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1.
Euro Surveill ; 25(10)2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32183934

RESUMO

Since December 2019, 62 medical staff of Zhongnan Hospital in Wuhan, China have been hospitalised with coronavirus disease 2019. During the post-discharge surveillance after clinical recovery, swabs were positive in two asymptomatic cases (3.23%). Case 1 had presented typical clinical and radiological manifestations on admission, while manifestation in Case 2 was very mild. In conclusion, a small proportion of recovered patients may test positive after discharge, and post-discharge surveillance and isolation need to be strengthened.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional , Alta do Paciente , Faringe/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Adulto , Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Radiografia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
2.
Orv Hetil ; 161(2): 50-55, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902236

RESUMO

Introduction: Exudative tonsillitis is a common clinical picture during childhood. The majority of these cases are caused by viruses (Epstein-Barr virus [EBV], cytomegalovirus [CMV], influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, and adenovirus), and only some infections are caused by bacteria, mainly group A streptococci (GAS). On the basis of international guidelines, routine use of early antibiotic treatment is not recommended in these cases, because it seems not to prevent GAS-associated complications. Aim: Our aim was to determine those laboratory results which are useful to distinguish between bacterial and viral infections in children with exudative tonsillitis to reduce antibiotic overuse. Method: In our study, we evaluated 135 clinical data from 133 children with exudative tonsillitis. Patients were grouped according to the following criteria: the first group contained patients with acute CMV or EBV infections, while in the second group, CMV or EBV infections were not confirmed using serology. Results: On the basis of our results, EBV or CMV infections (66/135, 48.8%) were serologically confirmed in the majority of cases with exudative tonsillitis between 2016 and 2017, while the causative role of GAS was minimal in this patient group (3/65, 4.61%). In spite of this finding, the majority of patients (92%) were treated with antibiotics. Conclusion: Our retrospective findings confirmed that it is not possible to determine the causative agent of this clinical picture on the basis of symptoms, and physical findings, moreover laboratory results, such as high white blood cell count could not confirm bacterial infection. At the same time, elevated transaminase levels may refer to viral origin of infection, especially EBV or CMV with high predictive value; the use of extended laboratory tests may reduce the unnecessary antibiotic consumption. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(2): 50-55.


Assuntos
Infecções Estreptocócicas/etiologia , Tonsilite/etiologia , Viroses/etiologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/análise , Anticorpos Antivirais/análise , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Humanos , Faringe/microbiologia , Faringe/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tonsilite/tratamento farmacológico , Viroses/diagnóstico , Viroses/tratamento farmacológico
3.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 24(1): 53, 2019 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Influenza A viruses pose a significant risk to human health because of their wide host range and ability to reassort into novel viruses that can cause serious disease and pandemics. Since transmission of these viruses between humans and pigs can be associated with occupational and environmental exposures, we investigated the association between occupational exposure to pigs, occurrence of acute respiratory illness (ARI), and influenza A virus infection. METHODS: The study was conducted in Kiambu County, the county with the highest level of intensive small-scale pig farming in Kenya. Up to 3 participants (> 2 years old) per household from pig-keeping and non-pig-keeping households were randomly recruited and followed up in 2013 (Sept-Dec) and 2014 (Apr-Aug). Oropharyngeal (OP) and nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs were collected from participants with ARI at the time of study visit. For the animal study, nasal and oropharyngeal swabs, and serum samples were collected from pigs and poultry present in enrolled households. The human and animal swab samples were tested for viral nucleic acid by RT-PCR and sera by ELISA for antibodies. A Poisson generalized linear mixed-effects model was developed to assess the association between pig exposure and occurrence of ARI. RESULTS: Of 1137 human participants enrolled, 625 (55%) completed follow-up visits including 172 (27.5%) pig workers and 453 (72.5%) non-pig workers. Of 130 human NP/OP swabs tested, four (3.1%) were positive for influenza A virus, one pig worker, and three among non-pig workers. Whereas none of the 4462 swabs collected from pig and poultry tested positive for influenza A virus by RT-PCR, 265 of 4273 (6.2%) of the sera tested positive for virus antibodies by ELISA, including 11.6% (230/1990) of the pigs and 1.5% (35/2,283) of poultry. The cumulative incidence of ARI was 16.9% among pig workers and 26.9% among the non-pig workers. The adjusted risk ratio for the association between being a pig worker and experiencing an episode of ARI was 0.56 (95% CI [0.33, 0.93]), after adjusting for potential confounders. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate moderate seropositivity for influenza A virus among pigs, suggesting the circulation of swine influenza virus and a potential for interspecies transmission.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A/fisiologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Vírus da Influenza A/imunologia , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Influenza Humana/virologia , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/transmissão , Faringe/virologia , Aves Domésticas/virologia , RNA Viral/genética , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Suínos/virologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão , Adulto Jovem , Zoonoses/transmissão
4.
Arch Virol ; 164(10): 2565-2571, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321585

RESUMO

Enteroviruses (EVs) are the major cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and herpangina in children. In this study, we conducted a molecular investigation of EVs in throat swab samples from children in Hangzhou, China with a diagnosis of HFMD or herpangina. EVs were detected using one-step real-time RT-PCR, and their serotypes were determined based on partial VP1 gene sequences. The molecular typing results revealed the presence of six different EV serotypes in HFMD cases, including coxsackievirus (CV) A16 (20/30, 66.7%), CVA4 (3/30, 10.0%), CVA6 (3/30, 10.0%), EVA71 (2/30, 6.7%), CVB4 (1/30, 3.3%), and CVB5 (1/30, 3.3%). Eleven different EV serotypes were detected in herpangina cases, among which CVA4 was the most frequently detected serotype (105/170, 61.8%), followed by CVA16 (30/170, 17.6%), CVB4 (9/170, 5.3%), CVA6 (6/170, 3.5%), CVB3 (5/170, 2.9%), CVA10 (3/170, 1.8%), EVA71 (4/170, 2.4%), Echo9 (3/170, 1.8%), CVA9 (2/170, 1.2%), CVB1 (3/170, 1.8%) and CVA5 (1/170, 0.6%). The nucleotide sequence identity of EV strains from the same subtype ranged from 80.7% to 100%, and most of the EVs were closely related to virus strains found in Australia and mainland China. In conclusion, CVA 16 and CVA 4 were the main serotypes causing HFMD and herpangina, respectively, in children in Hangzhou in 2016. Most of these EVs were closely related to virus strains from Australia and mainland China.


Assuntos
Enterovirus/classificação , Enterovirus/isolamento & purificação , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/epidemiologia , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/virologia , Herpangina/epidemiologia , Herpangina/virologia , Sorogrupo , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Enterovirus/genética , Enterovirus/imunologia , Feminino , Variação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Epidemiologia Molecular , Tipagem Molecular , Faringe/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Análise de Sequência de DNA
5.
Int J Infect Dis ; 87: 1-7, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is usually caused by EVA71 and CVA16 except for a few cases that are caused by non-EVA71 non-CAV16 enteroviruses. Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) is mostly associated with myocarditis, occasionally with HFMD. METHODS: The partial VP1 gene of enteroviruses were amplified and sequenced from 610 throat swabs from clinically confirmed HFMD children. All available CVB3 near full-length genomic and VP1 sequences were downloaded from GenBank. Phylogenetic and distance analyses were performed using MEGA 7.0. RESULTS: A total of 238 partial VP1 sequences were obtained, including 93 EVA71 (39%), 79 CAV16 (33%), 29 CVB3 (12%), 24 CVA6 (10%), and 13 other enterovirus serotypes (5.5%). CVB3 is classified into seven genotypes A-G according to phylogenetic and distance analyses. All CVB3 strains from Zhenjiang belonged to genotype A. In contrast to other genotypes that are prevalent in Europe and other regions of China, and often associated with aseptic meningitis and myocarditis, CVB3 genotype A strains identified in Zhenjiang were only detected among HFMD patients. CONCLUSIONS: This high prevalence of CVB3 genotype A among HFMD children has never been reported. This phenomenon has revealed a new epidemic trend of CVB3 among HFMD in China, and it has epidemiological implications for monitoring the epidemic risk of CVB3.


Assuntos
Enterovirus Humano A/isolamento & purificação , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/virologia , Sequência de Bases , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Enterovirus/classificação , Enterovirus Humano A/classificação , Enterovirus Humano A/genética , Epidemias , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Genótipo , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Meningite Asséptica/epidemiologia , Meningite Asséptica/virologia , Faringe/virologia , Filogenia , Prevalência
6.
Forensic Sci Med Pathol ; 15(3): 399-403, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250258

RESUMO

Rapid identification of pathogenic agents is important in response to the emergence of biocrime and bioterrorism, to facilitate appropriate confinement and treatment. As the rapid determination system of viral genome sequences (RDV method) using exhaustive gene amplification is useful for rapid identification, we examined whether this method could be applied to forensic samples. To detect pathogenic virus in a cat with suspected viral infections, fluid swab samples were applied to the RDV method. The following steps were performed: viral propagation, extraction of the viral genome, amplification of the first library, fragmentation of the library, amplification of the second library using non-specific primer sets, and direct sequencing of the amplicon. To confirm the viruses detected by this method, we performed conventional PCR using virus-specific primers. We detected pathogenic virus genome sequences from the swab samples and confirmed infection with these viruses. In addition, we directly detected a viral genome sequence from the nasal swab sample without the viral propagation step. The RDV method is infrequently used in forensic analysis. This method is practicable with equipment existing in a normal laboratory and is useful for rapid detection and identification of pathogenic viruses in forensic samples. This method would also be applicable to the detection of bacteria and fungi.


Assuntos
Genoma Viral/genética , Cavidade Nasal/virologia , Faringe/virologia , Animais , Caliciviridae/genética , Gatos , DNA Viral , Herpesviridae/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Viral , Manejo de Espécimes
7.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0214207, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30951544

RESUMO

Respiratory diseases are a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in many tropical countries, including Lao PDR. However, little has been published regarding viral or bacterial pathogens that can contribute to influenza-like illness (ILI) in a community setting. We report on the results of a community-based surveillance that prospectively monitored the incidence of ILI and its causative pathogens in Vientiane capital in Lao PDR. A cohort of 995 households, including 4885 study participants, were followed-up between May 2015 and May 2016. Nasopharyngeal swabs, throat swabs, and sputum specimens were collected from ILI cases identified through active case-finding. Real-Time PCR was used to test nasopharyngeal swabs for 21 respiratory pathogens, while throat and sputum samples were subjected to bacterial culture. Generalized linear mixed models were used to assess potential risk factors for associations with ILI. In total, 548 episodes of ILI were reported among 476 (9.7%) of the study participants and 330 (33.2%) of the study households. The adjusted estimated incidence of ILI within the study area was 10.7 (95%CI: 9.4-11.9) episodes per 100 person-years. ILI was significantly associated with age group (p<0.001), sex (p<0.001), and number of bedrooms (p = 0.04) in multivariate analysis. In 548 nasopharyngeal swabs, the most commonly detected potential pathogens were Streptococcus pneumoniae (17.0%), Staphylococcus aureus (11.3%), influenza A (11.1%; mostly subtype H3N2), rhinovirus (7.5%), and influenza B (8.0%). Streptococci were isolated from 42 (8.6%) of 536 throat swabs, most (27) of which were Lancefield Group G. Co-infections were observed in 132 (24.1%) of the 548 ILI episodes. Our study generated valuable data on respiratory disease burden and patterns of etiologies associated with community-acquired acute respiratory illness Laos. Establishment of a surveillance strategy in Laos to monitor trends in the epidemiology and burden of acute respiratory infections is required to minimize their impact on human health.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/patogenicidade , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Rhinovirus/patogenicidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/patologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Laos/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Faringe/patologia , Faringe/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/patologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia
8.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 8(1): 94-102, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30866763

RESUMO

There was a substantial increase with infections of H7N9 avian influenza virus (AIV) in humans during Wave 5 (2016-2017). To investigate whether H7N9 had become more infectious/transmissible and pathogenic overall, we characterized the receptor binding and experimentally infected ferrets with highly pathogenic (HP)- and low pathogenic (LP)-H7N9 isolates selected from Wave 5, and compared their pathogenicity and transmissibility with a Wave 1 isolate from 2013. Studies show that A/Anhui/1/2013 (LP) and A/Chicken/Heyuan/16876/2016 (HP) were highly virulent in ferrets, A/Guangdong/Th008/2017 (HP) and A/Chicken/Huizhou/HZ-3/2017 (HP) had moderate virulence and A/Shenzhen/Th001/2016 (LP) was of low virulence in ferrets. Transmission was observed only in ferrets infected with A/Anhui/1/2013 and A/Chicken/Heyuan/16876/2016, consistent with the idea that sicker ferrets had a higher probability to transmit virus to naive animals. Given the Varied virulence and transmissibility observed in circulating H7N9 viruses from Wave 5, we conclude that the current public health risk of H7N9 has not substantially increased compared to 2013 and the circulating viruses are quite diverse.


Assuntos
Furões/virologia , Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A/patogenicidade , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/transmissão , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Animais , Genótipo , Humanos , Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A/metabolismo , Influenza Humana/virologia , Nariz/virologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/virologia , Faringe/virologia , Virulência
9.
Papillomavirus Res ; 7: 112-117, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30851448

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In recent years, an association between HPV-16 and oropharyngeal cancers has been reported. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate whether vaccination decreases the exposure of HPV-16 in the oral cavity. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of vaccination on oral HPV-16 infection in high school students in the city of Cali, Colombia. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, HPV-16 DNA was detected in samples from the oral cavity and throat of 1,784 high school students of both genders, aged 14-17 years old, in 21 schools in the city of Cali, Colombia. The number in vaccinated girls were 944 vs., 95 unvaccinated girls and 745 unvaccinated boys. RESULTS: The HPV exposure percentages were: 0.7% in vaccinated girls, 3.2% in unvaccinated girls and 2.3% in unvaccinated boys. The odds ratio (OR) of detection of HPV-16 in vaccinated versus unvaccinated students was 0.28 (95% CI: 0.07-0.88), representing a 72% reduction in HPV-16 detection in students immunized with two doses. The odds of detection of HPV-16 in unvaccinated male students were 3.6 times those of vaccinated girls (OR = 3.6, 95% CI: 1.21-12.81) and increased to almost eight-fold in boys who had initiated sexual activity (OR = 7.74, 95% CI: 1.53-75.09). CONCLUSIONS: HPV vaccination was associated with the reduction of HPV-16 exposure percentages in the oral and oropharyngeal cavity.


Assuntos
Papillomavirus Humano 16/isolamento & purificação , Doenças da Boca/epidemiologia , Doenças da Boca/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/imunologia , Adolescente , Cidades/epidemiologia , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , DNA Viral/análise , Feminino , Papillomavirus Humano 16/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Boca/virologia , Doenças da Boca/virologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Faringe/virologia , Estudantes , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Trop Doct ; 49(2): 96-101, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30636517

RESUMO

Diphtheria, a vaccine preventable disease in children, is still being reported from India. Details of 99 children with a clinical diagnosis of diphtheria admitted to a paediatric tertiary care teaching and referral hospital between January 2008 and December 2015 were collected retrospectively and analysed. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) age of the study group was 7.0 years (IQR = 5.0-8.0 years). Nearly two-thirds were unimmunised. Clinical features included fever (97%), dysphagia (82%), sore throat (67%), bull neck (54%), stridor (40%), neuropathy (27%) and nasal discharge (14%). Throat swab for Albert stain was positive in only 21% of cases and C. diphtheriae was isolated in only 28%. Complications included airway compromise (61.7%) followed by myocarditis (35.4%), acute kidney injury (22.3%), thrombocytopenia (25.3%) and neuropathy (27.3%). In all, 66% survived, 23% died and 11% opted for discontinuity of care owing to unfavourable prognoses. On multivariable logistic regression analysis, shorter duration of symptoms before presentation to our hospital was an independent predictor of unfavourable outcome (adjusted odds ratio = 0.88, 95% confidence interval = 0.79-0.99, P = 0.03).


Assuntos
Difteria/diagnóstico , Difteria/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Corynebacterium diphtheriae/isolamento & purificação , Difteria/complicações , Difteria/patologia , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Mortalidade , Faringe/virologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária
11.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 25(9): 1114-1119, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30641227

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the accuracy of PCR detection of viruses and bacteria on nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs (NPS) for the diagnosis of pneumonia in elderly individuals. METHODS: We included consecutive hospitalized elderly individuals suspected of having pneumonia. At inclusion, NPS were collected from all participants and tested by PCR for the presence of viral and bacterial respiratory pathogens (index test, defined as comprehensive molecular testing). Routine diagnostic tests (blood and sputum culture, urine antigen detection) were also performed. The reference standard was the presence of pneumonia on a low-dose CT scan as assessed by two independent expert radiologists. RESULTS: The diagnosis of pneumonia was confirmed in 127 of 199 (64%) included patients (mean age 83 years, community-acquired pneumonia in 105 (83%)). A pathogen was identified by comprehensive molecular testing in 114 patients (57%) and by routine methods in 22 (11%). Comprehensive molecular testing was positive for viruses in 62 patients (31%) and for bacteria in 73 (37%). The sensitivity and specificity were 61% (95% CI 53%-69%) and 50% (95% CI 39%-61%) for comprehensive molecular testing, and 14% (95% CI 82%-21%) and 94% (95% CI 86%-98%) for routine testing, respectively. Positive likelihood ratio was 2.55 for routine methods and 1.23 for comprehensive molecular testing. CONCLUSION: Comprehensive molecular testing of NPS increases the number of pathogens detected compared with routine methods, but results are poorly predictive of the presence of pneumonia. Hence, comprehensive molecular testing is unlikely to impact clinical decision-making (NCT02467192). CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT02467192.


Assuntos
Técnicas Microbiológicas/normas , Faringe/microbiologia , Faringe/virologia , Pneumonia/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/normas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Humanos , Pneumonia/microbiologia , Pneumonia/virologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
13.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 66(1): 259-267, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30179306

RESUMO

Bocaparvovirus infections of humans and both wild and domestic animals have been widely reported around the world. In this study, we detected and genetically characterized porcine bocavirus (PBoV) carried by murine rodents (Rattus norvegicus, Rattus tanezumi, and Rattus losea) and house shrews (Suncus murinus) in China. Between May 2015 and May 2017, 496 murine rodents and 23 house shrews were captured in four Chinese provinces. Nested polymerase chain reaction was used to investigate the prevalence of PBoV in throat swab, faecal and serum samples. A total of 7.5% (39/519) throat swab samples, 60.5% (309/511) faecal samples, and 22.9% (52/227) serum samples were PBoV-positive. The prevalence among R. norvegicus and R. tanezumi was higher than that among R. losea and house shrews. PBoV-positive samples were found in all four provinces. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial viral capsid protein 1/2 (VP1/VP2) showed that sequences obtained in this study formed a novel group (PBoV G4). In addition, five near full-length PBoV genomes (4,715-4,798 nt) were acquired. These genomes encoded two non-structural proteins, NS1 (1,908 nt in four genomes and 1,923 nt in the remaining genome) and NP1 (600 nt), and the structural proteins, VP1/VP2 (1,851 nt). Phylogenetic analysis showed that PBoV G4 is distinct from rodent, human, and other bocaviruses. In conclusion, PBoV G4 prevalence was high among two common murine rodents in China, and the pathogenecity of PBoV G4 need to be further clarified.


Assuntos
Bocavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Ratos , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Musaranhos , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Fezes/virologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/sangue , Infecções por Parvoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/virologia , Faringe/virologia , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Prevalência , Doenças dos Roedores/sangue , Doenças dos Roedores/virologia
15.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 207: 62-68, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30593352

RESUMO

Selenium supplementation in poultry feeds has been known to have beneficial effects on the bird health and performance; however antiviral effects of selenium have remained largely unknown. In this study, we have evaluated the effects of supplementation of chicken diets with organic (Selenium Enriched Yeast; SEY) and inorganic selenium (Sodium Selenite; SS) on low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (H9N2) shedding in the cloacal and oropharyngeal swab samples as well as examined the expression of immune related genes. Chickens were fed two doses (High- 0.30 mg/kg of feed; Low- 0.15 mg/kg of feed) of selenium supplementation for 2 weeks followed by low pathogenicity avian influenza virus challenge. Our results showed that the cloacal shedding of virus in all the selenium supplemented groups was significantly lower when compared to the non-supplemented control groups. In addition, the oropharyngeal shedding of virus in chickens fed with organic selenium supplementation was significantly lower than that in the chickens that received either inorganic selenium supplemented feed or controls. Furthermore, the expression of interferon stimulated genes (Viperin, OAS: 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase and MDA5: melanoma differentiation-associated gene) in the cecal tonsils was significantly elevated in the selenium treated groups when compared to controls. Additionally, a significantly higher transcription of interferon (IFN)-α, IFN-ß and IFN-γ genes in the cecal tonsils and spleens of chickens receiving SEY-L and SS-H supplemented feed was also observed at post virus challenge time points compared to untreated controls. The results of this study demonstrated that supplementation of chicken diets with selenium, can enhance antiviral defense and thus, may have a beneficial effect in controlling viral infections in poultry.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2/imunologia , Influenza Aviária/imunologia , Selênio/farmacologia , Animais , Galinhas/imunologia , Galinhas/virologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2/patogenicidade , Influenza Aviária/prevenção & controle , Interferons/metabolismo , Faringe/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Selênio/administração & dosagem , Baço/virologia , Eliminação de Partículas Virais/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Virol J ; 15(1): 175, 2018 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30428893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have analyzed influenza B virus lineages based on hemagglutinin A (HA) gene sequences in southern China. The present study analyzed the HA gene and the lineages of influenza B virus isolates from Guangzhou during 2016, and compared our results with the WHO-recommended vaccine strain. METHODS: Ninety patients with influenza B were recruited from the First Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University. Throat swab specimens of 72 patients had high viral loads. Among these 72 isolates, the HA1 domain of the HA gene in 43 randomly selected isolates was sequenced using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and analyzed using MEGA 5.05. RESULTS: Eight of the 90 patients (8.9%) also had influenza A virus infections. Analysis of the 43 influenza B virus isolates indicated that 34 (79.1%) were from the Victoria lineage and 9 (20.9%) were from the Yamagata lineage. A comparison isolates in our Victoria lineage with the B/Brisbane/60/2008 strain indicated 12 mutation sites in the HA1 domain, 4 of which (I132V, N144D, C196S, and E198D) were in antigenic epitopes. A comparison of isolates in our Yamagata lineage with the B/Phuket/3073/2013 stain indicated 5 mutation sites in the HA1 domain, none of which was in an antigenic epitope. None of the isolates had a mutation in regions of the neuraminidase gene (NA) that are known to confer resistance to NA inhibitors. CONCLUSION: In Guangzhou during 2016, most influenza B virus isolates were from the Victoria lineage, in contrast to the vaccine strain recommended by the WHO for this period.


Assuntos
Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/genética , Vírus da Influenza B/genética , Mutação , Sequência de Bases , China , Epitopos/genética , Variação Genética , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza B/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/virologia , Neuraminidase/genética , Faringe/virologia , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , Carga Viral , Proteínas Virais/genética
17.
Future Microbiol ; 13: 1719-1730, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30484707

RESUMO

AIM: To study prevalence of Karolinska Institutet (KI) and Washington University (WU) polyomavirus (PyV) in 100 tonsils, 100 adenoids, 146 throat swab and 15 middle ear fluid samples collected from 146 patients (120 children and 26 adults), to analyze the sequence of  noncoding control region (NCCR) and complete WUPyV genomes. MATERIALS & METHODS: Viruses were detected by quantitative real-time PCR. The NCCRs and WUPyV genomes were sequenced and analyzed. RESULTS: The frequency of WUPyV and KIPyV DNA was 27 and 11% in adenoids, 4 and 3% in tonsils, 4.1 and 1.4% in throat swab samples, respectively. The WUPyV DNA was detected in one middle ear fluid sample as well. The WUPyV NCCRs showed mutations which may alter the putative transcription factor binding sites. Phylogenetic analysis revealed three clades of WUPyV. CONCLUSION: Tonsils and adenoids might be site of virus replication and/or persistence, and WUPyV may invade into the middle ear.


Assuntos
Tonsila Faríngea/virologia , Orelha Média/virologia , Genoma Viral/genética , Tonsila Palatina/virologia , Faringe/virologia , Polyomavirus/genética , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , DNA Viral/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Filogenia , Polyomavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Polyomavirus/virologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
18.
J Gen Virol ; 99(12): 1686-1698, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30407150

RESUMO

The prevalence of 13 polyomaviruses (PyVs) in the tonsil brushings and gargles of immunocompetent children and adults was assessed. Patients undergoing tonsillectomy for benign indications were recruited in 19 centres in France. After resection, the entire outer surface of the right and left halves of the tonsils was brushed extensively. Gargles were also collected prior to surgery in selected adults. A species-specific multiplex assay was used to detect the DNA of 13 PyVs. In tonsil brushings (n=689), human PyV 6 (HPyV6) and Merkel cell PyV (MCPyV) were the most prevalent (≈15 %), followed by trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated PyV (TSPyV), BKPyV, Washington University PyV (WUPyV) and human PyV 9 (HPyV9) (1 to 5 %), and human PyV 7 (HPyV7), John Cunningham PyV (JCPyV) and Simian virus 40 (SV40) (<1 %), while no Karolinska Institute PyV (KIPyV), Malawi PyV (MWPyV), human PyV 12 (HPyV12) or Lyon IARC PyV (LIPyV) were detected. The prevalence of TSPyV and BKPyV was significantly higher in children versus adults, whereas for HPyV6 the opposite was found. HPyV6 and WUPyV were significantly more prevalent in men versus women. In gargles (n=139), MCPyV was the most prevalent (≈40 %), followed by HPyV6, HPyV9 and LIPyV (2 to 4 %), and then BKPyV (≈1 %), while other PyVs were not detected. MCPyV and LIPyV were significantly more prevalent in gargles compared to tonsil brushings, in contrast to HPyV6. We described differing patterns of individual PyV infections in tonsils and gargles in a large age-stratified population. Comparison of the spectrum of PyVs in paired tonsil samples and gargles adds to the current knowledge on PyV epidemiology, contributing towards a better understanding of PyV acquisition and transmission and its potential role in head and neck diseases.


Assuntos
Tonsila Palatina/virologia , Faringe/virologia , Infecções por Polyomavirus/epidemiologia , Polyomavirus/classificação , Polyomavirus/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , DNA Viral/análise , DNA Viral/genética , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Infecções por Polyomavirus/virologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Irrigação Terapêutica , Adulto Jovem
19.
Intervirology ; 61(3): 143-148, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30404084

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of the adeno-associated virus (AAV) in murine rodents and house shrews in 4 provinces of China. METHODS: A total of 469 murine rodents and 19 house shrews were captured between May 2015 and May 2017. Cap gene of AAV sequences was obtained to evaluate the genetic characteristics of rat AAV. RESULTS: Rat AAVs were found in 54.7% (267/488) of throat swabs, 14.3% (70/488) of fecal samples, and 18.4% (41/223) of serum samples. Rat AAVs were detected in 3 species of murine rodents including Rattus norvegicus (34.8%), R. tanezumi (43.0%), and R. losea (2.3%), and house shrews (Suncus murinus) (26.1%) from the selected sampling sites. Fourteen near-full-length Cap gene sequences, ranging in length from 2,156 to 2,169 nt, were isolated from the fecal samples of R. norvegicus and R. tanezumi. These 14 sequences shared a high identity of 97.4% at the nucleotide level and 99.1% at the amino acid level. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the rat AAV formed a distinct clade, distinguishable from the AAV discovered in humans and in other animals. CONCLUSIONS: A high prevalence of rat AAV that was highly conserved within the Cap gene was found in 3 common murine rodents and house shrews in China.


Assuntos
Portador Sadio/veterinária , Portador Sadio/virologia , Dependovirus , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Ratos/virologia , Musaranhos/virologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , DNA Viral/genética , Fezes/virologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/sangue , Faringe/virologia , Filogenia , Prevalência , Roedores/virologia
20.
Clin Lab ; 64(10): 1777-1781, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30336514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of a novel immunochromatographic assay (ICA) kit, ALSONIC® Adeno (Alfresa Pharma Co., Osaka, Japan), for the detection of human adenovirus (HAdV) from throat swab samples based on the results of real-time PCR. The incubation time required for the novel assay kit (5 minutes) is shorter than that required for other ICA kits that are available in Japan. METHODS: Throat swab samples were taken from 151 patients aged 6 months to 15 years who were suspected of having respiratory tract infections caused by HAdV. RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity of the ICA for detection of HAdV were 92.2% (83/90) and 95.1% (58/61), respectively, and the assay showed positive and negative predictive values of 96.5% (83/86) and 89.2% (58/65), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: ALSONIC® Adeno is suitable as a diagnostic tool in the acute phase of HAdV infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenovirus Humanos/diagnóstico , Adenovírus Humanos/genética , Imunoensaio/métodos , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Infecções por Adenovirus Humanos/virologia , Adenovírus Humanos/fisiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , DNA Viral/genética , Dosagem de Genes , Humanos , Imunoensaio/instrumentação , Lactente , Faringe/virologia , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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