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1.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244211, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347490

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a group of cardiovascular risk factors, and its prevalence is becoming alarmingly high in Ethiopia. Studies uncovered as community pharmacy professionals (CPPs) have not yet well integrated into public health programs and priorities. In low income setting like Ethiopia, evidence regarding the roles CPPs in preventing and management of MetS is dearth. OBJECTIVE: The study was aimed to assess community pharmacy professionals'(CPPs) opinions about metabolic syndrome, describe their perception level towards the effectiveness of the main interventions and explore their extent of involvement in counseling patients with the metabolic syndrome in Gondar town, Northwestern Ethiopia. METHOD: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted among pharmacists and druggists working in community medication retail outlets (CMROs) in Gondar town, northwestern Ethiopia from April 1 to May 31, 2019. Data were collected using a self-administered pre-tested questionnaire. Descriptive statistics was used to summarize different variables, and presented in tables and figure. An independent t-test and one way ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) were used to compare mean scores. A 5% level of significance was used. RESULT: Out of the 75 CPPs approached, 65(40 pharmacists and 25 druggists) completed the survey giving a response rate of 86.7%. Smoking cessation practice was identified to be low. There were a statistically significant difference (t = 2.144, P = 0.036) in the involvement towards counseling patients between CPPs who claimed to work in pharmacy (mean = 3.96 out of 5 points Likert scale) and drug stores (mean = 3.80 out of 5 points Likert scale). CONCLUSION: The study concluded that the overall involvement of professionals in counseling patients, opinion about metabolic syndrome, and perception towards the effectiveness of the intervention was found to be more or less positive. However, the provision of services, such as monitoring therapy, selling equipment for home blood pressure and glucose monitoring and documenting patient care services needs to be encouraged. Given proper education and training, the current study hope that community pharmacists could be an important front-line contributors to contain this emerging epidemic in Gondar town as well as in the entire nation.


Assuntos
Cultura , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Síndrome Metabólica/prevenção & controle , Farmacêuticos/psicologia , Etiópia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome Metabólica/psicologia , Farmácias/estatística & dados numéricos
2.
Farm. comunitarios (Internet) ; 12(4): 5-20, oct. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-197487

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: la falta de adherencia implica peor control de la diabetes y aumento del número de complicaciones, lo que a menudo se traduce en un mayor gasto sanitario. Las hipoglucemias, en ocasiones inadvertidas, son una de las principales consecuencias de la no adherencia y su prevención pasa por intervenciones multidisciplinares que ayuden a la mejora de la adherencia. OBJETIVOS: medir la adherencia a hipoglucemiantes, detectar y cuantificar hipoglucemias inadvertidas y recurrentes, conocer la percepción de los pacientes sobre su tratamiento y derivar al médico en casos de no adherencia e hipoglucemias no solucionadas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: estudio observacional, transversal y multicéntrico, en farmacias comunitarias, realizado a partir de abril de 2019 con diabéticos tipo 2 en tratamiento con hipoglucemiantes que lleven ≥12 meses con la misma pauta. Para la detección de hipoglucemias, los que estén en tratamiento con sulfonilureas, glinidas y/o insulinas. Diseño de un cuestionario con datos sociodemográficos, enfermedades y tratamientos. Utilización del test MMAS-8 para detectar no adherencia y del test de Clarke para hipoglucemias. Si se detecta incumplimiento y/o hipoglucemia y no se puede solucionar por el farmacéutico se derivará al médico de familia. ANÁLISIS ESTADÍSTICO: se utilizará el programa STATA13 para Windows®. Se realizarán análisis bivariados y multivariados. La significación se fijará en p < 0,05. Aplicabilidad de los resultados: se espera conocer la falta de adherencia y los factores que la causan y la prevalencia de las hipoglucemias inadvertidas para, en otro proyecto, establecer un programa de intervención farmacéutica que se muestre eficiente para mejorar la adherencia farmacoterapéutica de los pacientes en tratamiento con hipoglucemiantes y disminuir la aparición de hipoglucemias


INTRODUCTION: Lack of adherence results in worse control of diabetes and an increased number of complications, often resulting in higher healthcare spending. Hypoglycemia, which is sometimes unrecognized, is one of the main consequences of non-adherence to treatment. It is prevented through multidisciplinary interventions which help improve adherence. OBJECTIVES: to measure adherence to hypoglycemic agents, to detect and quantify unrecognized and recurrent hypoglycemia, to learn patients' perceptions of their treatment and refer them to doctors in cases of non-adherence and unsolved hypoglycemia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: an observational, cross-sectional, multicenter study in community pharmacies, conducted from April 2019 with type 2 diabetics in treatment with hypoglycemic agents for ≥12 months on the same drug regimen. To detect hypoglycemia, those treated with sulfonylureas, glinides and/or insulin. Design of a questionnaire with sociodemographic data, diseases and treatments. Use of the MMAS-8 test for non-adherence and the Clarke hypoglycemia awareness test. If non-compliance and/or hypoglycemia is detected and cannot be resolved by the pharmacist, it will be referred to the family doctor. Statistical analysis: the STATA13 program will be used for Windows®. Bivariate and multivariate analyses will be conducted. Statistical significance will be set at p < 0.05. APPLICABILITY OF THE RESULTS: we hope to gain awareness of the lack of adherence and its causal factors and the prevalence of unrecognized hypoglycemia so that, in another project, an efficient pharmaceutical intervention program can be established to improve adherence to pharmacotherapy of patients treated with hypoglycemic agents and reduce the occurrence of hypoglycemia


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Farmácias/estatística & dados numéricos , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Espanha/epidemiologia
3.
Farm. comunitarios (Internet) ; 12(4): 21-29, oct. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-197488

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: la vacunación es el modo más eficaz para prevenir la gripe estacional. En España las coberturas son bajas en todos los grupos de población. Nuestro objetivo es comprobar si la intervención del farmacéutico comunitario puede incrementar las tasas de vacunación e identificar las variables que influyen sobre ellas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: estudio cuasi experimental pre-post intervención en tres grupos de riesgo (GR): mayores de 65 años (M), alto riesgo de sufrir complicaciones (C) y que pueden transmitir la infección (T). Se determinan las tasas de vacunación pre y postintervención (dos campañas) y el efecto de diversas variables sobre la posibilidad de vacunarse. RESULTADOS: han sido entrevistados 74 pacientes, 58  % mujeres, entre 33 y 90 años. Tasa de vacunación previa a la intervención: 58  %. Porcentajes por GR: 69  % M, 62  % C y 47  % T. Se identifican 31 pacientes de riesgo sin historial de vacunación. Tasa de vacunación tras la intervención: 74  % en campaña 17/18 y 66  % en 18/19. La vacunación se relaciona con grado de conocimiento del proceso, existencia de historia de vacunación previa y edad superior a 65 años. DISCUSIÓN: las tasas de vacunación antes de la intervención son similares a las publicadas a nivel regional y nacional. Las tasas incrementadas alcanzadas (74  % y 66  %) se aproximan a los niveles propuestos por la Unión Europea (UE) y la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS). El mayor aumento en los grupos C y T puede ser relevante en comunidades cerradas donde las medidas higiénicas son de capital importancia


INTRODUCTION: Vaccinating population is the most effective method of preventing flu and its consequences although in Spain coverage rates remain low. Our objective is to assess whether community pharmacist intervention can increase vaccination coverage of risk population and to identify factors influencing rates. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Pre-post cuasi experimental study including three high risk population groups: aged 65 and above (M), having any risk chronic illness (C) or transmitting patients (T). Coverage was measured before and twice (two vaccination campaigns) after intervention and the effect of different factors on having the vaccine were estimated. RESULTS: 74 patients, 58  % women, aged between 33 and 90 were interviewed. Vaccination coverage before intervention: 58  %. Rates found by risk group: 69  % M, 62  % C y 47  % T. 31 risk patients with no vaccination history were identified. Global post-intervention vaccination coverage: 74  % in 17/18 vaccination campaign and 66  % in 18/19. Flu awareness, vaccination in previous seasons and being aged above 65 showed statistically significant effect on vaccination rate. DISCUSSION: Pre-intervention rates were similar to those published for our region and country. Post-intervention rates (74 and 66  %) are close to EU and WHO vaccination goals. The higher coverage increase was achieved for C and T groups: this can be relevant in closed communities where hygiene measures are of importance. CONCLUSIONS: A simple intervention conducted at our community pharmacy resulted in a significant increase of the flu vaccination rate in several population risk groups


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Farmácias/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas contra Influenza/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco , Comorbidade , Distribuição por Idade e Sexo , Programas de Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Espanha
4.
Farm. comunitarios (Internet) ; 12(4): 30-36, oct. 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-197489

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: el sistema español de farmacovigilancia se basa en la notificación espontánea de sospechas de Reacciones Adversas a Medicamentos (RAM) por parte de los pacientes, la industria farmacéutica y los profesionales sanitarios mediante la tarjeta amarilla. La farmacovigilancia es una de las actividades que puede desarrollar la farmacia comunitaria y que, además, está contemplada en la legislación como una labor obligatoria para todos los profesionales sanitarios. El objetivo de este artículo es describir y analizar las sospechas de RAM detectadas por el equipo farmacéutico de una farmacia comunitaria y comunicadas al Centro Andaluz de Farmacovigilancia desde el año 2002 al año 2018. MÉTODOS: estudio observacional longitudinal realizado en una farmacia comunitaria de Benalmádena (Málaga) con las sospechas de RAM detectadas y notificadas mediante tarjeta amarilla al Centro Andaluz de Farmacovigilancia desde el año 2002 hasta el año 2018. RESULTADOS: el número total de sospechas de RAM comunicadas al Centro Andaluz de Farmacovigilancia desde el año 2002 ha sido de 329. La edad media de los pacientes que presentaron una RAM ha sido de 59,3 años (DE: 16,8). Los grupos farmacológico implicados en las RAM con una mayor frecuencia han sido los agentes modificadores de los lípidos (9,4  %), agentes que actúan sobre el sistema renina-angiotensina (9,4  %), antibacterianos (6,9  %), antiinflamatorios (6,9  %) y psicoanalépticos (6,4  %). Las RAM detectadas han afectado principalmente al sistema nervioso (31,7  %), al tracto gastrointestinal (22,4  %) y a la piel (14,3  %). CONCLUSIONES: más de la mitad de las sospechas comunicadas se han registrado en pacientes mayores de 65 años. El equipo farmacéutico debe seguir atento a la detección de sospechas de RAM en este grupo de pacientes, especialmente en los medicamentos de nueva comercialización. El análisis de las sospechas de RAM detectadas permite disponer de un conocimiento más completo de la seguridad del medicamento en nuestra actividad


INTRODUCTION: The spanish pharmacovigilance system is based on spontaneous notification of suspected Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) by patients, the pharmaceutical industry and healthcare professionals using the yellow card. Pharmacovigilance is one of the activities that the community pharmacy can develop and that, in addition, is contemplated in the legislation as a mandatory task for all healthcare professionals. The objective of this article is to describe and analyze the suspected ADRs detected by the pharmacists of a community pharmacy and reported to the Andalusian Center for Pharmacovigilance from 2002 to 2018. METHODS: Observational longitudinal study carried out in a community pharmacy in Benalmádena (Málaga) with suspected ADR detected and notified by yellow card to the Andalusian Center for Pharmacovigilance from 2002 to 2018. RESULTS: The total number of suspicions of ADR reported to the Andalusian Center for Pharmacovigilance since 2002 has been 329. The average age of the patients who presented ADR was 59.3 years (SD: 16.8). The pharmacological groups most frequently involved in ADRs have been lipid modifying agents (9.4%), agents that act on the renin-angiotensin system (9.4%), antibacterials (6.9%), antiinflammatories (6.9%) and psycholeptics (6.4%). The detected ADRs have mainly affected the nervous system (31.7%), the gastrointestinal tract (22.4%) and the skin (14.3%). CONCLUSIONS: More than half of the reported suspicions have been registered in patients over 65 years of age. The pharmaceutical team must remain vigilant in detecting suspected ADRs in this group of patients, especially in newly marketed drugs. The analysis of the suspicions of ADR detected allows us to have a more complete knowledge of the safety of the medication in our activity


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Farmacovigilância , Farmácias/estatística & dados numéricos , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Etários , Espanha/epidemiologia
5.
J Psychiatr Res ; 130: 19-21, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768709

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to examine the development of drug purchases during the corona crisis. METHODS: The evaluations in this retrospective cross-sectional study are based on the IMS RPM® (Regional Pharmaceutical Market) Weekly database, which shows the weekly purchases of public pharmacies from fully-stocked wholesalers at the time the pharmacy purchase is made in Germany. The outcome of this investigation was the development in psychotropic, neurological, and cardiovascular drug purchases by packing unit between Calendar Weeks 6 and 16. RESULTS: In analyses, performed for psychotropic and neurological drugs, compared to Week 11, the largest increases in Week 12 were for anti-Parkinson drugs and tranquilizers (both 24%), followed by antiepileptics (23%). Purchases of antidementive drugs increased by 16% between Week 11 and Week 12. The increase was 43% for vitamin k antagonists, 39% for ACE inhibitors, and 37% for betablockers. CONCLUSION: The results of this retrospective cross-sectional study suggest that the Covid-19 lockdown in Germany was associated with a significant surge in purchasing behavior in pharmacies for different markets including psychotropic, neurological, and cardiovascular drugs. Further studies are needed to investigate the sell-out data and to estimate the differences in panic buying by age and sex.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Farmácias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Medicamentos sob Prescrição , Estudos Transversais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Alemanha , Humanos , Pandemias , Pânico , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 26(8): 945-947, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32715960

RESUMO

The ever-vulnerable medication supply chain is being further strained by the COVID-19 pandemic. Pharmacists in all settings, including managed care, will need to prepare for a potential exacerbation of existing and new drug shortages in the midst of unprecedented crisis. We summarize the major issues, discuss potential mitigation strategies, and call on our colleagues to respond with the resilience necessary to protect our patients. DISCLOSURES: The authors declare no funding sources nor conflicts of interest.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Preparações Farmacêuticas/provisão & distribução , Farmácias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Pandemias , Farmácias/ética , Farmacêuticos , Serviço de Farmácia Hospitalar
7.
N Z Med J ; 133(1518): 33-42, 2020 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683430

RESUMO

AIMS: The overall rate of community antibiotic dispensing in New Zealand in recent decades has been high when compared with many other nations, but since 2015 has consistently declined each year. We aimed to determine whether the magnitude of reductions in community antibiotic dispensing in New Zealand between 2015 and 2018 differed in relation either to the patient's demographic features or in relation to the primary health organisation of the patient's registered general practitioner. METHODS: Demographic data on all patients registered with a general practice in New Zealand, and on all community pharmacy antibiotic dispensing for these patients during 2013-2018 were obtained from national healthcare databases. The rates of dispensing for patients registered with a general practitioner were measured as antibiotic courses dispensed per 1,000 population per day, and as defined daily doses per 1,000 population per day. RESULTS: Total community antibiotic dispensing in New Zealand, measured as defined daily doses per 1,000 inhabitants per day, decreased by 13.8% during 2015-2018, an average annual reduction of 4.6% per year, with especially large reductions in dispensing of amoxicillin/clavulanate, fluoroquinolones and macrolides. The reductions in dispensing were greatest in children aged 0-4 years old, but lesser reductions were seen in all age groups. Antibiotic dispensing declined regardless of patient ethnicity or level of socioeconomic deprivation. There were marked differences between primary health organisations in the size of the reductions in antibiotic dispensing during 2015-2018, which ranged between 4.8% for the Te Tai Tokerau PHO to 21.5% for the Ngati Porou Hauora Charitable Trust PHO. CONCLUSIONS: Total community antibiotic dispensing has reduced significantly in New Zealand between 2015 and 2018, with large disparities between primary health organisations in the size of the reductions. The overall rates of antibiotic dispensing remain high for non-Maori and non-Pacific people, and prescribers should aim to further reduce inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for these populations. However, the overall rate of antibiotic dispensing for Maori and Pacific people may now approximate an optimal level. Prescribers should aim to further reduce inappropriate antibiotic prescribing, but also to increase appropriate antibiotic prescribing for these populations.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Medicina de Família e Comunidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Farmácias/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica , Humanos , Nova Zelândia , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 67(5): 327-333, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493892

RESUMO

Objectives Pharmacies and pharmacists play an important role in health promotion by supporting citizens' attempts to quit smoking. Nevertheless, some pharmacies sell tobacco themselves. Therefore, we conducted a survey on tobacco sales in pharmacies to investigate regional differences and methods of sale.Methods As a nationwide survey, we merged the Japanese Local Finance Bureau's 2018 list of enterprisers permitted to sell tobacco with the Japanese Regional Bureau of Health and Welfare's list of insurance pharmacies to calculate the number and proportion of new insurance pharmacies that permit tobacco sales. Additionally, we counted the number and proportion of pharmacies in convenience stores selling tobacco based on the data on their websites and the aforementioned insurance pharmacy list. To provide a survey of existing pharmacies, we confirmed the tobacco selling status, presence of smoking space, presence of anti-passive smoking measures, and the coexistence of drugstores or convenience stores among insurance pharmacies in City A (an urban area in Osaka Prefecture) and City B (a rural area in Ishikawa Prefecture). These data were obtained through site visits from December 2018 to February 2019.Results Among 1,766 new insurance pharmacies in Japan, 124 (7.0%) were newly permitted to sell tobacco. Many insurance pharmacies in Kanto (71 of 602 new insurance pharmacies; 11.8%) and Tohoku (9 of 110; 8.2%) sold tobacco, while such pharmacies were rare in Shikoku (0 of 64; 0.0%) and Kyushu (1 of 211; 0.5%). Out of the total of 42 pharmacies in convenience stores in Japan, 34 (81%) of them sold tobacco, specifically in urban areas. To provide an existing insurance pharmacy survey, 1 of 28 pharmacies (4%) in City A and 3 of 29 (10%) in City B sold tobacco. All 4 pharmacies sold tobacco at their checkout counters and were located in drugstores. Three of the pharmacies (one in City A and two in City B) had smoking spaces outside, without offering any preventive measure for passive smoking.Conclusion Many insurance pharmacies sell tobacco in Japan. To encourage pharmacists to support smoking cessation, we need to reach consensus regarding tobacco sales in insurance pharmacies through discussions.


Assuntos
Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguro Saúde , Farmácias/estatística & dados numéricos , Tabaco , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar
9.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 639, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a need for acceptable and feasible HIV testing options to ensure people living with HIV know their status so they can access care. Pharmacist-provided HIV point-of-care testing (POCT) may overcome testing barriers, including privacy concerns, testing wait times, and improve accessibility. In the APPROACH study, we aimed to develop and assess an HIV POCT program in community pharmacies for future scale up and evaluation. This paper describes the program uptake, participant and pharmacist experiences, and implementation factors. METHODS: A pharmacist-provided HIV POCT program was offered in 4 pharmacies in two Canadian provinces. A mixed methods design incorporated self-report questionnaire data, participant telephone interviews, pharmacist focus groups, workload analysis, and situational analysis to assess the uptake, acceptability and feasibility of the HIV POCT program. RESULTS: Over the 6-month pilot, 123 HIV tests were performed. One new case of HIV was identified; this participant was linked with confirmatory testing and HIV care. Participants were predominantly male (76%), with a mean age of 35 years. This was the first HIV test for 27% participants, and 75% were at moderate to very high risk of undiagnosed HIV infection, by Denver HIV Risk Score. Questionnaires and telephone interviews showed participants were very satisfied with the program; 99% agreed HIV POCT should be routinely offered in pharmacies and 78% were willing to pay for the service. Participants felt the pharmacy was convenient, discreet, and that the pharmacist was supportive and provided education about how to reduce their future risk. Pharmacists felt prepared, confident, and expressed professional satisfaction with offering HIV POCT. Community and public health supports, clear linkage to care plans to refer participants with positive HIV POCT results, and provision of counselling tools were important enabling factors for the program. Pharmacist remuneration, integration with existing healthcare systems, and support for ongoing promotion of HIV POCT availability in pharmacies were identified as needs for future scale-up and sustainability. CONCLUSIONS: A successful model of pharmacy-based POCT, including linkage to care, was developed. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of this approach in finding new diagnoses and linking them with care. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Retrospectively registered with clinicaltrials.gov (NCT03210701) on July 6, 2017.


Assuntos
Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/organização & administração , Aconselhamento/organização & administração , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito/organização & administração , Adulto , Canadá , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Farmácias/estatística & dados numéricos , Farmacêuticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
J Oncol Pharm Pract ; 26(5): 1225-1229, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32408842

RESUMO

Response, action, and adaptation of the way health services are delivered will impact our ability to provide optimized and continuity of care while acting within resource constraints imposed by COVID-19. Care for patients with cancer is particularly important given increased infection rates and worse outcomes from COVID-19 in this patient population, as well as potential adverse outcomes if treatment pathways need to be compromised. In this commentary, we provide a global oncology pharmacy perspective (including both developed and developing nations) on how COVID-19 has impacted access to and delivery of cancer therapies. This perspective was prepared by the International Society of Oncology Pharmacy Practitioners, with input from national and regional oncology pharmacy practice groups (42 practice leaders from 28 countries and regions) who contributed to a snapshot survey between 10 and 22 April 2020. Specifically, we highlight challenges related to safe handling of hazardous drugs and maintaining high-quality medication safety standards that have impacted various stakeholders.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/provisão & distribução , Gestão de Mudança , Infecções por Coronavirus , Oncologia , Neoplasias , Pandemias , Assistência Farmacêutica , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Saúde Global , Humanos , Oncologia/métodos , Oncologia/tendências , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Assistência Farmacêutica/organização & administração , Assistência Farmacêutica/tendências , Farmácias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231482, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315319

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of pharmacists' dispensing workload (PDW) on pharmacy services as measured by prescription suggestion rate (PSR) and dispensing error rate (DER). METHOD: This was an observational study in northern and southern Taiwan's two largest medical centers, from 2012 to 2018. We calculated monthly PDW as number of prescriptions divided by number of pharmacist working days. We used monthly PSR and DER as outcome indicators for pharmacists' review and dispensing services, respectively. We used Poisson regression model with generalized estimation equation methods to evaluate the influence of PDW on PSR and DER. RESULTS: The monthly mean of 463,587 (SD 32,898) prescriptions yielded mean PDW, PSR and DER of 52 (SD 3) prescriptions per pharmacist working days, 30 (SD 7) and 8 (SD 2) per 10,000 prescriptions monthly, respectively. There was significant negative impact of PDW on PSR (adjusted rate ratio, aRR: 0.9786; 95%CI: 0.9744-0.9829) and DER (aRR: 0.9567; 95%CI: 0.9477-0.9658). Stratified analyses by time periods (2012-2015 and 2016-2018) revealed the impact of PDW on PSR to be similar in both periods; but with positive association between PDW and DER in the more recent one (aRR: 1.0086, 95%CI: 1.0003-1.0169). CONCLUSIONS: Reduced pharmacist workload was associated with re-allocation of pharmacy time to provide prescription suggestions and, more recently, decrease dispensing errors. Continuous efforts to maintain appropriate workload for pharmacists are recommended to ensure prescription quality.


Assuntos
Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/estatística & dados numéricos , Farmacêuticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Carga de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Farmácias/estatística & dados numéricos , Técnicos em Farmácia/estatística & dados numéricos , Prescrições/estatística & dados numéricos , Taiwan
12.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230863, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The emergence of chronic diseases as major causes of disability and death has necessitated the introduction of new strategies to effectively address the ever-changing nature of public health problems. As a result, the role of community pharmacies in promoting public health is growing in recent years through the provision of extended pharmacy services. This study was conducted with the aim of assessing community's extent of use and approval of extended pharmacy services at community pharmacies in Bonga town, Southwest Ethiopia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Bonga town, Southwest Ethiopia, on households selected by systematic random sampling. Data was collected using semi-structured questionnaire. Data was collected by personally delivering questionnaires to respondents in selected households. Results of the study were described by frequency, mean and standard deviation (SD). Binary logistic analysis was performed to identify potential associations between dependent and independent variables. RESULTS: Out of 356 individuals included in the study, 58.4% recalled visiting community pharmacy premises during the previous six months. Out of these, 34.6% visited the community pharmacies to get extended pharmacy services. College educated participants were 19.4 times more likely to have used extended pharmacy services as compared to illiterate individuals whereas those who earn monthly income more than 5000 Ethiopian Birr were 3.6 times more likely than those with monthly income of 2000 Ethiopian Birr or less. Of the total participants, 91.3% approved the provision of extended pharmacy services in community pharmacies. CONCLUSION: The extent of community's use of extended pharmacy services at community pharmacies was found to be low. Nevertheless, majority of the study subjects approved the provision of extended pharmacy services at community pharmacies. Efforts to improve the practice of extended pharmacy service provision at community pharmacies should be made by all stake holders.


Assuntos
Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/tendências , Farmácias/estatística & dados numéricos , Farmácias/tendências , Adulto , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Farmacêuticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Papel Profissional , Saúde Pública , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
SEMERGEN, Soc. Esp. Med. Rural Gen. (Ed. Impr.) ; 46(3): 194-201, abr. 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-196703

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Calcular el número de prescripciones de antibióticos por vía oral mediante receta privada (RP) y prescripción irregular (PI) en farmacia comunitaria (FC). MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio observacional, descriptivo, transversal, multicéntrico realizado en todo el territorio nacional durante una semana en cada estación del año (2016-2017). Se analizaron prescripciones de antibióticos de uso sistémico J01 (clasificación Anatómica Terapéutica Química [ATC]) por vía oral con RP o PI considerándose como variables las características de la prescripción y el resultado de la consulta. RESULTADOS: Participaron en el estudio 365 farmacéuticos de 247 farmacias, que recibieron 3.569 demandas de antibióticos mediante RP (71% cumplían la normativa) y 833 con PI. Las RP fueron prescritas por odontólogos (43,7%), médicos de atención primaria (MAP) (26,20%) y pediatras (10,3%), para tratar infecciones odontógenas (39,8%), respiratorias de vías superiores (25,6%), vías inferiores (10,3%) y urinarias (7,7%). Los antibióticos más prescritos fueron amoxicilina (27,9%) y amoxicilina-clavulánico (25,2%). Las PI consistieron en partes de urgencia (32,8%), prescripciones orales/telefónicas (20,4%) y peticiones por cantidad insuficiente (10%). Los prescriptores fueron MAP (25,2%), odontólogos (24,7%) y pediatras (12%) para tratar infecciones respiratorias superiores (32,5%), odontógenas (25,8%), urinarias (14,2%) y respiratorias inferiores (10,8%). Los antibióticos más prescritos fueron amoxicilina-clavulánico (27,4%) y amoxicilina (21,6%). Pese a que todos los pacientes con PI fueron derivados al médico, únicamente el 45,4% aceptaron la derivación. CONCLUSIONES: Este estudio ha permitido la obtención de datos de RP y PI, suponiendo un avance en el conocimiento del uso de antibióticos en nuestro país para una posterior planificación de los servicios de salud


OBJECTIVE: To quantify the proportion of oral antibiotics through private prescription (PP) and irregular prescription (IP) in the Community Pharmacy (CP). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cross-sectional multicentre study carried out in Spanish community pharmacies over a 4week period, one in each season of the year. An analysis was made of private and irregular prescriptions of oral J01 antibacterials for systemic use (Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical [ATC] classification). The study variables used were prescription and consultation characteristics. RESULTS: A total of 3569 PP (71% followed legislation) and 833 IP were recorded by 365 pharmacists working in 247 CP. PP were prescribed by dentists (43.7%), general practitioners (GP) (26.20%), and paediatricians (10.3%), to treat teeth infections (39.8%), upper respiratory infections (25.6%), lower respiratory infections (10.3%), and urinary infections (7.7%). The most prescribed antibiotics were amoxicillin (27.9%) and amoxicillin-clavulanic (25.2%). IP came from Emergency Departments (32.8%), oral/phone prescriptions (20.4%), and patient demand due to insufficient quantity of antibiotic to complete treatment (10%). Prescriptions came from GP (25.2%), dentists (24.7%), and paediatricians (12%) to treat upper respiratory infections (32.5%), teeth infections (25.8%), urinary infections (14.2%), and lower respiratory infections (10.8%). The most prescribed antibiotics were amoxicillin-clavulanic (27.4%) and amoxicillin (21.6%). Since every patient with IP was referred to the GP, 45.4% of them accepted the recommendations of the pharmacists. CONCLUSIONS: This study obtained PP and IP characteristics, unknown and needed data in Spain for future health policy plans


Assuntos
Humanos , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Prescrição Inadequada/estatística & dados numéricos , Farmácias/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Estudos de Coortes , Assistência Farmacêutica , Setor Público , Setor Privado
14.
BMJ Open Qual ; 9(1)2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111608

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A National Health Service (NHS)-funded sore throat test and treat (STTT) service was introduced in selected pharmacies in two local health boards in Wales, as an extension to the national pharmacy common ailment scheme. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of STTT on provision and quality of patient care, namely antibiotic use, patient safety and general practitioner (GP) consultation rates. METHODS: Secondary analyses of STTT consultation data to describe service outcomes, and routine data to explore changes in antibiotic prescribing and the prevalence of complications. Data were also collected from one GP practice to explore the feasibility of measuring changes in sore throat consultation rates in general practice. RESULTS: Less than 20% of 1725 consultations resulted in antibiotic supply. The availability of STTT was associated with greater reductions in prescriptions for phenoxymethylpenicillin than in areas where STTT was not available (-3.8% and -3.4%, difference 0.4%). When pharmacy supplies were included, the reductions in the supply of the antibiotic were similar. No increase in the monthly number of incidents of quinsy was detected, and patients were appropriately referred to other healthcare professionals during pharmacy consultations. GP consultation rates since introduction of STTT were found to be lower than the equivalent monthly average since 2014. CONCLUSIONS: Data from the first 5 months of the STTT service suggest that it may have a role in safely rebalancing uncomplicated sore throat management from general practice to community pharmacies while continuing to promote antibiotic stewardship.


Assuntos
Farmácias/normas , Faringite/diagnóstico , Faringite/terapia , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Farmácias/estatística & dados numéricos , Farmácias/tendências , Projetos Piloto , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicina Estatal/tendências , País de Gales
15.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eAO5066, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074222

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize storage and disposal practices associated with expired medicines in home pharmacies of Primary Care users. METHODS: Cross-sectional study based on data collected from 423 users of 15 Primary Care units located in a Brazilian city, between August 2014 and July 2016. Data were collected via face-to-face interviews. Categorical (demographic and socioeconomic characteristics) and continuous variables were expressed as proportions and means and standard deviations, respectively . Storage behaviors and disposal practices associated with unused and expired medicines were described as frequencies. RESULTS: Most (83%) interviewees were female and approximately 70% had completed high school. The kitchen was the most common medicine storage place (58.6%). Approximately 75% of participants reported inappropriate medicine disposal practices. CONCLUSION: This study revealed high rates of inappropriate medicine disposal practices with direct impacts on pharmacological treatment and the environment. Continuing education of healthcare professionals and the general public is required to raise awareness about proper medicine use and disposal.


Assuntos
Armazenamento de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Família/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Farmácias/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228555, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040513

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance is a growing global health concern. Antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) curbs resistance rates by encouraging rational antimicrobial use. However, data on antimicrobial stewardship in developing countries is scarce. The objective of this study was to characterize antimicrobial use at the University Teaching Hospital (UTH) in Lusaka, Zambia as a guiding step in the development of an AMS program. This was a cross-sectional, observational study evaluating antimicrobial appropriateness and consumption in non-critically ill adult medicine patients admitted to UTH. Appropriateness was defined as a composite measure based upon daily chart review. Sixty percent (88/146) of all adult patients admitted to the general wards had at least one antimicrobial ordered and were included in this study. The most commonly treated infectious diseases were tuberculosis, pneumonia, and septicemia. Treatment of drug sensitive tuberculosis is standardized in a four-drug combination pill of rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide and ethambutol, therefore appropriateness of therapy was not further evaluated. The most common antimicrobials ordered were cefotaxime (n = 45), ceftriaxone (n = 28), and metronidazole (n = 14). Overall, 67% of antimicrobial orders were inappropriately prescribed to some extent, largely driven by incorrect dose or frequency in patients with renal dysfunction. Antimicrobial prescribing among hospitalized patients at UTH is common and there is room for optimization of a majority of antimicrobial orders. Availability of certain antimicrobials must be taken into consideration during AMS program development.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Doenças Transmissíveis/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Adulto , Antibacterianos/classificação , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Infecciosos/classificação , Gestão de Antimicrobianos/organização & administração , Gestão de Antimicrobianos/normas , Gestão de Antimicrobianos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais de Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Universitários/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Farmácias/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
18.
Ann Pharm Fr ; 78(1): 58-69, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564419

RESUMO

CONTEXT: There is more and more evidence about the roles and impacts of the pharmacist. Health decision makers, managers, clinicians and patients need evidence to support an appropriate allocation of funds to different models of practice. OBJECTIVES: The main objective is to present an inventory of the roles and impacts of pharmaceutical activity in the international literature. METHODS: Review of literature. The articles related to the pharmacist's roles and impacts were selected according to a reproducible research strategy from 1990 to the present day (French/English with description of the intervention and impacts, where applicable) and a standard operating procedure. The following variables were extracted: author, country, specifications, pharmaceutical activities, care programs, targeted pathologies, impacts according to eight markers (mortality, morbidity, costs, adverse events, medication errors, compliance, satisfaction, others) and quality score. Only descriptive statistics were performed. RESULTS: As of February 1st, 2019, we recorded 2424 articles divided into 100 subjects (41 pharmaceutical activities, 30 pathologies, 29 care programs). Studies come from the United States (46.66%), multiple countries (8.00%), Canada (7.67%), France (6.06%), the United Kingdom (5.19%), Australia (3.50%) and other countries (22.92%). Studies are cross-sectional (47.55%), retrospective (33.68%) and prospective (17.87%) or non-categorized (<1%). The markers associated with the pharmacist's activity concern morbidity (23.12%), medication errors (11.82%), satisfaction (7.13%), compliance (6.06%), costs (5.47%), adverse events (3.74%), mortality (1.36%), and other indicators (41.31%). The studies have 6763 descriptive parameters and 5224 impact parameters (60.42% are positive, 38.55% are neutral and 1.03% are negative). CONCLUSION: This literature review confirms the roles and impacts of the pharmaceutical activity both in the pharmacy and in the hospital. A majority of the pharmaceutical interventions studied have positive impacts. It is essential to consider evidence about the roles and impacts of the pharmaceutical activities to take full advantage of the pharmacist's expertise in healthcare.


Assuntos
Bibliometria , Farmacêuticos , Farmacologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Papel Profissional , Austrália , Custos de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Tratamento Farmacológico/estatística & dados numéricos , Europa (Continente) , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Erros de Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , América do Norte , Farmácias/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço de Farmácia Hospitalar/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa
19.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 14(1): 93-102, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791439

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyze pharmacy functionality, or the volume of operational pharmacies, among areas in North Carolina and South Carolina affected by Hurricane Florence. METHODS: Using geographic information system software and data from the Federal Emergency Management Agency and Healthcare Ready, we computed, mapped, and analyzed pharmacy functionality measures for the period of September 12, 2018, through September 20, 2018, among counties in North Carolina and South Carolina to examine health-care-related disaster readiness for and response to Hurricane Florence. RESULTS: In the Hurricane Florence-impacted region, counties located along the coast had the most suboptimal pharmacy functionality, whereas counties located more centrally within North Carolina and South Carolina had more optimal pharmacy functionality throughout the disaster. Generally, functionality was high at Hurricane Florence's landfall on September 14, 2018, for which operating pharmacy capacity was reported at 85% in North Carolina and 88% in South Carolina. Both states had the lowest functionality on September 16, 2018, at 71% for North Carolina and 62% for South Carolina. CONCLUSIONS: During the Hurricane Florence event, suboptimal pharmacy functionality was detected for coastal areas and during the disaster response period. Hurricane readiness plans and infrastructure strengthening should be emphasized for community pharmacies in hurricane-prone areas.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Farmácias/normas , Capacidade de Resposta ante Emergências/normas , Humanos , North Carolina , Farmácias/estatística & dados numéricos , South Carolina , Capacidade de Resposta ante Emergências/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Pharm. care Esp ; 22(1): 3-24, 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-196530

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: España presenta una de las cifras más elevadas de resistencias bacterianas de Europa y paralelamente se sitúa entre los países que más antibióticos consume. La participación del farmacéutico comunitario educando al paciente sobre el buen uso de los antibióticos es importante para conseguir los objetivos marcados en el PRAN 2019-21. OBJETIVOS: El objetivo de este estudio fue describir en pacientes de Farmacia Comunitaria: I) el tipo de antibiótico que el paciente retiraba, II) el perfil de prescripción en Atención Primaria y III) el conocimiento que los pacientes tenían sobre el tratamiento. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo en 86 pacientes de 5 oficinas de farmacia. Para ello, se elaboró un cuestionario basado en el de Molinero y cols. (2018), al que se han incluido nuevas preguntas para evaluar el conocimiento y el tipo de infección/antibiótico que tenía el paciente RESULTADOS: El 90% de los pacientes encuestados mostró un buen conocimiento del tratamiento prescrito (duración y/o pauta); sin embargo, sólo un 56% retiraba el antibiótico sobrante en el punto SIGRE. El tratamiento antibiótico más utilizado en las infecciones más prevalentes en nuestro estudio, infecciones respiratorias y urinarias, siguió las recomendaciones de las guías terapéuticas, amoxicilina en el 39% y fosfomicina (75% mujeres)/ciprofloxacino (80% hombres), respectivamente. CONCLUSIONES: Las campañas dirigidas contra la resistencia a antibióticos están empezando a dar resultados positivos tanto en los pacientes como en los prescriptores de Atención Primaria. El farmacéutico comunitario constituye un pilar fundamental en la promoción del correcto uso de antibióticos


INTRODUCTION: Spain presents one of the highest numbers of bacterial resistances in Europe and in parallel it constitutes one of the countries that consume higher amounts of antibiotics. The contribution of community pharmacists in educating patients on the appropriate use of antibiotics is important to achieve the objectives set in the PRAN 2019-21. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe in Community Pharmacy patients: I) the type of antibiotic that patients withdrew, II) the prescription profile in Primary Care and III) the knowledge that patients had about the treatment. METHODS: A descriptive observational study was performed in 86 patients from 5 pharmacies. For this, a questionnaire based on that of Molinero et al. (2018) was designed and several questions were added to assess the knowledge and type of infection / antibiotic that patients presented. RESULTS: 90% of the patients surveyed showed a good knowledge of the prescribed treatment (duration and / or pattern); however, only 56% left the remaining antibiotic at the SIGRE point. The most commonly used antibiotics for the most prevalent infections in our study were amoxicillin in 39% of respiratory infections, fosfomycin in 75% of urinary infections in women and ciprofloxacin in 80% of urinary infections in men, following the recommendations of current therapeutic guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: The dispensation of antibiotics was carried out in all the cases under medical prescription which was done, basically, by primary care physicians and mainly as an initial treatment in respiratory and urinary infections


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Farmácias/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/uso terapêutico , Espanha
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