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1.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(9): 1009-1014, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051413

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of HBV infection on PTEN expression, and to explore the possible molecular mechanisms. METHODS: HepG2 cells and HepG2.2.15 cells were cultured under suitable conditions for 48 hours, and the expressions of PTEN, Nrf2 and pGSK3ß in HepG2 and HepG2.2.15 cells were detected by Western blotting. After the blank plasmid (EV) and the plasmid pWXL-Nrf2 were transiently transfected into HepG2 and HepG2.2.15 cells, respectively, the HepG2 and HepG2.2.15 cells were treated with the selective inhibitor of GSK3ß (25 nmol/L LiCl). After 48 h, the expressions of Nrf2, pGSK3ß and PTEN in HepG2 and HepG2.2.15 cells were examined by Western blotting. RESULTS: Expression of PTEN was reduced and the levels of Nrf2 and pGSK3ß were increased in HepG2.2.15 cells compared with those in the HepG2 cells (all P<0.05). After transfection with pWXL-Nrf2, the protein expression of Nrf2 and pGSK3ß in cells were significantly increased while the protein expression of PTEN was decreased (all P<0.05). Furthermore, LiCl treatment up-regulated the protein expression of Nrf2 and pGSK3ß, and eventually suppressed the production of PTEN (all P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: HBV may down-regulate PTEN expression via Nrf2/GSK3ß signaling pathway, which may provide new ideas for the targeting therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hepáticas , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2 , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/genética , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Humanos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4938, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009401

RESUMO

Antiviral strategies to inhibit Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) and the pathogenic consequences of COVID-19 are urgently required. Here, we demonstrate that the NRF2 antioxidant gene expression pathway is suppressed in biopsies obtained from COVID-19 patients. Further, we uncover that NRF2 agonists 4-octyl-itaconate (4-OI) and the clinically approved dimethyl fumarate (DMF) induce a cellular antiviral program that potently inhibits replication of SARS-CoV2 across cell lines. The inhibitory effect of 4-OI and DMF extends to the replication of several other pathogenic viruses including Herpes Simplex Virus-1 and-2, Vaccinia virus, and Zika virus through a type I interferon (IFN)-independent mechanism. In addition, 4-OI and DMF limit host inflammatory responses to SARS-CoV2 infection associated with airway COVID-19 pathology. In conclusion, NRF2 agonists 4-OI and DMF induce a distinct IFN-independent antiviral program that is broadly effective in limiting virus replication and in suppressing the pro-inflammatory responses of human pathogenic viruses, including SARS-CoV2.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Fumarato de Dimetilo/agonistas , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Succinatos/agonistas , Adulto , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Fumarato de Dimetilo/farmacologia , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Interferon Tipo I , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Succinatos/farmacologia , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4225, 2020 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839463

RESUMO

Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is an aggressive gastrointestinal malignancy with no approved targeted therapy. Here, we analyze exomes (n = 160), transcriptomes (n = 115), and low pass whole genomes (n = 146) from 167 gallbladder cancers (GBCs) from patients in Korea, India and Chile. In addition, we also sequence samples from 39 GBC high-risk patients and detect evidence of early cancer-related genomic lesions. Among the several significantly mutated genes not previously linked to GBC are ETS domain genes ELF3 and EHF, CTNNB1, APC, NSD1, KAT8, STK11 and NFE2L2. A majority of ELF3 alterations are frame-shift mutations that result in several cancer-specific neoantigens that activate T-cells indicating that they are cancer vaccine candidates. In addition, we identify recurrent alterations in KEAP1/NFE2L2 and WNT pathway in GBC. Taken together, these define multiple targetable therapeutic interventions opportunities for GBC treatment and management.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-ets/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Vacinas Anticâncer/genética , Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Chile , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/imunologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Índia , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/genética , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-ets/imunologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-ets/metabolismo , República da Coreia , Fatores de Transcrição/imunologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Via de Sinalização Wnt/genética , beta Catenina/genética , beta Catenina/metabolismo
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236834, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780748

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pulse wave velocity (PWV), an indicator of vascular stiffness, increases with age and is increasingly recognized as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although many mechanical and chemical factors underlie the stiffness of the elastic artery, genetic risk factors related to age-dependent increases in PWV in apparently healthy people are largely unknown. The transcription factor nuclear factor E2 (NF-E2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which is activated by unidirectional vascular pulsatile shear stress or oxidative stress, regulates vascular redox homeostasis. Previous reports have shown that a SNP in the NRF2 gene regulatory region (-617C>A; hereafter called SNP-617) affects NRF2 gene expression such that the minor A allele confers lower gene expression compared to the C allele, and it is associated with various diseases, including CVD. We aimed to investigate whether SNP-617 affects vascular stiffness with aging in apparently healthy people. METHODS: Analyzing wide-ranging data obtained from a public health survey performed in Japan, we evaluated whether SNP-617 affected brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV) in never-smoking healthy subjects (n = 642). We also evaluated the effects of SNP-617 on other cardiovascular and blood test measurements. RESULTS: We have shown that not only AA carriers (n = 55) but also CA carriers (n = 247) show arterial stiffness compared to CC carriers (n = 340). Furthermore, SNP-617 also affected blood pressure indexes such as systolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure but not the ankle brachial pressure index, an indicator of atherosclerosis. Multivariate analysis showed that SNP-617 accelerates the incremental ratio of baPWV with age. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to show that SNP-617 affects the age-dependent increase in vascular stiffness. Our results indicate that low NRF2 activity induces premature vascular aging and could be targeted for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases associated with aging.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Rigidez Vascular/fisiologia , Adulto , Alelos , Índice Tornozelo-Braço , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/patologia , Pressão Sanguínea , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Fumar
5.
Chem Biol Interact ; 329: 109222, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771325

RESUMO

Extensive application of methylene blue (MB) for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes, and reports for unwanted side effects, demand better understanding of the mechanisms of biological action of this thiazine dye. Because MB is redox-active, its biological activities have been attributed to transfer of electrons, generation of reactive oxygen species, and antioxidant action. Results of this study show that MB is more toxic to a superoxide dismutase-deficient Escherichia coli mutant than to its SOD-proficient parent, which indicates that superoxide anion radical is involved. Incubation of E. coli with MB induced the enzymes fumarase C, SOD, nitroreductase A, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, all controlled by the soxRS regulon. Induction of these enzymes was prevented by blocking protein synthesis with chloramphenicol and was not observed when soxRS-negative mutants were incubated with MB. These results show that MB is capable of inducing the soxRS regulon of E. coli, which plays a key role in protecting bacteria against oxidative stress and redox-cycling compounds. Irrespective of the abundance of heme-containing proteins in living cells, which are preferred acceptors of electrons from the reduced form of MB, reduction of oxygen to superoxide radical still takes place. Induction of the soxRS regulon suggests that in humans, beneficial effects of MB could be attributed to activation of redox-sensitive transcription factors like Nrf2 and FoxO. If defense systems are compromised or genes coding for protective proteins are not induced, MB would have deleterious effects.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Azul de Metileno/farmacologia , Regulon/efeitos dos fármacos , Transativadores/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Cloranfenicol/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Fumarato Hidratase/genética , Fumarato Hidratase/metabolismo , Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Biossíntese de Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Superóxidos/metabolismo , Transativadores/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
6.
Chem Biol Interact ; 329: 109210, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726580

RESUMO

Cigarette smoke is a complex mixture capable of triggering inflammation and oxidative damage in animals at pulmonary and systemic levels. Tempol (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl) reduces tissue injury associated with inflammation in vivo by mechanisms that are not completely understood. Here we evaluated the effect of tempol on inflammation and oxidative damage induced by acute exposure to cigarette smoke in vivo. Male C57BL/6 mice (n = 32) were divided into 4 groups (n = 8 each): 1) control group exposed to ambient air (GC), 2) animals exposed to cigarette smoke for 5 days (CSG), mice treated 3) prior or 4) concomitantly with tempol (50 mg/kg/day) and exposed to cigarette smoke for 5 days. The results showed that the total number of leukocytes and neutrophils increased in the respiratory tract and lung parenchyma of mice exposed to cigarette smoke. Likewise, MPO levels and activity as well as lipid peroxidation and lung protein nitration and carbonylation also increased. Administration of tempol before or during exposure to cigarette smoke inhibited all the above parameters. Tempol also reduced the pulmonary expression of the inflammatory cytokines Il-6, Il-1ß and Il-17 to basal levels and of Tnf-α by approximately 50%. In contrast, tempol restored Il-10 and Tgf-ß levels and enhanced the expression of Nrf2-associated genes, such as Ho-1 and Gpx2. Accordingly, total GPx activity increased in lung homogenates of tempol-treated animals. Taken together, our results show that tempol protects mouse lungs from inflammation and oxidative damage resulting from exposure to cigarette smoke, likely through reduction of leukocyte infiltration and increased transcription of some of the Nrf2-controlled genes.


Assuntos
Óxidos N-Cíclicos/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Infiltração de Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Animais , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Interleucina-10/genética , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Nitritos/análise , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Carbonilação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Marcadores de Spin , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
7.
Aquat Toxicol ; 226: 105554, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653664

RESUMO

The NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), an ubiquitous, evolutionarily conserved transcription factor, acts as a major sensor of oxidative stress in cells. In the present study, a Nrf2 homolog was newly identified in the thick shell mussel Mytilus coruscus. Accordingly, its functional role in antioxidant defense in response to acute benzo(a)pyrene (Bap) exposure was assessed. The newly identified McNrf2 affiliated to traditional Nrf2 family through Blast, multiple alignment and phylogenetic analysis. After acute exposure to Bap, antioxidants including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathine reductase (GR) were significantly induced in gills and digestive glands at both mRNA and enzymatic levels, and the expression of McNrf2 mRNA was also up-regulated. The analysis of correlating the expression of McNrf2 and the mRNA levels of these antioxidant genes showed positive ties, indicating that Nrf2 was needed for protracted induction of such genes. Further, the recombinant McNrf2 was produced through pET-32a prokaryotic system. After 50 µg/L Bap exposure, ROS generation and LPO level in gills of Nrf2 over-expressed mussels significantly decreased compared to Nrf2 wild-type mussels, as well as reduced ROS production in digestive glands. Collectively, these results show that Nrf2 pathway can provide protection from oxidative stress triggered by Bap in the thick shell mussel.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Benzo(a)pireno/toxicidade , Mytilus/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Sistema Digestório/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Digestório/metabolismo , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Mytilus/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Filogenia , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
8.
Gene ; 759: 144994, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721475

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that are involved in post-transcriptional regulation of various genes, and their deregulation can lead to tumorigenesis. They may play the role of oncogenes or tumor suppressors by regulating different genes involved in cellular processes. One of the genes regulated by the miRNAs is the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), which is responsible for angiogenesis. Angiogenesis is the process of formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones. This process plays an important role in tumor development, since it is responsible for the transport of nutrients required for tumor growth. Several studies have shown an increased expression of VEGFA in various cancers. Another gene regulated by miRNAs, the nuclear factor erythroid 2-like-2 (NFE2L2/NRF2), has a cytoprotective function and regulates cellular defense against oxidative stress. The NFE2L2 is the major regulator of cytoprotective agents and their oxidative damage to cells, which is down-regulated by Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP1) at the post-transcriptional level. Regulation of the VEGFA and NFE2L2 by miRNAs has been observed in hepatocellular carcinoma and breast, lung, esophageal, endometrial, gastric, and ovarian cancer. This review highlights the role of miRNAs in the regulation of VEGFA and NFE2L2 and their relevance as therapeutic targets in various cancers.


Assuntos
Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , MicroRNAs/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Animais , Humanos , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
9.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 20(9): 515-516, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32728221

Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pulmão/imunologia , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Acetilcisteína/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Armadilhas Extracelulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Armadilhas Extracelulares/imunologia , Armadilhas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Glicina/uso terapêutico , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/imunologia , Linfócitos/virologia , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/imunologia , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/virologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Proteínas Secretadas Inibidoras de Proteinases/uso terapêutico , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/antagonistas & inibidores , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/imunologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/imunologia
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(26): e20433, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590729

RESUMO

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic lung disease common in premature infants and is one of the leading causes of disability and death in newborns. The Keap-1/Nrf2 signaling pathway plays an important role in antioxidant and anti-inflammatory.Ten clean-grade, healthy pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (purchased from Experimental Animal Center of Peking university, China) naturally gave birth to 55 neonatal rats from which 40 were selected and randomly divided into a hyperoxia group and a control group (N = 20, each). Thirty-two BPD patient samples are from Neonatal Department of the second Hospital of Jilin University from November 30, 2016 to May 1 2019.In present study, we observed that lung tissues of the control group did not undergo obvious pathological changes, whereas in the hyperoxia group, lung tissues had disordered structures. With increased time of hyperoxia exposure, the alveolar wall became attenuated. Under hypoxia conditions, the activity of oxidative stress-related enzymes (CAT, GSH-Px, SOD) in lung samples was significantly lower than that before treatment. The expression level of Keap1 mRNA and protein in the hyperoxia group was slightly lower than that of control group. The expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 mRNA and protein in the hyperoxia group was significantly higher than that of control group. For the infants with BPD, we found that the activity of SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT was significantly different from those of control group.We constructed a premature BPD animal model and found the abnormal of oxidative stress in different groups and the expression levels of Keap1/Nrf2 signaling pathway-related molecules, and we validated the results in premature infants with BPD.


Assuntos
Displasia Broncopulmonar/genética , Displasia Broncopulmonar/metabolismo , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Catalase/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Heme Oxigenase-1/genética , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Humanos , Hiperóxia , Hipóxia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/genética , Pulmão/patologia , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Gravidez , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
11.
J Food Sci ; 85(6): 1752-1763, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476138

RESUMO

Phenolics and carotenoids coexist in fruits and vegetables and could possess interaction effects after consumption. The present study aims to elucidate the possible mechanisms of the antioxidant interactions between anthocyanins and carotenoids using petunidin and lycopene as examples in hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 )-induced heart myofibroblast cell (H9c2) line model. The results revealed that petunidin and lycopene showed antioxidant effects and petunidin in a larger proportion mixed with lycopene, for example, petunidin: lycopene = 9:1 significantly protected against the loss of the cell viability (8.98 ± 1.03%) and intracellular antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, 27.07 ± 3.51%), catalase (CAT, 29.51 ± 6.12%), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, 20.33 ± 2.65%). Moreover, the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expressions of NAD(P)H quinone reductase (NQO1) and heme oxygenase (HO-1) of the nuclear factor erythrocyte 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway were significantly induced in petunidin, lycopene, and synergistic combinations, suggesting that the antioxidant action was through activating the Nrf2 antioxidant response pathway. This was further validated by Nrf2 siRNA, and the results that petunidin significantly induced more of NQO1 expression and lycopene more of HO-1 suggested that the synergism may be a result of concerted actions by the two compounds on these two different target genes of the Nrf2 pathway. The two compounds also significantly increased the phosphorylation of Akt in synergistic combinations. Findings of the present study demonstrated that petunidin and lycopene exerted synergistic antioxidant effects when petunidin in a larger proportion in the combinations and contribute to the prevention of cellular redox homeostasis, which might provide a theoretical basis for phenolics and carotenoids playing beneficial effects on the cardiovascular risk. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: In this study, we revealed that the combined treatments of petunidin and lycopen inhibited H2 O2 -induced oxidative damage in myocardial cells. Moreover, the treatments contributed to the Nrf2 pathway and the restoration of cellular redox homeostasis might provide a theoretical basis for phenolics and carotenoids playing beneficial effects on the cardiovascular risk.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/toxicidade , Licopeno/farmacologia , Miofibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Animais , Carotenoides/farmacologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Miofibroblastos/metabolismo , NAD(P)H Desidrogenase (Quinona)/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
12.
Life Sci ; 256: 117908, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Excessive alcohol intake contributes to severe liver damage involving oxidative stress and inflammatory responses, which make them promising therapeutic targets. Previous studies have demonstrated that empagliflozin (EMPA) showed cardiovascular, renal, and cerebral benefits potentially mediated through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions. AIMS: This experiment aimed to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of EMPA on alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and the possible underlying mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Serum biochemical parameters and the liver contents of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), reduced glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured. Real-time qPCR was conducted to determine the gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2), and heme oxygenase-1 (Hmox-1). In addition, ELISA was performed to measure tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, Nrf-2, and PPAR-γ. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) was detected by immunohistochemical staining using an anti-NF-κB p65 antibody. KEY FINDINGS: Our results revealed that the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase were significantly reduced by EMPA. EMPA also decreased the content of MDA and NO and increased the activities of SOD and GSH in liver homogenates. Moreover, EMPA inhibited the release of proinflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6, via the downregulation of NF-κB. These changes were associated with an improvement in histopathological deterioration. The protective effect of EMPA against oxidative stress and inflammation was associated with the upregulation of PPAR-γ, Nrf-2, and their target gene Hmox-1. SIGNIFICANCE: EMPA showed protective activities against ethanol-induced liver injury by suppressing inflammation and oxidative stress via modulation of the NF-κB/Nrf-2/PPAR-γ axis.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Compostos Benzidrílicos/farmacologia , Doença Hepática Crônica Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Fator de Transcrição de Proteínas de Ligação GA/metabolismo , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Compostos Benzidrílicos/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Crônica Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Descoberta de Drogas , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucosídeos/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Heme Oxigenase-1/genética , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , PPAR gama/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
13.
Life Sci ; 256: 117923, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522567

RESUMO

AIMS: Liver kinase B1 (LKB1) deficiency is associated with reduced expression of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and inferior clinical outcomes of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This study aimed to investigate the mechanism by which LKB1 regulates PD-L1 expression and its role in programmed death 1 (PD-1) blockade therapy in NSCLC. MAIN METHODS: The impact of LKB1 on PD-L1 was assessed by western blot, qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry in NSCLC. Activators/inhibitors of AMPK and NRF2 were applied to explore the mechanisms underlying the regulation of PD-L1 by LKB1. Efficiency of combined application of metformin and PD-1 blockade was evaluated in immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice. KEY FINDINGS: A remarkable positive correlation between LKB1 and PD-L1 expression was demonstrated in NSCLC tissues. Knockdown of LKB1 decreased PD-L1 in TC-1 cells, whereas overexpression of LKB1 increased PD-L1 in A549 cells. We further characterized that AMPK mediated the upregulation of PD-L1 by LKB1. Inhibition of AMPK or NRF2 markedly reduced PD-L1 in LKB1-intact NSCLC cells. In contrast, activation of AMPK or NRF2 reversed PD-L1 expression in LKB1-deficient NSCLC cells. Combined administration of metformin and anti-PD-1 antibody efficiently inhibited the growth of LKB1-intact tumors, whereas no obvious suppression was observed in LKB1-deficient tumors. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings demonstrated that LKB1 upregulates PD-L1 expression in NSCLC by activating the AMPK and KEAP1/NRF2 signaling. Activation of LKB1-AMPK with metformin improves the therapeutic effect of PD-1 blockade in NSCLC with wild-type LKB1.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Metformina/farmacologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Células A549 , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/metabolismo , Metformina/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Ativação Transcricional , Regulação para Cima
14.
PLoS Genet ; 16(6): e1008756, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520939

RESUMO

Paternal cigarette smoke (CS) exposure is associated with increased risk of behavioral disorders and cancer in offspring, but the mechanism has not been identified. Here we use mouse models to investigate mechanisms and impacts of paternal CS exposure. We demonstrate that CS exposure induces sperm DNAme changes that are partially corrected within 28 days of removal from CS exposure. Additionally, paternal smoking is associated with changes in prefrontal cortex DNAme and gene expression patterns in offspring. Remarkably, the epigenetic and transcriptional effects of CS exposure that we observed in wild type mice are partially recapitulated in Nrf2-/- mice and their offspring, independent of smoking status. Nrf2 is a central regulator of antioxidant gene transcription, and mice lacking Nrf2 consequently display elevated oxidative stress, suggesting that oxidative stress may underlie CS-induced heritable epigenetic changes. Importantly, paternal sperm DNAme changes do not overlap with DNAme changes measured in offspring prefrontal cortex, indicating that the observed DNAme changes in sperm are not directly inherited. Additionally, the changes in sperm DNAme associated with CS exposure were not observed in sperm of unexposed offspring, suggesting the effects are likely not maintained across multiple generations.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Exposição Paterna , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Animais , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Espermatozoides/metabolismo
15.
Aquat Toxicol ; 225: 105526, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569999

RESUMO

Microcystin (MC) is a cyclic heptapeptide toxin. Nuclear factor erythocyte 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) can enhance cellular survival by mediating phase 2 detoxification and antioxidant genes. In this study, CpNrf2 cDNA sequences were cloned from freshwater bivalve Cristaria plicata. The full-length CpNrf2 cDNA sequence was 4259 bp, and its homology was the highest with Mizuhopecten yessoensis, reaching 46%. CpNrf2 transcription levels were examined in all tested tissues, and the highest level was in hepatopancreas from C. plicata. The recombinant protein pET32-CpNrf2 was purified with the content of 1.375 mg/mL. The expression levels of CpNrf2 mRNA were raised in hepatopancreas after MC stimulation. After CpNrf2 knockdown, CpNrf2 mRNA levels were significantly down-regulated after 24 h. Compared with control group, the expression levels of ARE-driven enzymes (CpMnSOD, CpCuZnSOD, CpTRX, CpPrx, CpSe-GPx and Cpsigma-GST) were significantly increased, and those enzyme activities were also significantly up-regulated in MC-stimulated group. However, in CpNrf2-iRNA group, they were significantly down-regulated. The results revealed that Nrf2/ARE pathway is very crucial to protect molluscs from MC.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Microcistinas/toxicidade , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Unionidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Clonagem Molecular , DNA Complementar/genética , Filogenia , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Unionidae/enzimologia , Unionidae/genética
16.
Aquat Toxicol ; 224: 105516, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485495

RESUMO

Summer outbreaks of the hepatobiliary syndrome in fish impose a heavy burden on aquaculture in China. Curcumin is a polyphenol with antioxidant activity that has been used to protect the health of fish livers, but the mechanism underlying its protective effect is unclear. In this study, an in vitro model of hepatocyte oxidative damage in Oreochromis niloticus was established using H2O2. Treatment with 5 mM H2O2 for 2.5 h markedly reduced cell viability and antioxidant activity and elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, indicating conditions that can be used to establish an oxidative stress model. Under H2O2 stress, curcumin pretreatment significantly maintained cell viability, reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. RNA-seq results showed that acute H2O2 treatment resulted in minor changes in gene expression, whereas curcumin changed the expression profile and affected cytochrome P450 (Cyp 450), glutathione (GSH) metabolism, and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway. Several critical antioxidant defense signaling pathways were identified, and altered expression was confirmed by q-PCR. These results indicate that curcumin might upregulate PPAR expression by increasing Cyp2J2 expression. Further experiments showed that curcumin can upregulate the Nrf2-Keap1 signaling pathway at the transcriptional level, and this upregulation can induce downstream defense genes, including glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit(GCLC) and glutamate cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLM), and thereby promote GSH synthesis and the expression of related antioxidases. This study might shed light on the effects of curcumin on the prevention and alleviation of liver diseases in fish.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Curcumina/farmacologia , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tilápia/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Curcumina/metabolismo , Glutamato-Cisteína Ligase/genética , Glutamato-Cisteína Ligase/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/toxicidade , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/genética , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Cultura Primária de Células , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Tilápia/genética , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
17.
Hum Cell ; 33(3): 641-651, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32419118

RESUMO

MiR-27b-3p has been reported to function as tumor suppressor in several tumors, including breast cancer and lung cancer. Recently, miR-27b-3p has been identified to be significantly down-regulated in esophageal cancer. However, the clinical significance and biological role of miR-27b-3p in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) still remain unclear. In this study, the expression levels of miR-27b-3p were significantly reduced in ESCC clinical tissues and ESCC cell lines (EC97069 and TE-1). Moreover, down-regulated expression of miR-27b-3p was associated with poor cell differentiation, TNM stage and lymph node metastasis. Specially, overexpression of miR-27b-3p significantly suppressed cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro using CCK-8 and transwell assays. Targetscan bioinformatics predictions and luciferase reporter assay confirmed that nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NFE2L2, Nrf2) was a direct target gene of miR-27b-3p. Nrf2 expression was significantly increased in ESCC tissues compared with adjacent tissues. Up-regulated expression of Nrf2 was correlated with TNM stage and lymph node metastasis. Functionally, knockdown of Nrf2 exhibited similar effects to overexpression of miR-27b-3p. Higher expression of ZO-1, E-cadherin and lower expression of N-cadherin, Vimentin and Claudin-1 were observed after miR-27b-3p overexpression of Nrf2 knockdown. Rescue experiments proved that miR-27b-3p suppressed cell proliferation, migration, invasion and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) via suppression of Nrf2. Taken together, the newly identified miR-27b-3p/Nrf2 axis might represent a new candidate therapeutic target for ESCC treatment.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Neoplasias Esofágicas/genética , Genes Supressores de Tumor , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/fisiologia , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/terapia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/terapia , Humanos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Invasividade Neoplásica/genética
18.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 318(6): F1531-F1538, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32390514

RESUMO

Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/R) usually occurs in renal transplantation and partial nephrectomy, which could lead to acute kidney injury. However, the effective treatment for renal I/R still remains limited. In the present study, we investigated whether inhibition of chromobox 7 (CBX7) could attenuate renal I/R injury in vivo and in vitro as well as the potential mechanisms. Adult male mice were subjected to right renal ischemia and reperfusion for different periods, both with and without the CBX7 inhibitor UNC3866. In addition, human kidney cells (HK-2) were subjected to a hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) process for different periods, both with or without the CBX7 inhibitor or siRNA for CBX7. The results showed that expression of CBX7, glucose regulator protein-78 (GRP78), phosphorylated eukaryotic translation initiation factor-2α (p-eIF2α), and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) were increased after extension of I/R and H/R periods. Moreover, overexpression of CBX7 could elevate the expression of CBX7, GRP78, p-eIF2α, and CHOP. However, CBX7 inhibition with either UNC3866 or genetic knockdown led to reduced expression of GRP78, p-eIF2α, and CHOP through nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/heme oxygenase-1 activation in I/R and H/R injury. Furthermore, ML385, the Nrf2 inhibitor, could elevate endoplasmic reticulum stress levels, abrogating the protective effects of UNC3866 against renal I/R injury. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that CBX7 inhibition alleviated acute kidney injury by preventing endoplasmic reticulum stress via the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway, indicating that CBX7 inhibitor could be a potential therapeutic target for renal I/R injury.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle , Lesão Renal Aguda/enzimologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/genética , Lesão Renal Aguda/patologia , Animais , Hipóxia Celular , Linhagem Celular , Heme Oxigenase-1/genética , Humanos , Rim/enzimologia , Rim/patologia , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 1/genética , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 1/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/enzimologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/genética , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia , Transdução de Sinais
19.
Toxicol Lett ; 331: 1-10, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428544

RESUMO

Cisplatin is a well-known and commonly used chemotherapeutic agent. However, cisplatin-induced ototoxicity limits its clinical use. Previous studies have shown an important role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in the pathogenesis of cisplatin-induced ototoxicity. In many cell types, the transcription factor, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and antioxidant response element (ARE) protect against oxidative stress by suppressing ROS. Here our results showed that cisplatin injury reduced Nrf2 expression and inhibited Nrf2 translocation in HEI-OC1 cells and Nrf2 activator tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) rescued hair cells from cisplatin induced apoptosis by suppressing the total cellular ROS accumulation. Moreover, we found that decreased ROS accumulation induced by TBHQ didn't depend on mitochondrial derived ROS production, indicating that Nrf2 activation alleviated cisplatin induced oxidative stress and apoptosis through mitochondrial-independent ROS production. Therefore, we provide a potential strategy of prevention and treatment for cisplatin-induced ototoxicity by Nrf2 activation. In conclusion, Nrf2 activation protects auditory hair cells from cisplatin-induced ototoxicity through suppressing the total cellular ROS levels which arise from sources other than mitochondria.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Cisplatino/toxicidade , Células Ciliadas Auditivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Ototoxicidade/prevenção & controle , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos do Tronco Encefálico/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Ciliadas Auditivas/metabolismo , Hidroquinonas/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Ototoxicidade/patologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
20.
Phytomedicine ; 71: 153241, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32454347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress-triggered fatal hepatotoxicity is an essential pathogenic factor in acute liver failure (ALF). AIMS: To investigate the protective effect of daphnetin (Daph) on tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) and acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity through altering Nrf2/Trx-1 pathway activation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vivo, male C57BL/6 mice with Wild-type (WT) and Nrf2-/- were divided into five groups and acute liver injury model were established by APAP or LPS/GalN after injection with Daph (20, 40, or 80 mg/kg), seperately. Then, liver tissue and serum were collected for biochemical determination, TUNEL and H & E staining, and western blot analysis. In vitro, HepG2 cells were used to investigate the protective effect and mechanism of daphnetin against ROS and apoptosis induced by t-BHP via apoptosis detection, western blot, immunofluorescence analysis, and sgRNA transfection. RESULTS: Our results indicated that Daph efficiently inhibited t-BHP-stimulated hepatotoxicity, and modulated Trx-1 expression and Nrf2 activation which decreased Keap1-overexpression in HepG2 cells. Moreover, Daph inhibited t-BHP-excited hepatotoxicity and enhanced Trx-1 expression, which was reversed in Nrf2-/- HepG2 cells. In vivo, a survival rate analysis first suggested that Daph significantly reduced the lethality induced by APAP or GalN/LPS in a Nrf2-dependent or -independent manner by using Nrf2-/- mice, respectively. Next, further results implicated that Daph not only effectively alleviated APAP-induced an increase of ALT and AST levels, histopathological changes, ROS overproduction, malondialdehyde (MDA) formation and GSH/GSSG reduction, but it also relieved hepatic apoptosis by strengthening the suppression of cleaved-caspase-3 and expression of P53 protein. Additionally, Daph attenuated mitochondrial dysfunction by suppressing ASK1/JNK activation and decreasing apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and Cytochrome c release and Bax mitochondrial translocation. Daph inhibited inflammatory responses by inactivating the thioredoxin-interacting protein (Txnip)/NLRP3 inflammasome. Furthermore, Daph efficiently enhanced Nrf2 nuclear translocation and Trx-1 expression. However, these effects in WT mice were eliminated in Nrf2-/- mice. CONCLUSIONS: These investigations demonstrated that Daph treatment has protective potential against oxidative stress-driven hepatotoxicity by inhibition of ASK1/JNK and Txnip/NLRP3 activation, which may be strongly related to the Nrf2/Trx-1 upregulation.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Inflamassomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Umbeliferonas/farmacologia , Acetaminofen/efeitos adversos , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/genética , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/metabolismo , MAP Quinase Quinase 4/metabolismo , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinase 5/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia
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