indication for initial pharyngoplasty was VPI (mean age 7.1 ± 4.6 years). The most common indication for revision pharyngoplasty (mean age 11.2 ± 5.1 years) included persistent VPI (n = 22), followed by obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) (n = 11). Persistent VPI (n = 8) and OSA (n = 6) were the most common complications after secondary pharyngoplasty. Thirteen patients (40.6%) within the revision pharyngoplasty cohort required additional surgical intervention: 4 underwent tertiary pharyngoplasty, 4 underwent takedown for OSA (n = 3) or persistent VPI (n = 1), 3 underwent takedown and conversion Furlow for persistent VPI (n = 2), OSA (n = 2) and/or flap dehiscence (n = 1), and 2 underwent palatal lengthening with buccal myomucosal flaps for persistent VPI. Of the 4 patients who required a tertiary pharyngoplasty, the mean age at repair was 6.6 ± 1.1 years and their speech scores improved from 13.5 to 2.3 after tertiary pharyngoplasty (P = 0.11). The overall speech score after completion of all procedures improved significantly from 19 to 3.3. CONCLUSION: Patients who fail primary pharyngoplasty represent a challenging population. Of patients who underwent secondary pharyngoplasty, nearly half required a tertiary procedure to achieve acceptable speech scores or resolve complications.


Assuntos
Fissura Palatina , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Insuficiência Velofaríngea , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fissura Palatina/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Faringe/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Insuficiência Velofaríngea/etiologia , Insuficiência Velofaríngea/cirurgia
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