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1.
Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi ; 156(3): 171-177, 2021.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33952847

RESUMO

The modified Irwin's method and functional observational battery (FOB)used in non-clinical studies for predicting side effects that may appear in the central nervous system (CNS)in clinical studies consist of mainly macroscopic observation and largely depend on the observer's ability. Therefore, appropriate training for the observer and consistency of findings are extremely important, making it necessary for methods and judgment criteria to be standardized. In addition, because of concern for animal welfare as well as an increase in biopharmaceutical and anticancer drug development, there is increasing opportunity to incorporate safety pharmacological evaluation into general toxicity studies. While CNS evaluation can be incorporated into general toxicity studies relatively easily, studies need to be designed in such a way that reliable data can be obtained without reducing the ability to detect neurobehavioral abnormalities. It is therefore important to improve CNS evaluation techniques and to share these techniques with new observers in order to reliably detect the effects on the CNS during drug development.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Farmacologia , Animais , Sistema Nervoso Central , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Japão
2.
Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi ; 156(2): 103-106, 2021.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33642527

RESUMO

In nursing degree course education, it is needed to enhance contents of pharmacology education for acquiring nursing practice ability in the nursing education model core curriculum and revision of designation regulations. Therefore, it is intended to consider pharmacology education in nursing degree course in universities in the current study in order to cultivate nurses skilled in drug therapy. We have conducted a survey on knowledge required for students of universities of nursing as well as an analysis on contents of inquiries made by nurses on drugs. As a result, it has been revealed that students have recognized effect and side effects of drugs as basic knowledge required for a nurse. With less recognition required on pharmacokinetics and practical contents, however, the knowledge held by students was dissociated with practical knowledge often required for nurses when administering drugs. A possibility has been also revealed by the current survey that nurses may not be able to make use of pharmacokinetics as pharmacological knowledge for patients' treatment management. From results of the survey and previous study, it is believed to be necessary in university education to extend pharmacological knowledge from its basic to clinical stage and build up adequate basic knowledge and thinking power of pharmacology in nursing degree course as well as to sufficiently learn and understand necessity of pharmacokinetics for conducting evaluation of drug efficacy.


Assuntos
Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Educação em Enfermagem , Farmacologia , Currículo , Humanos , Farmacologia/educação , Universidades
3.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 22(1): 17, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413089

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Querying drug-induced gene expression profiles with machine learning method is an effective way for revealing drug mechanism of actions (MOAs), which is strongly supported by the growth of large scale and high-throughput gene expression databases. However, due to the lack of code-free and user friendly applications, it is not easy for biologists and pharmacologists to model MOAs with state-of-art deep learning approach. RESULTS: In this work, a newly developed online collaborative tool, Genetic profile-activity relationship (GPAR) was built to help modeling and predicting MOAs easily via deep learning. The users can use GPAR to customize their training sets to train self-defined MOA prediction models, to evaluate the model performances and to make further predictions automatically. Cross-validation tests show GPAR outperforms Gene set enrichment analysis in predicting MOAs. CONCLUSION: GPAR can serve as a better approach in MOAs prediction, which may facilitate researchers to generate more reliable MOA hypothesis.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Farmacologia , Software , Transcriptoma/genética , Biologia Computacional , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Preparações Farmacêuticas
4.
São Paulo; Propria; 2; 2021. 387 p.
Monografia em Português | LILACS, HomeoIndex - Homeopatia | ID: biblio-1148202

RESUMO

Realizando a ponte entre a farmacologia homeopática (princípio da similitude) e a farmacologia moderna, encontramos uma infinidade de relatos, tanto em compêndios farmacológicos como em experimentos e ensaios clínicos publicados em periódicos científicos, que descrevem uma reação do organismo oposta e secundária a uma ação primária da droga, confirmando a teoria hahnemanniana. Essa ação secundária do organismo, no sentido de manter a homeostase orgânica, é denominada de efeito rebote ou reação paradoxal segundo a racionalidade científica moderna, sendo usada pela homeopatia como resposta terapêutica. (AU)


Building a bridge between homeopathic pharmacology (principle of similitude) and modern pharmacology, one can find countless reports in pharmacological compendia and clinical and experimental trials published in the scientific media describing the secondary reaction of the organism opposed to the primary action of the drug, which confirm Hahnemann's theory. Such secondary action of the organism to preserve organic homeostasis is known in modern science as rebound effect or paradoxical reaction, being used by homeopathy as a therapeutic response.(AU)


Assuntos
Farmacologia , Efeito Secundário , Energia Vital em Homeopatia , Lei dos Semelhantes , Medicamentos Homeopáticos Novos , Efeito Rebote , Homeopatia
5.
São Paulo; Propria; 2; 2021. 477 p.
Monografia em Inglês | LILACS, HomeoIndex - Homeopatia | ID: biblio-1148205

RESUMO

Building a bridge between homeopathic pharmacology (principle of similitude) and modern pharmacology, one can find countless reports in pharmacological compendia and clinical and experimental trials published in the scientific media describing the secondary reaction of the organism opposed to the primary action of the drug, which confirm Hahnemann's theory. Such secondary action of the organism to preserve organic homeostasis is known in modern science as rebound effect or paradoxical reaction, being used by homeopathy as a therapeutic response. (AU)


Realizando a ponte entre a farmacologia homeopática (princípio da similitude) e a farmacologia moderna, encontramos uma infinidade de relatos, tanto em compêndios farmacológicos como em experimentos e ensaios clínicos publicados em periódicos científicos, que descrevem uma reação do organismo oposta e secundária a uma ação primária da droga, confirmando a teoria hahnemanniana. Essa ação secundária do organismo, no sentido de manter a homeostase orgânica, é denominada de efeito rebote ou reação paradoxal segundo a racionalidade científica moderna, sendo usada pela homeopatia como resposta terapêutica. (AU)


Assuntos
Farmacologia , Efeito Secundário , Energia Vital em Homeopatia , Lei dos Semelhantes , Efeito Rebote , Homeopatia , Medicamentos Homeopáticos Novos
6.
São Paulo; Propio; 2; 2021. 1310 p.
Monografia em Português | LILACS, HomeoIndex - Homeopatia | ID: biblio-1148215

RESUMO

Seguindo a mesma dinâmica da homeopatia clássica, essa obra sistematiza uma proposta para empregar os fármacos modernos segundo o princípio da similitude terapêutica, estimulando o efeito rebote (reação vital) curativo do organismo através da administração de substâncias (em doses dinamizadas) que despertaram sintomas semelhantes no estado de saúde humano. Vale ressaltar que os efeitos patogenéticos (ações primárias) dos medicamentos homeopáticos clássicos correspondem aos efeitos terapêuticos, adversos e colaterais dos fármacos modernos, os quais devem apresentar uma totalidade sintomática semelhante ao do paciente para estimular a reação vital curativa (efeito rebote curativo), de acordo ao princípio da similitude terapêutica. Para viabilizar essa proposta, foi necessário elaborar uma Matéria Médica Homeopática dos Fármacos Modernos, agrupando os efeitos terapêuticos, adversos e colaterais das drogas conforme a disposição anátomo-funcional dos capítulos das matérias médicas homeopáticas tradicionais, valorizando a frequência de manifestação dos sintomas observadas nas fases de estudo da droga. Como segundo passo, para facilitar a seleção do medicamento individualizado (semelhança com a totalidade de sintomas do paciente) e a aplicação clínica da proposta, foi elaborado um Repertório Homeopático dos Fármacos Modernos, dispondo os sintomas e seus respectivos medicamentos de forma análoga aos repertórios homeopáticos tradicionais, descrito em outra obra desta coleção. (AU)


Following the pattern of traditional homeopathy, this work proposes to employ modern drugs according to the principle of therapeutic similitude, stimulating the healing rebound effect (vital reaction) of the organism through the administration of substances (in infinitesimal doses) that caused similar symptoms in healthy human. Is worth emphasizing that the pathogenetic effects (primary actions) of classical homeopathic medicines correspond to the therapeutic, adverse and side effects of conventional drugs, which should be similar to totality of the symptoms of the patient to stimulate the curative vital reaction (curative rebound effect) according to the principle of therapeutic similitude. To make this proposal operative, a Homeopathic Materia Medica of Modern Drugs was elaborated, where the therapeutic, adverse and side effects of drugs were grouped following the structure of the traditional homeopathic materia medica, while giving particular value to the frequency of the symptoms observed during the phases of study of the drugs. In order to facilitate the selection of the individualized remedy (i.e., similar to the totality of symptoms of the patient), and thus the clinical application of the present proposal, at a later stage it was also elaborated a Homeopathic Repertory of Modern Drugs, where symptoms and remedies are arranged as in the traditional homeopathic repertories, described in another work of this collection. (AU)


Assuntos
Farmacologia , Materia Medica , Efeito Secundário , Lei dos Semelhantes , Medicamentos Homeopáticos Novos , Efeito Rebote , Homeopatia
7.
São Paulo; Propria; 2; 2021. 781 p.
Monografia em Português | LILACS, HomeoIndex - Homeopatia | ID: biblio-1148263

RESUMO

Seguindo a mesma dinâmica da homeopatia clássica, essa obra sistematiza uma proposta para empregar os fármacos modernos segundo o princípio da similitude terapêutica, estimulando o efeito rebote (reação vital) curativo do organismo através da administração de substâncias (em doses dinamizadas) que despertaram sintomas semelhantes no estado de saúde humano. Vale ressaltar que os efeitos patogenéticos (ações primárias) dos medicamentos homeopáticos clássicos correspondem aos efeitos terapêuticos, adversos e colaterais dos fármacos modernos, os quais devem apresentar uma totalidade sintomática semelhante ao do paciente para estimular a reação vital curativa (efeito rebote curativo), de acordo ao princípio da similitude terapêutica. Para viabilizar essa proposta, foi necessário elaborar uma Matéria Médica Homeopática dos Fármacos Modernos, agrupando os efeitos terapêuticos, adversos e colaterais das drogas conforme a disposição anátomo-funcional dos capítulos das matérias médicas homeopáticas tradicionais, valorizando a frequência de manifestação dos sintomas observadas nas fases de estudo da droga. Como segundo passo, para facilitar a seleção do medicamento individualizado (semelhança com a totalidade de sintomas do paciente) e a aplicação clínica da proposta, foi elaborado um Repertório Homeopático dos Fármacos Modernos, dispondo os sintomas e seus respectivos medicamentos de forma análoga aos repertórios homeopáticos tradicionais, descrito nessa obra. (AU)


Following the pattern of traditional homeopathy, this work proposes to employ modern drugs according to the principle of therapeutic similitude, stimulating the healing rebound effect (vital reaction) of the organism through the administration of substances (in infinitesimal doses) that caused similar symptoms in healthy human. Is worth emphasizing that the pathogenetic effects (primary actions) of classical homeopathic medicines correspond to the therapeutic, adverse and side effects of conventional drugs, which should be similar to totality of the symptoms of the patient to stimulate the curative vital reaction (curative rebound effect) according to the principle of therapeutic similitude. To make this proposal operative, a Homeopathic Materia Medica of Modern Drugs was elaborated, where the therapeutic, adverse and side effects of drugs were grouped following the structure of the traditional homeopathic materia medica, while giving particular value to the frequency of the symptoms observed during the phases of study of the drugs. In order to facilitate the selection of the individualized remedy (i.e., similar to the totality of symptoms of the patient), and thus the clinical application of the present proposal, at a later stage it was also elaborated a Homeopathic Repertory of Modern Drugs, where symptoms and remedies are arranged as in the traditional homeopathic repertories, described in this work. (AU)


Assuntos
Farmacologia , Efeito Secundário , Energia Vital em Homeopatia , Lei dos Semelhantes , Repertório Homeopático , Medicamentos Homeopáticos Novos , Efeito Rebote , Homeopatia
8.
São Paulo; Proprio; 2021. 808 p.
Monografia em Inglês | LILACS, HomeoIndex - Homeopatia | ID: biblio-1148266

RESUMO

Following the pattern of traditional homeopathy, this work proposes to employ modern drugs according to the principle of therapeutic similitude, stimulating the healing rebound effect (vital reaction) of the organism through the administration of substances (in infinitesimal doses) that caused similar symptoms in healthy human. Is worth emphasizing that the pathogenetic effects (primary actions) of classical homeopathic medicines correspond to the therapeutic, adverse and side effects of conventional drugs, which should be similar to totality of the symptoms of the patient to stimulate the curative vital reaction (curative rebound effect) according to the principle of therapeutic similitude. To make this proposal operative, a Homeopathic Materia Medica of Modern Drugs was elaborated, where the therapeutic, adverse and side effects of drugs were grouped following the structure of the traditional homeopathic materia medica, while giving particular value to the frequency of the symptoms observed during the phases of study of the drugs. In order to facilitate the selection of the individualized remedy (i.e., similar to the totality of symptoms of the patient), and thus the clinical application of the present proposal, at a later stage it was also elaborated a Homeopathic Repertory of Modern Drugs, where symptoms and remedies are arranged as in the traditional homeopathic repertories, described in this work. (AU)


Assuntos
Farmacologia , Efeito Secundário , Energia Vital em Homeopatia , Lei dos Semelhantes , Repertório Homeopático , Medicamentos Homeopáticos Novos , Efeito Rebote , Homeopatia
9.
Rev. med. cine ; 16(4): 247-253, dic. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-199490

RESUMO

Las películas comerciales se utilizan cada vez más como método de enseñanza en muchas disciplinas universitarias. En medicina son un recurso importante para enseñar algunos aspectos médicos al ser ilustrados usando el lenguaje cinematográfico. La relación médico-paciente, los dilemas éticos o el profesionalismo son alguno de los temas más presentes en las películas comerciales. En el presente manuscrito tratamos del interés del cine comercial en el campo de la farmacología, cuyo conocimiento está en la frontera de los campos básicos y clínicos. Revisamos el uso de películas para mejorar la enseñanza y aprendizaje de la farmacología y la farmacología clínica. Por ello describimos algunas películas que son especialmente útiles para este propósito, como Awakenings / Despertares de 1990, Lorenzo’s oil / El aceite de Lorenzo de 1992, The constant gardener / El jardinero fiel de 2005 y más recientemente Dallas Buyers Club (2013). Se incluyen algunas recomendaciones para su uso óptimo en la enseñanza de farmacología y farmacología clínica


Commercial movies are increasingly used as a teaching method in many college disciplines. In medicine they are an important resource to teach some aspects of medicine that will gain a considerable benefit of being illustrated using the cinematographic language. Doctor-patient relationship, ethics dilemmas, or professionalism are the most considered in commercial movies. In the present paper we deal with the interest in the field of pharmacology, whose knowledge is in the frontier of basic and clinical fields. We review the use of movies for improving the teaching of pharmacology and clinical pharmacology. Some movies are especially useful to this purpose such as Awakenings (1990), Lorenzo's oil (1992), The constant gardener (2005) and more recently Dallas Buyers Club (2013). Some recommendations for its optimal use in the teaching of pharmacology and clinical pharmacology are included


Assuntos
Humanos , Filmes Cinematográficos , Farmacologia/educação , Medicina nas Artes , Educação Médica , Farmacologia Clínica/educação
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(50): e23546, 2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327305

RESUMO

This is a study on the potential therapeutic targets and pharmacological mechanism of Tripterygium wilfordii (TW) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) based on network pharmacology.Active components of TW were obtained by network pharmacology through oral bioavailability, drug-likeness filtration. Comparative analysis was used to investigate the overlapping genes between active ingredient's targets and AML treatment-related targets. Using STRING database to analyze interactions among overlapping genes. Both KEGG pathway analysis and Gene Ontology enrichment analysis were conducted in DAVID. These genes were analyzed for survival in OncoLnc database.We screened 53 active ingredients; the results of comparative analysis showed that 8 active ingredients had an effect on AML treatment. On the basis of the active ingredients and overlapping genes, we constructed the Drug-Compounds-Genes-Disease Network. Survival analysis of overlapping genes indicated that some targets possessed a significant influence on patients' survival and prognosis. The enrichment analysis showed that the main pathways of targets were Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, NF-kappa B signaling pathway, and HIF-1 signaling pathway.This study, using a network pharmacologic approach, provides another strategy that can help us to understand the mechanisms by which TW treats AML comprehensively.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Fitoterapia/métodos , Tripterygium , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Farmacologia/métodos , Análise de Sobrevida , Biologia de Sistemas/métodos
14.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 39(3): e679, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1138940

RESUMO

Introducción: Los indicadores bibliométricos ayudan a evaluar la repercusión de la evidencia disponible. Objetivo: Comparar el Factor de Impacto, el Eigenfactor Score, SCImago Journal & Country Rank y el Source Normalized Impact per Paper, en revistas de farmacología, toxicología y farmacia de mayor impacto a nivel mundial en sus ediciones 2018. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, obtenido del análisis bibliométrico. Se realizó una búsqueda electrónica en el Instituto para la Información Científica en revistas incluidas en el Journal Citation Report (https://scijournal.org/), para la obtención del Factor de Impacto y Puntuación del factor propio, en el portal web oficial de Scimago Journal para acceder al SCImago Journal & Country Rank (https://www.scimagojr.com/) y para la obtención del Source Normalized Impact per Paper en el portal Journal Indicators (https://www.journalindicators.com/indicators), edición 2018. Los datos se cuantificaron mediante el paquete estadístico STATA v.14.0. Se analizó las características de las revistas para cada indicador, la correlación entre las variables se estimó mediante la prueba de Spearman. Resultados: Se analizaron 100 revistas, todas indizadas en las bases de datos seleccionadas. Los coeficientes de correlación de Spearman obtenidos entre los indicadores estudiados fueron: Factor de Impacto y Puntuación del factor propio = 0,246; Factor de Impacto y Scimago Journal & Country Rank = 0,758; Factor de impacto y Source Normalized Impact per Paper = 0,680; Puntuación del factor propio y Scimago Journal & Country Rank = 0,367, Puntuación del factor propio y Source Normalized Impact per Paper = 0,264 y SCImago Journal & Country Rank y Source Normalized Impact per Paper = 0,541; además fueron estadísticamente significativas (p < 0,05). Conclusiones: Se encontró una correlación moderada a alta y significativa entre el factor de impacto, Puntuación del factor propio, SCImago Journal & Country Rank y el Source Normalized Impact per Paper(AU)


Introduction: Bibliometric indicators are useful to evaluate the impact of the evidence available. Objective: Compare the Impact Factor, the Eigenfactor Score, the SCImago Journal & Country Rank and the Source Normalized Impact per Paper of the highest worldwide impact pharmacology, toxicology and pharmacy journals in their 2018 editions. Methods: A retrospective descriptive study was performed of data obtained from bibliometric analysis. An electronic search was conducted at the Scientific Information Institute of journals included in the Journal Citation Report (https://scijournal.org/) to obtain the Impact Factor and the Eigenfactor Score, in the SCImago Journal official web portal to access the SCImago Journal & Country Rank (https://www.scimagojr.com/) and in Journal Indicators (https://www.journalindicators.com/indicators) 2018 edition to obtain the Source Normalized Impact per Paper. Data were quantified with the statistical package STATA v.14.0. An analysis was done of the characteristics of the journals for each indicator, whereas correlation between the variables was estimated with Spearman's test. Results: A total 100 journals were examined, all of them indexed in the databases selected. Examination of the indicators studied revealed the following Spearman's correlation coefficients: Impact Factor and Eigenfactor Score = 0,246; Impact Factor and SCImago Journal & Country Rank = 0,758; Impact Factor and Source Normalized Impact per Paper = 0,680; Eigenfactor Score and SCImago Journal & Country Rank = 0,367, Eigenfactor Score and Source Normalized Impact per Paper = 0,264, and SCImago Journal & Country Rank and Source Normalized Impact per Paper = 0,541. They were all statistically significant (p < 0,05). Conclusions: A moderate to high and significant correlation was found between Impact Factor, Eigenfactor Score, SCImago Journal & Country Rank and Source Normalized Impact per Paper(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Farmacologia , Farmácia , Toxicologia , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Indicadores Bibliométricos , Fator de Impacto de Revistas
16.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237462, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853259

RESUMO

In the present study, a new class of heavy tailed distributions using the T-X family approach is introduced. The proposed family is called type-I heavy tailed family. A special model of the proposed class, named Type-I Heavy Tailed Weibull (TI-HTW) model is studied in detail. We adopt the approach of maximum likelihood estimation for estimating its parameters, and assess the maximum likelihood performance based on biases and mean squared errors via a Monte Carlo simulation framework. Actuarial quantities such as value at risk and tail value at risk are derived. A simulation study for these actuarial measures is conducted, proving that the proposed TI-HTW is a heavy-tailed model. Finally, we provide a comparative study to illustrate the proposed method by analyzing three real data sets from different disciplines such as reliability engineering, bio-medical and financial sciences. The analytical results of the new TI-HTW model are compared with the Weibull and some other non-nested distributions. The Baysesian analysis is discussed to measure the model complexity based on the deviance information criterion.


Assuntos
Modelos Estatísticos , Economia , Engenharia , Funções Verossimilhança , Método de Monte Carlo , Farmacologia , Projetos de Pesquisa
19.
Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi ; 155(3): 179-184, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32378640

RESUMO

Advances in cancer treatment have led to dramatic increase in cancer survivors. In addition to cardiotoxicity resulting from anthracyclines and radiation therapy, the emergence of novel cancer treatment-related cardiovascular disease (CTRCD) with molecularly targeted therapies and immune checkpoint inhibitors has been recognized as an unmet medical need. Cardio-oncology is a new interdisciplinary research opportunity at the intersection of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Research priorities need to be identified for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of previously unknown CTRCD(s), including (a) cardiac dysfunction and heart failure, (b) coronary artery disease, (c) valvular disease, (d) arrhythmias and QT-prolongation, (e) arterial hypertension, (f) thromboembolic disease, and (g) other cardiovascular disorders. In particular, understanding the fundamental mechanisms underlying CTRCD is essential for developing new methods. Applying more appropriate disease models and more effective methods for toxicity screening will help to better understand CTRCD. Although animal models have been used to predict potential problems, more advanced predictive models are also needed. Biobanks and other specimens with patient registries are expected to facilitate the validation of new biomarkers, genomic analysis, and imaging methods.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Pesquisa Interdisciplinar , Pesquisa Médica Translacional , Animais , Cardiologia/tendências , Cardiotoxicidade , Humanos , Oncologia/tendências , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Farmacologia/tendências
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