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1.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791616

RESUMO

Objective:To evaluate the anti-reflux treatment efficacy for the chronic pharyngitis patients with the reflux finding score(RFS) from 8-10. Method:One hundred and twelve patients with clinical diagnosis of chronic pharyngitis and RFS score of 8-10 were randomly divided into control and treatment groups. The treantment group was given the proton pump inhibitors, gastrointestinal motility drugs and the traditional Chinese patent drugs(treatment group). The control group was given only the traditional Chinese patent drugs(control group). Result:The visual analogue scale(VAS) of the patients in treatment group declined significantly after treatment. The efficacy of treatment group was significantly higher than that of control group(77.36% vs 30.61%, P<0.01). Conclusion:For the patients with chronic pharyngitis with RFS 8-10, anti-reflux treatment should be used together with traditional Chinese patent drugs.


Assuntos
Refluxo Laringofaríngeo/tratamento farmacológico , Faringite/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(30): e19922, 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic pharyngitis is a common disease with a dry throat, sore throat, pharyngeal itching, dry cough, and difficulty in swallowing, bringing inconvenience to patients' daily life. Banxia-Houpo-Tang (BHT) has proven to be effective in the treatment of chronic pharyngitis, yet its real extent is not well understood. To prove this point, we will perform a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis of BHT for chronic pharyngitis. METHODS/DESIGN: We will search for electronic databases both English and Chinese from inception to December 2019. Two experienced researchers select the qualified articles from: The Cochrane Library, EBM Reviews, OVID, Web of Science, PubMed, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), China Academic Journal Network Publishing Database (CAJD), China Biomedical Literature database (CBM), VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals (VIP). Journal Integration Platform and WAN FANG Database. We select the appropriate searching language. The primary outcome was remission rate, and the secondary outcomes include clinical symptoms, clinical examination, adverse event. Data extraction and quality assessment will be conducted by 2 experienced researchers independently. Data analysis and the risk of bias assessment will be determined by RevMan 5.3 software. RESULTS: Based on the current proofs, we will get the exact evidence about the safety and effectiveness of BHT in the treatment of chronic pharyngitis. CONCLUSION: Our study is the first meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of BHT in the treatment of chronic pharyngitis, and it will provide evidence for alternative treatment for the management of chronic pharyngitis. OSF REGISTRATION NUMBER: DOI 10.17605/OSF.IO/QNF6X.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Faringite/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Crônica , Gengibre , Humanos , Magnolia , Metanálise como Assunto , Perilla , Fitoterapia , Pinellia , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Wolfiporia
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(29): e21060, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702848

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative sore throat (POST) is an important concern in surgical patients undergoing endotracheal intubation. Its prevalence after thyroidectomy is up to 80%. The current study aimed to assess the effect of dexmedetomidine and remifentanil on postoperative sore throat. METHODS: Seventy-four patients who underwent thyroidectomy were randomized to receive either dexmedetomidine (group D) or remifentanil (group R). At anesthesia induction, group D received dexmedetomidine 1 µg/kg over 10 minutes, followed by continuous dexmedetomidine infusion at 0.3 to 0.6 µg/kg/hour during surgery. Group R received remifentanil of 3 to 4 ng/ml during induction, followed by 1.5 to 2.5 ng/ml remifentanil infusion during surgery. POST at rest and swallowing was assessed during the first 24 hours in serial time periods (0-1, 1-6, and 6-24 hours). Hoarseness and postoperative pain score were also assessed. RESULTS: POST incidence at rest (0-1, 1-6, and 6-24 hours) and swallowing (1-6 and 6-24 hours) was lower in group D than in group R. POST severity was significantly lower in group D than in group R during each time period. The incidence of postoperative hoarseness was also lower in group D than in group R at 1 to 6 and 6 to 24 hours. The postoperative pain score was lower in group D than in group R during each time period. CONCLUSION: Intraoperative dexmedetomidine infusion reduced the incidence and severity of POST for 24 hours after thyroidectomy.


Assuntos
Dexmedetomidina/uso terapêutico , Faringite/tratamento farmacológico , Faringite/etiologia , Período Pós-Operatório , Remifentanil/uso terapêutico , Tireoidectomia/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/normas , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos Opioides/normas , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Dexmedetomidina/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Remifentanil/normas , Tireoidectomia/métodos
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(21): e20389, 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481338

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is a severe pustular cutaneous adverse drug reaction. Sterile, non-follicular pustules overlying the erythematous skin characterize this reaction. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 30-year-old Asian women presented with sterile, non-follicular lesions with pus-fluid levels on her back 2 days after taking clindamycin. Skin biopsy revealed a spongiotic change in the epidermis with a focal subcorneal pustule and perivascular eosinophil and lymphocyte infiltration. DIAGNOSIS: Clindamycin-induced AGEP. INTERVENTIONS: We discontinued clindamycin treatment and prescribed systemic corticosteroids. OUTCOMES: The pustule stopped spreading within 1 day and the rash improved within 2 days. LESSONS: AGEP is a pustular cutaneous adverse drug reaction that can appear with pus-fluid levels, clinically mimicking Sneddon-Wilkinson disease. The differentiation between both conditions is a history of drug use, characteristic skin lesions and histopathology.


Assuntos
Pustulose Exantematosa Aguda Generalizada/etiologia , Clindamicina/efeitos adversos , Pustulose Exantematosa Aguda Generalizada/tratamento farmacológico , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Clindamicina/uso terapêutico , Exantema/tratamento farmacológico , Exantema/etiologia , Exantema/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Faringite/tratamento farmacológico
5.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 6: CD012431, 2020 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497279

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sore throat is a common condition caused by viruses or bacteria, and is a leading cause of antibiotic prescription in primary care. The most common bacterial species is group A streptococcus ('strep throat'). Between 50% to 70% of pharyngitis cases are treated with antibiotics, despite the majority of cases being viral in origin. One strategy to reduce antibiotics is to use rapid tests for group A streptococcus to guide antibiotic prescriptions. Rapid tests can be used alone or in combination with a clinical scoring system. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of strategies based on rapid tests to guide antibiotic prescriptions for sore throat in primary care settings. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science, and LILACS, as well as the trial registries ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO ICTRP on 5 June 2019. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing rapid tests with management based on clinical grounds to guide the prescription of antibiotics for people with a sore throat in ambulatory care settings. We included trials that randomised individuals, as well as cluster-RCTs in which individual practitioners (or practices) or emergency departments were randomised. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently extracted data on the primary outcomes (number of participants provided with an antibiotic prescription; number of participants with an antibiotic dispensed) and secondary outcomes (duration of sore throat symptoms; duration of other symptoms; quality of life measures; number of participants with a complication attributed to the index infection; number of participants in need of re-consultation by the end of follow-up; number of participants in need of hospital admission by the end of follow-up; number of satisfied participants; number of participants with an adverse event attributed to the rapid test). We assessed the risk of bias of all included trials and used GRADE to assess the certainty of the evidence. We performed meta-analyses and sensitivity analyses when feasible. MAIN RESULTS: We included five trials (2891 children and adult participants in total; 2545 participants after adjusting for clustering). Management in the intervention group was as follows: in three trials rapid tests were used in combination with a clinical scoring system; in one trial, some physicians were asked to use rapid tests alone, while others were asked to use rapid tests in combination with a clinical scoring system; in one trial, rapid tests were used alone. Based on data from five trials (2545 participants), a large reduction in prescribed antibiotics was found in the rapid test group (481/1197) versus management based on clinical grounds (865/1348), for a summary risk difference (RD) of -25%, 95% confidence interval (CI) -31% to -18%; I2 = 62%; moderate-certainty evidence. Estimates of effect on antibiotic prescription rates were stable in various sensitivity analyses. Based on data from two trials (900 people) originating from the same overarching study, the evidence suggests that rapid tests may not reduce dispensed antibiotic treatments: rapid test group (156/445) versus management based on clinical grounds (197/455); summary RD -7%, 95% CI -17% to 2%; I2 = 53%; low-certainty evidence. Four trials (2075 participants) reported data on the number of participants with a complication attributed to the index infection; the summary odds ratio (OR) was 0.85, 95% CI 0.03 to 26.65; P = 0.93; I2 = 62%; very low-certainty evidence, which means that people in the rapid testing group were less likely to develop complications of the index infection, but the evidence is very uncertain. Two trials (1161 participants) reported on the number of participants in need of re-consultation by the end of follow-up; the summary OR was 1.12, 95% CI 0.57 to 2.21; P = 0.74; I2 = 59%; low-certainty evidence, which means that participants in the rapid testing group were more likely to be in need of re-consultation by the end of the study follow-up, but the evidence is uncertain. Lack of data impeded assessment of other secondary outcomes (including safety outcomes) and of sources of heterogeneity.  AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Rapid testing to guide antibiotic treatment for sore throat in primary care probably reduces antibiotic prescription rates by 25% (absolute risk difference), but may have little or no impact on antibiotic dispensing. More studies are needed to assess the efficacy and safety of rapid test-guided antibiotic prescribing, notably to evaluate patient-centred outcomes and variability across subgroups (e.g. adults versus children).


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Faringite/tratamento farmacológico , Faringite/microbiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico , Streptococcus pyogenes/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Técnicas Bacteriológicas , Criança , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Faringite/virologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia
6.
Sex Transm Infect ; 96(6): 402-407, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32447324

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Test of cure (TOC) for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection is an important tool in the public health management of STIs. However, there are limited data about the optimal time to perform TOC using nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for NG and CT infections. A study was performed to assess the feasibility of a larger study to determine the optimal time to TOC using NAATS. METHODS: The Sexually Transmitted Bacteria Reference Unit at Public Health England undertook testing of gonococcal and chlamydial nucleic acids within neat urine stored in different conditions over 25 days to provide evidence of the stability of the nucleic acid prior to recruitment. Individuals diagnosed with uncomplicated NG or CT infection were recruited from three sexual health clinics. Individuals were asked to return nine self-taken samples from the site of infection over a course of 35 days. Survival analyses of time to first negative NAAT result for NG and CT infection and univariate regression analysis of factors that affect time to clearance were undertaken. RESULTS: At room temperature, chlamydial DNA in urine is stable for up to 3 weeks and gonococcal DNA for up to 11 days. We analysed data for 147 infections (81 NG and 66 CT). The median time to clearance of infection was 4 days (IQR 2-10 days) for NG infection and 10 days (IQR 7-14 days) for CT infection. Vaginal CT infections took longer to clear (p=0.031). NG infection in men who have sex with men took longer to clear (p=0.052). CONCLUSION: Chlamydial and gonococcal nucleic acids are stable in urine before addition of preservatives, longer than recommended by the manufacturer. The TOC results suggest that it may be possible to undertake TOC for NG and CT infections earlier than current guidelines suggest and that anatomical site of infection may affect time to clearance of infection.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecções por Chlamydia/tratamento farmacológico , Gonorreia/diagnóstico , Gonorreia/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Ceftriaxona/uso terapêutico , Chlamydia trachomatis/genética , Doxiciclina/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/genética , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Faringite/diagnóstico , Faringite/tratamento farmacológico , Proctite/diagnóstico , Proctite/tratamento farmacológico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Uretrite/diagnóstico , Uretrite/tratamento farmacológico , Vulvovaginite/diagnóstico , Vulvovaginite/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem
7.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 5: CD008268, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356360

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sore throat is a common condition associated with a high rate of antibiotic prescriptions, despite limited evidence for the effectiveness of antibiotics. Corticosteroids may improve symptoms of sore throat by reducing inflammation of the upper respiratory tract. This review is an update to our review published in 2012. OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical benefit and safety of corticosteroids in reducing the symptoms of sore throat in adults and children. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL (Issue 4, 2019), MEDLINE (1966 to 14 May 2019), Embase (1974 to 14 May 2019), the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE, 2002 to 2015), and the NHS Economic Evaluation Database (inception to 2015). We also searched the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP) and ClinicalTrials.gov. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared steroids to either placebo or standard care in adults and children (aged over three years) with sore throat. We excluded studies of hospitalised participants, those with infectious mononucleosis (glandular fever), sore throat following tonsillectomy or intubation, or peritonsillar abscess. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. MAIN RESULTS: We included one new RCT in this update, for a total of nine trials involving 1319 participants (369 children and 950 adults). In eight trials, participants in both corticosteroid and placebo groups received antibiotics; one trial offered delayed prescription of antibiotics based on clinical assessment. Only two trials reported funding sources (government and a university foundation). In addition to any effect of antibiotics and analgesia, corticosteroids increased the likelihood of complete resolution of pain at 24 hours by 2.40 times (risk ratio (RR) 2.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.29 to 4.47; P = 0.006; I² = 67%; high-certainty evidence) and at 48 hours by 1.5 times (RR 1.50, 95% CI 1.27 to 1.76; P < 0.001; I² = 0%; high-certainty evidence). Five people need to be treated to prevent one person continuing to experience pain at 24 hours. Corticosteroids also reduced the mean time to onset of pain relief and the mean time to complete resolution of pain by 6 and 11.6 hours, respectively, although significant heterogeneity was present (moderate-certainty evidence). At 24 hours, pain (assessed by visual analogue scales) was reduced by an additional 10.6% by corticosteroids (moderate-certainty evidence). No differences were reported in recurrence/relapse rates, days missed from work or school, or adverse events for participants taking corticosteroids compared to placebo. However, the reporting of adverse events was poor, and only two trials included children or reported days missed from work or school. The included studies were assessed as moderate quality evidence, but the small number of included studies has the potential to increase the uncertainty, particularly in terms of applying these results to children. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Oral or intramuscular corticosteroids, in addition to antibiotics, moderately increased the likelihood of both resolution and improvement of pain in participants with sore throat. Given the limited benefit, further research into the harms and benefits of short courses of steroids is needed to permit informed decision-making.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Faringite/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo , Tonsilite/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
8.
Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol ; 129(10): 988-995, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32456500

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the use of intramuscular corticosteroid (IMCS) injections for treatment of acute upper respiratory infections (URI) and the influence on healthcare utilization. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study used patient encounter data from a large multicenter regional health care system between 2013 and 2017. Adult patients diagnosed with acute URI (acute pharyngitis, acute sinusitis, acute otitis media, and URI not otherwise specified) during ambulatory encounters were included. Follow-up encounters for a diagnosis of acute URI within 60 days were identified and patient characteristics, encounter details, and procedure codes were retrieved. Frequency data was used to calculate IMCS injection administration prevalence, utilization trends, and associations with covariates. Follow-up data for return encounters within 60 days for the same diagnosis was examined. RESULTS: Of the 153 848 initial encounters, 34 600 (22.5%) patients received IMCS injection for acute URI. Injection rates varied from 0.85% to 49.1% depending on specialty and practitioner type. Internal medicine, family medicine, urgent care, and otorhinolaryngology clinics most commonly administered IMCS. 3788 patients returned for a second encounter of which 751 (19.8%) received an injection. IMCS injection during the first encounter was associated with increased odds of repeat visit within 60 days (OR: 1.74; 95% CI: 1.61-1.88). CONCLUSION: IMCS use in the treatment of acute URI is highly prevalent despite lack of evidence for impact and safety. Prevalence is variable across multiple medical and surgical specialties including otorhinolaryngology. Administration of IMCS injection may contribute to the likelihood of a subsequent healthcare visit for the same indication.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Otite Média/tratamento farmacológico , Faringite/tratamento farmacológico , Padrões de Prática Médica , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Sinusite/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Idoso , Medicina de Família e Comunidade , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Intramusculares , Medicina Interna , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Otolaringologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Am J Med ; 133(8): e399-e405, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32147448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systemic corticosteroids are not indicated for acute respiratory tract infections yet are nonetheless prescribed in outpatient care. Acute respiratory tract infections are the most common diagnosis in direct-to-consumer telemedicine. The objective of this study was to characterize use of corticosteroids for acute respiratory tract infections in this setting and to assess the association between corticosteroid receipt and patient satisfaction. METHODS: Encounters with acute respiratory tract infection patients 18 years and older on a nationwide direct-to-consumer telemedicine platform were conducted by physicians between July 2016 and July 2018. Mixed-effects logistic regression was used to assess differences in the odds of corticosteroid prescription. A second mixed-effects model assessed differences in patient satisfaction by corticosteroid or antibiotic receipt. Adjusted prescribing rates for individual physicians were estimated. Models included diagnoses, patient age and geographic region, physician specialty and geographic region, and antibiotic prescription. RESULTS: Of the 85,972 encounters with 465 physicians, 11% resulted in the physician prescribing corticosteroids. The median physician prescribing rate was 4.0% (range: <1%-81%). Corticosteroid receipt was associated with higher satisfaction versus receiving nothing (odds ratio: 2.54; 95% confidence interval: 2.25-2.87). Patients who received both an antibiotic and a corticosteroid reported the highest satisfaction (odd ratio: 3.91; 95% confidence interval: 3.27-4.68). There was no correlation between individual physicians' corticosteroid and antibiotic prescribing rates. CONCLUSIONS: Corticosteroid receipt was associated with patient satisfaction. Most physicians rarely prescribed corticosteroids, yet a small number prescribed them frequently. Identification of high-prescribing physicians for educational interventions could reduce use of corticosteroids for acute respiratory tract infections.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Satisfação do Paciente , Padrões de Prática Médica , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Telemedicina , Adolescente , Adulto , Bronquite/tratamento farmacológico , Despacho de Emergência Médica , Feminino , Humanos , Medicina Interna , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Otite Média/tratamento farmacológico , Pediatras , Faringite/tratamento farmacológico , Médicos de Família , Rinite/tratamento farmacológico , Sinusite/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem
10.
Int J Infect Dis ; 91: 1-8, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730926

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate condition-specific antibiotic prescription rates and the appropriateness of antibiotic use in outpatient settings in Japan. METHODS: Using Japan's national administrative claims database, all outpatient visits with infectious disease diagnoses were linked to reimbursed oral antibiotic prescriptions. Prescription rates stratified by age, sex, prefecture, and antibiotic category were determined for each infectious disease diagnosis. The proportions of any antibiotic prescription to all infectious disease visits and the proportions of first-line antibiotic prescriptions to all antibiotic prescriptions were calculated for each infectious disease diagnosis. RESULTS: Of the 659 million infectious disease visits between April 2012 and March 2015, antibiotics were prescribed in 266 million visits (704 prescriptions per 1000 population per year). Third-generation cephalosporins, macrolides, and quinolones accounted for 85.9% of all antibiotic prescriptions. Fifty-six percent of antibiotic prescriptions were directed toward infections for which antibiotics are generally not indicated. The diagnoses with frequent antibiotic prescription were bronchitis (184 prescriptions per 1000 population per year), viral upper respiratory infections (166), pharyngitis (104), sinusitis (52), and gastrointestinal infection (41), for which 58.3%, 40.6%, 58.9%, 53.9%, and 26.1% of visits antibiotics were prescribed, respectively. First-line antibiotics were rarely prescribed for pharyngitis (8.8%) and sinusitis (9.8%). More antibiotics were prescribed for children aged 0-9 years, adult women, and patients living in western Japan. CONCLUSIONS: Antibiotic prescription rates are high in Japan. Acute respiratory or gastrointestinal infections, which received the majority of the antibiotics generally not indicated, should be the main targets of antimicrobial stewardship intervention.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Transmissíveis/tratamento farmacológico , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Cefalosporinas/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Seguro Saúde , Japão/epidemiologia , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Faringite/tratamento farmacológico , Quinolonas/uso terapêutico , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Sinusite/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1034, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of Taralomyces marneffei infection in HIV-infected individuals has been decreasing, whereas its rate is rising among non-HIV immunodeficient persons, particularly patients with anti-interferon-gamma autoantibodies. T. marneffei usually causes invasive and disseminated infections, including fungemia. T. marneffei oro-pharyngo-laryngitis is an unusual manifestation of talaromycosis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 52-year-old Thai woman had been diagnosed anti-IFNÉ£ autoantibodies for 4 years. She had a sore throat, odynophagia, and hoarseness for 3 weeks. She also had febrile symptoms and lost 5 kg in weight. Physical examination revealed marked swelling and hyperemia of both sides of the tonsils, the uvula and palatal arches including a swelling of the epiglottis, and arytenoid. The right tonsillar biopsy exhibited a few intracellular oval and elongated yeast-like organisms with some central transverse septum seen, which subsequently grew a few colonies of T. marneffei on fungal cultures. The patient received amphotericin B deoxycholate 45 mg/dayfor 1 weeks, followed by oral itraconazole 400 mg/day for several months. Her symptoms completely resolved without complication. CONCLUSION: In patients with anti-IFN-É£ autoantibodies, T. marneffei can rarely cause a local infection involving oropharynx and larynx. Fungal culture and pathological examination are warranted for diagnosis T. marneffei oro-pharyngo-laryngitis. This condition requires a long term antifungal therapy.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Laringite/tratamento farmacológico , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Faringite/tratamento farmacológico , Talaromyces/patogenicidade , Anfotericina B/uso terapêutico , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Ácido Desoxicólico/uso terapêutico , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Interferon gama/imunologia , Itraconazol/uso terapêutico , Laringite/microbiologia , Laringite/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/tratamento farmacológico , Mycobacterium abscessus/patogenicidade , Micoses/etiologia , Micoses/microbiologia , Faringite/microbiologia , Faringite/patologia , Tailândia
13.
Acta Med Acad ; 48(2): 140-146, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718214

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Lysozyme is a natural antimicrobial and immunomodulatory enzyme, which is produced as a host response to infectious agents. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of lysozyme-based versus benzydamine and chlorhexidinebased oral spray in patients with an acute tonsillopharyngitis associated with a common cold. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective twoarm pilot study (lysozyme/cetylpyridinium/lidocaine spray versus: benzydamine spray-arm 1; chlorhexidine/lidocaine spray-arm 2) was conducted in the primary health care unit. Efficacy was evaluated by the patient's self-assessment of pain, difficulty in swallowing and the throat swelling, by using the visual analog scale (VAS) at baseline and three follow-up visits. Safety was evaluated by the assessment of the frequency and severity of adverse effects. RESULTS: Lysozyme-based spray reduced pain faster than benzydamine-based spray and slower than chlorhexidine-based spray. Lysozyme-based and chlorhexidinebased sprays similarly reduced difficulty in swallowing, but were faster than benzydamine-based spray. Similar effects on the reduction of throat swelling were seen in all treated groups. All tested products showed proper safety and were well tolerated, with no serious adverse events reported. CONCLUSIONS: The lysozyme-based oral spray was shown to be effective and safe in the reduction of pain, difficulty in swallowing and throat swelling in patients with acute tonsillopharyngitis associated with a common cold. Lysozyme-based oral spray (containing natural compound with advantages of influencing immune system and preventing recurrences) had similar activity to benzydamine and chlorhexidine-based oral antiseptic sprays.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Benzidamina/administração & dosagem , Clorexidina/administração & dosagem , Faringite/tratamento farmacológico , Tonsilite/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Aguda , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sprays Orais , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Lakartidningen ; 1162019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661147

RESUMO

Periodic Fever, Aphthous Stomatitis, Pharyngitis and Cervical Adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome is the most common autoinflammatory disorder among children in many parts of the world and an important differential diagnosis in children presenting with recurrent fever episodes. Commonly, PFAPA has an onset under the age of 5 years. Fever episodes in PFAPA usually last 3-6 days and are associated with one or more of the cardinal symptoms aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and cervical adenitis. The fever episodes typically recur with an interval of 3-6 weeks, often with a striking regularity. During the episodes, the patient has elevated inflammatory variables such as CRP and serum amyloid A (SAA) and may sometimes have additional symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea and leg pain. Between the fever episodes, the patient is typically free of symptoms with normalized inflammatory variables and grows normally. Awareness and recognition of PFAPA is key to providing the patient with adequate treatment and avoiding misdiagnosis.


Assuntos
Doenças Hereditárias Autoinflamatórias/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Pré-Escolar , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Febre/diagnóstico , Febre/tratamento farmacológico , Febre/etiologia , Doenças Hereditárias Autoinflamatórias/classificação , Doenças Hereditárias Autoinflamatórias/complicações , Doenças Hereditárias Autoinflamatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Linfadenite/diagnóstico , Linfadenite/tratamento farmacológico , Linfadenite/etiologia , Masculino , Faringite/diagnóstico , Faringite/tratamento farmacológico , Faringite/etiologia , Estomatite Aftosa/diagnóstico , Estomatite Aftosa/tratamento farmacológico , Estomatite Aftosa/etiologia , Síndrome
15.
BMJ ; 367: l5337, 2019 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585944

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether total exposure to penicillin V can be reduced while maintaining adequate clinical efficacy when treating pharyngotonsillitis caused by group A streptococci. DESIGN: Open label, randomised controlled non-inferiority study. SETTING: 17 primary healthcare centres in Sweden between September 2015 and February 2018. PARTICIPANTS: Patients aged 6 years and over with pharyngotonsillitis caused by group A streptococci and three or four Centor criteria (fever ≥38.5°C, tender lymph nodes, coatings of the tonsils, and absence of cough). INTERVENTIONS: Penicillin V 800 mg four times daily for five days (total 16 g) compared with the current recommended dose of 1000 mg three times daily for 10 days (total 30 g). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome was clinical cure five to seven days after the end of antibiotic treatment. The non-inferiority margin was prespecified to 10 percentage points. Secondary outcomes were bacteriological eradication, time to relief of symptoms, frequency of relapses, complications and new tonsillitis, and patterns of adverse events. RESULTS: Patients (n=433) were randomly allocated to the five day (n=215) or 10 day (n=218) regimen. Clinical cure in the per protocol population was 89.6% (n=181/202) in the five day group and 93.3% (n=182/195) in the 10 day group (95% confidence interval -9.7 to 2.2). Bacteriological eradication was 80.4% (n=156/194) in the five day group and 90.7% (n=165/182) in the 10 day group. Eight and seven patients had relapses, no patients and four patients had complications, and six and 13 patients had new tonsillitis in the five day and 10 day groups, respectively. Time to relief of symptoms was shorter in the five day group. Adverse events were mainly diarrhoea, nausea, and vulvovaginal disorders; the 10 day group had higher incidence and longer duration of adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Penicillin V four times daily for five days was non-inferior in clinical outcome to penicillin V three times daily for 10 days in patients with pharyngotonsillitis caused by group A streptococci. The number of relapses and complications did not differ between the two intervention groups. Five day treatment with penicillin V four times daily might be an alternative to the currently recommended 10 day regimen. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT 2015-001752-30; ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02712307.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Penicilina V/administração & dosagem , Faringite/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estreptocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Streptococcus pyogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Tonsilite/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Criança , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Penicilina V/efeitos adversos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
Int J Equity Health ; 18(1): 131, 2019 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The presence of insufficient effort responding participants (IERPs) in a survey can produce systematic bias. Validation questions are commonly used to exclude IERPs. Participants were defined as IERPs if responding inconsistently to two matched validation questions, and non-insufficient effort responding participants (non-IERPs) if responding consistently. However, it has not been tested whether validation questions themselves could result in selection bias. METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional survey conducted in Guangxi, China. Participants' intentions to use antibiotics for their children when they have self-limiting diseases, including sore throat, cold, diarrhea, and fever, were measured. The Chi-square tests were used to compare the socio-economic status (SES) between non-IERPs and IERPs. Logistic regression was adopted to test the association between intentions to misuse antibiotics and groups (non-IERPs, IERPs with high SES, and IERPs with low SES). RESULTS: Data with 3264 non-IERPs and 1543 IERPs were collected. The results showed IERPs had a lower education level (χ2 = 6.100, p = 0.047) and a higher proportion of rural residence (χ2 = 4.750, p = 0.030) compared with non-IERPs. Rural IERPs reported significantly higher rates of intentions to misuse antibiotics when their children have a sore throat (OR = 1.32; 95% CI = 1.11,1.56; p < 0.01), cold (OR = 1.33; 95%CI = 1.13,1.58; p < 0.01), diarrhea (OR = 1.46; 95%CI = 1.20,1.77; p < 0.001), and fever (OR = 1.22; 95% CI = 1.04,1.43; p < 0.05) compared with non-IERPs. IERPs living in urban areas reported significantly lower rates of intentions to use antibiotics when their children have a sore throat (OR = 0.76; 95%CI = 0.62,0.93; p < 0.01) compared with non-IERPs. IERPs with lower levels of education reported significantly higher rates of intentions to use antibiotics when their children have a sore throat (OR = 1.19; 95%CI = 1.02,1.39; p < 0.05), cold (OR = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.23,1.66; p < 0.001), diarrhea (OR = 1.38; 95%CI = 1.15,1.64; p < 0.01), and fever (OR = 1.25; 95% CI = 1.09,1.44; p < 0.01) compared with non-IERPs. IERPs with higher education levels reported significantly lower rates of intentions to use antibiotics when their children have a sore throat (OR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.56,0.94; p < 0.05), cold (OR = 0.66; 95% CI = 0.51,0.86; p < 0.01), and fever (OR = 0.74; 95% CI = 0.60,0.92; p < 0.01) compared with non-IERPs. IERPs with low-income reported significantly higher rates of intentions to use antibiotics when their children have a cold (OR = 1.36; 95% CI = 1.13,1.64; p < 0.01) and diarrhea (OR = 1.30; 95% CI = 1.05,1.62; p < 0.05) compared with non-IERPs. CONCLUSIONS: Using validation questions to exclude IERPs can result in selection bias in which participants with lower socio-economic standing and poor antibiotic use intentions were disproportionately excluded.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/normas , Intenção , Pais , Viés de Seleção , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Resfriado Comum/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Transversais , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Febre/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Faringite/tratamento farmacológico , População Rural , Classe Social , Estudos de Validação como Assunto
18.
J Clin Pharm Ther ; 44(6): 829-837, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407824

RESUMO

WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: The overuse and misuse of antibiotics, especially for viral, and self-limiting, respiratory tract infections such as sore throat, increases the risk of the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance within communities. Up to 80% of sore throat cases have a viral aetiology, and even when the infection is bacterial, most cases resolve without antibiotics. However, antibiotics are still frequently and often inappropriately prescribed for the treatment of sore throat. Furthermore, topical (local) antibiotics for treatment of sore throat are widely available over the counter. The objective of this systematic review was to establish the evidence for the benefits, risk of harm and antimicrobial resistance associated with topical (local) antibiotics used for patients with sore throat. METHODS: Eligible studies included those in patients with sore throat of any aetiology receiving the topical (local) antibiotics tyrothricin, bacitracin, gramicidin or neomycin where the antibiotic was topically/locally applied via the nasal cavity or throat. Nasal applications were included as these are occasionally used to treat upper respiratory tract infections that may involve sore throat. There was no restriction or requirement regarding comparator. The outcomes of interest included efficacy, safety, and in vitro culture and antimicrobial resistance data. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: This systematic review found sparse and mainly poor-quality evidence relating to the use of topical (local) antibiotics for sore throat, and it was not possible to establish the benefits, risk of harm or impact of use on antimicrobial resistance. WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSIONS: Further research is necessary to ascertain the risks and benefits of topical (local) antibiotics, their contribution to antimicrobial resistance and the risk of harm. We do, however, question whether it is appropriate and rational to use topical (local) antibiotics for the treatment of sore throat caused by respiratory tract infections in the absence of robust evidence.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Faringite/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Tópica , Gestão de Antimicrobianos/métodos , Humanos
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 633, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Group A Streptococcal (GAS) infections cause the autoimmune disease acute rheumatic fever (ARF), which can progress to chronic rheumatic heart disease (RHD). Treating pharyngitis caused by GAS with antibiotics is important in preventing ARF. However, it is difficult to distinguish these infections from GAS carriers. There is growing evidence for GAS skin infections as a cause of ARF. This study will identify the incidence of true GAS pharyngitis and serological responses to GAS skin infections. The effectiveness of antibiotics for these conditions will be explored, and modifiable risk factors. Serum antibody titres indicating the upper limits of normal (ULN for ASO/ADB antibodies) will be established alongside carriage rates in asymptomatic children. METHODS: This is a prospective disease incidence study, with an associated case-control study. The study population includes 1000 children (5-14 years) from Auckland, New Zealand, 800 of whom have visited their healthcare professional, resulting in a throat or skin swab for GAS, and 200 who are asymptomatic. The conditions of interest are GAS throat swab positive pharyngitis (n = 200); GAS carriage (n = 200); GAS negative throat swab (n = 200); GAS skin infections (n = 200); and asymptomatic controls (n = 200). All participants, except asymptomatic controls, will have acute and convalescent serological testing for ASO/ADB titres (collected < 9 days, and 2-4 weeks following symptom onset, respectively), alongside viral PCR from throat swabs. Asymptomatic controls will have ASO/ADB titres measured in one blood specimen and a throat swab for microbial culture. Caregivers of children will be interviewed using a questionnaire and any GAS isolates identified will be emm typed. The persistence of GAS antibodies will also be investigated. DISCUSSION: Findings from this study will fill critical gaps in scientific knowledge to better understand the pathophysiology of ARF, improve clinical management of GAS infections, and design more effective ARF prevention programmes. In particular it will measure the incidence of true, serologically confirmed GAS pharyngitis; assess the immune response to GAS skin infections and its role as a cause of ARF; examine the effectiveness of oral antibiotics for treating GAS pharyngitis and carriage; and identify whether risk factors for GAS infections might provide intervention points for reducing ARF.


Assuntos
Faringite/microbiologia , Febre Reumática/microbiologia , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/microbiologia , Adolescente , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Faringite/tratamento farmacológico , Faringite/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estudos Prospectivos , Febre Reumática/tratamento farmacológico , Febre Reumática/epidemiologia , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Streptococcus pyogenes/genética , Streptococcus pyogenes/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus pyogenes/patogenicidade
20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31245947

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the therapeutic effects and mechanisms of Bianyanning on acute pharyngitis in rats, and to provide evidence and experimental data for its clinical application. METHODS: The acute pharyngitis of rats was induced by spraying ammonia directly to their throat. The model rats were randomly divided into model control group, the high-, medium- and low-dose group of Bianyanning, while normal rats were used as control group, 10 in each group. After the corresponding drug treatment, the symptoms and manifestations of each group were observed and recorded; 24 hours after last gavaging, blood samples of each group were collected from the abdominal aorta. The serum contents of interleukin 1-beta (IL-1ß) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were detected by ELISA. HE method was used to observe the characteristic of the lung tissues and the transmission electron microscopy method was used to observe the trachea cilia. RESULTS: After the treatment, compared with the model control group, the high-, medium- and low-dose group of Bianyanning, the symptoms of acute pharyngitis such as inflamed and congestive throat were relieved obviously. The morphological changes of lung and bronchus tissues were apparently improved. The contents of IL-1ß and TNF-α in serum were decreased significantly. CONCLUSION: Compound Bianyanning can promote the recovering process of acute pharyngitis, improve the morphology of lungs and bronchus, which may be related to inhibiting the releasing of the IL-1ß and TNF-α in serum.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Faringite , Animais , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Faringite/tratamento farmacológico , Faringite/imunologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
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