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1.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0229841, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946470

RESUMO

Starch based gluten-free bread (formulations containing mixture of corn and potato starch with hydrocolloids) are deficient in nutrients and do not contain health promoting compounds. Therefore they could be supplemented with raw materials rich in such components, especially antioxidants. Among them pseudo-cereals, seeds, fruits and vegetables are often applied to this purpose. Potato pulp produced by processing red fleshed (Magenta Love) and purple fleshed (Violetta) varieties could become a new innovative substrate for gluten-free bread enrichment, because of high levels of endogenous polyphenols, namely flavonoids, flavonols, phenolic acids and especially anthocyanins with high antioxidant potential, as well as dietary fiber. Study material consisted of gluten-free bread enriched in the pulp. Dietary fiber, acrylamide content and antioxidant and antiradical potential of the bread were determined. Sensory evaluation included crumb elasticity, porosity and other characteristics, taste and smell. Among all analyzed gluten-free breads, the sample containing 7.5% share of freeze-dried red potato pulp Magenta Love was characterized by high content of phenolic compounds and dietary fiber, pronounced antioxidant activity, low levels of potentially dangerous acrylamide and good physical and sensory characteristics. Therefore such an addition (7.5% Magenta Love) could be recommended for industrial production of gluten-free bread.


Assuntos
Pão , Farinha/análise , Ingredientes de Alimentos/análise , Solanum tuberosum/química , Verduras/química , Acrilamida/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Doença Celíaca/dietoterapia , Doença Celíaca/imunologia , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Liofilização/métodos , Glutens/imunologia , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo , Polifenóis/análise , Porosidade , Olfato , Amido/isolamento & purificação , Paladar
2.
Food Chem ; 332: 127434, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645669

RESUMO

The baking in N2 and CO2 atmosphere decreased by 50% the acrylamide, while this level was 99% in SO2. The highest acrylamide content was detected in the control sample as 39.03 µg/kg. Additionally, the lowest HMF content was determined in S-bread as 14.85 mg/kg. The baking atmosphere has a significant impact on L* and a* colour values of bread. The highest L* value was measured in S-bread as 71.2, whereas it was the lowest in the control sample as 49.1. According to the Pearson results, acrylamide showed a negative correlation between L* value. However, no correlation was detected between colour values and HMF. Acrylamide had a positive correlation with flavour, although it did not affect the taste features of bread. No correlation between HMF and sensory properties was determined. The result of the study suggested that inert or inhibitor baking atmosphere may help prevent the Maillard reactions in bakery products.


Assuntos
Acrilamida/química , Pão/análise , Culinária/métodos , Furaldeído/análogos & derivados , Farinha/análise , Furaldeído/química , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Reação de Maillard , Paladar , Triticum/química
3.
Food Chem ; 332: 127399, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645676

RESUMO

Different baking conditions were used in order to evaluate its effects on bread aspects. Doughs were baked at 160, 190 and 220 °C, during 9, 12, 15 and 20 min, and characterized in relation to color change, oxalate and mineral concentration, and protein digestibility. The higher the baking temperature and time, the higher the crust color change, the lower the oxalate concentration, and the higher the amount of some macro minerals. Protein digestibility may also be favored, however it does not follow a linear correlation. Although it is not possible to obtain a condition that favors the content of all minerals, protein digestibility and reduces oxalate content, the use of high temperatures and times is important as it can reduce oxalate and thereby prevent its associated problems. Understanding how to optimize it during baking could be used to produce breads with a higher mineral bioavailability, an important strategy for food industry and also when using alternative flours.


Assuntos
Pão/análise , Digestão , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Minerais/análise , Oxalatos/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Triticum/química , Farinha/análise , Temperatura Alta , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
4.
Food Chem ; 333: 127410, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682227

RESUMO

Insects represent a novel source of edible high nutritional value proteins which are gaining increasing interest as an alternative to traditional animal foods. In this work, cricket flour was used to produce gluten-free sourdough breads, suitable for celiac people and "source of proteins". The doughs were fermented by different methods and pH and microbial growth, volatile compounds, protein profile, and antioxidant activity, before and after baking, were analyzed and compared to standard gluten-free doughs. The results showed that cricket-enriched doughs and the standard had similar fermentation processes. Cricket enrichment conferred to the breads a typical flavoring profile, characterized by a unique bouquet of volatile compounds, made by nonanoic acid, 2,4-nonadienal (E,E), 1-hexanol, 1-heptanol, and 3-octen-2-one, expressed in different amounts depending on the type of inoculum. Finally, antioxidant activities were significantly enhanced in cricket breads, indicating that cricket powder provides to bakery gluten-free goods high nutritional value proteins and antioxidant properties.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Pão/análise , Dieta Livre de Glúten , Farinha/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Pão/microbiologia , Fermentação , Farinha/microbiologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
5.
Food Chem ; 333: 127425, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683254

RESUMO

Zero-salted yellow alkaline noodles (YAN) were immersed in solutions of resistant starch HYLON™ VII (HC) or fruit coating Semperfresh™ (SC) containing a range of salt (NaCl) between 10 and 30% (w/v). The objective was to evaluate the effect of salt-coatings on the textural, handling, cooking, and sensory properties of YAN. Increasing salt in the coatings caused a reduction in optimum cooking time, cooking loss and increase in cooking yield. The mechanical and textural parameters, sensory hardness, springiness and overall sensory acceptability of the salt-coated noodles however decreased with increasing salt application. HC-Na10 and SC-Na10 showed the highest textural and mechanical parameters, sensory hardness and springiness. The differences in the parameters were attributed mainly to the water absorption properties of starch that was affected by salt application. Thus, the quality of salt-coated noodles was dependent mainly on the amounts of salt applied in the coatings rather than on the types of coatings used.


Assuntos
Ar , Culinária , Dessecação/métodos , Farinha/análise , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Paladar , Cor , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Dureza , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Amido/química
6.
Food Chem ; 333: 127449, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659663

RESUMO

The demand for the development of fast, easy-to-use and low-cost analytical methods for food adulteration analysis has being increasing in the last years. Although infrared spectroscopic techniques offer these advantages, the validation of screening methods requiring the application of multivariate data treatment is less frequently described in literature thus limiting their use as routine tools in control laboratories for food fraud monitoring. In this paper, an EU-validation procedure for screening methods was successfully applied to a multivariate FT-NIR spectroscopic method for the screening of durum wheat pasta samples adulterated with common wheat at the screening target concentration of 3%. Good results in terms of the cut-off value (2.32% mass fraction of soft wheat) and false suspect rates (0.1% for blanks; 13% at 1% mass fraction) demonstrated that the present validation approach would be a proof-of-strategy to be used for multivariate infrared methods applied for screening purposes.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Triticum/química , Farinha/análise , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Análise Multivariada , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
Food Chem ; 333: 127492, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659673

RESUMO

In this study, recombinant rice quiescin sulfhydryl oxidase (rQSOX) was expressed and characterized, and its performance in flour-processing quality was further evaluated. The purified rQSOX exhibited the highest sulfhydryl oxidation activity (1.96 IU/mg) using dithiothreitol as a substrate, accompanying the production of H2O2. The optimal temperature and pH were 60 °C and pH 8.0 for rQSOX catalyzing oxidation of dithiothreitol. And rQSOX retained 50% of its maximum activity after incubation at 80 °C for 1 h. Moreover, rQSOX supplementation improved the farinograph properties of dough, indicated by the increased dough stability time and decreased degree of softening, and enhanced viscoelastic properties of the dough. Addition of rQSOX (10 IU/g flour) provided remarkable improvement in specific volume (37%) and springiness (17%) of the steamed bread, and significantly reduced the hardness by half, which was attributed to the strengthened gluten network. The results provide an understanding for rQSOX using in flour-processing industry.


Assuntos
Farinha/análise , Oryza/enzimologia , Oxirredutases/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Triticum/química , Biocatálise , Pão/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Glutens/química , Dureza , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/análise , Oryza/química , Oryza/genética , Oxirredutases/genética , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
8.
Food Chem ; 331: 127333, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590265

RESUMO

Flours obtained from unripe and ripe inajá palm tree fruit pulp, as well as co-products that were generated after oil extraction, were evaluated for the first time. In addition, the oils extracted using ethanol as a solvent were also analyzed. The oils showed similar thermal characteristics, such as thermal stability up to about 253 °C, while also presenting a rich composition of phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity and carotenoid content. Concerning the raw flours and their defatted counterparts, their free and bound phenolic compounds, which comprised gallic acid, 4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, and m-coumaric acid, were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography. Moreover, the defatting process improved thermal stability and decreased the peak viscosity of the unripe and ripe flours. The presence of starch and bioactive compounds in all the inajá flours provides a rationale for the development of new food and non-food products.


Assuntos
Arecaceae/química , Frutas/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Arecaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carotenoides/análise , Farinha/análise , Óleos Vegetais/química , Temperatura , Viscosidade
9.
Food Chem ; 329: 126800, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32504915

RESUMO

The role of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in the browning of fresh wet noodle sheets (FWNS) was discussed. To release the chemical formation mechanism of the dark spots formed on FWNS, the reconstituted FWNS and PPO-catechol reaction systems were prepared. Different from the overall color change of FWNS, almost all the melanins in dark spots were indirect products of PPO catalysis. The PPO catalytic dehydrogenation was an essential step for the formation of dark spots, but once the phenol dehydrogenation products were formed, the dark spots could still form through a further polymerization process, even though the PPO was completely deactivated. The optimum pH for the phenolic dehydrogenation in FWNS was about 7, and the alkaline condition was advantageous to the progress of the polymerization. Comprehensively, the maximum amount of dark spots was formed at about pH 9.


Assuntos
Catecol Oxidase/metabolismo , Alimentos , Cor , Farinha/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/metabolismo , Triticum/química
10.
Food Chem ; 330: 127199, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563929

RESUMO

This study addressed determinations of the glycaemic index (GI), antioxidant capacity (AC), and phenolics content (TPC) of oat, buckwheat, and mixed oat/buckwheat breads. The bioaccessibility of TPC and the AC of breads were studied after in vitro digestion. The lowest values of the GI were determined for oat bread, whereas breads with the highest content of buckwheat flour had the highest AC. The digestion of breads showed that most of the TPC were found in the soluble fraction, but the phenolic compounds were still present also in the insoluble fraction after digestion. It was concluded that the mixed oat-buckwheat breads may serve as products with a medium GI, as a source of TPC, and as products with a high AC. It should be noted that enzymatic digestion or fermentation by microbiota could potentially enhanced breads antioxidant activity during digestion in the gastrointestinal tract.


Assuntos
Avena/metabolismo , Pão/análise , Fagopyrum/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Avena/química , Fagopyrum/química , Fermentação , Farinha/análise , Índice Glicêmico , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/metabolismo
11.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 75(3): 326-336, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474685

RESUMO

Sorghum is a major cereal crop with various agronomic advantages, contains health-promoting compounds and is gluten-free. There is a growing tendency to use sorghum in pasta and noodle formulations, which are among the most widely consumed products in the world, but its potential benefits in human diet are not being fully exploited. Here we review research carried out during the past few years on the use of sorghum as the main ingredient or as an additive in pasta and noodles, highlighting its properties and production technology. Pasta and noodles can be produced with 5 to 100% of sorghum at laboratory, pilot or industrial scale with suitable cooking and textural quality coupled with distinctive sensory attributes. Cooking loss shows minimum values of 0.85 and 1.9 g/100 g for pasta and noodles, respectively, and high water absorption (up to 345 g/100 g). The interesting nutritional profile of the products generally includes up to 45% resistant starch (RS) and phenolic compound content with high antioxidant activity. In addition, tannins decrease starch digestibility 15-20%, producing low glycemic index (GI) products (below 65). This is especially important for celiac people, offering them the alternative of gluten-free sorghum pasta and noodles.


Assuntos
Sorghum , Culinária , Digestão , Grão Comestível , Farinha/análise , Humanos , Amido , Triticum
12.
Food Chem ; 329: 127193, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516711

RESUMO

This study was aimed to produce bioactive peptides from optimally fermented tempe, and map their overall bioactivities. There were three preparative methods utilized for producing tempe-based peptides, such as water-facilitated extraction, alcalase, and papain hydrolysis, and in combination with membrane filtration. Fermenting soybean at 144 h was selected as the optimum time based on protein content and degree of hydrolysis. Through SDS-PAGE analysis, an increased degree of hydrolysis with longer fermentation time was confirmed. The best preparative method for producing bioactive peptides was through papain hydrolysis and followed by 5 kDa membrane filtration. By this, the enhancement was distinct for antioxidant activity, ACE-, α-glucosidase-, and Kunitz trypsin-inhibitory activity. The annotated peptide sequences resulting from Nano LC Ultimate 3000 Series System tandem Q Exactive™ Hybrid Quadrupole-Orbitrap™ Mass Spectrometer were matched with the BIOPEP database. The major bioactivities of tempe peptides obtained were as an ACE inhibitor, antioxidant, and antithrombotic.


Assuntos
Peptídeos/química , Alimentos de Soja/análise , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/química , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Bases de Dados de Proteínas , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Fermentação , Filtração , Farinha/análise , Hidrólise , Espectrometria de Massas , Papaína/metabolismo , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Solubilidade , Soja/metabolismo , Subtilisinas/metabolismo
13.
Food Chem ; 329: 127196, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516712

RESUMO

Pigeon pea is rich in proteins but has low protein digestibility like other legumes. This work investigated the effects of processing, including soaking, grinding, ultrasound and microwave, on the protein digestibility of pigeon pea flour. Only microwave treatment significantly increased in vitro protein digestibility from 54.4 ± 2.5% to 71.6 ± 4.2%. SDS-PAGE showed that the most abundant proteins in all samples were the 7S vicilin subunits. After microwave treatment, the starch granular structures of pigeon pea flour changed to clusters, and protein secondary structures lost 5% ß-sheet and gained 5% random coil, which contributed to the increased protein digestibility. Microwave decreased protein water solubility from 94.4 ± 0.8% to 48.1 ± 6.5% and increased the disulfide bond content by 42%. The increased protein digestibility is attributable to the relatively reduced particle size (166.6 ± 38.6 nm) and increased zeta potential (-35.2 ± 2.6 mV) of the microwave-treated sample. Therefore, microwave is a promising approach for increasing pigeon pea flour protein quality and utilisation.


Assuntos
Cajanus/metabolismo , Farinha/análise , Micro-Ondas , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Animais , Dissulfetos/química , Hidrólise , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Tamanho da Partícula , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Proteínas de Armazenamento de Sementes/química , Proteínas de Armazenamento de Sementes/metabolismo , Solubilidade , Amido/química
14.
Food Chem ; 330: 127318, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569935

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine the biophysical properties of buckwheat (BW) endosperm and their influences on detachment of intact cells, starch gelatinization and digestibility. The intact cells were isolated from BW kernels by dry milling and sieving. The microscopy and texture analysis showed intact endosperm cells could be detached easily due to the fragile structure and low hardness of BW endosperm. More than 70% intact cells were found in commercial light flour. The starch granules entrapped in intact cells exhibited a delay gelatinization and restricted swelling behavior (2-3 â„ƒ higher onset gelatinization temperature than isolated starch). Starch in BW flour had a markedly lower extent of digestion compared to the broken cells and isolated starch. This study provided a new mechanistic understanding of low glycemic index of BW food, and could guide the processing of BW flour to retain slow digestion properties.


Assuntos
Endosperma/citologia , Fagopyrum/citologia , Fagopyrum/metabolismo , Farinha , Amido/farmacocinética , Culinária , Digestão , Endosperma/química , Endosperma/metabolismo , Fagopyrum/química , Farinha/análise , Gelatina , Índice Glicêmico , Tamanho da Partícula , Células Vegetais/química , Células Vegetais/metabolismo , Amido/química , Temperatura
15.
Food Chem ; 330: 127319, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569936

RESUMO

The influence of fresh egg white (EW) addition on the quality characteristics and protein aggregation in oat noodles containing wheat flour and gluten was studied. EW addition decreased cooking loss and increased cooking time of 70% oat noodles. The hardness, chewiness, tensile force and tensile distance improved significantly. A smooth surface and continuous protein network were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after adding EW. After cooking, the peak area in SE-HPLC profile of 70% oat noodles with EW decreased obviously. The extractabilities of protein in sodium dodecyl sulfate containing medium (SDSEP) of cooked wheat and oat noodles under non-reducing condition were lower than those of samples under reducing condition. The protein bands changes in SDS-PAGE profiles showed that EW could induce disulfide cross-linking of proteins in noodles. EW addition promoted proteins interaction and improved the cooking and texture properties of oat noodles.


Assuntos
Avena , Clara de Ovo/química , Farinha , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Cromatografia em Gel , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Culinária , Dissulfetos/química , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Farinha/análise , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos , Glutens , Dureza , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Agregados Proteicos , Triticum
16.
Food Chem ; 327: 127011, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438263

RESUMO

Wheat is one of the main dietary sources for mycotoxins that can cause adverse health effects in humans. Here we report results of a 3-year survey which compared the effects of flour type (whole-grain vs white), wheat species (common vs spelt), and farming system (organic vs conventional) on mycotoxin concentrations in UK and German wheat flour brands. Wholegrain, conventional and organic flour contained 124, 31 and 9% higher concentrations of T-2/HT-2, DON and ZEA respectively, but concentrations of the three Fusarium mycotoxins assessed were ~10 times lower than the EC-maximum contamination levels (MCL). Thirty one percent of flour samples had Ochratoxin A (OTA) concentrations above the MCL (3 µg/kg), but OTA levels were no affected by wheat species, farming system and flour type. Results suggest that both organic and conventional primary production methods and postharvest quality assurance systems are effective for maintaining Fusarium mycotoxins, but not OTA concentrations, below the MCL.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Farinha/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Micotoxinas/análise , Triticum/química , Fusarium , Alemanha , Humanos , Ocratoxinas/análise , Agricultura Orgânica , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido , Grãos Integrais/química
17.
Food Chem ; 327: 127052, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32446025

RESUMO

Proso millet exhibits favorable agronomic and nutritional properties but is currently under-utilized in the northern hemisphere. This study compared processing-induced changes in protein characteristics of commercial pasta to fresh gluten-free pasta from proso millet varieties differing in prolamin profile. Protein solubility, accessible thiols and secondary structures were measured in dough, sheeted and cooked pasta. Relationships between protein conformation and characteristics related to pasta quality were determined. Cooking significantly lowered protein solubility and induced exposure of thiol groups as well as a shift in secondary structure distribution, while sheeting only had a minor effect. Random structures positively and significantly (P < 0.05) correlated with solubility, cooking loss and protein digestibility. In contrast, ß-sheets, the main secondary structure in cooked pasta, negatively correlated with these properties. The utilization of proso millet in gluten-free pasta is promising, however, processing optimization to elicit targeted protein modifications to balance quality and nutritional attributes requires further investigation.


Assuntos
Farinha/análise , Glutens/química , Milhetes/química , Culinária , Digestão , Grão Comestível/química , Milhetes/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Solubilidade , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
18.
Food Chem ; 327: 127048, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32454285

RESUMO

In our previous study, a novel LMW-GS designated as LMW-N13 with a unique molecular structure was identified from Aegilops uniaristata. LMW-N13 has been characterized as the largest LMW-GS, so far, and possesses an extra cysteine residue compared with typical LMW-GS. In order to analyze the contribution of LMW-N13 to dough quality, in this work, three transgenic wheat lines overexpressing LMW-N13 were generated. Compared with non-transformation (NT) lines, transgenic (TG) lines demonstrated superior dough properties. These superior dough properties were accompanied by the higher contents of glutenin macropolymer (GMP) and total protein. The microstructure of the dough was further investigated by scanning electron microscopy; starch granules in NT lines were smaller than those in transgenic lines. The protein matrix in NT lines was relatively loose and discontinuous. Conversely, the protein matrix in transgenic lines was more continuous and tight. The application of LMW-N13 in wheat breeding is also discussed.


Assuntos
Farinha/análise , Glutens/química , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/química , Triticum/química , Aegilops/genética , Dissulfetos/química , Glutens/genética , Glutens/metabolismo , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Peso Molecular , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Amido/química , Triticum/metabolismo , Água/química
19.
Food Chem ; 328: 127082, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32464554

RESUMO

Acorn flour was used as a gluten-free ingredient to produce acorn muffins. Interaction effects between xanthan (X), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and κ-carrageenan (κ-C) (0-0.3%) on the height and textural parameters of the formulated acorn flour muffins were investigated using a mixture design approach. Each studied parameter was optimized individually. Then, an optimal formulation giving a product with characteristics as close as possible to those of a wheat flour muffin sample was determined. Results revealed that addition of each hydrocolloid separately, or their ternary combination improved the muffin height. Optimal height value was predicted to reach 3.96 cm when using 26.8% X, 50.5% CMC and 22.7% κ-C. As regard to textural parameters (firmness, cohesiveness, springiness and adhesiveness), presence of the three hydrocolloids had an antagonistic effect. The best hydrocolloids mixture giving optimal height (3.92 cm), firmness (3.19 N) and adhesiveness (0.66 N) was that containing 20.5% X and 79.5% CMC.


Assuntos
Farinha/análise , Quercus/química , Carragenina/química , Coloides , Dieta Livre de Glúten , Humanos , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/química
20.
Food Chem ; 324: 126858, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353656

RESUMO

Wheat flour noodles are sometimes fortified with ß-glucan for nutritional value, but this can decrease eating quality. The contributions of ß-glucan and starch molecular fine structure to physicochemical properties of wholemeal oat flour and to the texture of oat-fortified white salted noodles were investigated here. Hardness of oat-fortified noodles was controlled by the longer amylopectin chains (DP ≥ 26) and amount of longer amylose chains (DP ≥ 1000). Higher levels of ß-glucan, in the range from 3.1 to 5.2%, result in increased noodle hardness. Pasting viscosities of wholemeal oat flour positively correlate with the hardness of oat-fortified noodles. The swelling power of oat flour is not correlated with either pasting viscosities of oat flour or noodle hardness. Longer amylopectin chains and the amount of longer amylose chains both control the pasting viscosities of oat flour, which in turn affect noodle texture. This provides new means, based on starch and ß-glucan molecular structure, to choose oats with optimal starch structure and ß-glucan content for targeted oat-fortified noodle quality.


Assuntos
Avena/metabolismo , Amido/química , Triticum/metabolismo , beta-Glucanas/química , Amilopectina/química , Amilose/química , Farinha/análise , Dureza , Viscosidade
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