Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.763
Filtrar
1.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 36(1): 109-123, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029178

RESUMO

Fasciola hepatica, Fasciola gigantica, and Fascioloides magna are liver flukes causing disease in cattle and sheep. Damage to the liver due to F hepatica and F gigantica results in clinical disease and/or production losses. F magna seems to have little effect in cattle but causes high mortality in sheep. The fluke life cycle involves an aquatic or amphibious snail intermediate host and thus requires suitable moisture and temperature conditions. F magna requires the presence of deer. Drug treatment is the mainstay of control and needs to be applied considering the life cycle and epidemiology of the parasite.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Fasciola hepatica/isolamento & purificação , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Fasciolíase/epidemiologia , Fasciolíase/prevenção & controle , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia
2.
Vet Parasitol ; 277: 109016, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901738

RESUMO

Infections with the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica remain a serious problem in dairy herds causing significant production losses. In sheep, a strong relationship between F. hepatica infections and an increase in serum ketone bodies due to reduced feed intake and liver damage was demonstrated. We hypothesized that F. hepatica infections might contribute to an increase in milk ketone bodies in dairy herds. Thus, the objective of the study was to estimate the association between F. hepatica bulk tank milk (BTM) antibodies and milk production parameters (milk yield, milk protein, fat yield), somatic cell count (SCC) and the milk ketone bodies ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and acetone, inferred from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, via linear mixed model analysis. A further aim was to follow up the F. hepatica seroprevalence in dairy herds in the northern German region East Frisia. We collected BTM samples between October and December from 1022 herds in 2017 and 1318 herds in 2018. Overall, 33.1 % of the herds tested positive in 2017 and 37.0 % in 2018, showing decreased F. hepatica seroprevalences compared to prior seroprevalence studies in the same region in 2010, 2008 and 2006 (> 45 % positive herds). We estimated a significant negative association (P < 0.001) between herd F. hepatica infection category and average milk yield with a loss of -1.62 kg per cow per day in strongly infected herds compared to BTM ELISA negative herds. Moreover, F. hepatica infection category had a significant effect on herd average milk protein and fat yield (P < 0.001), showing a decrease of 0.06 kg for both parameters from BTM ELISA negative herds to strongly infected herds. No significant association with milk SCC was found (P = 0.664). Regarding ketone bodies, we estimated significant higher average BHB values in strongly infected herds compared to the other three infection categories in the model analysis (P = 0.002). The association between F. hepatica infection category and acetone values was not significant (P = 0.079). Besides primary ketosis, fasciolosis should be considered as differential diagnosis in dairy herds with increased BHB values.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Cetonas/análise , Lactação/fisiologia , Leite/química , Animais , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios , Fasciola hepatica , Fasciolíase/epidemiologia , Fasciolíase/patologia , Alemanha , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
3.
Vet Parasitol ; 277: 109019, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918044

RESUMO

Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke) is a widespread parasite infection of livestock in Victoria, South-eastern Australia, where high rainfall and a mild climate is suitable for the main intermediate host Austropeplea tomentosa. The aims of this study were to quantify the prevalence and intensity of F. hepatica in dairy cattle in the irrigated dairy regions of Victoria and determine if triclabendazole resistance was present in infected herds. Cattle in 83 herds from the following six irrigation regions were tested for F. hepatica: Macalister Irrigation District (MID), Upper Murray (UM), Murray Valley (MV), Central Goulburn (CG), Torrumbarry (TIA) and Loddon Valley (LV). Twenty cattle from each herd were tested using the F. hepatica faecal egg count (FEC) as well as the coproantigen ELISA (cELISA). The mean individual animal true prevalence of F. hepatica across all regions was 39 % (95 % credible interval [CrI] 27%-51%) by FEC and 39 % (95 % CrI 27%-50%) by cELISA with the highest true prevalence (75-80 %) found in the MID. Our results show that 46 % of the herds that took part in this study were likely to experience fluke-associated production losses, based on observations that herd productivity is impaired when the true within-herd prevalence is > 25 %. Using the FEC and cELISA reduction tests, triclabendazole resistance was assessed on 3 herds in total (2 from the 83 in the study; and 1 separate herd that did not take part in the prevalence study) and resistance was confirmed in all 3 herds. This study has confirmed that F. hepatica is endemic in several dairy regions in Victoria: triclabendazole resistance may be contributing to the high prevalence in some herds. From our analysis, we estimate that the state-wide economic loss associated with fasciolosis is in the order of AUD 129 million (range AUD 38-193 million) per year or about AUD 50,000 (range AUD 15,000-75,000) per herd per year.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Resistência a Medicamentos , Fasciola hepatica/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antiplatelmínticos/farmacologia , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios , Fasciolíase/tratamento farmacológico , Fasciolíase/prevenção & controle , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Prevalência , Triclabendazol/farmacologia , Vitória/epidemiologia
4.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226300, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887151

RESUMO

The liver flukes, Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica, are common trematode parasites of livestock. F. hepatica is known to modulate the immune response, including altering the response to co-infecting pathogens. Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is a chronic disease which is difficult to control and is of both animal welfare and public health concern. Previous research has suggested that infection with liver fluke may affect the accuracy of the bTB skin test, but direction of the effect differs between studies. In a systematic review of the literature, all experimental and observational studies concerning co-infection with these two pathogens were sought. Data were extracted on the association between fluke infection and four measures of bTB diagnosis or pathology, namely, the bTB skin test, interferon γ test, lesion detection and culture/bacterial recovery. Of a large body of literature dating from 1950 to 2019, only thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria. These included studies of experimentally infected calves, case control studies on adult cows, cross sectional abattoir studies and a herd level study. All the studies had a medium or high risk of bias. The balance of evidence from the 13 studies included in the review suggests that liver fluke exposure was associated with either no effect or a decreased response to all of the four aspects of bTB diagnosis assessed: skin test, IFN γ, lesion detection and mycobacteria cultured or recovered. Most studies showed a small and/or non-significant effect so the clinical and practical importance of the observed effect is likely to be modest, although it could be more significant in particular groups of animals, such as dairy cattle.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Coinfecção/veterinária , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Tuberculose Bovina/diagnóstico , Animais , Bovinos , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Estudos Transversais , Fasciola hepatica/imunologia , Fasciolíase/complicações , Fasciolíase/imunologia , Testes de Liberação de Interferon-gama , Mycobacterium bovis/patogenicidade , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Teste Tuberculínico
5.
J Helminthol ; 94: e98, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679525

RESUMO

Fasciolosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease that seriously endangers the development of animal husbandry and human health. In order to develop a rapid serological diagnostic method for fasciolosis in ruminants, the CatL1D and CatB4 genes of Fasciola hepatica were amplified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and cloned, respectively, and then the CatL-B fusion gene (MeCatL-B) was constructed by gene splicing by overlap extension PCR technique. The recombinant rCatL1D, rCatB4 and rMeCatL-B proteins were then prepared by prokaryotic expression, respectively, and the recombinant protein with high specificity and sensitivity was screened via indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Using the selected recombinant protein rCatL1D as a diagnostic antigen, we developed a colloidal gold immunochromatographic assay (CGIA) for detecting F. hepatica-specific antibodies, and 426 serum samples of slaughtered sheep were used to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of F. hepatica CGIA assay. The results showed that the sensitivity and specificity of rCatL1D protein (100%, 96.67%) were higher than those of rCatB4 (94.29%, 80%) and rMeCatL-B (91.43%, 90%). Compared with the gold standard post-mortem inspection, the specificity and sensitivity of the CGIA method was 100% and 97%, respectively, and the consistency rate between these two methods was 99.3%. These results confirmed that the CGIA method based on rCatL1D protein could be a promising approach for rapid diagnosis of sheep fasciolosis because of its high sensitivity and specificity.


Assuntos
Fasciola hepatica/isolamento & purificação , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Proteínas de Helminto/sangue , Imunoensaio/métodos , Doenças dos Ovinos/diagnóstico , Animais , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Fasciola hepatica/genética , Fasciola hepatica/imunologia , Fasciolíase/sangue , Fasciolíase/diagnóstico , Fasciolíase/parasitologia , Coloide de Ouro/química , Proteínas de Helminto/genética , Proteínas de Helminto/imunologia , Imunoensaio/instrumentação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Testes Sorológicos , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/sangue , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia
6.
J Helminthol ; 94: e92, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581956

RESUMO

A cross-sectional socio-economic study of fascioliasis in livestock was carried out at the Livestock Development Cooperation (SODEPA) slaughterhouse in Etoudi, Yaoundé during the periods covering the beginning and late dry season in the northern and eastern regions of Cameroon. A total of 768 cattle and 267 sheep were inspected for the presence of Fasciola species. The overall infection rate in cattle and sheep was 18% (n = 767) and 27% (n = 267), respectively. For the animals that were Fasciola positive, a total of 267.86 kg of liver in cattle was condemned, resulting in a loss of US$1124, while a total of 57 kg of liver was condemned from the sheep population, amounting to a loss of US$114. A total of US$76,097 was determined as losses incurred from condemnation of liver for both cattle and sheep per annum based on the total number slaughtered each year. The findings indicate that fascioliasis is present in cattle and sheep slaughtered in Cameroon and that it causes great economic losses due to condemnation of liver. The local climatic conditions, husbandry systems and the presence of snails (intermediate hosts) are probably the main factors influencing the incidence of the disease and may account for the epidemiological significance found in this study.


Assuntos
Matadouros/economia , Doenças dos Bovinos/economia , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Alimentos/economia , Doenças dos Ovinos/economia , Animais , Camarões/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Fasciolíase/economia , Fasciolíase/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
7.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 217: 109941, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550657

RESUMO

DNA vaccination in large animals has often been associated with poor immunogenicity, consequently several approaches have been evaluated to enhance its efficacy. Here, we tested a cDNA encoding a phosphoglycerate kinase from Fasciola hepatica (cDNA-FhPGK/pCMV) as a vaccine against ovine fasciolosis and investigated whether a DNA prime/protein boost regime or CTLA-4 (cytotoxic lymphocyte antigen 4) mediated targeting improved DNA vaccine efficacy. No statistically significant differences in the cellular responses were seen in either vaccine trial when compared with the respective control groups. However, specific antibody responses were considerably enhanced in DNA primed/protein boosted sheep, but not among CTLA-4 targeted cDNA-FhPGK/pCMV vaccinated animals. Nevertheless, increased titers of specific IgG1 did not contribute to protection against infection, with no differences in liver fluke recoveries reported. If DNA vaccines against fasciolosis in target species are to reach the market one day, more research in this area is needed.


Assuntos
Antígeno CTLA-4/imunologia , Fasciola hepatica/enzimologia , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Fosfoglicerato Quinase/imunologia , Vacinação/veterinária , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia , Animais , Fasciola hepatica/imunologia , Fasciolíase/prevenção & controle , Proteínas de Helminto/imunologia , Esquemas de Imunização , Masculino , Ovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/imunologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Falha de Tratamento , Potência de Vacina
8.
J Helminthol ; 94: e83, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495340

RESUMO

Fasciola hepatica is a trematode parasite that affects mammals, including humans. In Brazil, fascioliasis, a disease caused by the parasite, is of great importance. The disorder affects the welfare of the Brazilian population through impairing the agricultural production of cattle, where the disease causes weight loss as a result of liver damage. This study aimed to evaluate the genetic diversity of F. hepatica throughout Southern Brazil to determine its geographic origin and estimate the colonization route of the parasite. To accomplish these aims, flukes were collected from slaughterhouses in three endemic areas of Rio Grande do Sul and Paraná states. DNA was isolated using the phenol-chloroform protocol from single flukes and two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and nicotinamide dehydrogenase subunit 1 (Nad1), were amplified and sequenced. Ten haplotypes of COI were found from 75 isolated parasites and the total haplotype and nucleotide diversity observed were 0.475 and 0.002, respectively. Using the Nad1 gene, we found 24 haplotypes from 79 samples, resulting in haplotype and nucleotide diversity values of 0.756 and 0.004, respectively. An analysis of molecular variance showed that 57.4% and 77.5% of variation was within populations (FST), while 9.0 and 36.8% of variation was among groups (FCT) when considering COI and Nad1 genes, respectively. For COI, the fixation index values of 0.425 and 0.368 were obtained for FST and FCT, respectively, while analysis of Nad1 0.225 and 0.089 index values were obtained for FST and FCT, respectively. We have determined that F. hepatica found in the two distinct areas originated from several geographical regions, since we found haplotypes that were shared with at least three different continents. These data are in accordance with the recent colonization of Brazil, and the recent import of cattle from South American, European and, possibly, some African countries. The observed FST and FCT values for COI and Nad1 genes of F. hepatica may be a result of limited movement of animals within states and support the lack of geographical structure of the parasite in Brazil, which are in agreement with the observed cattle production systems in this region.


Assuntos
DNA de Helmintos/genética , Fasciola hepatica/genética , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Variação Genética , Haplótipos , Matadouros , Animais , Brasil , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Fasciolíase/epidemiologia , Genes Mitocondriais , Geografia , NADH Desidrogenase/genética , Filogenia
9.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 66: 101350, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518959

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of fascioliasis in a population of cattle in a new-emerging focus of human fascioliasis in Boyer-Ahmad District, in the southwest of Iran, was investigated, using an ELISA system and coprological methods. METHODS: Blood, as well as stool samples, were collected from 150 dairy cattle consisted of 82 (54.7%) males and 68 (45.3%) females, aged from 1 to 8 years, selected from different pastures. The stool samples were evaluated by direct wet mount microscopic examination as well as sedimentation methods. Moreover, modified Telemann was used for detecting of Fasciola eggs. Anti-Fasciola antibodies in the cattle sera samples were determined, using a Fasciola excretory-secretory antigen-specific ELISA. RESULTS: Anti-Fasciola antibodies were detected in 64 (42.4%) of the subjects by ELISA. Out of 64 seropositive cases, 29 (45.3%) were female and 35 (54.6%) were male. No significant association was found between sex and seropositivity to fascioliasis. Considering the age of the cattle, the highest prevalence of fascioliasis (23%) was found in the 5-year old age group. However, the difference between the age of the cattle and seropositivity to fascioliasis was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Fasciola eggs were not detected in fecal samples of any of the studied cattle, while Paramphistomide, as well as Dicrocoelium dendriticum eggs, were detected in 6 (4%) and 17 (11.3%) of the subjects, respectively. CONCLUSION: Findings of the current study provide basic information about bovine fascioliasis in a new focus of human fascioliasis in Iran, which is needed for effective control of this parasitic infection in such areas.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Fezes/parasitologia , Animais , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Antígenos de Helmintos/imunologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Fasciola , Fasciolíase/sangue , Fasciolíase/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência
10.
Vet Parasitol ; 274: 108922, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539665

RESUMO

Fasciolosis among domestic ruminants has resulted in a decrease in the production of milk products and has occasionally led to the deaths of young ruminants due to of acute infections. This study aimed to discriminate between the eggs of Fasciola gigantica and other trematode eggs in samples collected from ruminant feces specimens using PCR-based methods with the new candidate gene Cytochrome B (CYTB). A species-specific primer was developed with a high degree of sensitivity (3.285 pg). The primer was able to amplify the F. gigantica genomic DNA and there were no positive results with the other related trematodes (Paramphistomum sp., Orthocoelium sp., Fischoederius sp., Calicophoron sp., Echinostoma revolutum, E. cinetorchis, E. ilocanum and Isthmiophora hortensis), freshwater snails (Lymnaea auricularia, Bithynia siamensis, Indoplanorbis exustus, Melanoides tuberculata, Tarebia granifera) or definitive hosts (Bos primigenius and Bubalus bubalis). The minimum concentration of DNA from eggs that could be give a positive result was 3.285 pg. Moreover, the results of the study confirmed the existence of F. gigantica in Nakhon Pathom Province with a high prevalence (28.57%) and revealed the area of infection through epidemiological mapping. Thus, the species-specific primer and epidemiological data in this study may be helpful for use in epidemiological studies, phylogenetic studies and veterinary studies in the future.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Citocromos b/isolamento & purificação , Fasciola/isolamento & purificação , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Fezes/parasitologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Fasciola/enzimologia , Fasciola/genética , Fasciolíase/diagnóstico , Fasciolíase/parasitologia , Óvulo , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Filogenia , Prevalência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Especificidade da Espécie , Tailândia/epidemiologia
11.
Vet Parasitol ; 273: 45-51, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442892

RESUMO

Fasciola gigantica and hybrid Fasciola are distributed throughout Asia. Herein, we investigated the species of the Fasciola fluke distributed in three hotspots of fascioliasis in Cambodia. A total of 92 flukes collected from 21 slaughtered cattle from Kandal (44), Battambang (41), and Kratie (7) Provinces were identified as F. gigantica using multiplex PCR for a nuclear phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) gene. The overall prevalence of F. gigantica infestation was 7.14% (21/294). Phylogenetic as well as population genetics analyses were performed using the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1). The 19 ND1 haplotypes were identified from Cambodian F. gigantica (haplotype diversity, 0.83). All of the haplotypes were classified into F. gigantica haplogroup C, which includes ND1 haplotypes detected from Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, Myanmar, and China. Among haplogroup C, novel and unique haplotypes of Cambodia were found in the Battambang and Kandal Provinces, and the nucleotide diversity of the Cambodian population (0.00532) was the highest. Pairwise fixation indices among the F. gigantica populations from these countries indicated that the Cambodian and Thailand populations were related to each other. The highest genetic diversity in the Cambodian population suggests that F. gigantica in Cambodia may be the ancestor of the populations in Southeast Asian countries. Most likely, livestock movement, including Zebu cattle, played an important role in the transmission of F. gigantica. In this study, the hybrid Fasciola flukes that are commonly found in neighboring countries, were not found in Cambodia. Further comprehensive investigations of Fasciola prevalence should be conducted by analyzing a wider range of hosts throughout Cambodia to reach a more solid conclusion about the absence of hybrid flukes.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Fasciola/classificação , Fasciola/genética , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Variação Genética , Animais , Ásia Sudeste/epidemiologia , Camboja , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Fasciolíase/epidemiologia , Fasciolíase/parasitologia , Haplótipos , NADH Desidrogenase/genética , Fosfotransferases/genética , Prevalência
12.
Acta Trop ; 198: 105079, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299282

RESUMO

The present study aimed to determine the number of cases of animal fascioliasis per district in the southern littoral of Caspian Sea and to model suitable ecological niches for Fasciola infection in the region. Stool samples (n = 2688) were collected from cattle and sheep in Guilan, Mazandaran and Golestan provinces. The samples were tested using flotation method, and the number of parasite eggs per gram (EPG) of feces was recorded for each sample. Occurrence-only data of Fasciola were collected from the field. A total of 96 points/locations were used to model the ecological niche of Fasciola in maximum entropy (MaxEnt) and geographical information system (GIS). The spatial layers were compiled from 23 bioclimatic and biophysical variables for modeling analysis. Jackknife analysis was used to determine the relative importance of all variables in the model. In the present study, the proportion of fascioliasis in both hosts was highest in Guilan province (sheep: 12.34%, cattle: 15.16%), followed by Mazandaran (sheep: 7.3%, cattle: 6.25%) and Golestan (sheep: 0%, cattle: 0.94%) provinces. The Area Under Curve (AUC) value of the model was 0.909, indicating a good predictive power of the model. Our modeling results indicate that four variables, which were markedly incorporated into the model, are the major predictors of the presence probability of Fasciola spp. in the region: Bio17 (Precipitation of driest quarter; 45.5%), Bio14 (Precipitation of driest month; 24.8%), aspect (9%), and altitude (7.2%). The data presented herein show expansion of the potential high-risk areas of fascioliasis in the northern part of Iran, located at the southern littoral of Caspian Sea, especially in Guilan province. However, the extent of the predicted risk zones varied between the different areas of the region and within provinces, such that at the present, many parts of Golestan province are less environmentally suitable for Fasciola distribution than other areas in the region.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Fasciola , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Altitude , Animais , Mar Cáspio , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Ecossistema , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia
13.
Onderstepoort J Vet Res ; 86(1): e1-e11, 2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291732

RESUMO

Fasciola spp. are the causative agents of fascioliasis in humans and livestock. Before the development of control and management measures, the geographical distribution of the species and patterns of infection must be considered. Because of difficulties in the phenotypic differentiation and morphometric classification of Fasciola spp., DNA molecular markers have become more useful for fluke differentiation and description of phylogenetic patterns. This study aimed to differentiate and describe the phylogenetic background of Fasciola spp. isolated from cattle slaughtered at three abattoirs in the Mpumalanga and KwaZulu-Natal provinces of South Africa. The cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) - FHCO1 (forward: 5'-TTGGTTTTTTGGGCATCCT-3') and FHCO1 (reverse: 5' -AGGCCACCACCAAATAAAAGA3') - marker was sequenced from 55 Fasciola flukes that were collected from abattoirs in catchment areas of the KwaZulu-Natal and Mpumalanga provinces. Fasciola hepatica was demonstrated to have 100% prevalence in KwaZulu-Natal and Mpumalanga (highveld), respectively, and 76% prevalence in the lowveld (Belfast area) of Mpumalanga. Two animals from the Belfast metapopulation were co-infected with both Fasciola gigantica and F. hepatica. DNA sequence analysis of all the isolates demonstrated a sequence conservation of 0.472, nucleotide diversity of 0.082 and Tajima's D of -1.100; however, it was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Twenty-two haplotypes were identified, with 18 novel haplotypes being unique to the isolates from South Africa. Within the study samples, 12 haplotypes were isolated to a few individuals, with a haplotype diversity of 0.8957 indicating high genetic diversity. Principal coordinate analysis supported the clustering and distribution of the haplotypes, with 11.38% of the variation being attributed to coordinate 2 and 55.52% to coordinate 1. The distribution of Fasciola spp. has been demonstrated to be related to the distribution of the freshwater intermediate host snails, Lymnaea spp., as well as the relative altitude of the localities in South Africa. Information provided by this study serves as preliminary evidence for further studies on the mapping of the distribution of F. gigantica and F. hepatica in South Africa, which is key in designing control programmes for fascioliasis in humans and livestock.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Fasciola/isolamento & purificação , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Matadouros , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , DNA de Helmintos/análise , Fasciola/classificação , Fasciola/genética , Fasciolíase/epidemiologia , Marcadores Genéticos , Filogenia , África do Sul/epidemiologia
14.
J Helminthol ; 94: e63, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331410

RESUMO

A systematic review was conducted focusing on the distribution of Fasciola species and their snail intermediate hosts (IHs) in East and Southern Africa. The reviewed literature showed that both Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica are present in East and Southern Africa, and infect a wide range of domestic and wild ruminants. Fasciola gigantica was reported in six East African and five Southern African countries, where Radix natalensis (found in low altitudes) was reported to be the main IH. Fasciola hepatica was reported in Tanzania and Ethiopia (East Africa), and in South Africa and Zimbabwe (Southern Africa), where Galba truncatula (found in high altitudes) was documented as the IH in all countries except in Zimbabwe. Both Fasciola species were documented in Tanzania, Ethiopia, Zimbabwe and South Africa. An overlap of the two was observed in areas with an intermediate altitude in Ethiopia and South Africa, where Pseudosuccinea columella was widespread and assumed to transmit both species. Pseudosuccinea columella has been reported in South Africa and Namibia, and proven to transmit F. gigantica in South Africa; its role in Namibia in the transmission of Fasciola species has not been reported. Other lymnaeid species such as R. rubiginosa were reported in South Africa, and R. auricularia in South Africa and Botswana; their role in the transmission of Fasciola species has not been proven. Future studies should aim to determine the role of P. columella in the geographical spread of the two species in East and Southern African countries.


Assuntos
Fasciola/classificação , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Caramujos/parasitologia , Vertebrados/parasitologia , Animais , Vetores de Doenças , Fasciola/fisiologia , Feminino , Geografia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Masculino , África do Sul , Especificidade da Espécie
15.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(3): 410-415, 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340249

RESUMO

In South America, fascioliasis caused by the trematode Fasciola hepatica is an anthropozoonosis disease associated with significant economic losses and poor animal welfare. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of F. hepatica in the liver of buffaloes slaughtered from 2003 to 2017 in Brazil, and to perform a forecast analysis of the disease for the next five years using the Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model. Data analysis revealed an incidence of 7,187 cases out of 226,561 individuals. The disease presented a considerable interannual variation (p<0.005). Fasciola hepatica was more prevalent in the southern states of Brazil; Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, and Santa Catarina, presenting 11.9, 7.7, and 3.2% of infected livers, respectively. The high frequency of liver condemnation in Paraná was influenced by weather conditions. The ARIMA models calculated a constant trend of the disease, depicting an average of its future prevalence. The models also described a worse-case and a positive-case scenario, calculating the effects of intervention measurements. In reality, there is an urgent need for regular diagnostic in the animals (fecal and immune diagnose) and in the environment (intermediate host), in order to avoid the high rates of infection.


Assuntos
Búfalos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Fasciolíase/diagnóstico , Fasciolíase/epidemiologia , Incidência , Prevalência
16.
Vet Parasitol ; 271: 7-13, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303208

RESUMO

In the current study, the egg hatch test (EHT) has been evaluated as an in vitro technique to detect albendazole (ABZ) resistance in Fasciola hepatica. The intra- and inter-assay variations of the EHT were measured by means of the coefficient of variation in different fluke isolates and over time; then, the results of the EHT were compared with the "gold standard" controlled efficacy test, which assesses the in vivo anthelmintic efficacy. The EHT was used later to evaluate the intra-herd variability regarding the level of ABZ resistance in calves infected by the same fluke isolate. Finally, several factors of the initial protocol were modified to improve the simplicity of the assay, including the incubation time of eggs with the drug and the use of eggs collected from faeces. The greatest uniformity between results within the assay and over time until 8 weeks after gallbladder collection (the deadline proposed for egg analysis) was obtained with an ABZ concentration of 0.5 µM. The length of exposure to ABZ was shown to be critical, as prolonged incubation (15 days) led to a change of ovicidal activity. The ABZ concentration of 0.5 µM is suggested as a possible discriminating dose to predict ABZ resistance, due to the close agreement between the results of the EHT at an ABZ concentration of 0.5 µM and those of the in vivo assays.


Assuntos
Albendazol/farmacologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Fasciola hepatica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária/métodos , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Resistência a Medicamentos , Fasciolíase/diagnóstico , Fasciolíase/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Óvulo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 358, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Excretory/secretory products (ESPs) released by parasites influence the development and functions of host dendritic cells (DCs). However, little is known about changes of DNA (hydroxy)methylation on DC development during Fasciola gigantica infection. The present study aimed to investigate whether F. gigantica ESPs (FgESPs) affects the development and functions of buffalo DCs through altering the DNA (hydroxy)methylation of DCs. METHODS: Buffalo DCs were prepared from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and characterized using scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM/TEM) and quantitative reverse transcriptional PCR (qRT-RCR). DCs were treated with 200 µg/ml of FgESPs in vitro, following DNA extraction. The DNA methylome and hydroxymethylome were profiled based on (hydroxy)methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing [(h)MeDIP-Seq] and bioinformatics analyses. qRT-RCR was also performed to assess the gene transcription levels of interest. RESULTS: FgESPs markedly suppressed DC maturation evidenced by morphological changes and downregulated gene expression of CD1a and MHC II. Totals of 5432 and 360 genes with significant changes in the 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) and the 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) levels, respectively, were identified in buffalo DCs in response to FgESPs challenge. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis revealed that these differentially expressed genes were highly enriched in pathways associated with immune response. Some cancer-related pathways were also indicated. There were 111 genes demonstrating changes in both 5-mC and 5-hmC levels, 12 of which were interconnected and enriched in 12 pathways. The transcription of hypermethylated genes TLR2, TLR4 and IL-12B were downregulated or in a decreasing trend, while the mRNA level of high-hydroxymethylated TNF gene was upregulated in buffalo DCs post-exposure to FgESPs in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, the present study provides for the first time a unique genome-wide profile of DNA (hydroxy)methylation for DCs that interact with FgESPs, and suggests a possible mechanism of FgESPs in suppressing DC maturation and functions that are involved in TLR signaling.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Fasciola/química , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Transdução de Sinais , Receptores Toll-Like/imunologia , Animais , Búfalos , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo , Fasciola/imunologia , Fasciolíase/imunologia , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/imunologia , RNA Mensageiro , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Extratos de Tecidos/farmacologia , Regulação para Cima
18.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 51(8): 2315-2321, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165434

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of fasciolosis and investigate the associated risk factors (sex, age, and season) in slaughtered cattle of the Mitidja area. This survey also aimed to compare three diagnostic methods: liver inspection, microscopic bile examination, and ELISA test. Liver and bile of 1400 cattle were examined for the presence of adult and eggs of Fasciola hepatica, respectively. Based on the results obtained by liver and bile examination, a subset of 206 cattle from the 1400 was selected for antibodies detection using the ELISA test. Liver inspection and microscopic bile examination showed prevalences of 2.86% and 5.50%, respectively. The difference between the two methods was highly significant (p < 0.001). The overall prevalence of bovine fasciolosis found by both methods was 6.07%. The disease was more prevalent in females (11.96%) than in males (2.43%), and in older cattle (12.30%) than in younger ones (2.36%). The ELISA test showed some conflicting results: 23.61% of cattle previously diagnosed positive with liver inspection and bile examination were found seronegative, and 3.73% of cattle previously diagnosed negative were found to be seropositive. The sensitivity and specificity of microscopic bile examination were respectively 80% (CI 65.2-89.5%) and 96.7% (CI 95.6-97.5%) as compared with the liver inspection. Likewise, this same method has a sensitivity of 81.36% (CI 69.6-89.3%) and a specificity of 88.97% (CI 82.8-93.1%) as compared with the ELISA test. Our results show that microscopic bile examination is able to detect more infected cattle than liver inspection. In addition to being simple, fast, inexpensive, sensitive, and specific, it is an effective method for the diagnosis of fasciolosis.


Assuntos
Bile/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Fasciola hepatica/isolamento & purificação , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Fígado/parasitologia , Argélia/epidemiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Fasciolíase/diagnóstico , Fasciolíase/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Óvulo , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
19.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 281, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The liver fluke Fasciola gigantica modulates several signaling pathways in infected buffaloes to facilitate its survival and establishment of persistent infection. In response to the parasite invasion, buffaloes activate innate and adaptive immune responses to counter the parasite infection. To detect new proteins that might be involved in the interaction between F. gigantica and the buffaloes, and that also might serve as biomarkers for fasciolosis, we used proteomic techniques to study the serum proteome of buffaloes during F. gigantica infection. Here, we used an isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based quantitative proteomic approach to identify serum proteins that are differentially expressed in infected buffaloes compared to uninfected control buffaloes. Additionally, we applied a parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) assay to validate specific proteins identified by the iTRAQ method. RESULTS: A total of 313, 459 and 399 proteins were identified at 3, 42 and 70 days post-infection, respectively; of these 92, 93 and 138 were differentially abundant proteins. Some of the identified differentially abundant proteins, including complement factor H related 5, complement component C6, complement component C7, amine oxidase, plasma serine protease inhibitor and lysozyme, are known to be involved in complement system activation, blood coagulation, platelet activation, lymphocyte's adhesion and lysozyme hydrolysis. Analysis of data for all three time points after infection identified six significantly upregulated proteins in infected serum that separated infected and uninfected buffaloes into distinct clusters. Further PRM analysis confirmed the expression of five proteins, namely MHC class I antigen, Beta-2-microglobulin, NID2 protein, Fetuin-B and Fibrinogen gamma-B chain. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide novel insights into the serum proteomics signature of buffaloes during F. gigantica infection.


Assuntos
Búfalos/parasitologia , Fasciolíase/sangue , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Proteoma , Animais , Búfalos/imunologia , Fasciola , Fasciolíase/imunologia
20.
Parasitol Int ; 72: 101930, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31121267

RESUMO

Recently, phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase (pepck) and DNA polymerase delta (pold) were established as reliable nuclear markers for species identification of Fasciola spp. in multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism-based assays, respectively. Currently, little is known about Fasciola species distribution in Central Asia. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to perform precise molecular species identification of liver flukes from Afghanistan and to reveal their dispersal route(s) via phylogenetic analysis based on mitochondrial nad1 haplotypes. Ninety-two Fasciolaflukes collected from sheep in Kabul, Afghanistan, were identified as F. hepatica based on pepck and pold screening. Although the pepck fragment pattern obtained via multiplex PCR analysis could not distinguish the species of the seven Fasciola flukes, the pepck nucleotide sequence data confirmed that they were F. hepatica.The 20 nad1 haplotypes detected among the Afghani liver flukes were closely related to those from China and Egypt, with the FSTvalue (-0.003, P = .41) between the F. hepatica populations from Afghanistan and China confirming a very close relationship. Nucleotide diversity was greater in the population from Afghanistan compared with that from China, indicating that the Afghani population was older, and that the dispersal direction of F. hepatica was from Afghanistan to China. The results of the present study contribute to our understanding of the dispersal of F. hepatica from its predicted origin, the Fertile Crescent.


Assuntos
DNA de Helmintos/genética , Fasciola/genética , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Afeganistão/epidemiologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , DNA Polimerase III/genética , Fasciola/isolamento & purificação , Fasciolíase/epidemiologia , Variação Genética , Haplótipos , NADH Desidrogenase/genética , Fosfoenolpiruvato Carboxiquinase (ATP)/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA