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1.
Food Res Int ; 147: 110489, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399485

RESUMO

Knowledge on the functional and nutritional properties of wet roasted pulses can increase the utilization of processed pulses as ingredients in food products. This study investigated the effects of tempering different pulse [chickpea (CP), green lentil (GL), navy bean (NB) and yellow pea (YP)] seeds to 20 or 30% moisture prior to roasting (160℃ for 30 min) on the functional properties and nutritional quality of their resulting flours. The surface charge of each pulse remained the same (p > 0.05) after wet roasting and there were no significant (p > 0.05) differences between the different raw pulse flours. The oil holding capacity (OHC) of GL (~2 g/g) was not improved by wet roasting (p > 0.05) whereas the other pulses generally had better OHC for one or both of the tempering moistures used prior to roasting. Foaming properties of all pulses decreased after heat treatment with the exception of both foaming capacity (107%) and stability (~71%) for GL tempered to 20% moisture prior to roasting (p > 0.05). Raw GL had inferior foaming properties compared to the other raw pulse flours (p < 0.001). Emulsion properties of the wet roasted pulses were similar to those of the control (raw flour) for each pulse. Solubility decreased with roasting regardless of the tempering moisture (p < 0.05) whereas in general the in vitro protein digestibility increased. Small improvements (2.4-6.9% increase) in the in vitro protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score were found for GL and NB tempered to 20% moisture before roasting and roasted YP at either moisture content (p < 0.05). Wet roasting increased (p < 0.05) the rapidly digestible starch content, more so with a tempering moisture of 30%. Overall the results from this study will allow for the utilization of wet roasted pulses as ingredients based on their functional properties and protein quality.


Assuntos
Cicer , Lens (Planta) , Farinha/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Sementes
2.
Talanta ; 234: 122653, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364462

RESUMO

Deoxynivalenol (DON) contamination in wheat flour induces a number of adverse health effects to consumers and livestock, even at very low concentrations. Direct detection methods for massive screening of DON in wheat flour is still lacking. A new methodology integrating multi-molecular infrared spectroscopy (MM-IR) with two-trace two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2T-2DCOS) was developed for in-situ qualitative and quantitative determination of DON in wheat flour as a whole. Typical spectral variation of wheat flour samples with diverse concentration of DON were stepwise characterized by MM-IR and tiny spectral profile differences resulting from concentration variation of DON were visually disclosed by 2T-2DCOS. Based on the obtained key spectral features of DON, 180 of wheat flour samples with DON higher and lower than 1.00 mg/kg were undoubtedly classified by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Support Vector Machines (SVM) with an accuracy rate up to 100% (for Second derivative spectra consisted of selected bands, SD-SS). Furthermore, a robust quantitative prediction model was established based on partial least squares (PLS) of SD-SS (Rc: 0.998, RMSEC: 0.135; Rp: 0.968, RMSEP: 0.421), and its excellent predictive capacity of model was validated by both residual prediction deviation (RPD) value of 3.2 and t-test. It was demonstrated that the developed methodology was applicable for screening and quantitative detection of DON in wheat flour based on the novel correlation analysis methods (SD-2DCOS-IR and 2T-2DCOS-IR) with chemometrics tools, which could be utilized both at laboratory and industrial level for quality control purposes of a large wheat flour sample set.


Assuntos
Farinha , Triticum , Farinha/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho
3.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361595

RESUMO

Gluten-free (GF) products, including pasta, are often characterised by nutritional deficiencies, such as scarce dietary fibre and excess of calories. Chickpea flour is increasingly being used by the food industries. Hulls, rich in dietary fibre and bioactive compounds, are discarded after milling. The aim of this work was to evaluate the quality features of short-cut GF fresh pasta added of hull (8% w/w) derived from kabuli (KH) or Apulian black (ABH) chickpeas, in comparison with control GF pasta prepared without hull. The enriched pasta, which could be labelled as "high fibre", was characterised by a higher level of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity than the control. ABH-enriched pasta showed the highest anthocyanins (33.37 ± 1.20 and 20.59 ± 0.11 mg/kg of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside on dry matter in raw and cooked pasta, respectively). Hull addition increased colour intensity and structural quality of GF pasta: ABH-enriched pasta had the lowest cooking loss and the highest water absorption capacity; KH-enriched pasta showed the highest firmness. No significant differences in sensory liking were found among the samples, except for "aftertaste". Chickpea hull can be used as an innovative ingredient to produce potentially functional GF pasta, meeting the dietary needs of consumers without affecting quality.


Assuntos
Cicer/química , Dieta Livre de Glúten , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Farinha/análise , Antocianinas/análise , Antioxidantes
4.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443567

RESUMO

Redox-active iron generates reactive oxygen species that can cause oxidative organ dysfunction. Thus, the anti-oxidative systems in the body and certain dietary antioxidants, such as anthocyanins, are needed to control oxidative stress. We aimed to investigate the effects of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma technology in the preparation of Riceberry™ rice flour (PRBF) on iron-induced oxidative stress in mice. PRBF using plasma technology was rich in anthocyanins, mainly cyanidine-3-glucoside and peonidine-3-glucoside. PRBF (5 mg AE/mg) lowered WBC numbers in iron dextran (FeDex)-loaded mice and served as evidence of the reversal of erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity, plasma total antioxidant capacity, and plasma and liver thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in the loading mice. Consequently, the PRBF treatment was observed to be more effective than NAC treatment. PRBF would be a powerful supplementary and therapeutic antioxidant product that is understood to be more potent than NAC in ameliorating the effects of iron-induced oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/análise , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Farinha/análise , Ferro/efeitos adversos , Oryza/química , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Gases em Plasma/química , Animais , Impedância Elétrica , Camundongos
5.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 77: 105693, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343823

RESUMO

This paper presents a means to modify the attributes of okara fiber using ultrasonic and high-speed shearing treatment. The results of scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry reveal that the modified okara fiber demonstrates small particle size and high thermal stability. When the 500 W-15,000 rpm combination is used for okara-fiber treatment, the latter exhibits excellent swelling (SC) as well as water- and oil-holding capacities. When 6% of modified okara fiber is added to the dough, the resulting cookies demonstrate the best printing performance. Subsequently, the printing parameters can be optimized to obtain the best filling rate of 30%. The corresponding nozzle diameter and printing speed equal 0.8 mm and 50 mm/s, respectively. Finally, the 3D-printed cookies containing okara fiber are compared against those commonly available in the market via sensory evaluation. As observed, the 3D-printed cookies were more acceptable to people. Therefore, the addition of the okara dietary fiber to the cookie dough not only improves the okara utilization rate but also increases the dietary-fiber content in the cookie, thereby alleviating the occurrence of obesity in modern society.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Químicos , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Impressão Tridimensional , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Farinha/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445648

RESUMO

Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is one of the most extensively cultivated and used staple crops in human nutrition, while wheat bread is annually consumed in more than nine billion kilograms over the world. Consumers' purchase decisions on wheat bread are largely influenced by its nutritional and sensorial characteristics. In the last decades, metabolomics is considered an effective tool for elucidating the information on metabolites; however, the deep investigations on metabolites still remain a difficult and longtime action. This review gives emphasis on the achievements in wheat bread metabolomics by highlighting targeted and untargeted analyses used in this field. The metabolomics approaches are discussed in terms of quality, processing and safety of wheat and bread, while the molecular mechanisms involved in the sensorial and nutritional characteristics of wheat bread are pointed out. These aspects are of crucial importance in the context of new consumers' demands on healthy bakery products rich in bioactive compounds but, equally, with good sensorial acceptance. Moreover, metabolomics is a potential tool for assessing the changes in nutrient composition from breeding to processing, while monitoring and understanding the transformations of metabolites with bioactive properties, as well as the formation of compounds like toxins during wheat storage.


Assuntos
Pão/análise , Farinha/análise , Metaboloma , Valor Nutritivo , Controle de Qualidade , Triticum/metabolismo , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
7.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443442

RESUMO

The general aim of this study was to evaluate physicochemical properties, prebiotic activity and anticancer potential of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) seed flour. The drying processes of jackfruit seeds were performed at 50, 60 and 70 °C in order to choose the optimal temperature for obtaining the flour based on drying time, polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity. The experimental values of the moisture ratio during jackfruit seed drying at different temperatures were obtained using Page's equation to establish the drying time for the required moisture between 5 and 7% in the flour. The temperature of 60 °C was considered adequate for obtaining good flour and for performing its characterization. The chemical composition, total dietary fiber, functional properties and antioxidant capacity were then examined in the flour. The seed flour contains carbohydrates (73.87 g/100 g), dietary fiber (31 g/100 g), protein (14 g/100 g) and lipids (1 g/100 g). The lipid profile showed that the flour contained monounsaturated (4 g/100 g) and polyunsaturated (46 g/100 g) fatty acids. Sucrose, glucose, and fructose were found to be the predominant soluble sugars, and non-digestible oligosaccharides like 1-kestose were also found. The total polyphenol content was 2.42 mg of gallic acid/g of the sample; furthermore, the antioxidant capacity obtained by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was 901.45 µmol Trolox/100 g and 1607.87 µmol Trolox/100 g, respectively. The obtained flour exhibited good functional properties, such as water and oil absorption capacity, swelling power and emulsifier capacity. Additionally, this flour had a protective and preventive effect which is associated with the potential prebiotic activity in Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium longum. These results demonstrate that jackfruit seed flour has good nutritional value and antioxidant and prebiotic activity, as well as potential protective effects and functional properties, making it an attractive food or ingredient in developing innovative functional products.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Artocarpus/química , Fenômenos Químicos , Farinha/análise , Prebióticos , Sementes/química , Catalase/metabolismo , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Dessecação , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Umidade , Cinética , Lipídeos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/análise , Solubilidade , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Viscosidade , Água/química
8.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361794

RESUMO

Wheat bread, produced by the single-phase method, is a common food consumed all over the world. Due to changes in lifestyle and nutritional trends, alternative raw materials are sought to increase the nutritional value and improve the taste of daily consumed products. Additionally, customers seek a wide variety of foods, especially when it comes to basic foods. Nuts, such as coconuts or chestnuts, might provide an attractive flavour with benefits to the nutritional quality. In this study, the effect of substituting wheat flour with coconut or chestnut flour (flour contribution level: 5, 10, 15, 30, 50% w/w), was evaluated in terms of the breads specific volume, texture, colour, nutritional composition, and dietary fibre fraction contents. Moreover, a sensory evaluation was conducted to assess potential consumer acceptance. Based on the consumer's perception, the overall acceptance of bread with 15% w/w of coconut and chestnut flour was in privilege compared to the control sample. As a result, taking all of the tested parameters into account, the breads with 5, 10, and 15% supplementation of chestnut or coconut flour were still of good quality compared to the wheat bread and their fibre content was significantly higher.


Assuntos
Aesculus/química , Pão/análise , Cocos/química , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Farinha/análise , Triticum/química , Culinária/métodos , Análise Fatorial , Tecnologia de Alimentos/métodos , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Humanos , Olfato/fisiologia , Paladar/fisiologia
9.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299468

RESUMO

Inoculation of sourdough allows the fermentation medium to be dominated by desired microorganisms, which enables determining the kinetics of the conversion of chemical compounds by individual microorganisms. This knowledge may allow the design of functional food products with health features dedicated to consumers with special needs. The aim of the study was to assess the dynamics of transformations of fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide and polyol (FODMAP) compounds from wheat flour as well as their antioxidant activity during inoculated and spontaneous sourdough fermentation. The FODMAP content in grain products was determined by the fructan content with negligible amounts of sugars and polyols. To produce a low-FODMAP cereal product, the fermentation time is essential. The 72 h fermentation time of L. plantarum-inoculated sourdough reduced the FODMAP content by 91%. The sourdough fermentation time of at least 72 h also positively influenced the content of polyphenols and antioxidant activity, regardless of the type of fermentation. The inoculation of both L. plantarum and L. casei contributed to a similar degree to the reduction in FODMAP in sourdough compared to spontaneous fermentation.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Farinha/análise , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Lactobacillales/metabolismo , Polímeros/metabolismo , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Carboidratos/química , Fermentação , Lactobacillales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/microbiologia
10.
Se Pu ; 39(6): 652-658, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227326

RESUMO

Thiram is an important dithiocarbamate (DTC) fungicide. In the United States and the European Union, the limit range of thiram is 0.1-15 mg/kg in fruits and vegetables, but there is no specific limit for grains. The maximum residue limit (MRL) for wheat is 1 mg/kg (calculated as carbon disulfide, CS2) in the National Food Safety Standard (GB 2763-2019). At present, the relevant regulation methods in China are targeted at the detection of dithiocarbamates and are incapable of detecting thiram specifically. CS2 is produced by the reaction of dithiocarbamate and acid, and it is then determined by spectrophotometry or GC; this renders the quantification of dithiocarbamate indirect. HPLC and HPLC-MS/MS methods are also reported for the detection of thiram. Most of the literature focuses on the determination of thiram in vegetables, fruits, soil, etc. In these methods, thiram is converted into dimethyldithiocarbamate (DMD) anions in an alkaline buffer solution, and DMD can be determined by HPLC-UV or LC-MS. However, ziram can also be converted into the DMD anion under alkaline conditions. Therefore, thiram cannot be distinguished from ziram, and this may produce false-positive results. Research has shown that in the presence of sulfite, thiram is converted into a DMD-sulfite adduct, which can be a marker for the selective determination of thiram. Furthermore, thiram can be directly detected by HPLC and HPLC-MS/MS after extraction with dichloromethane, chloroform, hexane, cyclohexane, ethyl acetate, or methanol and clean-up by solid phase extraction in vegetables and fruits. However, until now, few studies have reported the determination of thiram in wheat flour and flour improvers. Therefore, it is of great importance to develop a method for thiram in wheat flour. In this study, an analytical method based on HPLC-DAD was developed for the determination of thiram in wheat flour and flour improvers. The wheat flour and flour improver samples were extracted using acetonitrile. After shaking for 15 min, the samples were ultrasonicated for 10 min in an ice-water bath. The supernatant was filtered before separation on a ZORBAX plus-C18 column (150 mm×4.6 mm, 5 µm). The samples were eluted with a water-acetonitrile solvent system and detected at 280 nm. In this research, the extraction solvent, extraction solvent volume, ultrasonic conditions, chromatographic column, determination wavelength, and mobile phase were optimized. The retention times and UV spectra were used for qualitative analysis, and the external standard method was used to quantify thiram. Stability tests of standard stock solutions, a series of standard solutions, and extraction solutions were also performed. The standard stock solutions could be stored for at least 21 d, and the series of standard solutions could be stored for 14 d under refrigeration at 4 ℃. The standard solution was either exposed to light at room temperature for 4 h or kept in dark at room temperature for 48 h, and no obvious degradation was observed. This revealed that thiram was stable in acetonitrile solution during our investigation. It was suggested that the extraction solution should be analyzed as soon as possible. The linear range was 0.30-30.0 µg/mL. The peak area of the analyte showed a good linear relationship with its corresponding concentration, and the correlation coefficient (r2) was 0.99999. When the spiked levels were 1.5, 3.0, and 15 mg/kg, the spiked recoveries of thiram were 89.6%-98.3%, with relative standard deviations of 1.6%-3.9% (n=6). The limits of determination and quantification for thiram were 0.5 mg/kg and 1.5 mg/kg, respectively. The results revealed that this method is simple, rapid, and specific, in addition to having high precision, good repeatability, and a low limit of detection. The method is thus suitable for the daily routine analysis of thiram in wheat flour and flour improvers.


Assuntos
Farinha , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Tiram/análise , China , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Farinha/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Triticum
11.
Se Pu ; 39(7): 702-707, 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227367

RESUMO

A valid method based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) with a chiral stationary phase was established for the determination of myclobutanil enantiomer residue in wheat grain and its processed products (flour, bran, pasta, steamed bun, noodle, and cooking water). The wheat grain and processed product samples were extracted with acetonitrile and purified with primary secondary amine (PSA) and C18. The enantiomers of myclobutanil were separated by Chiral column Lux Cellulose-1 (150 mm×2.0 mm, 3 µm, Phenomenex). The column temperature, sample volume injected, and flow rate were 30 ℃, 5 µL, and 0.25 mL/min, respectively. The mobile phase consisted of phase A (25%), water with 0.1% formic acid and 4 mM ammonium acetate, and phase B (75%), methanol with 0.1% formic acid and 4 mM ammonium acetate. A Waters Xevo TQ-S Micro MS/MS system (Waters, USA) was used for mass spectrometric analysis. An electrospray ionization (ESI) source operating in the positive ionization mode. MS analyses were performed in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The qualitative ions of myclobutanil were m/z 288.9/69.9 and 288.9/124.9, and the quantitative ion of myclobutanil was m/z 288.9/69.9. The source voltage was 3000 V, and the desolvation temperature was 400 ℃. The desolvation gas flow was 800 L/h, and the source temperature was 150 ℃. The matrix effect of wheat grains and their processed products on the determination of myclobutanil enantiomers by UPLC-MS/MS was investigated. S-(+)-myclobutanil and R-(-)-myclobutanil had a mid signal suppression effect on wheat grain, bran, pasta, steamed bun, and noodle, while S-(+)-myclobutanil and R-(-)-myclobutanil had a mid signal enhancement effect on flour and cooking water. Finally, the matrix-matched calibration method was effective in all matrices and was selected for the quantification of the myclobutanil enantiomer residue in the samples. The results showed that the two enantiomers of myclobutanil were well separated by this method. The first and second eluted enantiomers were S-(+)-myclobutanil and R-(-)-myclobutanil, respectively, with the corresponding retention times being 4.34 min and 5.13 min. The limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) of S-(+)-myclobutanil and R-(-)-myclobutanil in wheat and its processed products were 0.2 µg/kg and 0.5 µg/kg, respectively. In the linear range of 0.5-25 µg/L, the peak areas of the myclobutanil enantiomers showed a good linear relationship with the concentration, and the R2 values were all greater than 0.99. At fortification levels of 5, 50, and 100 µg/kg (enantiomer concentration), the average recoveries of S-(+)-myclobutanil in wheat grain and its processed products ranged from 82% to 110%, with RSDs between 0.9% and 6.8%. The average recoveries of R-(-)-myclobutanil in wheat grain and its processed products ranged from 80% to 109%, with RSDs between 0.9% and 6.8%. This method fulfils the requirements for pesticide residue analysis. The established method was applied to analyze five flour samples, two noodle samples, and two steamed bread samples. The results showed that S-(+)-myclobutanil and R-(-)-myclobutanil enantiomers were not detected in the samples. In this study, methods for the enantiomeric separation and residue analysis of myclobutanil in wheat were evaluated at the enantiomeric level, which enriched the methods of enantiomeric separation and residue analysis of chiral pesticide myclobutanil enantiomers in raw agricultural product (wheat grain) and its processed foods. This method is effective for the residue analysis of chiral pesticide myclobutanil enantiomers in raw agricultural commodities and its processed products.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Nitrilas/análise , Triazóis/análise , Triticum , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Farinha/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Triticum/química
12.
Food Chem ; 362: 130170, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091164

RESUMO

Impact of globulin addition on the functional and protein structural properties of dough and cooked noodles were investigated. The underlying mechanism was explored through analyzing the interaction between globulin and gluten by using SDS-PAGE, size exclusion chromatography, free sulfhydryl/disulfide bond analysis, laser scanning confocal microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Results showed that the stiffness/hardness and maximum resistance of dough and cooked noodles were both increased when globulin addition was 1.5% or higher. Besides, extensibility of cooked noodles was also improved when the addition up to 3.0%. The addition of globulin facilitated weakening the S-S bonds in the gluten network and cross-linked with SDS-soluble gluten mainly through non-covalent interactions, especially hydrophobic interactions. Meanwhile, a more rigid protein network structure was observed. Additionally, following cooking, globulin addition accelerated the aggregation of protein molecules. When the addition reached 3%, the protein conformation was transformed from ß-sheets and random coils to ß-turns.


Assuntos
Farinha , Globulinas/química , Triticum/química , Cromatografia em Gel , Culinária , Dissulfetos/química , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Farinha/análise , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Glutens/química , Dureza , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Microscopia Confocal , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/química , Reologia , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
13.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 50(3): 495-500, 2021 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074375

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Near-infrared(NIR) spectroscopy combined with partial least squares(PLS) were applied to establish a rapid method for green direct determination of mineral elements(calcium, phosphorus and potassium) in wheat flour samples. METHODS: NIR spectra and analytical measurements of calcium, phosphorus and potassium were collected from 117 wheat flour samples with different processing levels(whole grain wheat, special grade No. 1 wheat and wheat core flour). Principal components analysis(PCA) was developed to assign 81 wheat flour samples to build models and 36 samples as the validation set to evaluate the performance of the developed models. The influence of wavelength range and spectral preprocessing method on the predictive ability of the model were discussed, and the best models were selected. RESULTS: For calcium, the best NIR model showed a good prediction performance(r~2=0. 7907, RMSEP=5. 35, RPD=2. 19); the best NIR model for phosphorus gave an excellent prediction performance(r~2=0. 9777, RMSEP=15. 3, RPD=6. 71); the best model for potassium also gave an excellent prediction performance(r~2=0. 9777, RMSEP=18. 9, RPD=6. 84). CONCLUSION: NIR spectroscopy can realize the rapid prediction of mineral elements(calcium, phosphorus and potassium) in wheat flour. By selecting the wavelength range and spectral preprocessing method, the prediction ability of the NIR model can be significantly improved.


Assuntos
Farinha , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Farinha/análise , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Minerais , Triticum
14.
Food Res Int ; 145: 110398, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112401

RESUMO

Nowadays there is an increasing demand for vegetable protein sources as an alternative to that of animal origin, not only for its greater environmental sustainability but also for its relationship with lower risk of suffering cardiovascular diseases. Legumes, cereals and seeds are seen as a good proteinaceous source providing as well dietetic fiber and phytochemicals with antioxidant properties. However, their digestibility and bioavailability are limited by the presence of anti-nutritional factors (ANFs) but susceptible of being improved by soaking, cooking or fermentation. The objective of this work is to review the solid-state and submerged fermentation effect on nutritional and functional properties of legumes, cereals and seeds. The microorganisms involved (bacteria, fungus and yeasts) are able to produce enzymes that degrade ANFs giving rise to more digestible flours with a more interesting nutritional, sensorial and technological profile. Solid-state fermentation is more commonly used for its higher efficiency, accepting agro-industrial residues as substrates and its lower volume of effluents. Fermented legumes had their technological properties enhanced while an increment in antioxidant properties was characteristic of cereals. The present review highlights fermentation of cereals and legumes mainly as a key process that at industrial scale could generate new products with enhanced nutritional and technological properties.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Farinha , Animais , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Grão Comestível/química , Fermentação , Farinha/análise
15.
Food Res Int ; 144: 110352, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34053545

RESUMO

In this study, the content of Maillard reaction products from its initial, intermediate and final stage (5-hydroxymethylfurfural, α-dicarbonyl compounds, furosine, N-ε-carboxymethyllysine and N-ε-carboxyethyllysine) was measured in sweet cookies made of wholegrain flour of eight genotypes of small-grain cereals (bread wheat, durum wheat, soft wheat, hard wheat, triticale, rye, hulless barley and hulless oat) and four corn genotypes (white-, yellow- and red-colored standard seeded corn and blue-colored popping corn). Furthermore, the effect of the initial content of sugars, total proteins, free and total lysine in flour on the formation of Maillard reaction products was investigated using the principle component analysis. 3-deoxyglucosone was the predominant α-dicarbonyl compound in all cereal cookies and the highest content was measured in those made from flour of different colored corn genotypes (on average, 98.35, 151.28 and 172.85 mg/kg after baking for 7, 10 and 13 min, respectively). Heating dough at 180 °C for 7, 10 and 13 min differently affected the content of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and α-dicarbonyl compounds in the cereal cookies. The 5-hydroxymethylfurfural content gradually increased, while a reduction in 3-deoxyglucosone content was observed in the cookies baked for 13 min except for those made from soft wheat, hulless oat, red- and blue-colored corn. After 7 min of heating, the content of furosine measured in the cereal cookies reached its maximum (from 320.9 mg/kg in yellow-colored corn-based cookies to 585.7 mg/kg in hulless oat-based cookies), while N-ε-carboxymethyllysine and N-ε-carboxyethyllysine showed the opposite trend. The highest content of advanced glycation end products was detected in cookies also made from hulless oat flour rich in proteins (16.80%) and total lysine (10670.3 mg/kg). The interrelationship analysis showed that the initial content of sugars in flour of cereals affected 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and 3-deoxyglucosone formation in the cookies. In addition, a high correlation between protein-bound Maillard reaction products in the cookies and the total proteins and the total lysine content in the flours was found.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada , Culinária , Farinha/análise , Reação de Maillard
16.
Food Res Int ; 144: 110355, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34053548

RESUMO

The present study aimed to better understand the metabolite release and rheological characteristics of sponge cake after in vitro digestion and the effect of Eucheuma as a fibre-rich flour replacer. Overall, 22 compounds including amino acids, saccharides, fatty acids, and other metabolites were identified based on nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. Principal component analysis and orthogonal projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis showed that Eucheuma reduced the release of amino acids and fatty acids. The released glucose from the EP20 sample (20% replacement of flour with Eucheuma) decreased by 35.4% in intestinal phases compared with the control cake. Eucheuma's in vitro effects on sponge cake digestion mainly reflected altered flow behaviour index. All samples showed solid-like behaviour and a decrease in viscoelastic moduli after digestion. This study forms the basis for future optimisation of food properties to control their digestive characteristics.


Assuntos
Culinária , Farinha , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Digestão , Farinha/análise , Reologia
17.
Food Chem ; 359: 129955, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34010753

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of proteolysis during dough fermentation started with different lactic acid bacteria species, through the identification of intermediate and small-sized peptides generated during fermentation. Single-strain cultures of Levilactobacillus brevis, Fructilactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Companilactobacillus alimentarius, and Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides were assayed as sourdough starters. Assays were carried out at lab-scale for 48 h of fermentation, using both unstarted and yeast-leavened dough as controls. Physicochemical and microbiological analyses were combined with peptidomic and proteomic profiling, identifying several hundreds of peptides mainly released from the water-soluble wheat proteins, including ß-amylase, triticin, and serpins. Both α- and γ-gliadins were hydrolyzed, though only at the N-terminal domain, while the central protein region - encrypting celiac disease epitopes- remained unaffected. The bacterial-mediated consumption of sugars and the concomitant hydrolysis of starch degrading ß-amylase could underlie improved digestibility and several nutritionally beneficial effects of sourdough baked products.


Assuntos
Fermentação , Proteômica , Triticum/metabolismo , Leveduras/metabolismo , Pão/análise , Farinha/análise , Gliadina/metabolismo , Proteólise
18.
Food Chem ; 360: 130032, 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34022520

RESUMO

Five fettuccini formulations containing 5% (5MSP), 10% (10MSP), 15% (15MSP), 20% (20MSP), and 30% (30MSP) of moringa sprout powder (MSP) were produced aimed at improving the nutritional and bioactive profile of conventional pasta. A gradual increase of protein, lipids, fiber and mineral content was observed in fettuccine as the MSP amount increased, while carbohydrates were reduced. MSP-addition also increased the levels of thiamine, riboflavin, γ- aminobutyric acid, glucosinolates and the antioxidant activity in pasta. All pasta doughs showed similar rheological parameters. Textural properties decreased after MSP inclusion, but the values obtained were close to those of control. Incorporation of MSP up to 10% did not modify substantially the sensory attributes of fettuccine, but higher amounts had a negative impact. Thus, addition of MSP up to 10% is a promising technological approach to improve the nutritional and functional properties of pasta without compromising consumer acceptance.


Assuntos
Farinha/análise , Moringa/química , Valor Nutritivo , Pós , Antioxidantes , Culinária , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Glucosinolatos/análise , Humanos , Reologia , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/análise
19.
J Food Sci ; 86(6): 2288-2299, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34028008

RESUMO

In recent years, dietary fibers have attracted a lot of attention as they reduce calories and witness the glycemic index. In this study, wheat bran (WB) and mucilaginous seeds flour (Qodume Shirazi seeds [QSS], wild sage seeds [WSS]) as sources of insoluble and soluble dietary fiber were used for pasta enrichment (50% WB, 45% WB-5% seed flour, and 40% WB-10% seed flour). The cooking properties, microstructural, textural, glycemic index, and sensory properties of pasta samples were evaluated. Fiber ingredients increased moisture content, cooking loss, and ash of pasta samples. In contrast, swelling indexing, optimum cooking time, and water absorption decreased. The samples containing high fiber had a darker appearance with a stiffer structure. Microstructure confirmed the presence of a developed protein matrix in the witness sample. But by substitution of the WB, a heterogeneous and dense network with small and large cells formed. The mucilaginous seed flours (WB-QSS and WB-WSS samples) improved the uniformity of pasta microstructure in comparison with WB sample. WB pasta samples reduced all sensory scores, but adding seed flours had a more noticeable influence on increasing the sensory properties. The presence of QSS and WSS resulted in more starchy and elastic texture. By using mucilaginous seeds flour in the production of high-fiber pasta, the glycemic index decreased more noticeably. This investigation indicates the positive impact of mucilaginous seeds, especially WSS, on pasta sensorial properties, in line with a strong influence on technological characteristics and decreasing the glycemic index. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study determined a practical approach to produce high-fiber pasta by applying mucilaginous seeds with the improvement of technological and sensory properties.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae/química , Culinária , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Salvia/química , Sementes/química , Farinha/análise , Índice Glicêmico , Amido/análise
20.
J Food Sci ; 86(6): 2421-2433, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34028019

RESUMO

Effects of vacuum degrees (0.00, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 MPa) on water distribution state, tensile properties, stress relaxation properties, and viscoelasticity of dough, as well as the effects of mixing speed (50, 70, 90 rpm/min) and water content (40%, 45%, 50%) under optimum vacuum degree were studied. The results showed that the proper vacuum degree (0.06 MPa) could promote the full contact between flour and water and improved the water-holding capacity of the dough. Meanwhile, the dough had stronger tensile strength, the best viscoelasticity and the ability to recover from external deformation more quickly. Under the vacuum of 0.06 MPa, with the increasing of mixing speed, the response to the external force of dough increased first and then decreased. Adding more water reduced the strength of dough, weakened the response to external forces, and led to a significant decrease in tensile resistance and tensile area of the dough, as well as a decrease in viscoelasticity (p < 0.05). The proper vacuum mixing allowed the preparation of dough to require more water and less energy. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: In the processing of wheat flour products, vacuum mixing is considered to be beneficial to the quality of noodles and breads. As the intermediate of these products, the dough is of great significance for the monitoring of its rheological characteristics. In this study, a moderate vacuum degree led to a significant improvement in the rheological properties of the dough, and the processing performance was the best. Under the optimal vacuum degree, the influence of mixing speed and water amount cannot be ignored. Vacuum mixing is an efficient dough preparation method, which can produce certain economic benefits.


Assuntos
Pão/análise , Farinha/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Reologia , Triticum/química , Água/química , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Vácuo , Viscosidade
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