Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 3.090
Filtrar
1.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(1): 115-125, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501949

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus is part of the normal flora of animals, and represents one of the leading causes of contagious mastitis in dairy herds worldwide. Sixty-seven epidemiologically unrelated S. aureus isolates from nasal and mastitis milk samples of dairy-producing animals (32 cows, 25 sheep, and 10 goats) were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing and spa typing followed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) on representative isolates and SCCmec-typing on methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates. The highest resistance was observed to penicillin (64.2%, 43/67), followed by tetracycline (23.9%, 16/67), erythromycin (22.4%, 15/67), and streptomycin (17.9%, 12/67). In general, 18 spa types (including newly identified t16958) and 13 sequence types (STs) belonging to 8 clonal complexes (CCs) were detected. The cow-associated isolates were mainly assigned to CC5 (n = 18, related to t267-ST97, t521-ST352, t527-ST97, t304-ST6, and t084-ST15), followed by CC398 (n = 6, t937-ST291), CC45 (n = 3, t230-ST45), CC88 (n = 2, t2526-ST88), CC22 (n = 2, t3680-ST22), and CC522 (n = 1, t3576-ST522). Small ruminant isolates were mostly clustered into CC522 (n = 29, related to t3576, t1534, t16958, t7308, t7311, t7305 [ST522], t1534-ST2057, and t5428-ST2079). Two isolates from cows with mastitis were found to be MRSA, exhibited a composite profile of t937-ST291-SCCmecIV. No isolates carried the PVL and mecC genes. A significant difference in clonal types of S. aureus isolates from cows in comparison with those from small ruminants was found. This study demonstrated the circulation of diverse clones of S. aureus among dairy animals in Iran, with a different clonal composition between cows and small ruminants. The current study also reports MRSA-related mastitis in dairy cows, emphasizing the need for comprehensive surveillance.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Genótipo , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/veterinária , Ruminantes/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Ovinos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia
2.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 559: 313-323, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675662

RESUMO

Antibiotic resistance is a common phenomenon observed during treatment with antibacterials. Use of nanozymes, especially those with synergistic enzyme-like activities, as antibacterials could overcome this problem, but their synthesis is limited by their high cost and/or complex production process. Herein, vanadium oxide nanodots (VOxNDs) were prepared via a one-step bottom-up ethanol-thermal method using vanadium trichloride as the precursor. VOxNDs alone possess bienzyme mimics of peroxidase and oxidase. Accordingly, highly efficient antibacterials against drug-resistant bacteria can be obtained through synergistic catalysis; the oxidase-like activity decomposes O2 to generate superoxide anion radical (O2-) and hydroxyl radicals (OH), and the intrinsic peroxidase-like activity can further induce the production of OH from external H2O2. Consequently, H2O2 concentration could decrease up to four magnitude orders with VOxNDs to achieve an antibacterial efficacy similar to that of H2O2 alone. Wound healing in vivo further confirms the high antibacterial efficiency, good biocompatibility, and application potential of the synergistic antibacterial system due to the "nano" structure of VOxNDs. The method of synthesis of nanodot antibacterials described in this paper is inexpensive, and the results of this study reveal the multi-enzymatic synergism of nanozymes.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Óxidos/química , Compostos de Vanádio/química , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Materiais Biomiméticos/química , Catálise , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HeLa , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Radical Hidroxila/química , Peroxidases/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124851, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546187

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal and its uptake by living organisms causes adverse effect, further resulting in cycle pollution of the biosphere. The specific regulatory mechanism between clays and microbes under Cd stress remains unclear. In this study, interface interactions among clays, microbes and Cd were confirmed. Comparative transcriptome was conducted to investigate how it regulated gene expression patterns of microbes (Chryseobacterium sp. WAL2), which exposed to a series of gradient concentrations of Cd (16, 32, 64 and 128 µg mL-1) for 12 d in the presence and absence of clay montmorillonite (Mt) (16 g L-1). Cd was highly enriched by the unique interface interactions between Mt and bacteria (67.6-82.1%), leading to a more hostile environment for bacterial cells. However, Mt ultimately enhanced bacterial resistance to Cd stress by stimulating the mechanism of bacterial resistance; namely: (i) Mt increased genes expression connected with ion transport, enhancing the uptake of Cd; (ii) Mt stimulated genes expression related to efflux pump and positively regulated cellular oxidative stress (e.g., glutathione) and Cd accumulation (e.g., cysteine) processes. Further, genes expression related to intracellular metabolic processes was enforced, which supplied a driving force and accelerated electron transfer; (iii) Mt improved genes expression involved in DNA replication and other biological processes (e.g., terpenoid backbone biosynthesis) to maintain bacterial vitality. Therefore, the study not only optimized a unique Cd resistance mechanism of Mt on Chryseobacterium sp., but also provided a novel insight for environmental mitigation of heavy metals from the perspective of molecular biology.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Bentonita/farmacologia , Cádmio/toxicidade , Chryseobacterium/efeitos dos fármacos , Chryseobacterium/fisiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Cádmio/farmacocinética , Chryseobacterium/química , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiologia do Solo , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Difração de Raios X
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1040, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31822275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: European Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (Euro-GASP) antimicrobial resistance (AMR) data are used to inform gonorrhoea treatment guidelines; therefore the data need to be robust and representative. We assessed the extent to which Euro-GASP reflects national measures of the AMR situation for Neisseria gonorrhoeae across the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA). METHODS: We compared data from Euro-GASP with published national gonococcal AMR data from 15 countries for azithromycin, cefixime and ciprofloxacin for the period 2009 to 2013 and performed Poisson regression to identify differences (p < 0.05) between the proportions of resistant isolates. The 2014 Euro-GASP AMR data for each country (n = 19) were weighted to account for differences in the distribution of patient characteristics between Euro-GASP and EU/EEA epidemiological gonorrhoea surveillance data. Data were compared to determine whether estimates of resistance levels differed with regards to the 5% threshold used to assess the clinical utility of first-line gonorrhoea treatments. We assessed the quality of decentralised testing by comparing AMR data for isolates tested both centrally and in the participating laboratories, and by evaluating external quality assessment (EQA) performance. RESULTS: There was no significant difference for azithromycin, cefixime and ciprofloxacin resistance when Euro-GASP country data were compared with data from national reports. Weighting slightly altered the Euro-GASP AMR estimates (by between - 4.7 and 4.7% from the unweighted estimates). Weighting resulted in greater changes in estimates of resistance to azithromycin (from - 9.5 to 2.7%) and ciprofloxacin (from - 14.8 to 17.9%) in countries with low isolate numbers and low completeness of reporting (n = 3). Weighting caused AMR levels to fall below or above the 5% threshold for cefixime or azithromycin, respectively in only two countries. Susceptibility category data submitted from the decentralised Euro-GASP laboratories were concordant with the Euro-GASP data (> 90%). EQA performance was also good; < 5% of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) results differed by > 4-fold from the modal MIC of the EQA isolate. CONCLUSIONS: The overall prevalence of AMR reported by Euro-GASP reflects closely the AMR situation for N. gonorrhoeae in the EU/EEA. Euro-GASP data can be used to provide robust AMR estimates to inform the European guideline for the management of gonorrhoea.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/farmacologia , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Cefixima/farmacologia , Cefixima/uso terapêutico , Ciprofloxacino/farmacologia , Ciprofloxacino/uso terapêutico , União Europeia , Gonorreia/diagnóstico , Gonorreia/microbiologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolamento & purificação
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1047, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Molecular tests can allow the rapid detection of tuberculosis (TB) and multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). TB-SPRINT 59-Plex Beamedex® is a microbead-based assay developed for the simultaneous spoligotyping and detection of MDR-TB. The accuracy and cost evaluation of new assays and technologies are of great importance for their routine use in clinics and in research laboratories. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of TB-SPRINT at three laboratory research centers in Brazil and calculate its mean cost (MC) and activity-based costing (ABC). METHODS: TB-SPRINT data were compared with the phenotypic and genotypic profiles obtained using Bactec™ MGIT™ 960 system and Genotype® MTBDRplus, respectively. RESULTS: Compared with MGIT, the accuracies of TB-SPRINT for the detection of rifampicin and isoniazid resistance ranged from 81 to 92% and 91.3 to 93.9%, respectively. Compared with MTBDRplus, the accuracies of TB-SPRINT for rifampicin and isoniazid were 99 and 94.2%, respectively. Moreover, the MC and ABC of TB-SPRINT were USD 127.78 and USD 109.94, respectively. CONCLUSION: TB-SPRINT showed good results for isoniazid and rifampicin resistance detection, but still needs improvement to achieve In Vitro Diagnostics standards.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Catalase/genética , Custos e Análise de Custo , RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Citometria de Fluxo/economia , Genótipo , Humanos , Isoniazida/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mutação , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Rifampina , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tuberculose/economia
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1009, 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779587

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although Streptococcus agalactiae is the leading causative agent of neonatal sepsis and meningitis, recently it is increasingly isolated from non-pregnant adults. The relation between its presence in the genitourinary tract and manifested clinical symptoms of STD patients remains an open question. In this study, a complex epidemiological investigation of GBS isolates from a venerology clinic was performed. METHODS: Ninety-six GBS isolates were serotyped and their genetic relatedness determined by PFGE. MLST was also performed for a subset of 20 isolates. The antibiotic susceptibility was tested with agar dilution. Surface proteins and the ST-17 hypervirulent clone was detected by PCR. RESULTS: The serotype prevalence was the following: V (29.2%), III (27.1%), Ia (22.9%), IV (10.4%), II (5.2%) and Ib (4.2%). A strong association was demonstrated between surface protein genes and serotypes. All isolates were fully susceptible to penicillin, but erythromycin and clindamycin resistance was high (41.7 and 35.4%, respectively), and 8 phenotypically macrolide sensitive isolates carried the ermB gene. 21.9% of all strains belonged to the hypervirulent ST17 clone, most being of serotype III and all were rib +. We found a few serotype IV isolates belonging to several STs and one serotype V/ST110 strain, containing a 44-bp deletion in the atr allele. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of silent ermB genes is of worry, as their expression upon macrolide exposure could lead to unforeseen therapeutic failure, while clindamycin is used for intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis, in case of penicillin allergy. The other alarming result is the high prevalence of ST17 among these strains from STD patients, who could be sources of further infections. This is the first report from Hungary providing both serotyping and genotyping data of GBS isolates. These results could be helpful for vaccine production as the major vaccine candidates are capsular antigens or surface proteins.


Assuntos
Infecções Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico , Streptococcus agalactiae/genética , Adulto , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Hungria/epidemiologia , Macrolídeos/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fenótipo , Prevalência , Sorogrupo , Infecções Estreptocócicas/epidemiologia , Streptococcus agalactiae/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus agalactiae/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus agalactiae/patogenicidade , Virulência/genética
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1008, 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite substantial global effort and updated clinical management guidelines, diarrhea continues to be among leading worldwide causes of morbidity and mortality in children. Infectious diarrhea, the most common form of diarrhea causes substantial morbidity and mortality among children in developing countries, and the muddled use of antibiotics needs caution due to potential problems of drug-resistance. The aim of this study is to identify etiologies of diarrhea and drug susceptibility patterns of bacterial isolates in under-five children in refugee camps in Gambella Region, Ethiopia. METHODS: An institution- based matched case control study was conducted using a questionnaire-based interview from June to December 2017 in Pugnido and Teirkidi refugee camps. Stool samples were collected and parasites causing diarrhea were identified by wet mount microscopy. Conventional culture supplemented with API 20E identification kit was used to identify Salmonella and Shigella species. Antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial isolates was investigated by using the disk diffusion method. The association between etiologies and diarrhea was analyzed using McNemar test or Fisher exact test with 95% confidence interval at a level of significance of P < 0.05. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of enteric pathogens were 55 (41.0%) in diarrhea cases and 18 (13.4%) in healthy controls. The detected etiologies include Giardia lambia (28), Shigella spp. (16), E. hystolyotica/dispar (13), Ascaris lumbricoides (10), Salmonella spp. (6), Cryptosporidium parvum (6), Hymenolepis nana (4) and Isospora belli (3). All isolates were sensitive to kanamycine and ceftazidime. The high resistance rate was observed against ampicillin (100%), amoxicillin (100%), erythromycin (52%), chloramphenicol (47.5%), tetracycline (40.5%), cotrimoxazole (34.8%) and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (33%). The majorities of the isolates had a low rate of resistance to ciprofloxacin (8.7%), naldxic acid (8.7%) and amikacin (13%). CONCLUSIONS: Giardia lamblia, E. Hystolytica/dispar, and Shigella spp are the common etiologies of diarrhea in children in the studied refugee camps. The study also showed that significant numbers of bacterial isolates were resistant to the commonly used antimicrobial drugs. Therefore, improving clinical laboratory services and promoting evidence-based drug prescription may reinforce proper use of antibiotics and reduce the emergence of microbial resistance.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Diarreia/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacteriemia/complicações , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/etiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Prevalência , Campos de Refugiados , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Shigella/isolamento & purificação , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 928, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endemic presence of Klebsiella pneumoniae resistant to carbapenem in Italy has been due principally to the clonal expansion of CC258 isolates; however, recent studies suggest an ongoing epidemiological change in this geographical area. METHODS: 50 K. pneumoniae strains, 25 carbapenem-resistant (CR-Kp) and 25 susceptible (CS-Kp), collected from march 2014 to march 2016 at the Laboratory of Bacteriology of the Paolo Giaccone Polyclinic University hospital of Palermo, Italy, were characterized for antibiotic susceptibility and fully sequenced by next generation sequencing (NGS) for the in silico analysis of resistome, virulome, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and core single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes RESULTS: MLST in silico analysis of CR-Kp showed that 52% of isolates belonged to CC258, followed by ST395 (12%), ST307 (12%), ST392 (8%), ST348 (8%), ST405 (4%) and ST101 (4%). In the CS-Kp group, the most represented isolate was ST405 (20%), followed by ST392 and ST15 (12%), ST395, ST307 and ST1727 (8%). The in silico ß-lactamase analysis of the CR-Kp group showed that the most detected gene was blaSHV (100%), followed by blaTEM (92%), blaKPC (88%), blaOXA (88%) and blaCTX-M (32%). The virulome analysis detected mrk operon in all studied isolates, and wzi-2 was found in three CR-Kp isolates (12%). Furthermore, the distribution of virulence genes encoding for the yersiniabactin system, its receptor fyuA and the aerobactin system did not show significant distribution differences between CR-Kp and CS-Kp, whereas the Klebsiella ferrous iron uptake system (kfuA, kfuB and kfuC genes), the two-component system kvgAS and the microcin E495 were significantly (p < 0.05) prevalent in the CS-Kp group compared to the CR-Kp group. Core SNP genotyping, correlating with the MLST data, allowed greater strain tracking and discrimination than MLST analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Our data support the idea that an epidemiological change is ongoing in the Palermo area (Sicily, Italy). In addition, our analysis revealed the co-existence of antibiotic resistance and virulence factors in CR-Kp isolates; this characteristic should be considered for future genomic surveillance studies.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genética , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Carbapenêmicos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Genótipo , Humanos , Infecções por Klebsiella/microbiologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/classificação , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sicília , beta-Lactamases/genética
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 942, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699044

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Initiating early effective antimicrobial therapy is the most important intervention demonstrated to decrease mortality in patients with gram-negative bacteremia with sepsis. Rapid MIC-based susceptibility results make it possible to optimize antimicrobial use through both escalation and de-escalation. METHOD: We prospectively evaluated the performance of the Accelerate Pheno™ system (AXDX) for identification and susceptibility testing of gram-negative species and compared the time to result between AXDX and routine standard of care (SOC) using 82 patient samples and 18 challenge organisms with various confirmed resistance mechanisms. The potential impact of AXDX on time to antimicrobial optimization was investigated with various simulated antimicrobial stewardship (ASTEW) intervention models. RESULTS: The overall positive and negative percent agreement of AXDX for identification were 100 and 99.9%, respectively. Compared to VITEK® 2, the overall essential agreement was 96.1% and categorical agreement was 95.4%. No very major or major errors were detected. AXDX reduced the time to identification by an average of 11.8 h and time to susceptibility by an average of 36.7 h. In 27 patients evaluated for potential clinical impact of AXDX on antimicrobial optimization, 18 (67%) patients could potentially have had therapy optimized sooner with an average of 18.1 h reduction in time to optimal therapy. CONCLUSION: Utilization of AXDX coupled with simulated ASTEW intervention notification substantially shortened the time to potential antimicrobial optimization in this cohort of patients with gram-negative bacteremia. This improvement in time occurred when ASTEW support was limited to an 8-h coverage model.


Assuntos
Gestão de Antimicrobianos/métodos , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/diagnóstico , Adulto , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estudos Prospectivos , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico
10.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(96): 14466-14469, 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31728462

RESUMO

We report a supramolecular photo-responsive antibiotic (azobenzene-norfloxacin/αCD). This supramolecule exhibited a higher "on-off" ratio of antibacterial ability than azobenzene-norfloxacin alone under UV irradiation. It offers an approach to efficiently regulate the activity of antibiotics by combining the supramolecular and light-regulating strategies together.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Compostos Azo/química , beta-Ciclodextrinas/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Isomerismo , Norfloxacino/química , Norfloxacino/farmacologia , Temperatura Ambiente , Raios Ultravioleta
11.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(10): 162, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612285

RESUMO

Various transient metal and metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) have shown pronounced biological activity, including antibacterial action against different Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria including pathogens and drug-resistant ones. Thus, NPs can be applied in nanotechnology for controlling bacterial growth as well as in biomedicine for the treatment of various diseases. However, the mechanisms of these effects are not clear yet. This review is focused on the antibacterial effects of transient metal NPs, especially iron oxide (Fe3O4) and Ag NPs on Escherichia coli wild type and antibiotic-resistant strains. Ag NPs show more pronounced bactericidal effect than Fe3O4 NPs. Moreover, Ag NPs display more expressed antibacterial effect at low concentrations. Interestingly, kanamycin-resistant strain is more susceptible to Fe3O4 NPs than wild type strain. In order to explain the possible mechanisms of NP effects, in addition to the production of reactive oxygen species causing damage in cells, particularly, their membranes, the changes in the membrane-associated H+-translocating FOF1-ATPase activity, H+-fluxes through the bacterial membrane, redox potential and hydrogen yield by membrane-associated enzymes-hydrogenases, are discussed. We observed from the results that FOF1-ATPase could be a main target for NPs. A scheme of possible action mechanism is proposed.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Membranas , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Férricos , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Prata/farmacologia
12.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(667): 1854-1858, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617972

RESUMO

Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with chronic gastric inflammation, peptic ulcer and an increased risk of gastric cancer. Helicobacter eradication traditionally consists of an empirical therapy combining clarithromycine, amoxicillin and proton pump inhibitors. However, this classic therapy needs to be reassessed because of the raising prevalence of clarithromycine resistance. Various alternative eradication treatments have been studied. This article aims to review the recommended alternatives and the different factors to guide the most appropriate first line eradication therapy.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Helicobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Helicobacter pylori/efeitos dos fármacos , Amoxicilina/farmacologia , Amoxicilina/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Claritromicina/farmacologia , Claritromicina/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/farmacologia , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 873, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640587

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There have been no reports regarding the molecular characteristics, virulence features, and antibiotic resistance profiles of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) from Hainan, the southernmost province of China. METHODS: Two hundred twenty-seven S. aureus isolates, consisting of 76 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and 151 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), were collected in 2013-2014 and 2018-2019 in Hainan, and investigated for their molecular characteristics, virulence genes, antibiotic resistance profiles and main antibiotic resistance genes. RESULTS: Forty sequence types (STs) including three new STs (ST5489, ST5492 and ST5493), and 79 Staphylococcal protein A (spa) types were identified based on multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and spa typing, respectively. ST398 (14.1%, 32/227) was found to be the most prevalent, and the prevalence of ST398-MSSA increased significantly from 2013 to 2014 (5.5%, 5/91) to 2018-2019 (18.4%, 25/136). Seventy-six MRSA isolates were subject to staphylococcus chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) typing. SCCmec-IVa was the predominant SCCmec type, and specifically, ST45-SCCmec IVa, an infrequent type in mainland China, was predominant in S. aureus from Hainan. The antibiotic resistance profiles and antibiotic resistance genes of S. aureus show distinctive features in Hainan. The resistant rates of the MRSA isolates to a variety of antibiotics were significantly higher than those of the MSSA isolates. The predominant erythromycin and tetracycline resistance genes were ermC (90.1%, 100/111) and tetK (91.8%, 78/85), respectively. Eleven virulence genes, including the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (pvl) and eta, were determined, and the frequency of eta and pvl were found to be 57.3 and 47.6%. Such high prevalence has never been seen in mainland China before. CONCLUSION: S. aureus isolates in Hainan have unique molecular characteristics, virulence gene and antibiotic resistance profiles, and main antibiotic resistance genes which may be associated with the special geographical location of Hainan and local trends in antibiotic use.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , China , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Exotoxinas/genética , Humanos , Leucocidinas/genética , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/patogenicidade , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Virulência/genética
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 871, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: On 7th June, 2018, a primary school in Beijing, China notified Shunyi CDC of an outbreak of acute respiratory disease characterized by fever and cough among students and resulting in nine hospitalization cases during the preceding 2 weeks. We started an investigation to identify the etiologic agent, find additional cases, develop and implement control measures. METHODS: We defined probable cases as students, teachers and other staffs in the school developed fever (T ≥ 37.5 °C) with cough or sore throat; or a diagnosis of pneumonia during May 1-June 31, 2018. Confirmed cases were probable cases with Mycoplasma pneumoniae detected in oropharyngeal (OP) swabs by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). We searched case by reviewing school absenteeism records and interviewing students, teachers and staff in this school. Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from symptomatic students. Two qPCR) assay, a duplex qPCR assay, and sequencing were performed to determine the pathogen, genotype and macrolide resistance at the gene level, respectively. RESULTS: From May 1st to June 31st, 2018, we identified 55 cases (36 probable and 19 confirmed), of whom 25 (45%) were hospitalized for complications. All cases were students, none of the teachers and other staffs in the school were with similar symptoms. The attack rate (AR) was 3.9% (55/1398) for all students. The cases were mainly male (58%), with an age range of 7-8 years (median: 7 years). 72% (18/25) of inpatients had radiograph findings consistent with pneumonia, and some cases were hospitalized for up to 4 weeks. Pathogen detection results indicated that Mycoplasma pneumonia (M. pneumoniae) P1 type 1 was the causative agent in this outbreak, and the strain harbored one point mutation of A to G at position 2063. CONCLUSIONS: The infections by macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae are not always mild and pneumonia was common and M. pneumoniae could causes serious complications which require long-term hospitalization. In the future infectious disease prevention and control practice, M. pneumoniae should be paid more attention. It is necessary to establish and improve the pathogen and drug resistance surveillance system in order to prevent and control such mutated strains of M. pneumoniae from causing future outbreaks or epidemics in China.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Pequim/epidemiologia , Criança , Tosse/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Febre/epidemiologia , Febre/microbiologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/genética , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/patogenicidade , Faringite/epidemiologia , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/complicações , Mutação Puntual , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(43): e17720, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651906

RESUMO

The study aimed to determine the pattern of fever resolution among febrile patients undergoing treatment for acute pyelonephritis (APN) and prove that switching therapy based solely on persistent fever beyond 72 hours of antibiotics treatment may be unwarranted.For the purpose of this study, non-responders were defined as those patients who had a persistent fever over 72 hours after the initiation of antibiotic therapy. Responders were defined as those patients who became afebrile in less than 72 hours after the initiation of antibiotic therapy. Clinical cure was defined as the complete resolution of all symptoms during antibiotic therapy without recurrence during the follow-up period.A total of 843 female patients with uncomplicated community-acquired APN met all inclusion criteria. The non-responder group comprised of 248 patients (29%), and the remaining patients constituted the responder group. The median initial C-reactive protein level was higher (15.6 mg/dl vs 12.6 md/dl, P < .001) and bacteremia was more frequent (31% vs 40%, P = .001) in the non-responder group. Escherichia coli (E. coli) was the most common pathogen in both groups; there was no significant difference between the groups in the etiology of APN. Antimicrobial resistance and extended spectrum ß-lactamase producing strains had an increasing trend in the non-responder group but there was no significant difference between the groups.This study shows that it is difficult to identify patients at risk of uncomplicated community-acquired APN by antibiotic-resistant pathogens based exclusively on persistent fever. Patients with a prolonged fever for more than 72 hours show similar antibiotic susceptibility patterns and are not associated with adverse treatment outcomes. Therefore, switching of current antibiotics to broad-spectrum antibiotics should be reserved in this patient population until antibiotic susceptibility test results are available.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/tratamento farmacológico , Febre/tratamento farmacológico , Pielonefrite/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Science ; 365(6459): 1251-1252, 2019 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604229
18.
ABCS health sci ; 44(2): 85-91, 11 out 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1022335

RESUMO

INTRODUÇÃO: A prevalência da desnutrição infantil vem diminuindo em todo o mundo, mas ainda acomete milhões de crianças, especialmente indígenas. Devido ao elevado número de doenças infecciosas associadas à desnutrição, a antibioticoterapia faz parte da terapêutica recomendada. OBJETIVO: Observar os casos de desnutrição entre crianças indígenas e não indígenas hospitalizadas e a terapêutica empregada durante o tratamento. MÉTODOS: Estudo de coorte retrospectivo, farmacoepidemiológico, realizado com informações extraídas de prontuários arquivados do período de janeiro de 2012 a dezembro de 2014 de um hospital público. RESULTADOS: Participaram 166 crianças, sendo o número de crianças indígenas aproximadamente seis vezes maior do que não indígenas. Houve maior prevalência entre lactentes e crianças com idade inferior a um ano apresentaram mais chances de serem internadas por desnutrição. Os diagnósticos de desnutrição mais vistos foram os inespecíficos, com uma proporção significativa de óbitos relacionados ao diagnóstico E43. As infecções mais comuns foram do sistema digestório e respiratório. Crianças indígenas tiveram quase cinco vezes mais chances de apresentarem infecção respiratória. A maior proporção recebeu até três antibióticos, havendo crianças que receberam mais que sete antibióticos diferentes durante o período de internação. CONCLUSÃO: A população infantil deve ser acompanhada por meio de inquéritos que possam subsidiar políticas de saúde que atendam suas necessidades. É necessária a capacitação dos profissionais envolvidos no cuidado da criança desnutrida, recursos materiais e financeiros, a fim diminuir o número de diagnósticos inespecíficos e evitar o uso indiscriminado de antibióticos, sendo imprescindível uma política de controle efetiva no uso da politerapia antimicrobiana.


INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of child malnutrition is declining worldwide, but still affects millions of children, especially indigenous people. Due to the high number of infectious diseases associated with malnutrition, antibiotic therapy is part of the recommended therapy. OBJECTIVE: To observe the cases of malnutrition among hospitalized indigenous and non-indigenous children and the therapy used during treatment. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study, pharmacoepidemiological, carried out with information extracted from medical records filed from January 2012 to December 2014 of a public hospital. RESULTS: 166 children participated, with the number of indigenous children being approximately six times higher than that of nonindigenous children. There was a higher prevalence among infants and children under one year of age who were more likely to be hospitalized for malnutrition. The most frequent diagnoses of malnutrition were nonspecific, with a significant proportion of deaths related to diagnosis E43. The most common infections were of the digestive and respiratory system. Indigenous children were almost five times more likely to have respiratory infection. The highest proportion received up to three antibiotics, with children receiving more than seven different antibiotics during the hospitalization period. CONCLUSION: The child population must be accompanied by surveys that can subsidize health policies that meet their needs. It is necessary to train the professionals involved in the care of malnourished children, material and financial resources, in order to reduce the number of non-specific diagnoses and to avoid the indiscriminate use of antibiotics, a policy of effective control in the use of antimicrobial polytherapy is essential.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Índios Sul-Americanos , Desenvolvimento Infantil/efeitos dos fármacos , Desnutrição , Saúde de Populações Indígenas , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/tratamento farmacológico , Saúde da Criança , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 1): 113140, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541833

RESUMO

This review aims to gather and summarize information about the occurrence of emerging contaminants and antibiotic resistance genes in environmental matrices in Latin America. We aim to contribute to future research by compiling a list of priority pollutants adjusted to the needs and characteristics of Latin America, according to the data presented in this study. In order to perform a comprehensive research and secure a representative and unbiased amount of quality data concerning emerging contaminants in Latin America, the research was performed within the Scopus® database in a time frame from 2000 to July 2019. The countries with higher numbers of published articles were Brazil and México, while most studies were performed in the surroundings of Mexico City and in Southern and Southeastern Brazil. The main investigated environmental matrices were drinking water and surface water. The presence of antibiotic resistance was frequently reported, mainly in Brazil. Monitoring efforts should be performed in other countries in Latin America, as well as in other regions of Brazil and México. The suggested priority list for monitoring of emerging contaminants in Latin America covers: di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), bisphenol-A (BP-A), 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), triclosan (TCS), estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), ethinylestradiol (EE2), tetracycline (TC), amoxicillin (AMOX), norfloxacin (NOR), ampicillin (AMP) and imipenem (IMP). We hope this list serves as a basis for the orientation of the future research and monitoring projects to better understand the distribution and concentration of the listed emerging substances.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Estrogênios/análise , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Brasil , Cidades , Dietilexilftalato/análise , Poluentes Ambientais , Estradiol/análise , Estrona/análise , Etinilestradiol/análise , América Latina , Linestrenol/análise , México , Fenóis/análise , Triclosan/análise
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA