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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(11)2022 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35683007

RESUMO

This editorial summarizes the 12 scientific papers published in the Special Issue "Physiology, Biochemistry, and Pharmacology of Transporters for Organic Cations 2 [...].


Assuntos
Bioquímica , Farmacologia , Cátions , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras
2.
Adicciones (Palma de Mallorca) ; 34(2): 110-127, may 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-202768

RESUMO

Aunque el correcto diagnóstico y manejo de los pacientes con esquizofrenia y un diagnóstico comórbido de trastorno por uso de sustancias (TUS) determinaría una disminución de la morbilidad y mortalidad en estos pacientes, el desarrollo de estrategias terapéuticas eficientes es todavía una asignatura pendiente. Presentamos recomendaciones sobre el manejo farmacológico y psicológico de estos pacientes siguiendo la estructura PICO (Paciente-Intervención-Comparación-Outcome/resultados). Realizamos una evaluación de la calidad de los estudios y un resumen de la evidencia para cada pregunta siguiendo las recomendaciones del grupo de trabajo GRADE («Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation»).(AU)


Although correct diagnosis and management of patients with schizophrenia and a comorbid substance use disorder (SUD) would determine a decrease in morbidity and mortality in these patients, development of efficient therapeutic strategies is still pending. We present recommendations on the pharmacological and psychological management of these patients following the ‘PICO’ structure (Patient-Intervention-Comparison-Outcomes). Evaluation of the quality of studies and summary of the evidence for each question was performed following the recommendations of the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) working group.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Farmacologia , Esquizofrenia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias
3.
Adicciones (Palma de Mallorca) ; 34(2): [128-141], may 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-202769

RESUMO

La concurrencia de depresión y un trastorno por uso de sustancias (TUS) en pacientes que presentan patología dual ha sido reconocida desde hace mucho tiempo como una consideración importante en la práctica clínica. Esta revisión sintetiza la evidencia de intervenciones farmacológicas y psicosociales para trastornos comórbidos de depresión y uso de sustancias y además proporciona recomendaciones clínicas respecto de las mejores intervenciones para tratar a estos pacientes. Se utilizó la mejor evidencia de ensayos controlados aleatorizados para evaluar las opciones de tratamiento. La fuerza de las recomendaciones se describió mediante el enfoque GRADE.(AU)


Co-occurrence of depression and a substance use disorder (SUD) in patients who present dual diagnoses has been long recognized as an important consideration in clinical practice. This review synthesizes the evidence of pharmacological and psychosocial interventions for comorbid depressive disorders and SUDs while providing clinical recommendations about the best interventions to address these patients. The best evidence from randomized controlled trials was used to evaluate treatment options. The strength of recommendations was described using the GRADE approach.(AU)


Assuntos
Guia de Prática Clínica , Farmacologia , Transtorno Depressivo , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias
4.
Adicciones (Palma de Mallorca) ; 34(2): 142-156, may 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-202770

RESUMO

Esta revisión resume las intervenciones farmacológicos y psicosociales que se han realizado en trastorno bipolar (TB) y un diagnóstico comórbido de trastorno por uso de sustancias (TUS) y además proporciona recomendaciones clínicas respecto de cuáles elementos de intervención son útiles para hacer frente a los síntomas del uso de sustancias versus los síntomas de estado de ánimo en pacientes con estas afecciones concurrentes. Se utilizó la mejor evidencia de ensayos controlados aleatorizados para evaluar las opciones de tratamiento. La fuerza de las recomendaciones se describió mediante el enfoque GRADE. Muy pocos de los ensayos aleatorizados realizados hasta la fecha han proporcionado evidencia consistente para el manejo tanto de los síntomas de estado de ánimo como del uso de sustancias en pacientes con TB. No hay disponibilidad de ensayos clínicos para pacientes con TB que utilizan el cannabis. Algunos tratamientos han mostrado beneficios para los síntomas de estado de ánimo sin beneficios para el uso de alcohol o sustancias ilícitas.(AU)


This review synthesizes the pharmacological and psychosocial interventions that have been conducted in comorbid bipolar disorder (BD) and substance use disorders (SUDs) while also providing clinical recommendations about which intervention elements are helpful for addressing substance use versus mood symptoms in patients with these co-occurring conditions. The best evidence from randomized controlled trials was used to evaluate treatment options. The strength of recommendations was described using the GRADE approach. Very few of the randomized trials performed so far have provided consistent evidence for the management of both mood symptoms and substance use in patients with a BD. No clinical trials are available for bipolar patients using cannabis. Some treatments have shown benefit for mood symptoms without benefits for alcohol or illicit substance use.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Farmacologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Transtorno Bipolar
5.
Adicciones (Palma de Mallorca) ; 34(2): 157-167, may 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-202771

RESUMO

Esta revisión resume las intervenciones farmacológicos y psicosociales que han sido llevadas a cabo en trastornos de ansiedad con un diagnóstico comórbido de trastorno por uso de sustancias y además proporciona recomendaciones clínicas respecto de cuáles elementos de intervención son útiles para hacer frente a los síntomas del uso de sustancias y los síntomas de ansiedad en pacientes con estas afecciones concurrentes. Se utilizó la mejor evidencia de ensayos controlados aleatorizados para evaluar las opciones de tratamiento. La fuerza de las recomendaciones se describió mediante el enfoque GRADE. Hay ensayos clínicos disponibles únicamente para el trastorno por estrés postraumático (TEPT) y para el trastorno de ansiedad. En cuanto al diagnóstico comórbido de trastorno por uso de sustancias, todos los estudios han incluido pacientes con consumo de alcohol, ninguno de ellos ha abordado el consumo de cocaína, cannabis o nicotina. Aunque algunos tratamientos han mostrado beneficios para los síntomas de ansiedad sin beneficios para el consumo de alcohol u otras sustancias, solo se han ensayado enfoques farmacológicos limitados (sertralina, desipramina, paroxetina, buspirona, naltrexona y disulfiram).(AU)


This review synthesizes the pharmacological and psychosocial interventions that have been conducted in comorbid anxiety disorders and SUDs while also providing clinical recommendations about which intervention elements are helpful for addressing substance use versus anxiety symptoms in patients with these co-occurring conditions. The best evidence from randomized controlled trials was used to evaluate treatment options. The strength of recommendations was described using the GRADE approach. Clinical trials are only available for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and for social anxiety. Concerning the comorbid substance use, all the studies have included patients with alcohol use, none of them have dealt with cocaine, cannabis or nicotine use. Although some treatments have shown benefit for anxiety symptoms without benefits for alcohol or other substance use, only limited pharmacological approaches have been assayed (sertraline, desipramine, paroxetine, buspirone, naltrexone and disulfiram).(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Farmacologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Transtornos de Ansiedade
6.
Adicciones (Palma de Mallorca) ; 34(2): 168-178, may 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-202772

RESUMO

La evidencia actual confirma la alta comorbilidad entre el trastorno por déficit de atención con hiperactividad (TDAH) y trastorno por uso de sustancias (TUS). Esta revisión resume las intervenciones farmacológicas y psicosociales que se han evaluado en pacientes con TDAH y TUS, y ofrece recomendaciones mediante el enfoque GRADE. Nuestros resultados sugieren: 1) En pacientes con TDAH y trastorno por uso de alcohol, la atomoxetina es recomendable para reducir los síntomas de TDAH (recomendación débil) y el craving de alcohol (recomendación débil). 2) En pacientes con TDAH y trastorno por uso de cannabis, la atomoxetina es recomendable para mejorar los síntomas de TDAH (recomendación débil), no para reducir el uso de cannabis (recomendación débil). 3) En pacientes con TDAH y trastorno por uso de cocaína, el metilfenidato no es recomendable para mejorar los síntomas de TDAH o para reducir el uso de cocaína (recomendación débil). 4) En pacientes con TDAH y trastorno por uso de nicotina, es recomendable el metilfenidato para mejorar los síntomas de TDAH (recomendación débil). Los psicoestimulantes, como metilfenidato o lisdexanfetamina, no son recomendables para reducir el uso de nicotina (recomendación débil). 5) Respecto de los pacientes con TDAH y cualquier TUS, el uso de los psicoestimulantes es recomendable para mejorar los síntomas de TDAH (recomendación débil), no para reducir el uso de sustancias (recomendación débil) o para mejorar la retención del tratamiento (recomendación fuerte).(AU)


Substantial evidence has confirmed the high comorbidity between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and a substance use disorder (SUD). This review synthesizes the pharmacological and psychosocial interventions conducted in ADHD and SUDs, and provides clinical recommendations using the GRADE approach. Our results suggest: 1) In patients with ADHD and alcohol use, atomoxetine is recommended to reduce ADHD symptoms (weak recommendation) and alcohol craving (weak recommendation). 2) In patients with ADHD and cannabis use disorder, atomoxetine is recommended to improve ADHD symptoms (weak recommendation), not to reduce cannabis use (weak recommendation). 3) In patients with ADHD and cocaine use disorder, methylphenidate is not recommended to improve ADHD symptoms or to reduce cocaine use (weak recommendation). 4) In patients with ADHD and comorbid nicotine use disorder, methylphenidate is recommended to improve ADHD symptoms (weak recommendation). Psychoestimulants, such as methylphenidate or lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, are not recommended to reduce nicotine use (weak recommendation). 5) Regarding patients with ADHD and any SUD, the use of psychostimulants is recommended to improve ADHD symptoms (weak recommendation), not to reduce substance use (weak recommendation) or to improve retention to treatment (strong recommendation).(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Farmacologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade
8.
J Med Chem ; 65(9): 6926-6939, 2022 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35500041

RESUMO

Many critical decisions faced in early discovery require a thorough understanding of the dynamic behavior of pharmacological pathways following target engagement. From fundamental decisions on the optimal target to pursue and the ultimate drug product profile (combination of modality, potency, and compound properties) expected to elicit the desired clinical outcome to tactical program decisions such as what chemical series to pursue, what chemical properties require optimization, and what compounds to synthesize and progress, all demand detailed consideration of pharmacodynamics. Model-based target pharmacology assessment (mTPA) is a computational approach centered around large-scale virtual exploration of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic models built early in discovery to guide these decisions. The present work summarizes several examples (use cases) from programs at GlaxoSmithKline that demonstrate the utility of mTPA throughout the drug discovery lifecycle.


Assuntos
Desenho de Fármacos , Farmacologia , Descoberta de Drogas
9.
An. R. Acad. Nac. Farm. (Internet) ; 88(1): 7-18, abr 2022. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-202920

RESUMO

Los microARNs juegan un papel fundamental en el establecimiento de la identidad celular. Componentes de la maquinaria de síntesis de microARNs o microARNs per se, han sido asociados con patologías humanas. Se ha descubierto que los microARNs juegan un papel importante en muchos procesos celulares que están alterados en cáncer como: diferenciación, proliferación y apoptosis. Así, genes que codifican para los microARNs se han encontrado en regiones cromosómicas frecuentemente ganadas o perdidas en cáncer. Algunos microARNs presentan niveles de expresión alterados en cáncer y han demostrado su capacidad para afectar la transformación celular, carcinogénesis y metástasis actuando como oncogenes o tumores supresores. Estos microARNs que está implicados en el desarrollo tumoral se han denominado onco-microARNs, y su nombre da título a este trabajo. Estamos sólo al principio de comprender las repercusiones funcionales de la ganancia o pérdida de un microARN particular en cáncer, y aun se están ensayando las primeras aplicaciones farmacológicas para el tratamiento del cáncer. A pesar de todo, este campo está aportando una serie de prometedoras aplicaciones médicas en el diagnóstico, pronóstico y tratamiento del cáncer que podrían aportar nuevas herramientas a la medicina del futuro.(AU)


MicroRNAs play a fundamental role in establishing cell identity. Components of the microRNA synthesis machinery, or microRNAs per se, have been associated with human pathologies. MicroRNAs have been found to play an important role in many cellular processes that are altered in cancer, such as differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. Thus, genes that code for microRNAs have been found in chromosomal regions frequently gained or lost in cancer. Some microRNAs have altered expression levels in cancer and have demonstrated their ability to affect cell transformation, carcinogenesis, and metastasis by acting as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. These microRNAs that are involved in tumor development have been called onco-microRNAs, and their name gives the title to this work. We are only at the beginning of understanding the functional implications of the gain or loss of a particular microRNA in cancer, and early pharmacological applications for cancer treatment are still being tested. Despite everything, this field is providing a series of promising medical applications in the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of cancer that could provide new tools for the medicine of the future.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Ciências da Saúde , MicroRNAs , Farmacologia , Neoplasias , Terapêutica , Tratamento Farmacológico
10.
An. R. Acad. Nac. Farm. (Internet) ; 88(1): 45-60, abr 2022. ilus, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-202923

RESUMO

Tradicionalmente el diseño de fármacos se ha basado en el diseño de moléculas pequeñas hasta la aparición de terapias basadas en ácidos nucleicos, ya sea por la modificación de ciertos genes o por impedir que las proteínas se transcriban de forma efectiva. Empleando estas nuevas aproximaciones se han podido modificar dianas que hasta el momento se consideraban inmodificables o al menos no lo podían ser por moléculas pequeñas. Sin embargo, estas nuevas aproximaciones no están carentes de limitaciones como la baja biodisponibilidad debido a su limitada estabilidad y dificultad para poder atravesar las barreras celulares. Además, en muchas ocasiones las modificaciones que generan son irreversibles con el consiguiente riesgo de padecer efectos adversos de forma crónica. Como alternativa, han surgido con fuerza una serie de compuestos quiméricos heterobifuncionales denominados PROTACs (Protein Targeting Chimeras). Estos PROTACs son capaces de mantener en la proximidad de la ligasa E3 a una proteína de interés, marcándola con ubiquitina y finalmente, promoviendo su degradación mediada por el proteasoma. Esta aproximación permite la generación de diferentes estructuras de PROTAC por diseño racional o basado en la estructura y, además, permite las modificaciones estructurales necesarias para mejorar su perfil de estabilidad y farmacocinético manteniendo su actividad. Esta revisión pretende dar una visión general de qué son los PROTACs, qué ligasas E3 se emplean por el momento, factores relevantes a la hora de desarrollar un PROTAC y otras aproximaciones similares que no emplean el proteasoma como ruta de degradación.(AU)


The small molecules development has dominated the design of new drugs until the rise of nucleic acid-based therapies, either by modifying a gene or by preventing it from being effectively transcribed. Taking advantage of this new approaches, the pharmacological intervention in therapeutic targets that are considered unmodifiable up to now with small molecules were allowed. However, these new approaches are not devoid of defects such as low bioavailability due to their stability and pharmacokinetic problems, in addition to being irreversible DNA modifications in many cases, with the subsequent risk of suffering chronic adverse effects. Alternatively, a series of chimeric heterobifunctional compounds, called PROTACs (Protein Targeting Chimeras), have emerged with force in recent years. These PROTACs are able to bring E3 ligases closer with proteins of interest in space to label them with ubiquitin. Finally, it was degraded by the proteasome. This approach enables the generation of different PROTACs structures by rational design and, also, allows the chemical structure modification to improve their stability and pharmacokinetic profile keeping their activity. This review aims to give a comprehensive approach of what PROTACs are, what E3 ligases recruit, relevant factors in PROTAC development, and other approaches similar to this but that use non-proteasomal degradation pathways.(AU)


Assuntos
Ciências da Saúde , Produtos Finais de Degradação Proteica , Inibidores de Proteassoma/farmacologia , Farmacologia , Autofagia , Lisossomos
11.
An. R. Acad. Nac. Farm. (Internet) ; 88(1): 83-105, abr 2022. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-202925

RESUMO

Objetivos: revisar la evidencia publicada sobre el uso de AINE (coxibs y clásicos) y evaluar el riesgo cardiovascular (RCV) y gastrointestinal (RGI) asociado. Material y métodos: fueron seleccionados los estudios de cohorte y caso-control que mostraban el RCV o RGI de los AINE versus no expuestos. Se calculó el RR ponderado y el intervalo de confianza 95% para todos los AINE conjuntamente y de forma individual. Resultados: se observó un RCV significativo tanto con coxibs [RR= 1.24 (1.19-1.31)] como con AINE clásicos [RR= 1.18 (1.13-1.24)]. Para los coxibs sería elevado incluso a dosis bajas y en sujetos con RCV basal bajo. Por fármaco individual, rofecoxib [RR= 1.41 (1.33-1.50)] junto con diclofenaco [RR= 1.36 (1.27-1.47)] y etoricoxib [RR= 1.26 (1.08-1.48)] son los AINE con mayor RCV. El metaanálisis sobre el RGI mostró riesgo con los coxibs [RR 1.64 (95% CI 1.44-1.86)]. Por fármaco individual, etoricoxib [RR 4.48 (95% CI 2.98-6.75)] presentó mayor riesgo seguido de rofecoxib [RR 2.02 (95% CI 1.56-2.61)] y celecoxib [RR 1.62 (95% CI 1.46-1.78)]. El riesgo también fue elevado para dosis bajas y edad <65 años. Conclusión: según nuestro estudio, el uso de AINE (coxibs y clásicos) está relacionado con un incremento similar del RCV, incluso a dosis bajas y en pacientes con un RCV bajo-medio. Por otro lado, el uso de coxibs se relacionaría con un incremento del RGI, siendo elevado incluso para dosis bajas y edad <65 años. El riesgo para etoricoxib podría ser superior que para celecoxib y rofecoxib.(AU)


Introduction: the aim of this study is to review the current evidence on the clinical use of NSAIDs, coxibs and nonselective, and to evaluate its cardiovascular (CVR) and gastrointestinal risk (GIR) by means of a meta-analytic procedure. Materials and methods: cohort and case-control studies showing CVR and GIR associated with NSAIDs versus no treatment were selected. We estimated the pooled RR and the 95% confidence interval (CI) for all NSAIDs as a whole and individually. Results: both coxibs (RR, 1.22 [95%CI, 1.17-1.28]) and nonselective NSAIDs (RR 1.18 [95%CI, 1.12-1.24]) were associated with an increased CVR. The coxibs CVR remained even for low-dose and low-baseline CVR subgroups. Analysis by drug disclosed that rofecoxib (RR 1.39 [95%CI, 1.31- 1.47]), along with diclofenac (RR, 1.34 [95%CI, 1.26-1.42]) and etoricoxib (RR 1.27 [95%CI, 1.12-1.43]) were the NSAIDs associated with the highest CVR. Gastrointestinal risk meta-analysis showed that coxibs were associated with a GIR increment [RR1.64 (95% CI 1.44-1.86)]. Analysis by drug disclosed that etoricoxib [RR 4.48 (95% CI 2.98-6.75)]presented the highest GIR followed by rofecoxib [RR 2.02 (95% CI 1.56-2.61)] and celecoxib [RR1.62 (95% CI 1.46-1.78)]. GIR was also high for <65 year-old and low-dose coxibs subgroups. Conclusion: according to our study the use of NSAIDs (coxibs and nonselective) are associated with a similar CVR increment, even for low-dose and low-baseline CVR subgroups. On the other hand, the use of coxibs is associated with a GIR increased, which would be high even for low-dose coxibs and <65-year-old subgroups. The risk would be higher for etoricoxib than for celecoxib and rofecoxib.


Assuntos
Humanos , Ciências da Saúde , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Gastroenteropatias/prevenção & controle , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase , Farmacologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos
13.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2486: 71-86, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35437719

RESUMO

Significant advances in analytical technologies have dramatically improved our ability to deconvolute disease biology at molecular, cellular, and tissue levels. Quantitative system pharmacology (QSP) modeling is a computational framework to systematically integrate pharmaceutical properties of a drug candidate with scientific understanding of that deeper disease etiology, target expression, genetic variability, and human physiological processes, thus enabling more insightful drug development decisions related to efficacy and safety. In this chapter, we discuss the key attributes of QSP models in comparison to traditional models. We discuss a recommended four-step process to construct a QSP model to support drug development decisions. A number of illustrative QSP examples related to high-value drug development questions and decisions impacting target identification, lead generation and optimization, first in human studies, and clinical dose and schedule optimization are covered in the chapter. The future perspectives of QSP in the context of potential regulatory acceptance are also discussed.


Assuntos
Modelos Biológicos , Farmacologia , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Humanos
14.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2486: 129-179, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35437722

RESUMO

Quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP) places an emphasis on dynamic systems modeling, incorporating considerations from systems biology modeling and pharmacodynamics. The goal of QSP is often to quantitatively predict the effects of clinical therapeutics, their combinations, and their doses on clinical biomarkers and endpoints. In order to achieve this goal, strategies for incorporating clinical data into model calibration are critical. Virtual population (VPop) approaches facilitate model calibration while faced with challenges encountered in QSP model application, including modeling a breadth of clinical therapies, biomarkers, endpoints, utilizing data of varying structure and source, capturing observed clinical variability, and simulating with models that may require more substantial computational time and resources than often found in pharmacometrics applications. VPops are frequently developed in a process that may involve parameterization of isolated pathway models, integration into a larger QSP model, incorporation of clinical data, calibration, and quantitative validation that the model with the accompanying, calibrated VPop is suitable to address the intended question or help with the intended decision. Here, we introduce previous strategies for developing VPops in the context of a variety of therapeutic and safety areas: metabolic disorders, drug-induced liver injury, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. We introduce methodological considerations, prior work for sensitivity analysis and VPop algorithm design, and potential areas for future advancement. Finally, we give a more detailed application example of a VPop calibration algorithm that illustrates recent progress and many of the methodological considerations. In conclusion, although methodologies have varied, VPop strategies have been successfully applied to give valid clinical insights and predictions with the assistance of carefully defined and designed calibration and validation strategies. While a uniform VPop approach for all potential QSP applications may be challenging given the heterogeneity in use considerations, we anticipate continued innovation will help to drive VPop application for more challenging cases of greater scale while developing new rigorous methodologies and metrics.


Assuntos
Farmacologia , Algoritmos , Calibragem , Modelos Biológicos , Biologia de Sistemas/métodos
15.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2486: 335-343, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35437730

RESUMO

There is a demand for scientists trained in quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP) that has yet to be met by changes in graduate education. The multidisciplinary nature of QSP is not unlike its predecessor, pharmacokinetics (PKs) and pharmacodynamics (PDs) that have now become firmly established in many educational programs. A hindrance to the evolution of educational programs for QSP is explored and suggestions to move QSP into its proper position as a unique discipline are presented.


Assuntos
Farmacologia , Modelos Biológicos
17.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266419, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35385518

RESUMO

The pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus (COVID-19) is still a major health issue. The COVID-19 pandemic has forced the university teaching to consider in high priority the switch from in-presence teaching to remote teaching, including laboratory teaching. While excellent virtual-laboratory teaching has been proposed and turned out to be very useful, the need of a real-laboratory in-presence teaching is still a major need. This study was aimed at presenting a laboratory exercise focusing (a) on a very challenging therapeutic strategy, i.e. SARS-CoV-2 diagnostics, and (b) on technologies that are playing a central role in applied biochemistry and molecular biology, i.e. PCR and RT-PCR. The aims of the practical laboratory were to determine: (a) the possibility to identify SARS-CoV-2 sequences starting from a recombinant plasmid and (b) the possibility to discriminate cells with respect to the expression of SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein. This activity is simple (cell culture, RNA extraction, RT-qPCR are all well-established technologies), fast (starting from isolated and characterized RNA, few hours are just necessary), highly reproducible (therefore easily employed by even untrained students). We suggest that this laboratory practical exercises should be considered for face-to-face teaching especially if the emergency related to the COVID-19 pandemic is maintained. The teaching protocol here described might be considered in order to perform fast but meaningful in-presence teaching, making feasible the division of crowded classes in low-number cohorts of students, allowing the maintenance of the required social distance.


Assuntos
Bioquímica , Farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus , Ensino , Bioquímica/educação , Farmacologia/educação , RNA , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética
18.
Handb Exp Pharmacol ; 275: 1-31, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35461405

RESUMO

The chapter presents an argument supporting the view that taste, defined as the receptor-mediated signaling of taste cells and consequent sensory events, is proper subject matter for the field of pharmacology. The argument develops through a consideration of how the field of pharmacology itself is to be defined. Though its application toward the discovery and development of therapeutics is of obvious value, pharmacology nevertheless is a basic science committed to examining biological phenomena controlled by the selective interactions between chemicals - regardless of their sources or uses - and receptors. The basic science of pharmacology is founded on the theory of receptor occupancy, detailed here in the context of taste. The discussion then will turn to consideration of the measurement of human taste and how well the results agree with the predictions of receptor theory.


Assuntos
Farmacologia , Papilas Gustativas , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais , Paladar
19.
Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi ; 157(2): 100-103, 2022.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35228438

RESUMO

Among medical care incidents in Japan, an increase in medicine-related errors by nurses have been reported. These errors may be caused by a lack of knowledge of clinical pharmacology and drug interactions. It is important for nurses to acquire risk-management skills based on clinical pharmacology. In order to improve fundamental knowledge in pharmacology and clinical pharmacology for nurses, various training programs exist. We reviewed a number of educational programs in medicine and report our results. Based on our results, it is necessary for medical education programs to include the following 5 essential elements: 1) An analysis of frequently-occurring medication errors in the field of clinical pharmacology, 2) drugs administer for patient characteristic and patient observation practices, 3) an emphasis on the interactions between drugs and food or other drugs, 4) assessment of patient symptoms, risk-management, and the efficacy of drugs, 5) the necessity of using the package inserts. In a new curriculum, it is necessary to have systematic, step by step training in pharmacology and clinical pharmacology. It is also necessary to develop these teaching methods in cooperation with specialists and experts in the field.


Assuntos
Educação em Enfermagem , Farmacologia Clínica , Farmacologia , Currículo , Humanos , Japão , Farmacologia/educação , Farmacologia Clínica/educação
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