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1.
Farm. comunitarios (Internet) ; 13(1): 17-23, ene. 2021. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-199748

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: la labor del farmacéutico comunitario en el Servicio de Indicación Farmacéutica (SIF) es muy importante como primera línea de asistencia a la población, aunque no está suficientemente documentada. OBJETIVOS: evaluar la intervención del farmacéutico comunitario en el SIF ante una consulta sobre enfermedad de ojo seco (EOS) con el uso de protocolos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: estudio descriptivo, observacional realizado dentro del programa I-VALOR (enero-junio 2015). Los participantes fueron farmacéuticos voluntarios y pacientes que solicitaron algún remedio para aliviar la EOS. Se utilizó el protocolo del SIF del Foro de Atención Farmacéutica en Farmacia Comunitaria, un consenso para EOS realizado entre sociedades científicas, una hoja de derivación, un informe para el paciente y una hoja de recomendaciones. RESULTADOS: participaron 6.350 pacientes. 62,7 % consultas fueron realizadas por mujeres (24,3 % 46-65 años). El 60 % de los pacientes no presentaba ningún criterio de derivación. Se detectaron 3.887 criterios de derivación en 2.537 pacientes. Se decidió no derivar al 15,4 %, y del resto, 87,3 % aceptó la derivación. La dispensación de algún tratamiento tuvo lugar en el 80 % de los pacientes: 3.157 con tratamiento farmacológico (89,2 % un único medicamento) y 2.403 con tratamiento no farmacológico. El 35 % recibió consejos higiénico-dietéticos y consejo farmacéutico. Se detectaron 25 reacciones adversas a medicamentos (0,4 %). El 70,5 % de todas las consultas realizadas fueron resueltas sin necesidad de derivar al médico. CONCLUSIONES: el programa I-VALOR para EOS ha permitido evaluar la intervención protocolizada del farmacéutico en EOS mediante el registro de las actuaciones farmacéuticas para demostrar la labor desarrollada desde la farmacia comunitaria


BACKGROUND: Minor ailment service offered in community pharmacist is a key element in patient care. Thought in Spain the service is not properly documented. AIMS: The main objective was to evaluate community pharmacists' interventions through an agreed minor ailment service for dry eye syndromes (DES). METHOD: Descriptive study undertaken alongside I-VALOR programme (January-June 2015). Participants were pharmacists from SEFAC who voluntarily decided to do, and patients were those who consulted about DES in community pharmacy. Pharmacists used the Pharmaceutical Care Forum guideline for the Minor Ailment Service and an agreed consensus between pharmaceutical and medical societies. A patient's form and a referral's form were designed. RESULTS: There were 6,350 patients involved. 62.7% consultations were made by women 24.3% of 46-65 years old). No referral criteria were detected in 60% of patients. The pharmacist detected 3,887 referral criteria in 2,537 patients. Pharmacists decided not to refer 15.4% of those patients. 87.3% of the patients referred accepted the referral. Treatments were dispensed in 80% of patients: 3,157 pharmacological treatment (89.2% a single medication) and 2,403 non-pharmacological treatment (medical device, food supplement or eye cleaning product). 35% received hygienic-dietary advice and pharmaceutical advice. Twenty-five adverse drug reactions were detected (0.4%). 70.5% of all consultations made were managed with no referral to a general practitioner (GP). CONCLUSIONS: I-VALOR programme allowed to evaluate an agreed intervention for DES in community pharmacy through the record of MAS to demonstrate CP contribution to manage minor ailments


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Farmácias/organização & administração , Xeroftalmia/diagnóstico , Xeroftalmia/tratamento farmacológico , Comercialização de Produtos , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/estatística & dados numéricos , Farmácias/normas , Educação em Farmácia/organização & administração , Boas Práticas de Dispensação , Uso de Medicamentos/normas , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/normas , Automedicação , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/economia
2.
Pharm. pract. (Granada, Internet) ; 18(3): 0-0, jul.-sept. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-194192

RESUMO

The central role of the Portuguese National Health Service (P-NHS) guarantees virtually free universal coverage. Key policy papers, such as the National Health Plan and the National Plan for Patient Safety have implications for pharmacists, including an engagement in medicines reconciliation. These primary health care reform, while not explicitly contemplating a role for pharmacists, offer opportunities for the involvement of primary care pharmacists in medicines management. Primary care pharmacists, who as employees of the P-NHS work closely with an interdisciplinary team, have launched a pilot service to manage polypharmacy in people living with multimorbidities, involving potential referral to community pharmacy. Full integration of community pharmacy into primary health care is challenging due to their nature as private providers, which implies the need for the recognition that public and private health sectors are mutually complementary and may maximize universal health coverage. The scope of practice of community pharmacies has been shifting to service provision, currently supported by law and in some cases, including the needle and syringe exchange program and generic substitution, remunerated. Key changes envisaged for the future of pharmacists and their integration in primary care comprise the development and establishment of clinical pharmacy as a specialization area, peer clinician recognition and better integration in primary care teams, including full access to clinical records. These key changes would enable pharmacists to apply their competence in medicines optimization for improved patient outcomes


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/normas , Política de Saúde , Farmácias/normas , Farmacêuticos/normas , Assistência Farmacêutica/normas , Farmácias/organização & administração , Portugal , Assistência Farmacêutica/organização & administração , Prática Profissional , Papel Profissional
3.
Pharm. pract. (Granada, Internet) ; 18(3): 0-0, jul.-sept. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-194193

RESUMO

The practice of community pharmacy in low and middle-income countries, including in Indonesia, is often described as in the state of infancy with several intractable barriers that have been substantially and continuously hampering the practice. Such description might be valid in highlighting how pharmacy is practiced and the conditions within and beyond community pharmacy organizations. Therefore, it is not surprising that the concept of integrating community pharmacy into the primary care system may not be considered in the contemporary discourse despite the fact that community pharmacy has been operating within communities for years. However, in the case of Indonesia, we argue that changes in the health care system within the past decade particularly with the introduction of the universal health coverage (UHC) in 2014, may have significantly amplified the role of pharmacists. There is good evidence which highlights the contribution of pharmacist as a substantial health care element in primary care practice. The initiative for employing pharmacist, identified in this article as primary care pharmacist, in the setting of community health center [puskesmas] and the introduction of affiliated or contracted community pharmacy under the UHC have enabled pharmacist to work together with other primary care providers. Moreover, government agenda under the "Smart Use of Medicines" program [Gema Cermat] recognizes pharmacists as the agent of change for improving the rational use of medicines in the community. Community pharmacy is developing, albeit slowly, and is able to grasp a novel position to deliver pharmacy-related primary care services to the general public through new services, for example drug monitoring and home care. Nevertheless, integrating community pharmacy into primary care is relatively a new notion in the Indonesian setting, and is a challenging process given the presence of barriers in the macro, meso- and micro-level of practice


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Farmácias/normas , Farmacêuticos/normas , Prática Profissional , Farmácias/organização & administração , Assistência Ambulatorial/métodos , Assistência Ambulatorial/organização & administração , Indonésia , Integração Comunitária
4.
Pharm. pract. (Granada, Internet) ; 18(3): 0-0, jul.-sept. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-194203

RESUMO

The United States (US) has a complex healthcare system with a mix of public, private, nonprofit, and for-profit insurers, healthcare institutions and organizations, and providers. Unlike other developed countries, there is not a single payer healthcare system or a national pharmaceutical benefits scheme/plan. Despite spending over USD 10,000 per capita in healthcare, the US is among the worst performers compared to other developed countries in outcomes including life expectancy at birth, infant mortality, safety during childbirth, and unmanaged chronic conditions (e.g., asthma, diabetes). Primary care is delivered by physicians and advanced practice providers (i.e., nurse practitioners and physician assistants) in a variety of settings including large health systems, federally qualified health centers or free clinics that provide care to the underserved, or specific facilities for veterans or American Indian and Alaska native peoples. Since 2010, primary care delivery has shifted toward providing patient-centered, coordinated, comprehensive care focused on providing proactive, rather than reactive, population health management, and on the quality, versus volume, of care. Community pharmacy comprises a mix of independently owned, chain, supermarket and mass merchant pharmacies. Community pharmacies provide services such as immunizations, medication therapy management, medication packaging, medication synchronization, point-of-care testing and, in specific states where legislation has been passed, hormonal contraception, opioid reversal agents, and smoking cessation services. There has been criticism regarding the lack of standard terminology for services such as medication synchronization and medication therapy management, their components and how they should be provided, which hampers comparability across studies. One of the main challenges for pharmacists in the US is the lack of provider status at the federal level. This means that pharmacists are not allowed to use existing fee-for-service health insurance billing codes to receive reimbursement for non-dispensing services. In addition, despite there being regulatory infrastructure in multiple states, the extent of service implementation is either low or unknown. Research found that pharmacists face numerous barriers when providing some of these services. State fragmentation and the lack of a single pharmacy organization and vision for the profession are additional challenges


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Farmácias/normas , Farmacêuticos/normas , Prática Profissional , Assistência Farmacêutica/normas , Farmácias/organização & administração , Estados Unidos
5.
Public Health Rep ; 135(5): 547-554, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780671

RESUMO

In 2019, President Trump announced a new initiative, Ending the HIV Epidemic: A Plan for America (EHE). EHE will use 3 key strategies-diagnose, treat, and prevent-to reduce new HIV infections at least 90% by 2030, as well as new laboratory methods and epidemiological techniques to respond quickly to potential outbreaks. Partnerships are an important component in the initiative's success. Pharmacists and pharmacies can play important roles in EHE, including dispensing antiretroviral therapy and providing HIV screening, adherence counseling, medication therapy management, preexposure prophylaxis, and nonprescription syringe sales. The objective of this report is to discuss potential roles that pharmacists and pharmacies can play under the key strategies of EHE.


Assuntos
Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Farmácias/normas , Farmacêuticos/normas , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/normas , Papel Profissional , Adolescente , Adulto , Epidemias/legislação & jurisprudência , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/métodos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(18): e20090, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358395

RESUMO

In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) clinics, the pharmacists responsible for dispensing the herbal medicine usually find the desired ingredients based on positions of the shelves (racks; frames; stands). Generally, these containers are arranged in an alphabetical order depending on the herbal medicine they contain. However, certain related ingredients tend to be used together in many prescriptions, even though the containers may be stored far away from each other. This can cause problems, especially when there are many patients and/or the limited number of pharmacists. If the dispensing time takes longer, it is likely to impact the satisfaction of the patients' experience. Moreover, the stamina of the pharmacists will be consumed quickly.In this study, we investigate on an association rule mining technology to improve efficiency in TCM dispensing based on the frequent pattern growth algorithm and try to identify which 2 or 3 herbal medicines will match together frequently in prescriptions. Furthermore, 3 experimental studies are conducted based on a dataset collected from a traditional Chinese medicine hospital. The dataset includes information for an entire year (2014), including 4 seasons and doctors. Afterward, a questionnaire on the usefulness of the extracted rules was administered to the pharmacists in the case hospital. The responses showed the mining results to be very valuable as a reference for the placement and ordering of the frames in the TCM pharmacies and drug stores.


Assuntos
Armazenamento de Medicamentos/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Eficiência Organizacional , Aprendizado de Máquina , Farmácias/organização & administração , Algoritmos , Humanos , Farmácias/normas
8.
Trop Med Int Health ; 25(8): 962-975, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418294

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the quality of antibiotics sampled from authorised sales outlets (ATs) (i.e. hospitals/health centres, pharmacies and licensed chemical shops) and unauthorised sales outlets (UATs) (mainly street vendors) in Ghana and to explore the health-seeking behaviour of medicine consumers. METHODS: The contents of 14 active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in 348 sampled products were determined using a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. Data on health-seeking practices were collected through entry and exit interviews and field observations from ATs and UATs. RESULTS: It was observed that 66.38% of all sampled antibiotic products were substandard; they either contained less (<90%) or more API (>110%) than the label claim. Medicines from UATs recorded substantially less API contents than those from ATs (F(2,419)  = 43.01, P < 0.0001). For example, 90.54% of street vendor samples contained < 90% of the APIs. 75.93% of consumers often sought self-treatment with drugs without a prescription from UATs, as they perceived UATs as easily accessible, trustworthy and knowledgeable, and their medicines as inexpensive. These consumers rather thought of the formal healthcare providers as alternative sources. CONCLUSIONS: Consumers who purchase from UATs are at high risk of receiving substandard medicines. The quality of medicines in the national healthcare system, in the supply chain and in the distribution system needs to be monitored regularly to reduce the incidence of substandard medicines and their impact on antimicrobial resistance. The fight against substandard medicines needs to incorporate a full understanding of socioeconomic factors that drive consumer decisions regarding their health and choice of healthcare providers.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/normas , Medicamentos Falsificados , Farmácias/normas , Cromatografia Líquida , Gana , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
11.
BMJ Open Qual ; 9(1)2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111608

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A National Health Service (NHS)-funded sore throat test and treat (STTT) service was introduced in selected pharmacies in two local health boards in Wales, as an extension to the national pharmacy common ailment scheme. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of STTT on provision and quality of patient care, namely antibiotic use, patient safety and general practitioner (GP) consultation rates. METHODS: Secondary analyses of STTT consultation data to describe service outcomes, and routine data to explore changes in antibiotic prescribing and the prevalence of complications. Data were also collected from one GP practice to explore the feasibility of measuring changes in sore throat consultation rates in general practice. RESULTS: Less than 20% of 1725 consultations resulted in antibiotic supply. The availability of STTT was associated with greater reductions in prescriptions for phenoxymethylpenicillin than in areas where STTT was not available (-3.8% and -3.4%, difference 0.4%). When pharmacy supplies were included, the reductions in the supply of the antibiotic were similar. No increase in the monthly number of incidents of quinsy was detected, and patients were appropriately referred to other healthcare professionals during pharmacy consultations. GP consultation rates since introduction of STTT were found to be lower than the equivalent monthly average since 2014. CONCLUSIONS: Data from the first 5 months of the STTT service suggest that it may have a role in safely rebalancing uncomplicated sore throat management from general practice to community pharmacies while continuing to promote antibiotic stewardship.


Assuntos
Farmácias/normas , Faringite/diagnóstico , Faringite/terapia , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Farmácias/estatística & dados numéricos , Farmácias/tendências , Projetos Piloto , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicina Estatal/tendências , País de Gales
12.
Ars pharm ; 61(1): 9-13, ene.-mar. 2020. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-188569

RESUMO

El presente artículo es fruto de la conferencia dictada por la Dra. Carmen Peña en el acto de apertura del curso académico de la Cátedra María José Faus Dáder de Atención Farmacéutica, de la Universidad de Granada. En él se narra de manera secuencial el nacimiento y desarrollo de la Atención Farmacéutica en la que resulto esencial el papel que la Federación internacional de Farmacéuticos (FIP) ha jugado para su desarrollo. Conjuntamente con la OMS publican en 1999 el documento "Buenas Prácticas en Farmacia: Estándares para la calidad de los servicios farmacéuticos" que se ha seguido actualizando hasta su versión del 2011.En España, mientras el proceso de la Atención Farmacéutica (Pharmaceutical Care) a nivel mundial, tomaba velocidad de crucero, un grupo de líderes de la farmacia española se movilizó para introducirlos conceptos de la Declaración de Tokio 93, en relación con los principios de la Atención Farmacéutica. En el momento actual estos pioneros, entre los que se encuentran entre otros, el Consejo General de Farmacéuticos y la Cátedra de Atención Farmacéutica de la Universidad de Granada responsable de la integración del grupo de Atención Farmacéutica de dicha universidad, presentan una apuesta decidida por la farmacia profesional a través de una oferta de servicios farmacéuticos de calidad dirigidos al paciente


This article is based on the lecture given by Dr Carmen Peña at the start of the academic year of the María José Faus Dáder Chair of Pharmaceutical Care, of the University of Granada. It narrates the genesis and development of Pharmaceutical Care and the essential role played by the International Federation of Pharmacists (FIP) in its development. In 1999, FIP and WHO together published the document "Good Practices in Pharmacy: Standards for the Quality of Pharmaceutical Services" which has been updated continually until its 2011 version. In Spain, while the global development of Pharmaceutical Care was taking off, a group of Spanish pharmacy leaders mobilized to introduce the concepts of the Tokyo Declaration 93, in relation to the principles of Pharmaceutical Care. At the present time these pioneers, among whom are the General Council of Pharmacists and the Chair of Pharmaceutical Care of the University of Granada which is responsible for the integration of the Pharmaceutical Care group of said university, are firmly committed to Professional Pharmacy by way of offering quality pharmaceutical services aimed at the patient


Assuntos
Humanos , Assistência Farmacêutica/tendências , Farmácias/normas , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Assistência Farmacêutica/organização & administração , Assistência Farmacêutica/normas , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/normas
13.
Drugs Aging ; 37(2): 115-123, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782128

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Older people are prone to drug-related harm. Clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) in community pharmacies may improve appropriate prescribing in this population. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated (persistent) drug therapy changes and its determinants to reduce potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) in older patients based on CDSS alerts and to investigate barriers and facilitators for implementation of drug therapy changes based on these CDSS alerts. METHODS: Five clinical decision rules based on national guidelines for inappropriate drugs in older patients were incorporated in a web-based CDSS in 31 community pharmacies between February and April 2017. The CDSS generated alerts for patients aged > 70 years who had prescriptions for one of the following drugs: alprazolam, amitriptyline, barnidipine, duloxetine, fluoxetine, trazodone, quetiapine and olanzapine. The registered alert management data and medication dispensing histories were analysed to find potential determinants of persistent drug therapy changes. Ten pharmacists were interviewed about the barriers and facilitators for implementing drug therapy changes based on CDSS alerts. An inductive thematic analysis of the transcripts was performed. RESULTS: The pharmacists recorded the management of 1810 of the 2589 generated alerts, and 158 (8.7%) alerts were associated with a persistent drug therapy change. A logistic regression analysis found that the drug triggering the alert and the type of prescription [first dispensing vs. repeat; odds ratio 2.1 (95% confidence interval 1.4-3.2)] were significantly associated with persistent drug therapy changes. No association was found between persistent changes and age, sex, number of medicines in use, or recent clinical medication review. Analysis of the interviews revealed nine barriers and facilitators associated with drug therapy change. CONCLUSION: When community pharmacists implemented CDSS alerts to reduce inappropriate drug use in older patients, they registered a persistent drug therapy change in 8.7% of the cases. Alerts triggered by a first prescription were two times more likely to be associated with a persistent drug therapy change than alerts triggered by repeat prescriptions. This study found that clinical rules can be used to detect inappropriate drug use in older patients and that drug therapy can change based on the alerts. This suggests that CDSS alerts are a useful tool for implementing guidelines on PIM in older patients in daily practice.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/prevenção & controle , Prescrição Inadequada/tendências , Farmácias/normas , Farmacêuticos/normas , Lista de Medicamentos Potencialmente Inapropriados , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos
14.
Epilepsy Behav ; 103(Pt A): 106834, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884119

RESUMO

Epilepsy is the most common neurological disorder encountered in primary care in Southeast Asia. People with epilepsy require long-term therapy management. Nonadherence to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) has been identified as a major factor in suboptimal control of epilepsy. Pharmacies offer patients a first-line point of contact with the healthcare system. Many pharmacies operate with limited or nonqualified human resources that can lead to insufficient knowledge, inappropriate supply of medicines, and insufficient counseling. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the qualification and knowledge concerning epilepsy and AEDs among pharmacy-dispensing workers who sell drugs to people with epilepsy. METHOD: A cross-sectional qualitative study was conducted in public and private pharmacies, in both urban and rural areas of Cambodia and Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). The knowledge was collected through a questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 180 respondents from 123 outlets in the two countries were included in this study. A proportion of 40.8% (31) of respondents in Cambodia and 38.5% (40) in Lao PDR were pharmacists, followed by sellers who did not received any healthcare training with a proportion of 18.4% (14) in Cambodia compared to 20.2% (21) in Lao PDR. Head trauma was cited as the main cause of epilepsy by 72.4% (55) in Cambodia and 27.2% (28) in Lao PDR (p < 0.001). Epilepsy was considered as a contagious disease by 6.6% (5) of respondents in Cambodia compared to 18.4% (19) in Lao PDR (p = 0.03). Eighty-seven percent (66) of respondents in Cambodia knew at least one long-term AED versus 67.3% (70) in Lao PDR (p = 0.003). Phenobarbital was mentioned in more than 90.0% of cases in both countries. In overall, 15.4% (21) thought that if seizures are controlled for some months, people with epilepsy could stop taking their AEDs. Only one respondent from Lao PDR was aware of drug-drug interaction between AEDs and oral contraception. CONCLUSION: An educational intervention should be implemented to improve the knowledge of epilepsy and AEDs for pharmacy-dispensing workers. This could include advice for all pharmacy-dispensing workers in order to improve AED management and follow-up of therapeutic adherence.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia/etnologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Farmácias/normas , Adulto , Camboja/etnologia , Estudos Transversais , Epilepsia/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Laos/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Farmacêuticos/psicologia , Farmacêuticos/normas , Técnicos em Farmácia/psicologia , Técnicos em Farmácia/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas
15.
J Oncol Pharm Pract ; 26(1): 141-145, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132937

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: All guidelines necessitate wearing personal protective equipment during dispensing of oral anticancer drugs. This study aims to measure the degree of contamination on the press-through-package strips of oral anticancer drugs in Japan. METHOD: Surface contamination of the external packaging of anticancer drugs was examined by performing wipe tests at four hospitals and two community pharmacies. The following commercially available drugs were examined: Xeloda®, TS-1®, and methotrexate tablets and SA-1® and Rheumatrex® capsules. RESULTS: The wipe tests' results revealed that the contamination levels of Xeloda® and TS-1® tablets and SA-1® capsules were within their detection limits. In some facilities, the contamination levels on the press-through-package strips of Rheumatrex® capsules were 3.27 × 10-1, which is close to its detection limit. However, across all facilities, the contamination level of methotrexate tablets was above its detection limit. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggested that adherence to oral anticancer drugs may not occur during manufacture or transportation. However, it may be due to the presence of pollutants in the facilities. Prevention of pollution in facilities might eliminate the need to wear personal protective equipment during dispensing of oral anticancer drugs.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Contaminação de Medicamentos/prevenção & controle , Embalagem de Medicamentos/métodos , Contaminação de Equipamentos/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Antineoplásicos/análise , Embalagem de Medicamentos/normas , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/normas , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/normas , Farmácias/normas
16.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 14(1): 93-102, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791439

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyze pharmacy functionality, or the volume of operational pharmacies, among areas in North Carolina and South Carolina affected by Hurricane Florence. METHODS: Using geographic information system software and data from the Federal Emergency Management Agency and Healthcare Ready, we computed, mapped, and analyzed pharmacy functionality measures for the period of September 12, 2018, through September 20, 2018, among counties in North Carolina and South Carolina to examine health-care-related disaster readiness for and response to Hurricane Florence. RESULTS: In the Hurricane Florence-impacted region, counties located along the coast had the most suboptimal pharmacy functionality, whereas counties located more centrally within North Carolina and South Carolina had more optimal pharmacy functionality throughout the disaster. Generally, functionality was high at Hurricane Florence's landfall on September 14, 2018, for which operating pharmacy capacity was reported at 85% in North Carolina and 88% in South Carolina. Both states had the lowest functionality on September 16, 2018, at 71% for North Carolina and 62% for South Carolina. CONCLUSIONS: During the Hurricane Florence event, suboptimal pharmacy functionality was detected for coastal areas and during the disaster response period. Hurricane readiness plans and infrastructure strengthening should be emphasized for community pharmacies in hurricane-prone areas.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Farmácias/normas , Capacidade de Resposta ante Emergências/normas , Humanos , North Carolina , Farmácias/estatística & dados numéricos , South Carolina , Capacidade de Resposta ante Emergências/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 32(5): 2051-2058, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813870

RESUMO

The fundamental human desire is prevention from the infectious disease. Vaccine is the basic element to fulfill this human craving. The proper handling of vaccine can minimize the degradation. The main aim of this study is to find out the knowledge of respondents and storage condition and handling of marketed vaccines in different private clinics, hospitals and community pharmacies in Karachi, Pakistan. The present study revealed that ~77% have been allowed to visit their vaccine storage compartment. The cumulative knowledge of respondents regarding recommended temperature, shake test, thermal, freezing and photo degradation were 49.34%, 24.01%, 95.78%, 54.35% and 47.23% respectively. The major mishandling like the medicines, food and drinks and even laboratory specimen have been noticed 76.3%, 61.62% and 5.35% respectively. Moreover, water filled bottles on upper, lower and door shelves and ice packs or ice trays 3.43% and 14.18%, respectively, have been found in refrigerators and freezers, respectively. No expired vaccines have been found. The major consequence, in the study has been found to be mishandling by the absence of non-professional personnel. Either doctors or pharmacist (health associated professionals) as respondents were nearly all aware about the consequences of the mishandling of vaccines and have the knowledge about the recommended temperature, thermal, photo degradation, and freezing hazards of vaccines. The world-renowned immunization authorities have strongly recommended national/local immunization programs. On the basis of the present study, it is recommended to train the staff and prepare a national guideline for the storage and handling of vaccines, and forcefully implements the law to adopt the particular guideline.


Assuntos
Armazenamento de Medicamentos/normas , Instalações de Saúde/normas , Farmácias/normas , Vacinas/normas , Pessoal de Saúde/normas , Humanos , Imunização/normas , Paquistão , Refrigeração/normas
19.
Therapie ; 74(6): 579-590, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694770

RESUMO

The French Addictovigilance Network aims to monitor all psychoactive substances with abuse potential including prescription drugs and other legal and illegal substances such as new psychoactive substances (NPS) and its consequences in humans. Created in 1990 through a network of regional addictovigilance centres covering the entire country, these pharmacologists with expertise in addictovigilance have developed interface with different partners (physicians, toxicologists, network of community pharmacies, addictology care centers…) and implemented several original tools of pharmacosurveillance (such as DRAMES [death related to the abuse of medicines] in strong collaboration with toxicologists or such OPPIDUM [observation of illegal products and misuse of psychotropic medications]), complementary to the spontaneous reporting. A such multidimensional approach including proactive surveillance by these tools and also among several heterogenous data sources (such as data from hospitals or claims database) is able to detect early addictovigilance signals and warnings as illustrated with three following examples: cannabis use and acute serious cardiovascular disorders, new synthetic opioids (ocfentanil, carfentanil) and severe opiate overdose or deaths, the diverted use of psychoactive drugs (codeine analgesics or sedative H1 antihistamines called purple drank) by adolescents and young adults. The choice of a broad strategy and the multifaceted system implemented by the French Addictovigilance Network using elements of pharmacology (fundamental, clinical, pharmacoepidemiology) expertise is an innovative method to detect early addictovigilance signals, and to describe its characteristics in order to increase awareness of psychoactive substances by patients, users and health professionals.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Notificação de Reações Adversas a Medicamentos/organização & administração , Redes Comunitárias/organização & administração , Medicamentos sob Prescrição , Vigilância de Produtos Comercializados/métodos , Saúde Pública/métodos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Coleta de Dados/normas , Bases de Dados Factuais , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Notificação de Abuso , Inovação Organizacional , Farmácias/organização & administração , Farmácias/normas , Farmacovigilância , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/provisão & distribuição , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/uso terapêutico , Psicotrópicos/provisão & distribuição , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
20.
J Med Syst ; 43(11): 327, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646400

RESUMO

Belgium is in a transition phase from paper-based prescriptions to electronic prescriptions (ePrescriptions) during which both the paper and electronic format are valid. Since patients still get a paper proof of the ePrescription, sometimes pharmacists use the ePrescription as paper-based prescription. When the government demands a complete dematerialization, i.e. no more paper-based prescriptions, this will no longer be possible. Therefore, we questioned the frequency and reasons for treating an ePrescription as paper-based. The logged interactions in the national database were used to identify possible reasons. The tarification service Koninklijk Limburgs Apothekers Verbond (KLAV) provided prescriptions of June 2018. KLAV supports tarification for community pharmacies all over Belgium, thereby providing a representative sample for the Belgian community pharmacies. A two-stage cluster random sampling technique was applied to retrieve a subset of 10,000 prescriptions. In this subset we identified 4961 ePrescriptions (49.61%) of which 226 (4.56%, in total 2.26%) were treated as paper-based. Reasons observed for this incorrect handling are (1) non-compliance of the community pharmacist; (2) errors in software or handling of the community pharmacist; (3) errors at the prescriber side or patient tries to fraud; (4) incorrectly revoking the ePrescription; and (5) errors in software of prescriber. The main reasons for treating ePrescriptions as paper-based are non-compliance of the community pharmacist (n = 124, 54.87%) by ignoring its digital nature, and errors in software or handling of the community pharmacist (n = 85, 37.61%). Future research is necessary to investigate user opinions and to measure the impact of introducing ePrescribing in the daily routine.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Prescrição Eletrônica/normas , Farmacêuticos/psicologia , Bélgica , Prescrições de Medicamentos/normas , Fraude/estatística & dados numéricos , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Erros de Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Farmácias/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas
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