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1.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e178, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635196

RESUMO

In October 2019, public health surveillance systems in Scotland identified an increase in the number of reported infections of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O26:H11 involving bloody diarrhoea. Ultimately, across the United Kingdom (UK) 32 cases of STEC O26:H11 stx1a were identified, with the median age of 27 years and 64% were male; six cases were hospitalised. Among food exposures there was an association with consuming pre-packed sandwiches purchased at outlets belonging to a national food chain franchise (food outlet A) [odds ratio (OR) = 183.89, P < 0.001]. The common ingredient identified as a component of the majority of the sandwiches sold at food outlet A was a mixed salad of Apollo and Iceberg lettuce and spinach leaves. Microbiological testing of food and environmental samples were negative for STEC O26:H11, although STEC O36:H19 was isolated from a mixed salad sample taken from premises owned by food outlet A. Contamination of fresh produce is often due to a transient event and detection of the aetiological agent in food that has a short-shelf life is challenging. Robust, statistically significant epidemiological analysis should be sufficient evidence to direct timely and targeted on-farm investigations. A shift in focus from testing the microbiological quality of the produce to investigating the processes and practices through the supply chain and sampling the farm environment is recommended.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Fast Foods/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Fast Foods/envenenamento , Fast Foods/provisão & distribuição , Feminino , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Saladas/microbiologia , Saladas/envenenamento , Saladas/provisão & distribuição , Sorogrupo , Toxina Shiga/genética , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/genética , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
2.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 355: 109349, 2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371389

RESUMO

Antibiotic-resistant bacteria in food pose an important threat to public health. Multidrug-resistant strains in ready-to-eat (RTE) foods can be transferred to humans through diet, which increases their health risk. This study systematically investigated antibiotic resistance and antibiotic resistance genes in E. coli isolated from retail RTE foods and characterized plasmid-mediated colistin-resistant E. coli strains. A total of 1118 RTE food samples were collected from markets in 39 cities in China, and 126 E. coli strains, >95% of which were multidrug-resistant, were isolated. The isolates showed a high prevalence of resistance to tetracycline (95.24%), ampicillin (82.54%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (77.78%), nalidixic acid (74.60%), cephalothin (72.22%), chloramphenicol (66.67%), and streptomycin (53.97%). Twenty-two extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli and four colistin-resistant E. coli were identified. The resistance genes TEM, CTX-M, tetA, sul2, strA/strB, aadA, and qnrS were the most frequently detected. CTX-M-55 and CTX-M-14 were the predominant CTX-M types. All the four colistin-resistant E. coli isolates were positive for mcr-1. The mcr-1 gene can be transferred to E. coli C600 through conjugation and transformation. Whole-genome sequencing revealed that the mcr-1 genes were found in IncX4 and IncHI2 plasmids. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of IncHI2/IncX4 plasmid-bearing mcr-1-positive E. coli strains in RTE foods sold in markets, and the first report of the isolation of the international epidemic E. coli clone ST101 and mcr-1-carrying ESBL-producing E. coli from RTE foods. These results provide valuable information for assessing antibiotic-resistant E. coli infections and controlling antibiotic-resistant E. coli.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Infecções por Escherichia coli , Proteínas de Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli , Fast Foods , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Fast Foods/microbiologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Plasmídeos/genética , Prevalência , beta-Lactamases/genética
3.
Food Microbiol ; 99: 103800, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34119094

RESUMO

A quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) model predicting the listeriosis risk related to the consumption of Ready- To- Eat (RTE) cooked meat products sliced at retail stores in Greece was developed. The probability of illness per serving assessed for 87 products available in the Greek market was found highly related to the nitrite concentration; products having a lower concentration showed a higher risk per serving. The predicted 95th percentiles of the annual listeriosis cases totaled 33 of which 13 cases were <65 years old and 20 cases ≥65 years old. The highest number of cases was predicted for mortadella, smoked turkey, boiled turkey and parizer, which were the most frequently consumed product categories. Two scenarios for assessing potential interventions to reduce the risk were tested: setting a use-by date of 14 days (these products have no use-by date based on current European Union legislation) and improving the temperature control during domestic storage. The two scenarios resulted in a decrease of the 95th and 99th percentiles of the total annual cases by 97% and 88%, respectively.


Assuntos
Fast Foods/microbiologia , Listeria monocytogenes/isolamento & purificação , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Galinhas , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/economia , Contaminação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Listeria monocytogenes/classificação , Listeria monocytogenes/genética , Listeria monocytogenes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Listeriose/epidemiologia , Listeriose/microbiologia , Masculino , Produtos da Carne/economia , Medição de Risco , Perus
4.
Food Microbiol ; 99: 103829, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34119114

RESUMO

The endogenous microflora of mussels, filter feeders, can include pathogens with resulting food safety concerns. The aim was to develop a cook-then-ferment technology to extend shelf life and safety of a ready-to-eat mussels. Only after cooking to destroy the mussel's endogenous microflora could an edible product be made as determined by pH decline after fermentation and the fate of common pathogens. Perna canaliculus was bought live at retail on many dates. Fermentation was with commercial lactic cultures incubated under vacuum at 30 °C for four days. Using one culture containing Pediococcus pentosaceus and Staphylococcus carnosus as a model, pH typically declined to 4.5 to 4.7, and common pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella and Vibrio parahaemolyticus were absent or reduced to acceptable levels. The fate of Listeria monocytogenes was studied with five cultures. These were variably effective at inhibition with one clear success, Chr Hansen's T-SC-150 containing a specific strain of Lactobacillus sakei, and flavour-generating Staphylococcus carnosus. This culture's efficacy was confirmed with sterile extracts of LAB challenging L. monocytogenes in vitro. This culture was also the most rapid fermenter by pH fall. Cook-then-ferment technology may be applied to other novel foods to minimise a disruptive endogenous microflora.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Lactobacillales/metabolismo , Perna (Organismo)/microbiologia , Frutos do Mar/microbiologia , Animais , Culinária , Fast Foods/microbiologia , Fermentação , Lactobacillus sakei/metabolismo , Listeria monocytogenes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perna (Organismo)/química , Frutos do Mar/análise , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
5.
J Food Prot ; 84(10): 1729-1740, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34047780

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Listeria monocytogenes is a pathogenic bacterium associated with ready-to-eat (RTE) meat products sold at the retail level. The objective of this research was to determine the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in RTE meat products sold at retail in Costa Rica and to study the factors associated with the levels of contamination; analyzed factors include hygienic practices within stores (cutting techniques and microbial contamination of products) and the behavior of the isolates (persistence against antimicrobials and transfer potential). A total of 190 samples of RTE meat products were collected and analyzed for the presence of coliforms and Listeria spp. Isolates of L. monocytogenes were then evaluated in terms of resistance to disinfectants (quaternary ammonium compound [QAC] and chlorine) and their transfer potential from food contact surfaces (knife and cutting boards). Overall Listeria spp. prevalence was 37.4% (71 of 190); Listeria innocua was present in 32.1% (61 of 190) of the products, and L. monocytogenes was found in just 2.6% (5 of 190) of the samples. Most contaminated samples were cut with a knife at the moment of purchase (44.2%). When analyzing practices within the stores, it was observed that L. monocytogenes transfer from inoculated knife to salchichón was higher for samples cut at the beginning of the experiment. In addition, L. monocytogenes transfer from inoculated cutting boards was independent of the number of slices but contamination from plastic was higher than wood. Regarding L. monocytogenes resistance to disinfectants, average reductions of 2.6 ± 1.1 log CFU/mL were detected after 6 min of exposure to 200 ppm of chlorine; however, chlorine resistance varied among the strains. Prevalence of L. monocytogenes in RTE meat products sold at retail could be associated with handling practices within the stores; further studies are necessary to estimate the impact of these practices on the overall risk for consumers.


Assuntos
Fast Foods/microbiologia , Contaminação de Alimentos , Listeria monocytogenes , Produtos da Carne , Costa Rica , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Listeria , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia
6.
Food Microbiol ; 98: 103770, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875206

RESUMO

Food business operators are responsible for food safety and assessment of shelf lives for their ready-to-eat products. For assisting them, a customized software based on predictive models, ListWare, is being developed. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a predictive model for the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in sliced roast beef. A challenge study was performed comprising 51 different combinations of variables. The growth curves followed the Baranyi and Roberts model with no clear lag phase and specific growth rates in the range <0.005-0.110 hr-1. A linear regression model was developed based on 528 observations and had an adjusted R-square of 0.80. The significant predictors were storage temperature, sodium lactate, interactions between sodium acetate and temperature, and MAP packaging and temperature. The model was validated in four laboratories in three countries. For conditions where the model predicted up to + log 2 cfu/g Listeria concentration, the observed concentrations were true or below the predicted concentration in 90% of the cases. For the remaining 10%, the roast beef was coated with spices and therefore different from the others. The model will be implemented in ListWare web-application for calculation of "Listeria shelf life".


Assuntos
Fast Foods/microbiologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Listeria monocytogenes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Cinética , Listeria monocytogenes/química , Listeria monocytogenes/genética , Listeria monocytogenes/isolamento & purificação , Produtos da Carne/análise , Modelos Biológicos , Análise de Regressão , Temperatura
7.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 346: 109149, 2021 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756283

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the survival or growth behavior of L. monocytogenes and S. aureus in ready-to-eat vegetable salads including Arabic salad (tomato-cucumber salad) with or without 0.5% (w/w) salt and 1% (v/w) lemon juice, tahini salad, coleslaw salad, toum sauce salad (aioli) stored at 4, 10, and 24 °C for 5 d. L. monocytogenes showed greater growth or survival in all types of salads at all temperatures tested. L. monocytogenes grew in Arabic salad without additives at 10 °C and tahini salad at 4 and 10 °C. L. monocytogenes survived all preparation and storage conditions used in the current study and its numbers were detectable in all types of salads tested, and with a maximum reduction of 3.0 log CFU/g, except for toum sauce salad at 24 °C, the cells were not detected using enrichment broth. In addition, S. aureus survived in Arabic salad with or without additives and in tahini salad with a maximum reduction of 2.3 log CFU/g. However, S. aureus numbers sharply decreased in coleslaw and toum sauce salad and at 5 d they reached undetectable levels (≥2 log CFU/g) in coleslaw at 24 °C and in toum sauce at 10 and 24 °C. Addition of lemon juice and salt to Arabic salad significantly reduced the numbers of both pathogens.


Assuntos
Fast Foods/microbiologia , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Listeria monocytogenes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Saladas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Verduras/microbiologia , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Conservação de Alimentos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Temperatura
8.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 346: 109165, 2021 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770679

RESUMO

Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and their antimicrobial resistance pose exacerbating global health threats and endangering everyone. Thus, the prevalence, molecular characterization of virulence genes, and antimicrobial resistance patterns of strains isolated from 225 beef burger and hot dog sandwiches vended in Mansoura city, Egypt were determined. 83.1% of the sandwiches tested were contaminated with coagulase-positive S. aureus, with a mean count of 4 × 103 CFU/g. Genes encoding mecA, α-hemolysin, staphylococcal enterotoxins, and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 were detected in 22.6%, 96.3%, 61.1%, and 0% of the strains isolated, respectively. Of the 190 coagulase-positive strains, 43 (22.6%) were confirmed as MRSA. Among them, 4 strains (2.1%) were vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) and resistant to all antimicrobials tested. Interestingly, all isolates were resistant to at least one of the antimicrobials tested, with 75.2% being multi-drug resistant (MDR) and an average multiple antimicrobial resistance (MAR) index of 0.503. Not less important, 100%, 96.3%, 90.5%, 79.5%, 73.7%, 62.6%, and 48.9% of isolates were resistant to Kanamycin, Nalidixic acid, Cefotaxime, Sulphamethoxazole-Trimethoprim, Penicillin G, Tetracycline, and Cephalothin, respectively. The potential hazard of MDR-, MRSA-, and VRSA-contaminated sandwiches may be an indication of the presence of what is more dangerous. Hence, strict hygienic measures and good standards of food handler's personal hygiene to prevent transmission of these pathogens to consumers are imperative.


Assuntos
Fast Foods/microbiologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Vancomicina/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bovinos , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Egito , Enterotoxinas/genética , Contaminação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Produtos da Carne/análise , Meticilina/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Saúde Pública , Suínos , Vancomicina/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Vancomicina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Vancomicina/genética
9.
Food Microbiol ; 97: 103736, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653515

RESUMO

The international market of fresh-cut products has witnessed dramatic growth in recent years, stimulated by consumer's demand for healthy, nutritious and convenient foods. One of the main challenging issues for the quality and safety of these products is the potential microbial spoilage that can significantly reduce their shelf-life. The complete identification of fresh-cut product microbiota together with the evaluation of environmental factors impact on microbial composition is of primary importance. We therefore assessed the fungal communities associated with the spoilage of ready-to-eat (RTE) pineapple using a metagenetic amplicon sequencing approach, based on the ITS2 region. Our results revealed a significant variability on fungal species composition between the different batches of RTE pineapple. The initial microbiota composition was the main influencing factor and determined the progress of spoilage. Temperature and storage time were the secondary factors influencing spoilage and their impact was depending on the initial prevalent fungal species, which showed different responses to the various modifications. Our results strongly suggest that further large-scale sampling of RTE pineapple production should be conducted in order to assess the full biodiversity range of fungal community involved in the spoilage process and for unravelling the impact of important environmental factors shaping the initial microbiota.


Assuntos
Ananas/microbiologia , Fast Foods/microbiologia , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Micobioma , Biodiversidade , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Fast Foods/análise , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Frutas/microbiologia , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Temperatura
10.
Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment ; 20(1): 113-120, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33449525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In times when there is a growing interest in ready-to-eat food (RTEF), the presence of potentially pathogenic bacteria, including the toxigenic psychrotolerant bacilli from the B. cereus group, on this type of carrier may pose a real threat to the health of consumers. A significant part of RTEF is represented by vegetable products and food products made with them. The increased production of convenience foods has resulted in their international turnover growing. When coupled with a rising percentage of persons from risk groups (YOPI), including the elderly or immunocompromised, this may mean increased health risks posed by the so-called "novel pathogens", like the toxigenic psychrotolerant B. cereus sensu lato. METHODS: Food samples were analyzed for the presence and count of putative B. cereus according to the Polish Standard PN-EN ISO 7932:2005. All genetic analyses were conducted using a qualitative real-time PCR. RESULTS: The presence of B. cereus sensu lato was confirmed in 130 out of the 192 samples of convenience foods, at contamination levels ranging from 1.65 to 3.32 log CFU/g. Among the strains confirmed to belong to the B. cereus group, 23 were identified as emetic B. cereus. The analysis of each strain's ability to grow at temp. 4-10°C demonstrated that 4.9% and 12.7% of the isolates were able to grow at 4°C and 6°C, respectively. In turn, 15.2% were able to grow at 8°C, and 36.3% at 10°C. None of the psychrotrophic strains possessed genes typical of B. weihenstephanensis. The group of psychrotrophic B. cereus included potentially toxigenic strains being carriers of genes that determine the synthesis of the following toxins: NHE, HBL, CytK, and cereulide. Some of them were potent enough to produce more than one toxin. CONCLUSIONS: The analyses conducted in this study demonstrate that the psychrotolerant strains of B. cereus (including the toxigenic ones) are frequent microbiological contaminants of RTEF products offered in retail. The presence of emetic strains from the B. cereus group, which are able to grow in a wide range of temperatures and produce enterotoxins and enzymes with the characteristics of toxins, in ready-to-eat foods may pose a real threat to consumer health.


Assuntos
Bacillus cereus/genética , Bacillus cereus/patogenicidade , Fast Foods/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Variação Genética , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Virulência
11.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 72(2): 187-195, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030749

RESUMO

Contamination of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods by pathogenic bacteria may predispose consumers to foodborne diseases. This study investigated the presence of bacterial contaminants and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns in three locally processed RTE foods (eko, fufu and zobo) vended in urban markets in Ogun state, Nigeria. Bacteria isolated from a total of 120 RTE food samples were identified by 16S rRNA gene phylogeny while susceptibility patterns to eight classes of antibiotics were determined by the disc diffusion method. Species belonging to the genera Acinetobacter and Enterobacter were recovered from all RTE food types investigated, Klebsiella and Staphylococcus were recovered from eko and fufu samples, while those of Shigella were recovered from eko samples. Enterobacter hormaechei was the most prevalent species in all three RTE food types. Precisely 99% of 149 isolates were multidrug-resistant, suggesting a high risk for RTE food handlers and consumers. Co-resistance to ampicillin and cephalothin was the most frequently observed resistance phenotype. Results demonstrate that improved hygiene practices by food processors and vendors are urgently required during RTE processing and retail. Also, adequate food safety guidelines, regulation and enforcement by relevant government agencies are needed to improve the safety of RTE foods and ensure the protection of consumer health.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/fisiologia , Fast Foods/microbiologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Acinetobacter/classificação , Acinetobacter/efeitos dos fármacos , Acinetobacter/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade a Antimicrobianos por Disco-Difusão , Enterobacter/classificação , Enterobacter/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterobacter/isolamento & purificação , Manipulação de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Klebsiella/classificação , Klebsiella/efeitos dos fármacos , Klebsiella/isolamento & purificação , Nigéria , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Shigella/classificação , Shigella/efeitos dos fármacos , Shigella/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus/classificação , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação
12.
Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf ; 19(2): 703-732, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33325184

RESUMO

Ready-to-eat foods (RTEs) are foods consumed without any further processing. They are widely consumed as choice meals especially by school-aged children and the fast-paced working class in most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where they contribute substantially to the dietary intake. Depending on the type of processing and packaging material, RTEs could be industrially or traditionally processed. Typically, RTE vendors are of low literacy level, as such, they lack knowledge about good hygiene and food handling practices. In addition, RTEs are often vended in outdoor environments such that they are exposed to several contaminants of microbial origin. Depending on the quantity and type of food contaminant, consumption of contaminated RTEs may result in foodborne diseases and several other adverse health effects in humans. This could constitute major hurdles to growth and development in LMICs. Therefore, this review focuses on providing comprehensive and recent occurrence and impact data on the frequently encountered contaminants of microbial origin published in LMICs within the last decade (2009 to 2018). We have also suggested viable food safety solutions for preventing and controlling the food contamination and promoting consumer health.


Assuntos
Fast Foods/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Microbiologia de Alimentos/normas , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Humanos
13.
Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf ; 19(6): 2843-2861, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33337052

RESUMO

Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that is frequently found in the environment. It can easily enter food processing environments and contaminate food, potentially causing public health issues. Food business operators (FBOs) are responsible for the control of L. monocytogenes in the food processing environment, particularly in facilities producing ready-to-eat food. The design and implementation of an effective environmental monitoring program (EMP) for L. monocytogenes is an integral part of controlling L. monocytogenes. An effective EMP, including all aspects from sampling, to analysis, to data interpretation, to implementation of corrective actions (including food disposition), is a tool that will help with identification and control of L. monocytogenes contamination. It should be used in conjunction with end product testing, not as a replacement for it. An EMP should be specifically designed for a particular facility on a case-by-case risk-based approach, by a food safety team within the facility. It should be reviewed regularly (at least every 6 months) and verified for its effectiveness. The control of L. monocytogenes in the food industry involves the full commitment of management and of all personnel involved with the safety of foods placed on the market, thus reducing the risk of listeriosis to consumers. Several regulatory and guidance documents provide recommendations for designing aspects of an effective L. monocytogenes EMP. However, a comprehensive review of the key components of an EMP in a single document is lacking. The objective of the present review is to provide FBOs with a practical guide to design, implementation, and verification of an EMP tailored by the food safety team for each food business.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos , Listeria monocytogenes/isolamento & purificação , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fast Foods/microbiologia , Inocuidade dos Alimentos
14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15175, 2020 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33093543

RESUMO

Ready-to-eat (RTE) foods have been considered to be reservoirs of antibiotic resistance bacteria, which constitute direct threat to human health, but the potential microbiological risks of RTE foods remain largely unexplored. In this study, the metagenomic approach was employed to characterize the comprehensive profiles of bacterial community and antibiotic resistance gene (ARG) in 18 RTE food samples (8 RTE meat, 7 RTE vegetables and 3 RTE fruit) in southern China. In total, the most abundant phyla in RTE foods were Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. 204 ARG subtypes belonging to 18 ARG types were detected with an abundance range between 2.81 × 10-5 and 7.7 × 10-1 copy of ARG per copy of 16S rRNA gene. Multidrug-resistant genes were the most predominant ARG type in the RTE foods. Chloramphenicol, macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin, multidrug resistance, aminoglycoside, bacitracin, tetracycline and ß-lactam resistance genes were dominant, which were also associated with antibiotics used extensively in human medicine or veterinary medicine/promoters. Variation partitioning analysis indicated that the join effect of bacterial community and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) played an important role in the resistome alteration. This study further deepens the comprehensive understanding of antibiotic resistome and the correlations among the antibiotic resistome, microbiota, and MGEs in the RTE foods.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Fast Foods/microbiologia , Metagenoma , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , China , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Frutas/microbiologia , Carne/microbiologia , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Verduras/microbiologia
15.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 17(12): 739-742, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112663

RESUMO

Thirty-four Escherichia coli isolates from 91 ready-to-eat lettuce packages, obtained from local supermarkets in Northern California, were genotyped by multilocus sequence typing, tested for susceptibility to antimicrobial agents, and screened for ß-lactamase genes. We found 15 distinct sequence types (STs). Six of these genotypes (ST1198, ST2625, ST2432, ST2819, ST4600, and ST5143) have been reported as pathogens found in human samples. Twenty-six (76%) E. coli isolates were resistant to ampicillin, 17 (50%) to ampicillin/sulbactam, 8 (23%) to cefoxitin, and 7 (20%) to cefuroxime. blaCTX-M was the most prevalent ß-lactamase gene, identified in eight (23%) isolates. We identified a class A broad-spectrum ß-lactamase SED-1 gene, blaSED, reported by others in Citrobacter sedlakii isolated from bile of a patient. This study found that fresh lettuce carries ß-lactam drug-resistant E. coli, which might serve as a reservoir for drug-resistance genes that could potentially be transmitted to pathogens that cause human infections.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Alface/microbiologia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , California , Escherichia coli/classificação , Fast Foods/microbiologia , Genes Bacterianos , Genótipo , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Supermercados , beta-Lactamases/genética
16.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 335: 108855, 2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949906

RESUMO

Following implementation of Health Canada's Policy on Listeria monocytogenes in Ready-to-Eat Foods by Canadian food safety authorities in 2011, a four-year study (2012-2016) was carried out to gain baseline information on the occurrence of bacterial pathogens, notably the prevalence and levels of Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) in various product types of ready-to-eat (RTE) fresh-cut fruits and fresh-cut vegetables sold at retail in Canada. A total of 10,070 pre-packaged samples, including 4691 fresh-cut fruit and 5379 fresh-cut vegetable samples were collected from retail stores across Canada and analyzed for bacterial pathogens and generic Escherichia coli (E. coli). Salmonella species (spp.), E. coli O157:H7, Shigella and Campylobacter were not detected in any of the tested samples. L. monocytogenes was identified in 0.51% (95% CI [0.34, 0.76]) of the fresh-cut fruit and in 0.24% (95% CI [0.14, 0.41]) of the fresh-cut vegetable samples. Of the 37 L. monocytogenes positive samples identified, levels of L. monocytogenes <5 CFU/g, 5-<100 CFU/g, and ≥100 CFU/g were found in 67.6% (25/37), 24.3% (9/37) and 8.1% (3/37) of the samples, respectively. The results of this study indicate that the vast majority of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables sold on the Canadian retail market are safe for consumption. However, contamination by L. monocytogenes can infrequently occur in fresh-cut fruits and vegetables, with certain types of fresh-cut fruits (i.e., melons, apples) and vegetables (i.e., mushrooms, cauliflower) being more likely to be contaminated than others. Safe handling practices are recommended for producers, retailers and consumers including storage at refrigerated temperatures.


Assuntos
Fast Foods/microbiologia , Frutas/microbiologia , Listeria monocytogenes/isolamento & purificação , Verduras/microbiologia , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Canadá , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli O157/isolamento & purificação , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Prevalência , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Shigella/isolamento & purificação
17.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 335: 108852, 2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932210

RESUMO

Bagged, pre-cut and prewashed lettuce products are marketed as ready to eat. This concept poses a food safety concern, due to lack of efficient hurdles to eliminate possible microbial contaminants from the fresh produce and/or the processing itself. Aeromonas spp. are potential foodborne pathogens that are frequently isolated from lettuce. High counts of, e.g., A. hydrophila have been found in retail ready-to-eat (RTE) vegetable salads. The aim of this study was to assess the general microbiological quality, the occurrence and diversity of potential human pathogenic mesophilic Aeromonas spp. of retail RTE lettuce products. Additionally, temperature-dependent growth kinetic parameters of Aerobic Plate Counts (APC) and Aeromonas spp. in one selected RTE lettuce product, rocket lettuce, were quantified by performing storage experiments at 4 °C, 8 °C and 12 °C. The Aeromonas isolates were further characterized regarding pathogenic traits and phylogenetic relationship. The overall hygienic quality of the lettuce products was unsatisfactory, as 60% of the products had an APC level higher than 7.0 log CFU/g. Presumptive Aeromonas spp. were detected in 52% of the samples, levels ranging from approximately 2.0-6.0 log CFU/g. Significantly lower counts of APC and Aeromonas spp. were found in uncut and unwashed products. Presumptive Aeromonas spp. were able to proliferate in rocket lettuce stored at 4 °C (µmax = 0.39 ± 0.06/d and µmax = 0.43 ± 0.05/d for lettuce from producers A and B, respectively), and µmax was approximately 2× higher at 8 °C and 3× higher at 12 °C. Eighty-four percent of the collected isolates were identified as A. media, based on partial gyrB sequencing. Additionally A. salmonicida and A. bestiarum were detected. The pathogenic potential in this material was high, most of the isolates harbored at least one of the toxin genes, act, ast, alt.


Assuntos
Aeromonas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Alface/microbiologia , Temperatura , Verduras/microbiologia , Aeromonas/classificação , Aeromonas/isolamento & purificação , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Fast Foods/microbiologia , Contaminação de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Noruega , Filogenia , Fatores de Virulência/genética
18.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235472, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603372

RESUMO

Refrigerated ready-to-eat (RTE) dips often have pH and water activity combinations conducive to the proliferation of foodborne pathogens, including Listeria monocytogenes. This study conducted product assessments of five refrigerated RTE dips: baba ghanoush, guacamole, hummus, pesto, and tahini, along with individual dip components including avocado, basil, chickpeas, cilantro, eggplant, garlic, and jalapeno pepper. Dips and dip components were inoculated with 2 log CFU/g of L. monocytogenes and stored at 10°C for 28 days. The pathogen was enumerated throughout storage and growth rates were determined using the DMFit program to compute the time required for L. monocytogenes to achieve a 1 log CFU/g increase in population. Survival and growth rates varied significantly between the refrigerated RTE dips and dip components assessed in this study. For dips, L. monocytogenes progressively decreased in baba ghanoush, pesto, and tahini. In contrast, the pathogen proliferated in both hummus and guacamole and the highest growth rate was observed in guacamole (0.34±0.05 log CFU/g per day) resulting in a 1 log CFU/g increase in population in 7.8 days. L. monocytogenes proliferated in all dip components with the exception of eggplant and garlic. The pathogen achieved the highest growth rate in chickpeas (2.22±1.75 log CFU/g per day) resulting in a computed 1 log CFU/g increase in only 0.5 days. Results from this study can aid in understanding how L. monocytogenes behaves in refrigerated RTE dips and dip components and data can be utilized in understanding product formulations and in risk assessments.


Assuntos
Fast Foods/microbiologia , Listeria monocytogenes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cicer/microbiologia , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos
19.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(13): 4664-4670, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32329100

RESUMO

The market of ready-to-eat minimally processed vegetables (RTE-MPV) is increasing in Brazil and many other countries. During processing, these vegetables go through several steps that modify their natural structure while maintaining the same nutritional and sensory attributes as the fresh produce. One of the most important steps is washing-disinfection, which aims to reduce the microbial load, prevent cross-contamination and inactivate pathogenic microorganisms that may be present. Nonetheless, the presence of pathogens and occurrence of foodborne illnesses associated with consumption of RTE-MPV concern consumers, governments and the food industry. This review brings an overview on the microbiological safety of RTE-MPV, focusing on Brazilian findings. Most of the published data are on detection of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes, indicating that their prevalence may range from 0.4% to 12.5% and from 0.6% to 3.1%, respectively. The presence of these pathogens in fresh produce is unacceptable and risky, mainly in RTE-MPV, because consumers expect them to be clean and sanitized and consequently safe for consumption without any additional care. Therefore, proper control during the production of RTE-MPV is mandatory to guarantee products with quality and safety to consumers. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Fast Foods/microbiologia , Verduras/microbiologia , Brasil , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Fast Foods/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos , Manipulação de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Humanos , Verduras/química
20.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(7): 3078-3086, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32077490

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide (NO) donors have been used to control biofilm formation. Nitric oxide can be delivered in situ using organic carriers and acts as a signaling molecule. Cells exposed to NO shift from biofilm to the planktonic state and are better exposed to the action of disinfectants. In this study, we investigate the capability of the NO donors molsidomine, MAHAMA NONOate, NO-aspirin and diethylamine NONOate to act as anti-adhesion agents on ready-to-eat vegetables, as well as dispersants for a number of pathogenic biofilms on plastic. RESULTS: Our results showed that 10 pM molsidomine reduced the attachment of Salmonella enterica sv Typhimurium 14 028 to pea shoots and coriander leaves of about 0.5 Log(CFU/leaf) when compared with untreated control. The association of 10 pmol L-1 molsidomine with 0.006% H2 O2 showed a synergistic effect, leading to a significant reduction in cell collection on the surface of the vegetable of about 1 Log(CFU/leaf). Similar results were obtained for MAHMA NONOate. We also showed that the association of diethylamine NONOate at 10 mmol L-1 and 10 pmol L-1 with the quaternary ammonium compound diquat bromide improved the effectiveness of biofilm dispersal by 50% when compared with the donor alone. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reveal a dual role of NO compounds in biofilm control. Molsidomine, MAHMA NONOate, and diethylamine NONOate are good candidates for either preventing biofilm formation or dispersing biofilm, especially when used in conjunction with disinfectants. Nitric oxide compounds have the potential to be developed into a toolkit for pro-active practices for good agricultural practices (GAPs), hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP), and cleaning-in-place (CIP) protocols in industrial settings where washing is routinely applied. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Aderência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Fast Foods/microbiologia , Doadores de Óxido Nítrico/farmacologia , Salmonella typhimurium/efeitos dos fármacos , Verduras/microbiologia , Coriandrum/microbiologia , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Fast Foods/análise , Hidrazinas/farmacologia , Molsidomina/farmacologia , Ervilhas/microbiologia , Plásticos/análise , Polipropilenos/análise , Salmonella typhimurium/fisiologia
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