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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(41): e22606, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031315

RESUMO

To determine effects of cryptococcal meningitis (CM) on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1C cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) viral escape, CSF/plasma viral discordance, and drug resistance mutation (DRM) discordance between CSF and plasma compartments, we compared CSF and plasma viral load (VL) and DRMs in individuals with HIV-associated CM in Botswana.This cross-sectional study utilized 45 paired CSF/plasma samples from participants in a CM treatment trial (2014-2016). HIV-1 VL was determined and HIV-1 protease and reverse transcriptase genotyping performed. DRMs were determined using the Stanford HIV database. CSF viral escape was defined as HIV-1 ribonucleic acid ≥0.5 log10 higher in CSF than plasma and VL discordance as CSF VL > plasma VL.HIV-1 VL was successfully measured in 39/45 pairs, with insufficient sample volume in 6; 34/39 (87.2%) participants had detectable HIV-1 in plasma and CSF, median 5.1 (interquartile range: 4.7-5.7) and 4.6 (interquartile range:3.7-4.9) log10 copies/mL, respectively (P≤.001). CSF viral escape was present in 1/34 (2.9%) and VL discordance in 6/34 (17.6%). Discordance was not associated with CD4 count, antiretroviral status, fungal burden, CSF lymphocyte percentage nor mental status. Twenty-six of 45 (57.8%) CSF/plasma pairs were successfully sequenced. HIV-1 DRM discordance was found in 3/26 (11.5%); 1 had I84IT and another had M46MI in CSF only. The third had K101E in plasma and V106 M in CSF.Our findings suggest that HIV-1 escape and DRM discordance may occur at lower rates in participants with advanced HIV-disease and CM compared to those with HIV associated neurocognitive impairment.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/líquido cefalorraquidiano , HIV-1/genética , Meningite Criptocócica/virologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Genes pol , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Meningite Criptocócica/sangue , Meningite Criptocócica/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Mutação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Carga Viral
2.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(8): 1335-1340, 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867446

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the characteristics of HIV-1 genotypes and drug resistance among men who have sex with men in Kunming in 2018. Methods: A total of 193 plasma samples were collected from the newly reported HIV-1 infected MSM in Kunming from January to December 2018. Viral RNA was extracted, and the gag, pol, env gene segments were amplified by nested PCR. HIV-1 genotypes and drug resistance were also analyzed. Subsequently, the evolutionary characteristics of CRF55_01B and CRF68_01B among MSM in Kunming were analyzed by Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo method. Results: Multiple HIV-1 genotypes were identified among these 193 samples, including CRF07_BC (39.4%, 76/193), CRF01_AE (34.2%, 66/193), unique recombinant forms (URFs) (20.2%, 39/193), CRF08_BC (3.1%, 6/193), CRF55_01B (1.6%, 3/193), subtype B (1.0%, 2/193) and CRF68_01B (0.5%, 1/193). Results from the Bayesian evolutionary analysis showed that CRF55_01B started to spread locally after being imported from other provinces, while CRF68_01B was likely to have been brought in from the eastern provinces of China. Prevalence of HIV-1 drug resistant strains was 2.6%(5/190) before antiviral treatment, with mutation rates resistant to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors being the highest (2.1%, 4/190) among MSM in Kunming, 2018. Conclusion: The diversity of HIV-1 was increasing among MSM in Kunming. Although the resistance rate on pretreatment drug was relatively low, the emergence of multiple resistant strains to first-line antiviral drugs posed a challenge to antiretroviral therapy, in Kunming.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/genética , Homossexualidade Masculina , Teorema de Bayes , China/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino
3.
Acta Biomed ; 91(3): e2020023, 2020 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921745

RESUMO

The pandemic caused by Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 shows its devastating effects all over the world. The American and the European countries are the worst-hit by this COVID-19 pandemic. However, most of the African countries excepting a few are less affected by this virus as far as the number of cases and deaths are concerned. The correspondence proposes that just like the abnormal haemoglobins HbS and HbC are found to provide immunity to the African populations against infectious diseases such as Plasmodium falciparum malaria The possibility of these abnormal haemoglobins offering certain protection against the Novel Coronavirus infection in these populations needs to be explored.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Farmacorresistência Viral , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , África/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
5.
Lancet HIV ; 7(9): e620-e628, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale-up in sub-Saharan Africa combined with weak routine virological monitoring has driven increasing HIV drug resistance. We investigated ART failure, drug resistance, and early mortality among patients with HIV admitted to hospital in Malawi. METHODS: This observational cohort study was nested within the rapid urine-based screening for tuberculosis to reduce AIDS-related mortality in hospitalised patients in Africa (STAMP) trial, which recruited unselected (ie, irrespective of clinical presentation) adult (aged ≥18 years) patients with HIV-1 at admission to medical wards. Patients were included in our observational cohort study if they were enrolled at the Malawi site (Zomba Central Hospital) and were taking ART for at least 6 months at admission. Patients who met inclusion criteria had frozen plasma samples tested for HIV-1 viral load. Those with HIV-1 RNA of at least 1000 copies per mL had drug resistance testing by ultra-deep sequencing, with drug resistance defined as intermediate or high-level resistance using the Stanford HIVDR program. Mortality risk was calculated 56 days from enrolment. Patients were censored at death, at 56 days, or at last contact if lost to follow-up. The modelling strategy addressed the causal association between HIV multidrug resistance and mortality, excluding factors on the causal pathway (most notably, CD4 cell count, clinical signs of advanced HIV, and poor functional and nutritional status). FINDINGS: Of 1316 patients with HIV enrolled in the STAMP trial at the Malawi site between Oct 26, 2015, and Sept 19, 2017, 786 had taken ART for at least 6 months. 252 (32%) of 786 patients had virological failure (viral load ≥1000 copies per mL). Mean age was 41·5 years (SD 11·4) and 528 (67%) of 786 were women. Of 237 patients with HIV drug resistance results available, 195 (82%) had resistance to lamivudine, 128 (54%) to tenofovir, and 219 (92%) to efavirenz. Resistance to at least two drugs was common (196, 83%), and this was associated with increased mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 1·7, 95% CI 1·2-2·4; p=0·0042). INTERPRETATION: Interventions are urgently needed and should target ART clinic, hospital, and post-hospital care, including differentiated care focusing on patients with advanced HIV, rapid viral load testing, and routine access to drug resistance testing. Prompt diagnosis and switching to alternative ART could reduce early mortality among inpatients with HIV. FUNDING: Joint Global Health Trials Scheme of the Medical Research Council, UK Department for International Development, and Wellcome Trust.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Viral , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Carga Viral , Adulto , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Duração da Terapia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , HIV-1/genética , Hospitalização , Humanos , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Mortalidade , RNA Viral , Falha de Tratamento
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 660, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894102

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although women comprise 33% of the HIV-1-carriers in Israel, they have not previously been considered a risk group requiring special attention. Immigration waves from countries in Africa and in East Europe may have changed the local landscape of women diagnosed with HIV-1. Here, we aimed to assess viral and demographic characteristics of HIV-1-positive women identified in Israel between 2010 and 2018. METHODS: All > 16 year-old, HIV-1-infected women, diagnosed in Israel in 2010-2018, (n = 763) registered in the National HIV reference laboratory were included in this cross-sectional study. Demographic and clinical characteristics were extracted from the database. Viral subtypes and transmitted drug resistance mutations (TDRM) were determined in 337 (44.2%) randomly selected samples collected from treatment-naive women. RESULTS: Median age at diagnosis was 38 years. Most (73.3%) women were immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) (41.2%, 314) or sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) (32.2%, 246) and carried subtype A (79.7%) or C (90.3%), respectively. Only 11.4% (87) were Israeli-born women. Over the years, the prevalence of women from SSA decreased while that of women from FSU increased significantly (p < 0.001). The median CD4+ cell count was 263 cells/mm3, and higher (391 cells/mm3) in Israeli-born women. TDRM were identified in 10.4% of the tested samples; 1.8, 3 and 7.1% had protease inhibitors (PI), nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) TDRM, respectively. The prevalence of women with NNRTI TDRM significantly increased from 4.9% in 2010-2012 to 13.3% in 2016-2018. Israeli-born women had the highest prevalence (16.3%) of NNRTI TDRM (p = 0.014). NRTI A62 (5.6%), NNRTI E138 and K103 (5.6 and 4.2%, respectively) were the most prominent mutated sites. CONCLUSIONS: Most HIV-1-positive women diagnosed in Israel in 2010-2018 were immigrants, with the relative ratio of FSU immigrants increasing in recent years. The high proportion of women diagnosed with resistance mutations, particularly, the yearly increase in the frequency of NNRTI mutations, support the national policy of resistance testing at baseline.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , HIV-1/genética , Adulto , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Prevalência , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/uso terapêutico
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(37): e21661, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925712

RESUMO

To support optimal third-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) selection in Namibia, we investigated the prevalence of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) at time of failure of second-line ART. A cross-sectional study was conducted between August 2016 and February 2017. HIV-infected people ≥15 years of age with confirmed virological failure while receiving ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI/r)-based second-line ART were identified at 15 high-volume ART clinics representing over >70% of the total population receiving second-line ART. HIVDR genotyping of dried blood spots obtained from these individuals was performed using standard population sequencing methods. The Stanford HIVDR algorithm was used to identify sequences with predicted resistance; genotypic susceptibility scores for potential third-line regimens were calculated. Two hundred thirty-eight individuals were enrolled; 57.6% were female. The median age and duration on PI/r-based ART at time of enrolment were 37 years and 3.46 years, respectively. 97.5% received lopinavir/ritonavir-based regimens. The prevalence of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), and PI/r resistance was 50.6%, 63.1%, and 13.1%, respectively. No significant association was observed between HIVDR prevalence and age or sex. This study demonstrates high levels of NRTI and NNRTI resistance and moderate levels of PI resistance in people receiving PI/r-based second-line ART in Namibia. Findings underscore the need for objective and inexpensive measures of adherence to identify those in need of intensive adherence counselling, routine viral load monitoring to promptly detect virological failure, and HIVDR genotyping to optimize selection of third-line drugs in Namibia.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Viral , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , HIV/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Namíbia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/uso terapêutico , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Falha de Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 631, 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The drug resistance and the virologic failure of antiretroviral therapy (ART) are quite severe in Liangshan. A better understanding of the virologic failure of ART and the HIV-1 transmission network dynamics is essential for the surveillance and prevention of HIV. Here, we analyzed the HIV-1 CRF07_BC strain genetic transmission networks and their associated factors among people living with HIV-1 (PLWH) who had virologic failure of ART by using close genetic links. METHODS: The drug-resistant mutations were determined using the Stanford University HIV Drug Resistance Database. HIV-1 pol genes sequences were used for phylogenetic and genotypic drug resistance analysis. The genetic transmission networks were performed by comparing sequences, constructing the phylogenetic tree, calculating the pairwise distance, and visualizing the network. RESULTS: A total of 1050 PLWH with CRF07_BC pol sequences were finally identified and included in the genetic transmission network analysis from 2016 to 2017. Of the 1050 CRF07_BC pol sequences, 346 (32.95%) fell into clusters at a genetic distance of 0.006, resulting in 137 clusters ranging in size from 2 to 40 individuals. Subjects who were widowed or divorced were less likely to form a genetic transmission network (adjusted OR: 0.50), while subjects who had shared a needle ≥ five times were more likely to form a network (adjusted OR: 1.88). CONCLUSIONS: The genetic transmission networks revealed the complex transmission pattern, highlighting the urgent need for transmission monitoring of virologic failure of ART and selection of more effective therapeutic regimens to promote viral suppression.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , HIV-1/genética , Grupos Minoritários , Adolescente , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Genes pol , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Filogenia , Falha de Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(8): e1008716, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780760

RESUMO

Pandemic influenza A virus (IAV) remains a significant threat to global health. Preparedness relies primarily upon a single class of neuraminidase (NA) targeted antivirals, against which resistance is steadily growing. The M2 proton channel is an alternative clinically proven antiviral target, yet a near-ubiquitous S31N polymorphism in M2 evokes resistance to licensed adamantane drugs. Hence, inhibitors capable of targeting N31 containing M2 (M2-N31) are highly desirable. Rational in silico design and in vitro screens delineated compounds favouring either lumenal or peripheral M2 binding, yielding effective M2-N31 inhibitors in both cases. Hits included adamantanes as well as novel compounds, with some showing low micromolar potency versus pandemic "swine" H1N1 influenza (Eng195) in culture. Interestingly, a published adamantane-based M2-N31 inhibitor rapidly selected a resistant V27A polymorphism (M2-A27/N31), whereas this was not the case for non-adamantane compounds. Nevertheless, combinations of adamantanes and novel compounds achieved synergistic antiviral effects, and the latter synergised with the neuraminidase inhibitor (NAi), Zanamivir. Thus, site-directed drug combinations show potential to rejuvenate M2 as an antiviral target whilst reducing the risk of drug resistance.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/efeitos dos fármacos , Influenza Humana/virologia , Rimantadina/farmacologia , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/antagonistas & inibidores , Zanamivir/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Viral , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/metabolismo , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/metabolismo
10.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237162, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750098

RESUMO

Viral diversity is an important feature of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and an important predictor of disease progression and treatment response. HIV/HCV co-infection is associated with enhanced HCV replication, increased fibrosis, and the development of liver disease. HIV also increases quasispecies diversity of HCV structural genes, although limited data are available regarding the impact of HIV on non-structural genes of HCV, particularly in the absence of direct-acting therapies. The genetic diversity and presence of drug resistance mutations within the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (NS5B) gene were examined in 3 groups of women with HCV genotype 1a infection, including those with HCV mono-infection, antiretroviral (ART)-naïve women with HIV/HCV co-infection and CD4 cell count <350 cells/mm3, and ART-naïve women with HIV/HCV co-infection and CD4 cell count ≥350 cells/mm3. None had ever been treated for HCV infection. There was evidence of significant diversity across the entire NS5B gene in all women. There were several nucleotides and amino acids with distinct distributions across the three study groups, although no obvious clustering of NS5B sequences was observed based on HIV co-infection or CD4 cell count. Polymorphisms at amino acid positions associated with resistance to dasabuvir and sofosbuvir were limited, although the Q309R variant associated with ribavirin resistance was present in 12 individuals with HCV mono-infection, 8 HIV/HCV co-infected individuals with CD4 <350 cells/mm3, and 12 HIV/HCV co-infected individuals with CD4 ≥350 cells/mm3. Previously reported fitness altering mutations were rare. CD8+ T cell responses against the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) B57-restricted epitopes NS5B2629-2637 and NS5B2936-2944 are critical for HCV control and were completely conserved in 44 (51.8%) and 70 (82.4%) study participants. These data demonstrate extensive variation across the NS5B gene. Genotypic variation may have a profound impact on HCV replication and pathogenesis and deserves careful evaluation.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/genética , Coinfecção/genética , Variação Genética , HIV , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/genética , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/virologia , Adulto , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Estudos de Coortes , Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Coinfecção/virologia , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C/virologia , Humanos , Filogenia , RNA Replicase/genética , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Sofosbuvir/uso terapêutico , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Uracila/análogos & derivados , Uracila/uso terapêutico
11.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236156, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804970

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) poses a threat to the HIV epidemic control in Zambia especially in sub-populations such as the 15-24 years where there is poor virological suppression. Understanding the prevalence and patterns of HIVDR in this population (15-24 years) will contribute to defining effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens, improving clinical decision making, and supporting behavioral change interventions needed to achieve HIV epidemic control. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of study enrollment data from the Project YES! Youth Engaging for Success randomized controlled trial was conducted. Participants were 15 to 24 years old, who knew their HIV status, and had been on ART for at least 6 months. All participants completed a survey and underwent viral load (VL) testing. Participants with viral failure (VL ≥1,000 copies/mL) underwent HIVDR testing which included analysis of mutations in the protease and reverse transcriptase genes. RESULTS: A total of 99 out of 273 analyzed participants receiving ART had VL failure, of whom 77 had successful HIVDR amplification and analysis. Out of the 77, 75% (58) had at least one drug resistant mutation, among which 83% (48/58) required a drug change. Among the 58 with HIVDR mutations, the prevalence of at least one HIVDR mutation to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) and protease inhibitors (PIs) were 81%, 65.5% and 1.7%. The mutation M184V which confers resistance to NRTI drugs of lamivudine (3TC) and emtricitabine (FTC) was the most common (81%) among NRTI associated mutations followed by K65R (34.5%) which is associated with both tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and tenofovir alafenamide fumarate (TAF) resistance. Thymidine analogue mutations (TAMs) which confer resistance primarily to zidovudine (AZT), stavudine (d4T) and other NRTIs were observed at 32.8%. Common TAMs were K70RTQNE (32.8%), K219QE (22.4%), D67N (17.2%) and T215IT (15.5%). The most common NNRTI associated mutation was the K103N (65.5%) which confers resistance to both efavirenz (EFV) and nevirapine (NVP). There was a relatively high occurrence of other NNRTI mutations V106A (36.2%), as well as Y188C (36.2%) and Y181C (36.2%) which confer resistance to etravirine. CONCLUSIONS: There is a high prevalence of HIVDR including TAMs despite majority of these patients (90.48%) being on AZT or d4T sparing first line ART among the youth. Emergence of these mutations including the NNRTI associated mutations (Y181C and Y188C) may compromise future second- and third-line regimens in the absence of routine HIVDR testing. HIVDR monitoring at start of ART or at first-line failure can better inform clinical decision making and ART programing.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , HIV-1/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Prevalência , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Timidina/genética , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem , Zâmbia
12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236642, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756581

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The long-term prognosis of HIV-2-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) is still challenging, due to the intrinsic resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) and the suboptimal response to some protease inhibitors (PI). The objective was to describe the 5-years outcomes among HIV-2 patients harboring drug-resistant viruses. METHODS: A clinic-based cohort of HIV-2-patients experiencing virologic failure, with at least one drug resistance mutation was followed from January 2012 to August 2017 in Côte d'Ivoire. Follow-up data included death, lost to follow-up (LTFU), immuno-virological responses. The Kaplan-Meier curve was used to estimate survival rates. RESULTS: A total of 31 HIV-2 patients with virologic failure and with at least one drug resistance mutation were included. Two-third of them were men, 28(90.3%) were on PI-based ART-regimen at enrolment and the median age was 50 years (IQR = 46-54). The median baseline CD4 count and viral load were 456 cells/mm3 and 3.7 log10 c/mL respectively, and the participants have been followed-up in median 57 months (IQR = 24-60). During this period, 21 (67.7%) patients switched at least one antiretroviral drug, including two (6.5%) and three (9.7%) who switched to a PI-based and an integrase inhibitor-based regimen respectively. A total of 10(32.3%) patients died and 4(12.9%) were LTFU. The 36 and 60-months survival rates were 68.5% and 64.9%, respectively. Among the 17 patients remaining in care, six(35.3%) had an undetectable viral load (<50 c/mL) and for the 11 others, the viral load ranged from 2.8 to 5.6 log10 c/mL. Twelve patients were receiving lopinavir at the time of first genotype, five(42%) had a genotypic susceptibility score (GSS) ≤1 and 4(33%) a GSS >2. CONCLUSIONS: The 36-months survival rate among ART-experienced HIV-2 patients with drug-resistant viruses is below 70%,lower than in HIV-1. There is urgent need to improve access to second-line ART for patients living with HIV-2 in West Africa.


Assuntos
Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/efeitos adversos , Farmacorresistência Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-2/genética , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Antirretrovirais/administração & dosagem , Antirretrovirais/efeitos adversos , Costa do Marfim/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/genética , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/efeitos adversos , HIV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-2/patogenicidade , Humanos , Lopinavir/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Ritonavir/administração & dosagem , Ritonavir/efeitos adversos , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Carga Viral/genética
13.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236704, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790777

RESUMO

The hepatitis B virus (HBV) envelope is composed of a lipid bilayer and three glycoproteins, referred to as the large (L), middle (M), and small (S) hepatitis B virus surface antigens (HBsAg). S protein constitutes the major portion of the viral envelope and an even greater proportion of subviral particles (SVP) that circulate in the blood. Recombinant S proteins are currently used as a preventive vaccine, while plasma fractions isolated from vaccinated people, referred to as hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG), are used for short-term prophylaxis. Here, we characterized a recombinant human IgG1 type anti-S antibody named Lenvervimab regarding its binding property to a variety of cloned S antigens. Immunochemical data showed an overall consistent avidity of the antibody to S antigens of most viral genotypes distributed worldwide. Further, antibody binding was not affected by the mutations in the antigenic 'a' determinant found in many clinical variants, including the immune escape mutant G145R. In addition, mutations in the S gene sequence that confer drug resistance to the viral polymerase did not interfere with the antibody binding. These results support for a preventive use of the antibody against HBV infection.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/imunologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/metabolismo , Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Reações Antígeno-Anticorpo , Linhagem Celular , Farmacorresistência Viral , Genótipo , Células Hep G2 , Hepatite B/patologia , Hepatite B/virologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/metabolismo , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/química , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas/genética , Imunoglobulinas/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(27): e20915, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629687

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Transmitted resistance to integrase strand inhibitors (INSTI) has been uncommon, but is slowly becoming more prevalent among those living with HIV. In an era with 2-drug regimens for antiretroviral therapy, transmitted resistance for INSTI is alarming. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 28-year-old African American female was recently diagnosed with HIV during a 30-week prenatal visit. DIAGNOSIS: HIV 4th generation test was positive as well as confirmation. Genotype was performed using next generation sequencing. INTERVENTIONS: Patient was initially rapidly started on a dolutegravir based regimen and changed to a protease inhibitor regimen once her genotype reported an S230R mutation. OUTCOMES: Patient became virally suppressed on antiretroviral therapy and delivered an HIV negative baby. LESSONS: INSTI resistance testing should be done for treatment-naïve and INSTI-naïve persons, particularly when considering 2 drug INSTI based regimens.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Viral , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/efeitos adversos , HIV-1/genética , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Inibidores de Proteases/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Feminino , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Mutação , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Inibidores de Proteases/administração & dosagem
15.
S Afr Med J ; 110(4): 313-319, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The goal of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is to suppress viral replication to undetectable levels. These low viral load (VL) levels may not be attained in some patients, a situation representing potential virological failure during the course of treatment. OBJECTIVES: To present the results of a Markov model exploring how virological failure and active tuberculosis (TB) affect the progression of HIV in patients on ART. METHODS: A continuous-time non-homogeneous Markov model was used to model the progression of HIV/AIDS in patients on combination ART (cART). We define seven states in our model. The first five states are based on VL levels and the other two are absorbing states: death and withdrawal from the study. The effects of TB co-infection, baseline VL, lactic acidosis and treatment failure on transition intensities were assessed. RESULTS: The model shows that VL-based transition intensities do not follow a constant rate; rather, there are two different trends in HIV/AIDS progression. The first trend is an increase in the prevalence of state 1 (undetectable VL levels) in the first 0.5 years of treatment. The second trend follows thereafter and shows a slow decrease. Within the first 0.5 years of therapeutic intervention, the undetectable VL state is therefore attainable from any VL state. However, when virological failure occurs, there is an increased risk of death. Developing active TB while on cART increases the risk of viral rebound from undetectable levels to VLs between 50 and 10 000 copies/mL by ~1.03-fold. From a VL between 10 000 and 100 000 copies/mL, developing TB while on cART increases the rate of viral rebound by ~2.5-fold. However, if TB is detected and treated at enrolment, rates of viral rebound from undetectable levels are reduced. CONCLUSIONS: The model confirms that virological failure, coupled with developing active TB while on cART, increases mortality rates irrespective of patient CD4+ count status. It also suggests that while TB at the time of cART initiation does not increase the risk of viral rebound, development of active TB after cART initiation does increase this risk. These findings highlight the importance of strengthening VL monitoring, which should be performed every 2 months, especially in patients with TB, and addressing unsuppressed VLs appropriately if they are detected.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Coinfecção , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Acidose Láctica/induzido quimicamente , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/sangue , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/complicações , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Progressão da Doença , Interações Medicamentosas , Farmacorresistência Viral , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos , Tuberculose Latente/complicações , Masculino , Cadeias de Markov , Adesão à Medicação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/induzido quimicamente , População Rural , África do Sul , Resposta Viral Sustentada , Falha de Tratamento , Tuberculose/complicações , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
16.
Arch Virol ; 165(9): 2013-2020, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601956

RESUMO

The hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5B protein is an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase that is required for viral genome replication and constitutes the most important target region for drugs being developed as direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) against HCV genotype 1. However, the extreme genetic variability leading to drug resistance mutations and genetic barriers has dramatically compromised the effectiveness of DAA therapy. The purpose of this study was to analyze the genetic variability of NS5B polymerase in HCV patients from different provinces of China to identify the impact of these resistance sites on genetic barriers. We analyzed 3489 NS5B sequences of HCV strains circulating in different regions of China, obtained from the GenBank database, 153 of which were from three cities in Sichuan Province (Yibin, Zigong and Zhangzhou). Sequence alignment was conducted using MEGA 6.0, the genetic information was translated into amino acids, and the percentage of polymorphic amino acid sites was calculated. The Vijver method was used to evaluate the occurrence of genetic barriers in HCV NS5B sequences. Blood samples were collected from 153 HCV patients from Sichuan for NS5B sequence analysis using real-time PCR and the Sanger method. Of the 17 antiviral drug resistance sites summarized from the published literature, nine were found in Chinese NS5B sequences, and C316Y was identified as the dominant mutation. Analysis of genetic barriers revealed that the probability of mutation to a drug-resistance-associated amino acid, in response to selective pressure from antiviral drugs was 100% at site 96 and 99.7% at site 282. Our study is the first to analyze the drug resistance sites and to evaluate genetic barriers in NS5B sequences that could affect the responsiveness of Chinese HCV patients to DAA therapy. The results provide a valuable basis for drug development and introduction of foreign-origin antiviral drugs in China that targeting the HCV NS5B region.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Viral , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/virologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , China , Hepacivirus/classificação , Hepacivirus/isolamento & purificação , Hepacivirus/metabolismo , Humanos , Mutação , Polimorfismo Genético , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo , Replicação Viral
17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3418, 2020 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32647286

RESUMO

The emergence and spread of antiviral drug-resistant viruses have been a worldwide challenge and a great concern for patient care. We report A4 antibody specifically recognizing and binding to the mutant I223R/H275Y neuraminidase and prove the applicability of A4 antibody for direct detection of antiviral multidrug-resistant viruses in various sensing platforms, including naked-eye detection, surface-enhanced Raman scattering-based immunoassay, and lateral flow system. The development of the A4 antibody enables fast, simple, and reliable point-of-care assays of antiviral multidrug-resistant influenza viruses. In addition to current influenza virus infection testing methods that do not provide information on the antiviral drug-resistance of the virus, diagnostic tests for antiviral multidrug-resistant viruses will improve clinical judgment in the treatment of influenza virus infections, avoid the unnecessary prescription of ineffective drugs, and improve current therapies.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/imunologia , Farmacorresistência Viral/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/imunologia , Mutação/genética , Neuraminidase/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/química , Afinidade de Anticorpos/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/metabolismo , Líquidos Corporais/virologia , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Cães , Epitopos/química , Epitopos/imunologia , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/enzimologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/enzimologia , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Imagem Óptica , Ligação Proteica , Análise Espectral Raman
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 522, 2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32677900

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) may be resistant to immunosuppression reduction and ribavirin treatment in kidney transplant recipients because of mutant strains and severe side effects of ribavirin which conduct to dose reduction. Sofosbuvir efficacy is controversial. Peg-interferon 2 alpha (PEG-IFN) is currently contraindicated due to a high risk of acute humoral and cellular rejection. The present study assessed, for the first time, the effect of PEG-IFN in a kidney transplant recipient infected with HEV. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient had chronic active HEV that was resistant to immunosuppression reduction and optimal ribavirin treatment. He developed significant liver fibrosis. PEG-IFN was administered for 10 months, and it was well tolerated and did not induce rejection. A sustained virological response was obtained. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that prolonged treatment with PEG-IFN in kidney transplant recipients infected with HEV could be considered as a salvage option.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatite E/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Rim , Polietilenoglicóis/uso terapêutico , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Transplantados , Hepatite E/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite E/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Hepatite E/fisiologia , Hepatite Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Indução de Remissão , Resposta Viral Sustentada , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 532, 2020 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organisation recommends the use of tenofovir-containing pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) as an additional Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) prevention choice for men and women at substantial risk of HIV infection. PrEP could fill an important HIV prevention gap, especially for sexually active young women who are limited in their ability to negotiate mutual monogamy or condom use. As PrEP is scaled up in high HIV incidence settings, it is crucial to consider the importance of early identification of HIV infection during PrEP use, to allow for rapid discontinuation of PrEP to reduce the risk of antiretroviral (ARV) resistance. The purpose of this case study is to provide this critical evidence. CASE PRESENTATION: This report describes a 20-year-old woman in a HIV sero-discordant relationship who initiated oral PrEP (tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and emtricitabine (FTC)) through a demonstration project (CAPRISA 084) in October 2017. Despite good adherence throughout her PrEP use, she tested HIV antibody positive at month nine of study participation. Retrospective testing showed increasing HIV viral load over time, and retrospective use of fourth-generation rapid HIV tests showed HIV detection (positive antigen/antibody) at month one. Sequencing confirmed a dominant wild type at month one with dual therapy resistance patterns emerging by month three (M184V and K65R mutations), which is suggestive of protracted PrEP use during an undetected HIV infection. The participant was referred to infectious diseases for further management of her HIV infection and was initiated on a first line, tenofovir-sparing regimen. At the time of this report (January 2020), the participant had been on ARV- therapy (ART) for 13 months and had no signs of either clinical, immunologic or virologic failure. CONCLUSIONS: This case report highlights the importance of appropriate HIV screening during wider oral PrEP scale-up in high HIV incidence settings to circumvent the consequences of prolonged dual therapy in an undiagnosed HIV infection and in turn prevent ARV resistance.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Combinação Emtricitabina e Fumarato de Tenofovir Desoproxila/uso terapêutico , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Soropositividade para HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1/imunologia , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/métodos , Administração Oral , Benzoxazinas/uso terapêutico , Combinação de Medicamentos , Farmacorresistência Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Combinação Emtricitabina e Fumarato de Tenofovir Desoproxila/administração & dosagem , Combinação Emtricitabina e Fumarato de Tenofovir Desoproxila/efeitos adversos , Feminino , HIV-1/genética , Humanos , Lamivudina/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , África do Sul , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem , Zidovudina/uso terapêutico
20.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235958, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART), pre-treatment drug resistance (PDR) appears ≥10% amongst ART-initiators in many developing countries, including Cameroon. Northwest region-Cameroon having the second epidemiological burden of HIV infection, generating data on PDR in these geographical settings, will enhance evidence-based decision-making. OBJECTIVES: We sought to ascertain levels of PDR and HIV-1 clade dispersal in rural and urban settings, and their potential association with subtype distribution and CD4-staging. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from February to May 2017 among patients recently diagnosed with HIV-infection and initiating ART at the Bamenda regional Hospital (urban setting) and the Mbingo Baptist hospital (rural setting). Protease and reverse transcriptase sequencing was performed using an in-house protocol and pre-treatment drug resistance mutations were interpreted using Stanford HIVdb.v8.3. Phylogeny was performed for subtype assignation. RESULTS: A total of 61 patient sequences were generated from ART initiators (median age: 37 years old; 57.4% female; median CD4 cell count: 184 [IQR: 35-387] in urban vs. 161 [IQR: 96-322] cells/mm3 in rural). Overall, the level of PDR was 9.8% (6/61). Of note, burden of PDR was almost doubled in urban (12.9% [4/31]) compared to rural setting 6.7% (2/30), p = 0.352). Fifteen (15) PDR mutations were found among four patients the urban settings [6 resistance mutations to NRTIs:[M41L (2), E44D (1), K65R (1), K70E (1), M184V/I (2), K219R (1)] and 6 resistance mutations to NNRTIs: K103N (1), E138A/G (2), V179E (1), M230L (1), K238T (1), P225H (1)] against two (02) mutations found in two patients in the rural setting[2 resistant mutations to NNRTIs: E138A (1) and Y188H (1)]. The rural setting showed more genetic diversity (8 subtypes) than the urban setting (5 subtypes), with CRF02_AG being the most prevalent clade (72.1% [44/61]). Of note, level of PDR was similar between patients infected with CRF02_AG and non-CRF02_AG infected (9.1% [4/44]) vs. 11.8% [2/17]), p = 1.000). Moreover, PDR appeared higher in patients with CD4 cell count <200 cells/mm3 compared to those with CD4 cell count ≥200 cells/mm3 (14.7% [5/34]) vs. 3.7% [1/27]), p = 0.214). CONCLUSIONS: PDR is at a moderate rate in the Northwest region of Cameroon, with higher burden within urban populations. CRF02_AG is the most predominant clade in both urban and rural settings. No effect of HIV molecular epidemiology and CD4-staging on the presence of PDR in patients living in these settings was found. Our findings suggest close monitoring, NNRTI-sparing regimens or sequencing for patients initiating ART, especially in urban settings.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Variação Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/genética , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Camarões/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/genética , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Masculino , População Rural , População Urbana , Carga Viral/genética
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