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1.
J Food Sci ; 85(9): 2843-2851, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790195

RESUMO

The U.S. Army and NASA need ready-to-eat meals with extended shelf-life for military operations and future manned space missions. For traditional heat sterilization methods, aluminum foil laminated pouches are used to achieve a shelf-life of 3 to 5 years at room temperature. However, those packages are not suited for advanced thermal processing technologies based on microwave energy. This research investigated the effect of polymeric packaging materials on storage stability of garlic flavor, vitamin C, and color of garlic mashed potatoes processed with microwave-assisted thermal sterilization (MATS) technology. Three types of high-barrier metal oxide-coated polymer pouches were used for MATS process, designed to achieve lethality approximately F0 = 6 min. Aluminum foil-based pouches were used for retort process as control. Results demonstrated that both oxygen and water vapor barrier properties (oxygen transmission rate [OTR] and water vapor transmission rate [WVTR]) of the polymer pouches were affected by MATS processing. OTR increased by three to nine times, while WVTR increased by 5 to 20 times after processing. The MATS process resulted in 13% to 16% vitamin C loss, while retort process resulted in 18% loss in garlic mashed potato. The kinetics of vitamin C indicated that metal oxide-coated high-barrier packages (after processing OTR <0.1 cc/m2 .day; WVTR <1.0 g/m2 .day) could replace aluminum foil-based pouches for MATS processed shelf-stable ready-to-eat garlic mashed potatoes. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Garlic mashed potatoes in polymer packages processed in a microwave-assisted thermal sterilization (MATS) system had better retention of vitamin C compared to samples packaged in aluminum laminated pouches and processed in retort. Polymer packages combined with MATS processing could potentially provide safe, better quality, and nutritious shelf-stable food products for military and space missions.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/química , Fast Foods/análise , Embalagem de Alimentos/instrumentação , Alho/química , Pasteurização/métodos , Solanum tuberosum/química , Cor , Aromatizantes/análise , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Micro-Ondas , Odorantes/análise , Pasteurização/instrumentação , Polímeros/química , Vapor/análise , Paladar
2.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 650, 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Canada's food supply is abundant in less healthy products, increasing Canadians' risk of obesity and non-communicable diseases. Food companies strongly influence the food supply; however, no studies have examined differences in the healthfulness of products offered by various companies in Canada. This study aimed to compare the nutritional quality of products offered by the top packaged food and beverage companies in Canada. METHODS: Twenty-two top packaged food and beverage manufacturing companies were selected, representing > 50% of the Canadian market share in 2018. Nutritional information for products (n = 8277) was sourced from the University of Toronto Food Label Information Program 2017 database. Descriptive analyses examined the nutritional quality of products based on: 1) the Health Star Rating (HSR) system; 2) calories, sodium, saturated fat and total sugars per 100 g (or mL) and per reference amounts (RAs) defined by Health Canada; and 3) "high in" thresholds for sodium, saturated fat and total sugars proposed by Health Canada for pending front-of-package labelling regulations. Kruskal-Wallis tests compared HSRs of products between companies. RESULTS: Mean HSRs of companies' total product offerings ranged from 1.9 to 3.6 (out of 5.0). Differences in HSRs of products between companies were significant overall and for 19 of 22 food categories (P < 0.05), particularly for fats/oils and beverages. Calories, sodium, saturated fat and total sugars contents varied widely between companies for several food categories, and depending on whether they were examined per 100 g (or mL) or RA. Additionally, 66.4% of all products exceeded ≥1 of Health Canada's "high in" thresholds for sodium (31.7%), saturated fat (28.3%) and/or sugars (28.4%). The proportion of products offered by a company that exceeded at least one of these thresholds ranged from 38.5 to 97.5%. CONCLUSIONS: The nutritional quality of products offered by leading packaged food and beverage manufacturers in Canada differs significantly overall and by food category, with many products considered less healthy according to multiple nutrient profiling methods. Variation within food categories illustrates the need and potential for companies to improve the healthfulness of their products. Identifying companies that offer less healthy products compared with others in Canada may help prompt reformulation.


Assuntos
Bebidas/análise , Fast Foods/análise , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Bebidas/provisão & distribução , Canadá , Fast Foods/provisão & distribução , Rotulagem de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo
3.
J Food Prot ; 83(5): 890-895, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028529

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The microbiological quality of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods from school cafeterias in Chongqing, People's Republic of China, was evaluated and compared with a guideline published by a provincial health commission. These RTE foods were divided into five types based on their preparation processes and potential risks: 1, general cooked and hot-held foods; 2, cooked meats; 3, heated aquatic products; 4, fresh fruits or vegetables; and 5, cooked foods with postcooking handling (e.g., cutting, cooling, or addition of ingredients or condiments). Food types 1 through 3 (subjected to thermal processes and hot-held) were microbiologically safer than types 4 and 5 (prepared by nonthermal process or with postcooking processes). None of the samples of types 1 through 3 were unsatisfactory based on their aerobic plate counts (APC) and total coliforms (TC), whereas 43.1% of type 4 and 8.3 and 71.7% of type 5 samples were unsatisfactory due to high counts of TC and high APC and TC, respectively. Two, 12, and 50 samples of types 2, 4, and 5, respectively, were unacceptable due to high levels of Staphylococcus aureus. Bacillus cereus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus were detected, but levels were below the unacceptable limits. None of the samples were positive for Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, or Escherichia coli O157. The bacterial profile can be used by policy makers and epidemiologists for microbiological risk assessments, which may be conducive to developing interventions to control hazards, improve food hygiene, and develop safety management systems for school cafeterias in China.


Assuntos
Fast Foods/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , China , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Fast Foods/normas , Serviços de Alimentação/normas , Humanos , Salmonella , Instituições Acadêmicas
4.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; 60(7): 1077-1093, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30638046

RESUMO

Currently, food allergies are an important health concern worldwide. The presence of undeclared allergenic ingredients or the presence of traces of allergens due to accidental contamination during food processing poses a great health risk to sensitized individuals. Therefore, reliable analytical methods are required to detect and identify allergenic ingredients in food products. Real-time PCR allowed a specific and accurate amplification of allergen sequences. Some processing methods could induce the fragmentation and/or degradation of genomic DNA and some studies have been performed to analyze the effect of processing on the detection of different targets, as thermal treatment, with and without applying pressure. In this review, we give an updated overview of the applications of real-time PCR for the detection of allergens of tree nut in processed food products. The different variables that contribute to the performance of PCR methodology for allergen detection are also review and discussed.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/análise , Alérgenos/genética , Fast Foods/análise , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Nozes/química , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Alérgenos/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Nozes/imunologia
5.
Food Chem ; 302: 125330, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404872

RESUMO

This study assessed compliance between declared and analysed values on prepacked foods, considering the tolerance limits for salt, fat and saturated fatty acids. Foods were distributed by food categories (e.g. snacks, ready-to-eat meals, potato and potato-products, bakery and pastry products) and a total of 209 products were analysed. Only half of the samples with a declared value ≥1.25 g/100 g were within tolerance limits for salt content. The lowest number of samples outside tolerance limits was observed for fat content; for saturated fatty acids, 27% of the samples were outside of tolerance limits. Only amongst "cereal products" were 100% of products compliant for fat and salt declarations. It is of utmost importance that manufacturers update continuously values declared for prepacked foods, because this information is crucial for consumers and food policy-makers as well as being a legal requirement.


Assuntos
Rotulagem de Alimentos/normas , Nutrientes/análise , Política Nutricional , Grão Comestível , União Europeia , Fast Foods/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Embalagem de Alimentos/normas , Lanches , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/análise
6.
Curr Gastroenterol Rep ; 21(11): 61, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792622

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to discuss the implications of the increased prevalence of emulsifiers in processed foods in daily consumption, the links to obesity both in mice and in vitro studies, and how those findings correlate with humans. RECENT FINDINGS: There is rising interest in understanding the contributors to the obesity epidemic. One potential component recently studied has been the consumption of processed foods causing inflammatory changes leading to metabolic syndrome. This phenomenon has been shown in several mice and in vitro studies with changes in microbiome composition, elevated fasting blood glucose, hyperphagia, increased weight gain and adiposity, hepatic steatosis increased inflammatory markers, and a correlation with increased incidence of colorectal cancer. Emulsifiers are found in most foods consumed in the US population, which has increased over the years. This review focuses on understanding the initial approved safe levels of emulsifier consumption, the preceding increased use in foods with higher daily consumption than was previously tested, measuring these levels in animal models, and the positive association with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Future research will require prospectively studying emulsifier consumption more accurately along with the associated respective changes in the microbiome to determine the relationship to obesity.


Assuntos
Emulsificantes/efeitos adversos , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Aditivos Alimentares/efeitos adversos , Obesidade/etiologia , Emulsificantes/análise , Emulsificantes/farmacologia , Fast Foods/análise , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Aditivos Alimentares/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Obesidade/microbiologia
7.
Nutrients ; 12(1)2019 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877703

RESUMO

Salt consumption in many countries of the world exceeds the level recommended by WHO (5 g/day), which is associated with negative effects on health. Public health strategies to achieve the WHO's objectives include salt content monitoring, improved nutritional labelling and product reformulation. This study aimed to determine the sodium content in street food (SF), fast foods (FF) and artisanal foods (AF) of the Northwest of Argentina, which is not regulated. Moisture, ash and sodium were determined according to the Official Methods of Analysis (AOAC) in 189 samples from each of the three categories. The average and range values were: SF 520 (R: 74-932); FF 599 (R: 371-1093) and AF 575 (R: 152-1373) mg Na/100 g. Thus, general sodium content is high, which means that the consumption of a serving from most of the studied foods leads to an individual exceeding the recommended daily intake values. This study contributes to the knowledge of sodium content in evaluated foods and its contribution to the population intake. This reinforces the importance of implementing new public policies and regulations, advising consumers to check food nutritional labels andselect foods lower in salt content, raising food manufacturers' awarenessabout the importance of reducing sodium content in foods they produce and in public health.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Adulto , Argentina , Fast Foods/análise , Feminino , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Saúde Pública , Recomendações Nutricionais , Adulto Jovem
8.
Nutrients ; 11(11)2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731664

RESUMO

The association between the degree of processing and healthfulness of foods remains unclear. Most evidence of this relationship is based on dietary intake surveys rather than individual products and varies depending on the food processing classification system used. This study aimed to compare the nutritional quality of more- versus less-processed packaged foods and beverages in Canada, using a large, branded food database and two processing classification systems. Nutritional information for products (n = 17,269) was sourced from the University of Toronto FLIP 2017 database. Products were categorized using the NOVA and Poti et al. processing classification systems. Calories, sodium, saturated fat, total and free sugars, fibre and protein per 100 g (or mL) were examined by processing category using descriptive statistics and linear regression. Overall, the most-processed products under both systems were more likely to be lower in protein, and higher in total and free sugars, compared with less-processed foods (p < 0.05); the direction and strength of the association between other nutrients/components and level of processing were less consistent. These findings demonstrate that calorie- and nutrient-dense foods exist across different levels of processing, suggesting that food choices and dietary recommendations should be based primarily on energy or nutrient density rather than processing classification.


Assuntos
Bebidas/análise , Fast Foods/análise , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Nutrientes/análise , Canadá , Preferências Alimentares , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo
9.
Nutrients ; 11(11)2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717724

RESUMO

Ultra-processed, pre-packaged foods are becoming a growing part of our diet, while displacing whole and minimally processed foods. This results in an increased intake of free sugar, salt, and saturated fats, that have a profoundly negative effect on health. We aimed to assess the trend in free sugar content in pre-packaged foods in Slovenia and evaluate the efficacy of industry self-regulations designed to combat the excess consumption of free sugar. A nation-wide data collection of the Slovenian food supply was performed in 2015 and repeated in 2017. In 2017, 54.5% of all products (n = 21,115) contained free sugars (median: 0.26 g free sugar/100 g). Soft drinks became the main free sugar source among pre-packaged goods (28% of all free sugar sold on the market) in place of chocolates and sweets, of which relative share decreased by 4.4%. In the categories with the highest free sugar share, market-leading brands were often sweeter than the average free sugar value of the category. This indicates that changes in on-shelf availability towards a greater number of healthier, less sweet products are not necessarily reflected in healthier consumers' choices. Relying solely on voluntary industrial commitments to reduce free sugar consumption will likely not be sufficient to considerably improve public health. While some further improvements might be expected over the longer term, voluntarily commitments are more successful in increasing the availability of healthier alternatives, rather than improving the nutritional composition of the market-leading products. Additional activities are, therefore, needed to stimulate reformulation of the existing market-leading foods and drinks, and to stimulate the consumption of healthier alternatives.


Assuntos
Açúcares da Dieta/análise , Fast Foods , Rotulagem de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Fast Foods/análise , Fast Foods/classificação , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Eslovênia
10.
Cell Host Microbe ; 26(4): 463-477.e8, 2019 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585844

RESUMO

Dramatic increases in processed food consumption represent a global health threat. Maillard reaction products (MRPs), which are common in processed foods, form upon heat-induced reaction of amino acids with reducing sugars and include advanced glycation end products with deleterious health effects. To examine how processed foods affect the microbiota, we fed gnotobiotic mice, colonized with 54 phylogenetically diverse human gut bacterial strains, defined sugar-rich diets containing whey as the protein source or a matched amino acid mixture. Whey or ϵ-fructoselysine, an MRP in whey and many processed foods, selectively increases Collinsella intestinalis absolute abundance and induces Collinsella expression of genomic loci directing import and metabolism of ϵ-fructoselysine to innocuous products. This locus is repressed by glucose in C. aerofaciens, whose abundance decreases with whey, but is not repressed in C. intestinalis. Identifying gut organisms responding to and degrading potentially harmful processed food components has implications for food science, microbiome science, and public health.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/metabolismo , Fast Foods/análise , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Lisina/análogos & derivados , Actinobacteria/genética , Animais , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Vida Livre de Germes , Humanos , Lisina/metabolismo , Reação de Maillard , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/metabolismo
11.
J Food Drug Anal ; 27(4): 841-848, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590755

RESUMO

We investigated antibiotic resistance of staphylococci isolated from 1128 samples of high-circulating RTE foods in Taiwan. A total of 111 Staphylococcus aureus and 709 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) comprising 23 species were isolated. The prevalence of S. aureus differed in various category of RTE foods, highest in fresh-cut fruits/vegetables (20.5%) and lowest in low-water activity (LWA) foods (0.7%). The overall staphylococcal contamination was highest in fresh-cut fruits/vegetables (62.2%), in which multiple isolates (up to 10) or species (up to 6) in single sample were frequently found. Distinct distribution of species contributed to unique feature in each category. Prevalence of antibiotic-resistant S. aureus was higher in fresh-cut fruits/vegetables samples (14.2% in 127) compared to other food categories (0-7.1%). A total of 4 MRSA carrying SCCmec type IV or VT were identified (3.6% in 111), in which 3 belonged to sequence type ST59 and one was ST5. Among CoNS, S. epidermidis and S. warneri exhibited higher non-intrinsic antibiotic resistance than other species. Of 41 methicillin-resistant CoNS (5.8% in 709) isolates, SCCmec type IV (n = 16) and type VT (n = 6) were most frequent. Isolates of S. saprophyticus, S. xylosus and S. sciuri displayed high rates of resistance to fusidic acid. Novel fusB-family determinants were identified in S. xylosus, S. sciuri and S. kloosii, which may contribute to their intrinsic resistance to fusidic acid. Compared to other food categories, fresh-cut fruits/vegetables were more contaminated by staphylococci carrying non-intrinsic resistance determinants including methicillin resistance. This nation-wide study demonstrated that some categories may have potential risk for transmitting antibiotic resistance, in which S. epidermidis and S. warneri should be gotten more attention.


Assuntos
Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Fast Foods/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Staphylococcus/genética , Taiwan
12.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540146

RESUMO

High blood pressure is a leading cause of death in Costa Rica, with an estimated mortality rate of 30%. The average household sodium intake is two times higher than the World Health Organization recommendation. The consumption of processed foods is an important and growing contributor to sodium intake. The objective of this study was to describe the sodium content of packaged foods (mg/100 g) sold in Costa Rica in 2015 (n = 1158) and 2018 (n = 1016) and to assess their compliance with the national sodium reduction targets. All 6 categories with national targets were analyzed: condiments, cookies and biscuits, bread products, processed meats, bakery products, and sauces. A significant reduction in mean sodium content was found in only 3 of the 19 subcategories (cakes, tomato-based sauces, and tomato paste). No subcategories had statistically significant increases in mean sodium levels, but seasonings for sides/mains, ham, and sausage categories were at least 15% higher in sodium. Compliance with the national sodium targets among all foods increased from 80% in 2015 to 87% in 2018. The results demonstrate that it is feasible to reduce the sodium content in packaged foods in Costa Rica, but more work is needed to continually support a gradual reduction of sodium in packaged foods, including more stringent sodium targets.


Assuntos
Fast Foods , Política Nutricional , Sódio na Dieta/análise , Pão/análise , Condimentos/análise , Costa Rica , Fast Foods/análise , Fast Foods/normas , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Carne/análise
13.
BMJ Open ; 9(9): e025623, 2019 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548352

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: (1) To assess the changes in the salt content of sauces in the UK in the past 10 years; (2) to compare the salt content of sauces in China with equivalent products sold in the UK and (3) to calculate the proportion of sauce products meeting the salt targets set by the UK Department of Health (DoH). DESIGN: Cross-sectional surveys from the nutrition information panels of sauces. SETTING: Major retailers in London, Beijing and Shijiazhuang operating at data collection times. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Salt content of sauces. RESULTS: Relative change in the median salt content of UK products ranged from -70.6% to +3.0% in sauces for which salt targets were set, whereas it ranged from -27.1% to +111.5% in sauces without targets. Median salt contents were on average 4.4-fold greater in Chinese sauces compared with their UK equivalents surveyed during the same period (2015-2017). Only 13.4% of the Chinese products met the UK 2017 salt targets, compared with 70.0% of UK products. CONCLUSION: In the UK, the target-based approach contributed to the reduction in the salt content of sauces over the course of the past 10 years. Currently, large variations in salt content exist within the same categories of sauces and 70% of the products have met DoH's 2017 targets, demonstrating that further reductions are possible and lower salt targets should be set. In China, salt content of sauces is extremely high with similarly large variations within same categories of sauces, demonstrating the feasibility of reducing their salt content. As processed foods (including sauces) are expected to become an important contributor to salt intake in China, national salt reduction efforts such as setting salt targets would be a valuable, proactive strategy.


Assuntos
Fast Foods/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/análise , Pequim , Estudos Transversais , Fast Foods/normas , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Londres , Marketing , Saúde Pública , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/normas
14.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443588

RESUMO

Ready-to-eat (RTE) cereal is a popular food among children. However, there are no recent data on the associations between RTE cereal consumption and dietary outcomes in the U.S. Therefore, we sought to investigate how RTE cereal was associated with nutrient and food group intakes and overall dietary quality among children aged 0.5 to 17 years using the latest data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2015-2016). Thirty-six percent of children reported consuming RTE cereal. RTE cereal eaters consumed the same number of calories as non-eaters but had higher intakes of total carbohydrates, total sugar, fiber, calcium, iron, magnesium, potassium, zinc, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, and vitamin D, as well as lower intakes of total fat and saturated fat (p ≤ 0.0007). We also found that children who consumed RTE cereal had 29% higher total dairy intake (p < 0.0001) and 61% higher whole grain intake (p < 0.0001). Lastly, children who ate RTE cereal had higher diet quality than the children that did not eat RTE cereal, as shown by Healthy Eating Index 2015 total score (52.6 versus 47.7, p < 0.0001). Therefore, consumption of whole-grain fortified RTE cereals should be encouraged as part of healthy dietary patterns for children.


Assuntos
Desjejum , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Grão Comestível , Fast Foods/análise , Estado Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Recomendações Nutricionais , Estados Unidos
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(31): 8660-8667, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298531

RESUMO

Soybean allergens in food samples are currently detected in most cases using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on antibodies raised against bulk soybean proteins or specifically targeting soybean trypsin inhibitor, conglycinin, or glycinin. The various commercial ELISAs lack standardized reference material, and the results are often inaccurate because the antibodies cross-react with proteins from other legumes. Furthermore, the isolation of allergenic proteins involves laborious denaturing extraction conditions. To tackle these challenges, we have developed a novel sandwich ELISA based on monoclonal antibodies raised against the soybean 2S albumin Gly m 8 and a recombinant Gly m 8 reference protein with native-analogous characteristics. The antibodies do not cross-react with other legume proteins, and the extraordinary stability and solubility of Gly m 8 allows it to be extracted even from complex matrices after processing. The Gly m 8 ELISA therefore achieves greater specificity and reproducibility than current ELISA tests.


Assuntos
Albuminas 2S de Plantas/análise , Alérgenos/análise , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Fast Foods/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Proteínas de Soja/análise , Soja/imunologia , Albuminas 2S de Plantas/imunologia , Alérgenos/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/análise , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Reações Cruzadas , Proteínas de Soja/imunologia , Soja/química
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(31): 8641-8648, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322878

RESUMO

Prochloraz is a widely used imidazole fungicide that has to be analyzed together with its metabolites or transformation products for food safety monitoring purposes in the European Union. Although the focus in food of plant origin has been set on metabolites BTS 44595 and BTS 44596, we consider relevant the study of BTS 40348 metabolite, too, because it has been detected in both raw and processed foods based on citrus fruits in the EU. Metabolite BTS 40348 should be monitored in surface water due to its ecotoxicological effects. In this work, the synthesis and structural characterization of BTS 40348 metabolite of fungicide prochloraz is presented, because the structure is closely related to the chemistry and biological activity of the substance. Characterization using 13C and 1H NMR, infrared (IR), and Raman spectroscopy is detailed, together with confirmation by electrospray mass spectrometry analysis.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais/química , Fungicidas Industriais/metabolismo , Imidazóis/química , Imidazóis/metabolismo , União Europeia , Fast Foods/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Molecular , Resíduos de Praguicidas/química , Resíduos de Praguicidas/metabolismo , Análise Espectral Raman , Poluentes da Água/química
18.
Food Microbiol ; 83: 211-218, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202415

RESUMO

The processing conditions and physiochemical properties used in food manufacturing create niches which support the growth of a limited number of spoilage fungi. This study was designed to evaluate the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic food product variables on the identity of spoilage fungi genera isolated from commercially produced foods. The spoilage etiology was identified in 127 products through ITS region sequencing. The prevalence and diversity of the identified spoilage fungi were evaluated in relationship to product-specific attributes using various descriptive statistics and a bipartite network analysis. Additionally, recursive partitioning was used to generate a classification tree with the outcomes, genera of the spoilage isolates, divided into increasingly homogenous subgroups. All of the isolated fungi belonged to the Ascomycete phylum, except four mucoralian isolates and the basidiomycete Rhodotorula. The occurrence of filamentous fungi repeatedly isolated ranged from 2% (Phoma spp.) to 18% (Penicillium spp.). In order of decreasing contribution to subgroup homogeneity, the split rules for the classification tree were based on process, water activity, food matrix category, and pH. Fungal genera representation in the terminal nodes indicated that production failures, in addition to product-specific attributes, were responsible for determination of the most probable spoilage organism.


Assuntos
Fast Foods/análise , Fast Foods/microbiologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Fungos/classificação , Penicillium/isolamento & purificação , Rhodotorula/isolamento & purificação
19.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(12): 5606-5609, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a lack of information on the presence of volatile organic compounds including p-cymene in foods for dietary exposure assessment. p-Cymene is a monoterpene found in many plant species, which has been used as a flavouring agent in foods and also exhibits antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. While the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) has no safety concerns at current levels of intake when used as a flavouring, the current study examines p-cymene levels in foods in general, not just from possible uses as a flavouring, as there could still be a potential health concern if there were high levels of exposure. RESULTS: 159 food composite samples from the 2014 Canadian Total Diet Study were analysed for p-cymene using a gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric method after headspace solid-phase microextraction. Concentrations of p-cymene in the composite samples of most food types were generally low, with a maximum level of 73.5 µg g-1 , detected in the composite sample of herbs and spices. Dietary exposures to p-cymene were estimated for different age groups of Canadian populations. CONCLUSIONS: Although p-cymene was detected in various foods, estimated dietary exposures to p-cymene for different age groups are well below the human intake threshold of toxicological concern established by JECFA of 1800 µg per person per day for structural class I flavours, which includes p-cymene. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Exposição Dietética/análise , Monoterpenos/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Canadá , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cimenos , Grão Comestível/química , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Fast Foods/análise , Feminino , Aromatizantes/análise , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Carne/análise , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monoterpenos/metabolismo , Verduras/química , Verduras/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
20.
BMJ Open ; 9(6): e026652, 2019 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253615

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Traditional methods for creating food composition tables struggle to cope with the large number of products and the rapid pace of change in the food and drink marketplace. This paper introduces foodDB, a big data approach to the analysis of this marketplace, and presents analyses illustrating its research potential. DESIGN: foodDB has been used to collect data weekly on all foods and drinks available on six major UK supermarket websites since November 2017. As of June 2018, foodDB has 3 193 171 observations of 128 283 distinct food and drink products measured at multiple timepoints. METHODS: Weekly extraction of nutrition and availability data of products was extracted from the webpages of the supermarket websites. This process was automated with a codebase written in Python. RESULTS: Analyses using a single weekly timepoint of 97 368 total products in March 2018 identified 2699 ready meals and pizzas, and showed that lower price ready meals had significantly lower levels of fat, saturates, sugar and salt (p<0.001). Longitudinal analyses of 903 pizzas revealed that 10.8% changed their nutritional formulation over 6 months, and 29.9% were either discontinued or new market entries. CONCLUSIONS: foodDB is a powerful new tool for monitoring the food and drink marketplace, the comprehensive sampling and granularity of collection provides power for revealing analyses of the relationship between nutritional quality and marketing of branded foods, timely observation of product reformulation and other changes to the food marketplace.


Assuntos
Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Sacarose na Dieta/análise , Fast Foods/análise , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/análise , Coleta de Dados , Bases de Dados Factuais , Fast Foods/economia , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/economia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Marketing , Refeições , Política Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
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