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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4379, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873785

RESUMO

The gut microbiome harbors a 'silent reservoir' of antibiotic resistance (AR) genes that is thought to contribute to the emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens through horizontal gene transfer (HGT). To counteract the spread of AR, it is paramount to know which organisms harbor mobile AR genes and which organisms engage in HGT. Despite methods that characterize the overall abundance of AR genes in the gut, technological limitations of short-read sequencing have precluded linking bacterial taxa to specific mobile genetic elements (MGEs) encoding AR genes. Here, we apply Hi-C, a high-throughput, culture-independent method, to surveil the bacterial carriage of MGEs. We compare two healthy individuals with seven neutropenic patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, who receive multiple courses of antibiotics, and are acutely vulnerable to the threat of multidrug-resistant infections. We find distinct networks of HGT across individuals, though AR and mobile genes are associated with more diverse taxa within the neutropenic patients than the healthy subjects. Our data further suggest that HGT occurs frequently over a several-week period in both cohorts. Whereas most efforts to understand the spread of AR genes have focused on pathogenic species, our findings shed light on the role of the human gut microbiome in this process.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Genes Bacterianos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Sequências Repetitivas Dispersas/efeitos dos fármacos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4648, 2020 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938927

RESUMO

Emergence of tigecycline-resistance tet(X) gene orthologues rendered tigecycline ineffective as last-resort antibiotic. To understand the potential origin and transmission mechanisms of these genes, we survey the prevalence of tet(X) and its orthologues in 2997 clinical E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates collected nationwide in China with results showing very low prevalence on these two types of strains, 0.32% and 0%, respectively. Further surveillance of tet(X) orthologues in 3692 different clinical Gram-negative bacterial strains collected during 1994-2019 in hospitals in Zhejiang province, China reveals 106 (2.7%) tet(X)-bearing strains with Flavobacteriaceae being the dominant (97/376, 25.8%) bacteria. In addition, tet(X)s are found to be predominantly located on the chromosomes of Flavobacteriaceae and share similar GC-content as Flavobacteriaceae. It also further evolves into different orthologues and transmits among different species. Data from this work suggest that Flavobacteriaceae could be the potential ancestral source of the tigecycline resistance gene tet(X).


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Infecções por Flavobacteriaceae/epidemiologia , Flavobacteriaceae/genética , Tigeciclina/farmacologia , China/epidemiologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/genética , Evolução Molecular , Flavobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Flavobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Humanos , Filogenia
3.
Chemosphere ; 254: 126911, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957300

RESUMO

Trivalent organoarsenicals such as methylarsenite (MAs(III)) are considerably more toxic than inorganic arsenate (As(V)) or arsenite (As(III)). In microbial communities MAs(III) exhibits significant antimicrobial activity. Although MAs(III) and other organoarsenicals contribute to the global arsenic biogeocycle, how they exert antibiotic-like properties is largely unknown. To identify possible targets of MAs(III), a genomic library of the gram-negative bacterium, Shewanella putrefaciens 200, was expressed in Escherichia coli with selection for MAs(III) resistance. One clone contained the S. putrefaciens murA gene (SpmurA), which catalyzes the first committed step in peptidoglycan biosynthesis. Overexpression of SpmurA conferred MAs(III) resistance to E. coli. Purified SpMurA was inhibited by MAs(III), phenylarsenite (PhAs(III)) or the phosphonate antibiotic fosfomycin but not by inorganic As(III). Fosfomycin inhibits MurA by binding to a conserved residue that corresponds to Cys117 in SpMurA. A C117D mutant was resistant to fosfomycin but remained sensitive to MAs(III), indicating that the two compounds have different mechanisms of action. New inhibitors of peptidoglycan biosynthesis are highly sought after as antimicrobial drugs, and organoarsenicals represent a new area for the development of novel compounds for combating the threat of antibiotic resistance.


Assuntos
Alquil e Aril Transferases/antagonistas & inibidores , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Organometálicos/farmacologia , Peptidoglicano/biossíntese , Shewanella putrefaciens/efeitos dos fármacos , Alquil e Aril Transferases/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Peptidoglicano/metabolismo , Shewanella putrefaciens/genética
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4365, 2020 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868761

RESUMO

Current approaches explore bacterial genes that change transcriptionally upon stress exposure as diagnostics to predict antibiotic sensitivity. However, transcriptional changes are often specific to a species or antibiotic, limiting implementation to known settings only. While a generalizable approach, predicting bacterial fitness independent of strain, species or type of stress, would eliminate such limitations, it is unclear whether a stress-response can be universally captured. By generating a multi-stress and species RNA-Seq and experimental evolution dataset, we highlight the strengths and limitations of existing gene-panel based methods. Subsequently, we build a generalizable method around the observation that global transcriptional disorder seems to be a common, low-fitness, stress response. We quantify this disorder using entropy, which is a specific measure of randomness, and find that in low fitness cases increasing entropy and transcriptional disorder results from a loss of regulatory gene-dependencies. Using entropy as a single feature, we show that fitness and quantitative antibiotic sensitivity predictions can be made that generalize well beyond training data. Furthermore, we validate entropy-based predictions in 7 species under antibiotic and non-antibiotic conditions. By demonstrating the feasibility of universal predictions of bacterial fitness, this work establishes the fundamentals for potentially new approaches in infectious disease diagnostics.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Evolução Molecular Direcionada , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Estresse Fisiológico , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Doenças Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Entropia , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Genes Bacterianos , Genoma Bacteriano , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Streptococcus pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus pneumoniae/genética , Streptococcus pneumoniae/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
5.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127392, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947654

RESUMO

Discharge of urban stormwater containing organic matter, heavy metals and sometime human feces, to the natural aquatic reservoirs without any treatment is not only an environmental problem. It can lead to prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in stormwater systems and transmission of antibiotic resistance genes to the environment. We performed antibiotic resistome identification and virus detection in stormwater samples from Stockholm, using publicly available metagenomic sequencing MinION data. A MinION platform offers low-cost, precise environmental metagenomics analysis. 37 groups of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB), 11 resistance types with 26 resistance mechanisms - antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) giving tolerance to the aminoglycoside, beta-lactams, fosmidomycin, MLS, multidrug and vancomycin were identified using ARGpore pipeline. The majority of the identified bacteria species were related to the natural environment such as soil and were not dangerous to human. Alarmingly, human pathogenic bacteria carrying resistance to antibiotics currently used against them (Bordetella resistant to macrolides and multidrug resistant Propionibacterium avidum) were also found in the samples. Most abundant viruses identified belonged to Caudovirales and Herpesvirales and they were not carrying ARGs. Unlike the virome, resistome and ARB were not unique for stormwater sampling points. This results underline the need for extensive monitoring of the microbial community structure in the urban stormwater systems to assess antimicrobial resistance spread.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Metagenoma , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fezes/microbiologia , Genes Bacterianos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Macrolídeos , Metagenômica/métodos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , beta-Lactamas
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(32): e20761, 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769862

RESUMO

The regimens containing levofloxacin (LVX) have been recommended as an alternate to standard triple therapy to treat Helicobacter pylori infections and H pylori mixed infection always lead to H pylori chronic infection. Although the molecular mechanism of LVX resistance with gyrA gene mutation has been clearly understood in H pylori, other genes involved in antibiotic resistance remain unclear. Efflux pump plays an important role in clinically relevant multidrug resistance. Furthermore, the relationship between the strains with different LVX level-resistances from individuals is also unknown.Helicobacter pylori monoclonal strains were isolated from patients with eradication failure. E test was used to detect the minimal inhibitory concentration of LVX. One lower-level LVX-resistant clone and 2 higher-level LVX-resistant clones from the same patient were selected to sequence the complete genomes. Single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) and mutations were extracted and analyzed from gryA and resistance-nodulation-division family efflux genes.Two clones with higher-level resistance had the mutation pattern of Asn87Lys and one lower-level LVX-resistant clone had an Asp91Asn mutation. Compared to clones with higher-level resistance, the higher genetic variations were found in genes belonging to the resistance-nodulation-division family in H pylori strains with lower-level resistance to LVX. There were significantly more SNVs of Hp0970 (hefE) and Hp1329 (hefI) in the lower-level LVX-resistant clone than those in the higher-level LVX-resistant clones (P = .044).The mutation pattern of the Asn87Lys of the gyrA gene confers a higher resistance to LVX than that of the Asp91Asn in H pylori. Increase in the number of SNVs of the Hp0970 (hefE) and Hp1329 (hefI) genes change the resistance to LVX. Twelve mutations verified by Sanger sequencing in Hp0970 (hefE) and Hp1329 (hefI) may decrease resistant levels to LVX.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Helicobacter pylori/genética , Levofloxacino/farmacologia , Mutação/genética , Infecções por Helicobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Helicobacter pylori/efeitos dos fármacos , Helicobacter pylori/isolamento & purificação , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 556, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a general dearth of information on extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB). Here, we investigated Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) drug resistance and transmission patterns in EPTB patients treated in the Tshwane metropolitan area, in South Africa. METHODS: Consecutive Mtb culture-positive non-pulmonary samples from unique EPTB patients underwent mycobacterial genotyping and were assigned to phylogenetic lineages and transmission clusters based on spoligotypes. MTBDRplus assay was used to search mutations for isoniazid and rifampin resistance. Machine learning algorithms were used to identify clinically meaningful patterns in data. We computed odds ratio (OR), attributable risk (AR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Of the 70 isolates examined, the largest cluster comprised 25 (36%) Mtb strains that belonged to the East Asian lineage. East Asian lineage was significantly more likely to occur within chains of transmission when compared to the Euro-American and East-African Indian lineages: OR = 10.11 (95% CI: 1.56-116). Lymphadenitis, meningitis and cutaneous TB, were significantly more likely to be associated with drug resistance: OR = 12.69 (95% CI: 1.82-141.60) and AR = 0.25 (95% CI: 0.06-0.43) when compared with other EPTB sites, which suggests that poor rifampin penetration might be a contributing factor. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of Mtb strains circulating in the Tshwane metropolis belongs to East Asian, Euro-American and East-African Indian lineages. Each of these are likely to be clustered, suggesting on-going EPTB transmission. Since 25% of the drug resistance was attributable to sanctuary EPTB sites notorious for poor rifampin penetration, we hypothesize that poor anti-tuberculosis drug dosing might have a role in the development of resistance.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Tuberculose/transmissão , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Isoniazida/uso terapêutico , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidade , Filogenia , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , África do Sul , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236807, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760141

RESUMO

Listeria monocytogenes is the etiological agent of listeriosis, a major foodborne disease and an important public health concern. Contamination of meat with L. monocytogenes occurs frequently at the slaughterhouse. Our aims were; 1) to investigate the distribution of L. monocytogenes in the processing areas of four swine slaughterhouses; 2) to describe the diversity of L. monocytogenes strains by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis; 3) to identify persistent L. monocytogenes strains and describe their distribution; 4) to investigate the associations between persistence of strains and their following characteristics: detection in food isolates, detection in human clinical isolates, and the presence of benzalkonium chloride (BAC) resistance genes. Various operation areas within the four swine slaughterhouses were sampled on four occasions. A total of 2496 samples were analyzed, and L. monocytogenes was successfully isolated from 243 samples. The proportion of positive samples ranged from 32 to 58% in each slaughterhouse and from 24 to 68% in each operation area. Fifty-eight different pulsotypes were identified and eight pulsotypes, present in samples collected during 4 visits, were considered persistent. The persistent pulsotypes were significantly more likely to be detected in food (P < 0.01, exact χ²) and human clinical cases (P < 0.01, exact χ²), respectively. Among pulsotypes harboring the BAC bcrABC resistance cassette or the emrE multidrug transporter gene, 42.8% were persistent compared to 4.5% for pulsotypes without these resistance genes (P < 0.01, exact χ²). Our study highlights the importance of persistent L. monocytogenes strains in the environmental contamination of slaughterhouses, which may lead to repeated contamination of meat products. It also shows that the presence of disinfectants resistance genes is an important contributing factor.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos , Listeria monocytogenes/fisiologia , Listeriose/diagnóstico , Carne/microbiologia , Matadouros , Animais , Compostos de Benzalcônio/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Listeria monocytogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Listeria monocytogenes/isolamento & purificação , Listeriose/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Sorogrupo , Suínos
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 602, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to determine for the first time, in Morocco, the nasal carriage rate, antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and virulence genes of Staphylococcus. aureus isolated from animals and breeders in close contact. METHODS: From 2015 to 2016, 421 nasal swab samples were collected from 26 different livestock areas in Tangier. Antimicrobial susceptibility phenotypes were determined by disk diffusion according to EUCAST 2015. The presence of nuc, mecA, mecC, lukS/F-PV, and tst genes were determined by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for all isolates. RESULTS: The overall S. aureus nasal carriage rate was low in animals (9.97%) and high in breeders (60%) with a statistically significant difference, (OR = 13.536; 95% CI = 7.070-25.912; p < 0.001). In general, S. aureus strains were susceptible to the majority of antibiotics and the highest resistance rates were found against tetracycline (16.7% in animals and 10% in breeders). No Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was detected in animals and breeders. A high rate of tst and lukS/F-PV genes has been recovered only from animals (11.9 and 16.7%, respectively). CONCLUSION: Despite the lower rate of nasal carriage of S. aureus and the absence of MRSA strains in our study, S. aureus strains harbored a higher frequency of tst and lukS/F-PV virulence genes, which is associated to an increased risk of infection dissemination in humans. This highlights the need for further larger and multi-center studies to better define the transmission of the pathogenic S. aureus between livestock, environment, and humans.


Assuntos
Nariz/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Animais Domésticos/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Portador Sadio , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Humanos , Leucocidinas/genética , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nuclease do Micrococo/genética , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Proteínas de Ligação às Penicilinas/genética , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade , Tetraciclina/farmacologia , Virulência/genética
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 615, 2020 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32814558

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The global prevalent ptxP3 strains varies from about 10% to about 50% of circulating B. pertussis population in different areas of China. METHODS: To investigate the difference of vaccination status between different genotypes in the circulating B. pertussis after 10 years of acellular pertussis vaccine (aPV) used in China. The nasopharyngeal swabs and isolates of B. pertussis from these patients were used to perform genotyping of antigen genes. We use antibiotic susceptibility test against erythromycin and sequencing methods for site 2047 of 23S rRNA to determine the resistance status. RESULTS: The ptxP1 allele with erythromycin resistant (ER) B. pertussis infection (total of 449 subjects) consisted of 84.70 to 96.70% from 2012 to 2016 in this study. Vaccinated with co-purified aPV was found in 133(133/403,33.0%), 1(1/9,11.1%) and 2(2/21,9.5%) in ptxP1/fhaB3-ER, ptxP1/fhaB2-ES and ptxP3/fhaB2-ES B. pertussis infected children each, which showed a significant difference (χ2 = 6.87, P = 0.032). CONCLUSIONS: The ptxP3-ES B. pertussis was rare while the ptxP1-ER B. pertussis was steadily increased in Xi'an, China from 2012 to 2016, where co-purified aPV was prevalent used. This pose a hypothesis that the co-purified aPV might protect against ptxP3 strains more efficient, which generated a rare chance for ptxP3 strains to be under the antibiotic pressure and further developed to be erythromycin resistance. A further cohort study and the mechanisms of the additional antigen proteins of co-purified aPV protected against B. pertussis should be consideration.


Assuntos
Bordetella pertussis/efeitos dos fármacos , Bordetella pertussis/genética , Toxina Pertussis/genética , Vacina contra Coqueluche/uso terapêutico , Coqueluche/epidemiologia , Alelos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bordetella pertussis/isolamento & purificação , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Eritromicina/farmacologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nasofaringe/microbiologia , Vacina contra Coqueluche/imunologia , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 23S/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vacinação , Coqueluche/microbiologia , Coqueluche/prevenção & controle
11.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237704, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804963

RESUMO

Since plastics degrade very slowly, they remain in the environment on much longer timescales than most natural organic substrates and provide a novel habitat for colonization by bacterial communities. The spectrum of relationships between plastics and bacteria, however, is little understood. The first objective of this study was to examine plastics as substrates for communities of Bacteria in estuarine surface waters. We used next-generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to characterize communities from plastics collected in the field, and over the course of two colonization experiments, from biofilms that developed on plastic (low-density polyethylene, high-density polyethylene, polypropylene, polycarbonate, polystyrene) and glass substrates placed in the environment. Both field sampling and colonization experiments were conducted in estuarine tributaries of the lower Chesapeake Bay. As a second objective, we concomitantly analyzed biofilms on plastic substrates to ascertain the presence and abundance of Vibrio spp. bacteria, then isolated three human pathogens, V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, and V. vulnificus, and determined their antibiotic-resistant profiles. In both components of this study, we compared our results with analyses conducted on paired samples of estuarine water. This research adds to a nascent literature that suggests environmental factors govern the development of bacterial communities on plastics, more so than the characteristics of the plastic substrates themselves. In addition, this study is the first to culture three pathogenic vibrios from plastics in estuaries, reinforcing and expanding upon earlier reports of plastic pollution as a habitat for Vibrio species. The antibiotic resistance detected among the isolates, coupled with the longevity of plastics in the aqueous environment, suggests biofilms on plastics have potential to persist and serve as focal points of potential pathogens and horizontal gene transfer.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Estuários , Plásticos , Vibrio/isolamento & purificação , Poluentes da Água , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Oceano Atlântico , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Transferência Genética Horizontal , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Vibrio/efeitos dos fármacos , Vibrio/genética
12.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 5147-5163, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764942

RESUMO

Background: In the last decades, nosocomial infections caused by drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa became a common problem in healthcare facilities. Antibiotics are becoming less effective as new resistant strains appear. Therefore, the development of novel enhanced activity antibacterial agents becomes very significant. A combination of nanomaterials with different physical and chemical properties enables us to generate novel multi-functional derivatives. In this study, graphene oxide and polyvinylpyrrolidone-stabilized silver nanoparticles hybrid nanocomposite (GO-Ag HN) were synthesized. The relation between antibiotic resistance and GO-Ag HN potential toxicity to clinical P. aeruginosa strains, their antibiotic resistance, and molecular mechanisms were assessed. Methods: Chemical state, particle size distribution, and morphology of synthesized GO-Ag NH were investigated using spectroscopy and microscopy techniques (UV-Vis, FTIR, XPS, TEM, SEM, AFM). Broad-spectrum antibiotic resistance of P. aeruginosa strains was determined using E-test. Antibiotic resistance genes were identified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: In this study, the toxicity of the GO-Ag NH to the isolated clinical P. aeruginosa strains has been investigated. A high antibiotic resistance level (92%) was found among P. aeruginosa strains. The most prevalent antibiotic resistance gene among tested strains was the AMPC beta-lactamase gene (65.6%). UV-vis, FTIR, and XPS studies confirmed the formation of the silver nanoparticles on the GO nanosheets. The functionalization process occurred through the interaction between Ag nanoparticles, GO, and polyvinylpyrrolidone used for nanoparticle stabilization. SEM analysis revealed that GO nanosheets undergo partial fragmentation during hybrid nanocomposite preparation, which remarkably increases the number of sharp edges and their mediated cutting effect. TEM analysis showed that GO-Ag HN spherical Ag nanoparticles mainly 9-12 nm in size were irregularly precipitated on the GO nanosheet surface. A higher density of Ag NPs was observed in the sheets' wrinkles, corrugations, and sharp edges. This hybrid nanocomposite poses enhanced antibacterial activity against carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa strains through a possible synergy between toxicity mechanisms of GO nanosheets and Ag nanoparticles. With incubation time increasing up to 10 minutes, the survival of P. aeruginosa decreased significantly. Conclusion: A graphene oxide and silver nanoparticles hybrid composite has been shown to be a promising material to control nosocomial infections caused by bacteria strains resistant to most antibiotics.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Grafite/química , Grafite/farmacologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genética , Prata/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237474, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857767

RESUMO

The effective treatment of carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae infection has been limited and required novel potential agents. Due to the novel drug development crisis, using old antimicrobial agents and combination therapy have been highlighted. This study focused on fosfomycin which inhibits cell wall synthesis and has potential activity on Enterobacteriaceae. We evaluated fosfomycin activity against carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae and characterized fosfomycin resistance mechanisms. Fosfomycin revealed effective activity against only 31.8% of carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae isolates. The major resistance mechanism was FosA3 production. The co-occurrence of FosA3 overexpression with the mutation of glpT (or loss of glpT) and/or uhpT was mediated high-level resistance (MIC>256 mg/L) to fosfomycin. Moreover, fosA3 silenced in sixteen fosfomycin-susceptible isolates and the plasmid carrying fosA3 of these isolates increased 32- to 64-fold of fosfomycin MICs in Escherichia coli DH5α transformants. The in vitro activity of fosfomycin combination with amikacin by checkerboard assay showed synergism and no interaction in six (16.2%) and sixteen isolates (43.3%), respectively. No antagonism of fosfomycin and amikacin was observed. Notably, the silence of aac (6)'-Ib and aphA6 was observed in amikacin-susceptible isolates. Our study suggests that the combination of fosfomycin and amikacin may be insufficient for the treatment of carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae isolates.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Fosfomicina/farmacologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo , Amicacina/farmacologia , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Bactérias/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Humanos , Infecções por Klebsiella/microbiologia , Infecções por Klebsiella/patologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/enzimologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Plasmídeos/genética , Plasmídeos/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , beta-Lactamases/genética
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 746: 140894, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763594

RESUMO

Multidrug-resistant bacteria cause difficult-to-treat infections and pose a risk for modern medicine. Sources of multidrug-resistant bacteria include hospital, municipal and slaughterhouse wastewaters. In this study, bacteria with resistance to 3rd generation cephalosporins were isolated from all three wastewater biotopes, including a maximum care hospital, municipal wastewaters collected separately from a city and small rural towns and the wastewaters of two pig and two poultry slaughterhouses. The resistance profiles of all isolates against clinically relevant antibiotics (including ß-lactams like carbapenems, the quinolone ciprofloxacin, colistin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole) were determined at the same laboratory. The bacteria were classified according to their risk to human health using clinical criteria, with an emphasis on producers of carbapenemases, since carbapenems are prescribed for hospitalized patients with infections with multi-drug resistant bacteria. The results showed that bacteria that pose the highest risk, i. e., bacteria resistant to all ß-lactams including carbapenems and ciprofloxacin, were mainly disseminated by hospitals and were present only in low amounts in municipal wastewater. The isolates from hospital wastewater also showed the highest rates of resistance against antibiotics used for treatment of carbapenemase producers and some isolates were susceptible to only one antibiotic substance. In accordance with these results, qPCR of resistance genes showed that 90% of the daily load of carbapenemase genes entering the municipal wastewater treatment plant was supplied by the clinically influenced wastewater, which constituted approximately 6% of the wastewater at this sampling point. Likewise, the signature of the clinical wastewater was still visible in the resistance profiles of the bacteria isolated at the entry into the wastewater treatment plant. Carbapenemase producers were not detected in slaughterhouse wastewater, but strains harboring the colistin resistance gene mcr-1 could be isolated. Resistances against orally available antibiotics like ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole were widespread in strains from all three wastewaters.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Águas Residuárias , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Carbapenêmicos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Hospitais Municipais , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Suínos , beta-Lactamases/genética
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 540, 2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is an ecological and multicausal problem. Infections caused by extended-spectrum ß-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) can be acquired and transmitted in the community. Data on community-associated ESBL-E infections/colonizations in Colombia are scarce. Georeferencing tools can be used to study the dynamics of antimicrobial resistance at the community level. METHODS: We conducted a study of geographic mapping using modern tools based on geographic information systems (GIS). Two study centers from the city of Pereira, Colombia were involved. The records of patients who had ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae were reviewed. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and phenotypic detection of ESBL was done according to CLSI standards. RESULTS: A population of 415 patients with community-acquired infections/colonizations and 77 hospital discharges were obtained. Geographic distribution was established and heat maps were created. Several hotspots were evidenced in some geographical areas of the south-west and north-east of the city. Many of the affected areas were near tertiary hospitals, rivers, and poultry industry areas. CONCLUSIONS: There are foci of antimicrobial resistance at the community level. This was demonstrated in the case of antimicrobial resistance caused by ESBL in a city in Colombia. Causality with tertiary hospitals in the city, some rivers and the poultry industry is proposed as an explanation of the evidenced phenomenon. Geographic mapping tools are useful for monitoring antimicrobial resistance in the community.


Assuntos
Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/epidemiologia , Enterobacteriaceae/enzimologia , Mapeamento Geográfico , Fenótipo , beta-Lactamases/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0230652, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603331

RESUMO

Toxin-antitoxin systems (TAS) are commonly found on bacterial plasmids and are generally involved in plasmid maintenance. In addition to plasmid maintenance, several plasmid-mediated TAS are also involved in bacterial stress response and virulence. Even though the same TAS are present in a variety of plasmid types and bacterial species, differences in their sequences, expression and functions are not well defined. Here, we aimed to identify commonly occurring plasmid TAS in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae and compare the sequence, expression and plasmid stability function of their variants. 27 putative type II TAS were identified from 1063 plasmids of Klebsiella pneumoniae in GenBank. Among these, ccdAB and pemIK were found to be most common, also occurring in plasmids of E. coli. Comparisons of ccdAB variants, taken from E. coli and K. pneumoniae, revealed sequence differences, while pemIK variants from IncF and IncL/M plasmids were almost identical. Similarly, the expression and plasmid stability functions of ccdAB variants varied according to the host strain and species, whereas the expression and functions of pemIK variants were consistent among host strains. The specialised functions of some TAS may determine the host specificity and epidemiology of major antibiotic resistance plasmids.


Assuntos
Enterobacteriaceae/genética , Plasmídeos/genética , Sistemas Toxina-Antitoxina/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Sequência Conservada , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 518, 2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32677920

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of bacterial diarrhea worldwide, and increasing rates of fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance in C. jejuni are a major public health concern. The rapid detection and tracking of FQ resistance are critical needs in developing countries, as these antimicrobials are widely used against C. jejuni infections. Detection of point mutations at T86I in the gyrA gene by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is a rapid detection tool that may improve FQ resistance tracking. METHODS: C. jejuni isolates obtained from children with diarrhea in Peru were tested by RT-PCR to detect point mutations at T86I in gyrA. Further confirmation was performed by sequencing of the gyrA gene. RESULTS: We detected point mutations at T86I in the gyrA gene in 100% (141/141) of C. jejuni clinical isolates that were previously confirmed as ciprofloxacin-resistant by E-test. No mutations were detected at T86I in gyrA in any ciprofloxacin-sensitive isolates. CONCLUSIONS: Detection of T86I mutations in C. jejuni is a rapid, sensitive, and specific method to identify fluoroquinolone resistance in Peru. This detection approach could be broadly employed in epidemiologic surveillance, therefore reducing time and cost in regions with limited resources.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter/diagnóstico , Campylobacter jejuni/genética , DNA Girase/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Fluoroquinolonas/uso terapêutico , Mutação Puntual , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Infecções por Campylobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Campylobacter jejuni/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Ciprofloxacino/uso terapêutico , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Diarreia/diagnóstico , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Diarreia/microbiologia , Humanos , Isoleucina/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Peru , Treonina/genética
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(32): 19455-19464, 2020 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703812

RESUMO

A better understanding of how antibiotic exposure impacts the evolution of resistance in bacterial populations is crucial for designing more sustainable treatment strategies. The conventional approach to this question is to measure the range of concentrations over which resistant strain(s) are selectively favored over a sensitive strain. Here, we instead investigate how antibiotic concentration impacts the initial establishment of resistance from single cells, mimicking the clonal expansion of a resistant lineage following mutation or horizontal gene transfer. Using two Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains carrying resistance plasmids, we show that single resistant cells have <5% probability of detectable outgrowth at antibiotic concentrations as low as one-eighth of the resistant strain's minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). This low probability of establishment is due to detrimental effects of antibiotics on resistant cells, coupled with the inherently stochastic nature of cell division and death on the single-cell level, which leads to loss of many nascent resistant lineages. Our findings suggest that moderate doses of antibiotics, well below the MIC of resistant strains, may effectively restrict de novo emergence of resistance even though they cannot clear already-large resistant populations.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Teóricos , Plasmídeos/genética , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genética , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Análise de Célula Única , Processos Estocásticos
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 507, 2020 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32660436

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Group A streptococcus (GAS) is an important human pathogen responsible for a broad range of infections. Epidemiological surveillance has been crucial to detect changes in the geographical and temporal variation of the disease pattern. The objective of this study was to investigate the molecular epidemiological characteristics and antimicrobial resistance of GAS isolates from patients in Children's Hospital in Beijing. METHODS: From 2016 to 2017, pharyngeal swab samples were collected from the outpatients in Children's Hospital, Capital Institute of Pediatrics, who were diagnosed with scarlet fever. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed according to the distribution of conventional antibiotics and Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) recommendations. The distribution of the macrolide-resistance genes (ermB, ermA, mefA), emm (M protein-coding gene) typing, and superantigens (SAg) gene profiling were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: A total of 297 GAS isolates were collected. The susceptibility of the isolates to penicillin, ceftriaxone, and levofloxacin was 100%. The resistance rate to erythromycin and clindamycin was 98.3 and 96.6%, respectively. The dominant emm types were emm12 (65.32%), emm1 (27.61%), emm75 (2.69%), and emm89 (1.35%). Of the 297 isolates, 290 (97.64%) carried the ermB gene, and 5 (1.68%) carried the mefA gene, while none carried the ermA gene. The most common superantigen genes identified from GAS isolates were smeZ (96.97%), speC (92.59%), speG (91.58%), ssa (85.52%), speI (54.55%), speH (52.19%), and speA (34.34%). Isolates with the genotype emm1 possessed speA, speC, speG, speJ, speM, ssa, and smeZ, while emm12 possessed speC, speG, speH, speI, speM, ssa, and smeZ superantigens. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalent strain of GAS isolates in Beijing has a high resistance rate to macrolides; however, penicillin can still be the preferred antibiotic for treatment. Erythromycin resistance was predominantly mediated by ermB. The common emm types were emm12 and emm1. There was a correlation between emm and the superantigen gene. Thus, long-term monitoring and investigation of the emm types and superantigen genes of GAS prevalence are imperative.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Penicilinas/uso terapêutico , Escarlatina/tratamento farmacológico , Escarlatina/epidemiologia , Streptococcus pyogenes/imunologia , Adolescente , Antígenos de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Pequim/epidemiologia , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Eritromicina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Hospitais Pediátricos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Escarlatina/microbiologia , Streptococcus pyogenes/isolamento & purificação , Superantígenos/genética
20.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 54(2): 191-202, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32723275

RESUMO

Carbapenems are used in the treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria and colistin (polymyxin E) is used as the last choice of antimicrobial agent in those resistant to carbapenems. The worldwide and increased use of colistin, which causes cell death by disrupting the permeability of the cytoplasmic membrane of gram-negative bacteria, raised the problem of resistance. The transferable colistin resistance enzyme mcr, is a phosphoethanolamine transferase that adds phosphoethanolamine to lipid A and modifies lipopolysaccharides, leading to polymyxin resistance. The aim of this study was to investigate some of the most prevalent plasmid mediated colistin and carbapenemase resistance genes in colistin resistant Enterobacterales isolates. Enterobacterales isolates which were isolated in the samples of patients treated in the clinical units between October 2016 and September 2018 in the Karadeniz Technical University Faculty of Medicine Farabi Hospital Medical Microbiology Laboratory were included in the study. In addition to conventional methods, isolates were identified to the species level by MALDI-TOF MS (Bruker Daltonics, Germany). The antibiotic susceptibilities of Enterobacterales isolates were studied by an automated microbiology system (Phoenix, Becton Dickinson, USA) and evaluated according to European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) criteria. In isolates that are resistant to colistin, and the isolates that are found to be sensitive but should be included in the patient report of the colistin susceptibility test, colistin susceptibility tests were repeated with liquid microdilution method in accordance with EUCAST standards. The presence of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL), AmpC beta-lactamase and carbapenemase were determined by phenotypic methods according to EUCAST recommendations in colistin resistant Enterobacterales isolates. Furthermore, resistance genes of mcr-1-5, blaOXA-48, blaKPC, blaNDM, blaVIM, blaIMP were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, followed by nucleotide sequence analysis of the amplified products. In our study, 14657 Enterobacterales isolates belonging to 7535 patients treated in different clinical units were examined retrospectively. Escherichia coli 61.2% (n= 8968), Klebsiella pneumoniae 22.7% (n= 3334) and Enterobacter cloacae 6.9% (n= 1005) were the most prevalent isolates. Carbapenem resistance was detected in 894 isolates, and 5.8% (n= 412) of 7135 isolates isolated between October 2016 and September 2017; 6.4% (n= 482) of 7522 isolates between October 2017 and September 2018 were found to be resistant. Considering all isolates, colistin resistant isolates were 65 (0.9%) between October 2016 and September 2017 and 97 (1.3%) between October 2017 and September 2018. By including only the first isolates in the study for the same agent growths in different samples of the same patient, 46 colistin resistant isolates were selected. Six isolates which could not be cultivated from stock cultures were excluded from the study material. Thirteen (32.5%) of the 40 colistin resistant Enterobacterales isolates were isolated in 2017 and 27 (67.5%) were isolated in 2018. ESBL was detected in 22, AmpC beta-lactamase was detected in 6, carbapenem resistance was detected in 15 of them by phenotypic methods. As a result of PCR analysis, mcr-1 gene detected in 2 isolates, blaOXA-48 in 2 isolates, blaVIM in 1 isolate, blaKPC and blaOXA-48 in 1 isolate, blaNDM and blaOXA-48 in 5 isolates. These results were confirmed by sequencing of the PCR products. The mcr-1 genes were found in E.coli isolates grown in urine culture samples of 2 women over 65 years of age treated in our hospital. Among the antibiotics tested, only ampicillin resistance was observed in 1 of the patients, whereas ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate and ciprofloxacin resistance were detected in the other. In conclusion, as far as we can reach in the literature our publication is the first study showing the presence of mcr-1 gene in clinical samples in our country and confirmed by DNA sequence analysis. The detection of mcr gene in isolates without multidrug resistance showed once again the importance of colistin susceptibility testing in the laboratories. In addition, the presence of isolates containing more than one resistance genes in our study, suggests that the spread of carbapenem and colistin resistance may be faster than expected.


Assuntos
Colistina , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Enterobacteriaceae , Plasmídeos , Idoso , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Colistina/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterobacteriaceae/genética , Alemanha , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Plasmídeos/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos
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