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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(35): e27130, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477158

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Bevacizumab (BV) plus chemotherapy is broadly used in advanced ovarian cancer (OC). However, the efficacy of BV-based regimens for advanced OC patients is not satisfactory. Therefore, it is urgent to explore the predictive genetic biomarkers for BV.Tumor tissues from advanced OC patients receiving BV-based regimens were analyzed with a 150-gene targeted panel for next generation sequencing. The associations between gene alterations or clinicopathology features and progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier curves or Cox regression. The association of the genetic alteration in potential predictive genes and expressions of 11 vascular endothelial growth factor-related genes were analyzed in The Cancer Genome Atlas cohort using 292 OC cases.Sixty two Chinese advanced OC patients treated with BV-based therapy were included. The median PFS of was 6.9 months, and objective response rate was 14.5%. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, the status of endothelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) (hazard ratio = 6.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.25-18.13, P < .001) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) (hazard ratio = 3.58, 95% CI 1.27-10.08, P = .016) were significantly correlated with PFS. MYC Proto-Oncogene amplification seemed to have a positive trend (hazard ratio = 0.21, 95% CI 0.05-1.02, P = .052). Moreover, EGFR and HER2 alterations were not prognostic factors of overall survival for OC in The Cancer Genome Atlas OC cohort. The vascular endothelial growth factor-related signature analysis indicated vascular endothelial factor A expression was upregulated with EGFR alterations (P = .034) which may be involved in BV resistance, and HER2 alterations were associated with hypoxia inducible factor 1 subunit alpha overexpression significantly (P = .029).EGFR or HER2 alterations are negative predictors of PFS for OC patient treated with BV plus chemotherapy. Therefore, the clinicians may consider to use alternative regimens such as anti-EGFR or anti-HER2 targeted therapy instead of BV-based regimens on these patients when standard care fail.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Genes erbB-1 , Genes erbB-2 , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Variantes Farmacogenômicos , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
2.
Anticancer Res ; 41(9): 4333-4341, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Prostaglandin (PG) E2 mediates malignant aggressiveness by binding to four specific E-type prostanoid receptors (EP1R - 4R). This study aimed to clarify the pathological significance of EPRs in hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (HSPC) and castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: EP1R - 4R expression was examined in 102 HSPC and 27 CRPC specimens. The relationships between their expression and proliferation index (PI), apoptotic index (AI), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A expression were analyzed. RESULTS: EP4R expression in CRPC was significantly higher compared to that in HSPC, even in advanced disease (T3/4, N1, and/or M1). EP4R expression was significantly correlated with PI, AI, and VEGF-A expression in CRPC. Such significant relationships were not detected between EP1R - 3R and CRPC. CONCLUSION: EP4R expression in CRPC was significantly higher than that in HSPC and was associated with cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis, and pro-angiogenetic potential.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Receptores de Prostaglandina E Subtipo EP4/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Apoptose , Proliferação de Células , Sobrevivência Celular , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/metabolismo
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360981

RESUMO

Granulosa-lutein cells (GLCs) from PCOS women display reduced HIF-1α and EDN2 levels, suggesting their role in PCOS etiology. Here, we investigated the mechanisms involved in aberrant EDN2 expression in PCOS, and its association with HIF-1α. Various HIF-1α-dependent factors were studied in GLCs from PCOS and compared to normally ovulating women. MicroRNA-210 (miR-210), its target genes (SDHD and GPD1L), and HIF-1α-responsive genes (EDN2 and VEGFA) differed in GLCs from PCOS, compared with those of healthy women. Levels of miR-210-designated hypoxiamiR-and EDN2 were reduced in the PCOS GLCs; concomitantly, GPD1L and SDHD levels were elevated. Cultured GLCs retained low EDN2 expression and had low HIF-1α levels, providing evidence for a disrupted hypoxic response in the PCOS GLCs. However, VEGFA expression was elevated in these cells. Next, miR-210 levels were manipulated. miR-210-mimic stimulated EDN2 twice as much as the miR-NC-transfected cells, whereas miR-210-inhibitor diminished EDN2, emphasizing the importance of hypoxiamiR for EDN2 induction. Intriguingly, VEGFA transcripts were reduced by both miR-210-mimic and -inhibitor, demonstrating that EDN2 and VEGFA are distinctly regulated. Disrupted hypoxic response in the GLCs of periovulatory follicles in PCOS women may play a role in ovulation failure, and in the reduced fertility prevalent in this syndrome.


Assuntos
Endotelina-2/metabolismo , Células da Granulosa/metabolismo , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Células Lúteas/metabolismo , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Adulto , Células Cultivadas , Endotelina-2/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
4.
FASEB J ; 35(9): e21788, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425031

RESUMO

Hypoxia increases fetal hepatic insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) phosphorylation mediated by mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibition. Whether maternal nutrient restriction (MNR) causes fetal hypoxia remains unclear. We used fetal liver from a baboon (Papio sp.) model of intrauterine growth restriction due to MNR (70% global diet of Control) and liver hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells as a model for human fetal hepatocytes and tested the hypothesis that mTOR-mediated IGFBP-1 hyperphosphorylation in response to hypoxia requires hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and regulated in development and DNA-damage responses-1 (REDD-1) signaling. Western blotting (n = 6) and immunohistochemistry (n = 3) using fetal liver indicated greater expression of HIF-1α, REDD-1 as well as erythropoietin and its receptor, and vascular endothelial growth factor at GD120 (GD185 term) in MNR versus Control. Moreover, treatment of HepG2 cells with hypoxia (1% pO2 ) (n = 3) induced REDD-1, inhibited mTOR complex-1 (mTORC1) activity and increased IGFBP-1 secretion/phosphorylation (Ser101/Ser119/Ser169). HIF-1α inhibition by echinomycin or small interfering RNA silencing prevented the hypoxia-mediated inhibition of mTORC1 and induction of IGFBP-1 secretion/phosphorylation. dimethyloxaloylglycine (DMOG) induced HIF-1α and also REDD-1 expression, inhibited mTORC1 and increased IGFBP-1 secretion/phosphorylation. Induction of HIF-1α (DMOG) and REDD-1 by Compound 3 inhibited mTORC1, increased IGFBP-1 secretion/ phosphorylation and protein kinase PKCα expression. Together, our data demonstrate that HIF-1α induction, increased REDD-1 expression and mTORC1 inhibition represent the mechanistic link between hypoxia and increased IGFBP-1 secretion/phosphorylation. We propose that maternal undernutrition limits fetal oxygen delivery, as demonstrated by increased fetal liver expression of hypoxia-responsive proteins in baboon MNR. These findings have important implications for our understanding of the pathophysiology of restricted fetal growth.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/metabolismo , Feto/metabolismo , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Proteína 1 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/metabolismo , Animais , Eritropoetina/metabolismo , Peso Fetal , Feto/química , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/antagonistas & inibidores , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Técnicas In Vitro , Proteína 1 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/química , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/antagonistas & inibidores , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Tamanho do Órgão , Papio , Fosforilação , Proteína Quinase C-alfa/metabolismo , Receptores da Eritropoetina/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
5.
FASEB J ; 35(9): e21842, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418159

RESUMO

Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) remains one of the major causes of blindness in children worldwide. While current ROP treatments are mostly disruptive to reduce proliferative neovascularization by targeting the hypoxic phase, protection against early hyperoxia-induced retinal vascular loss represents an effective therapeutic window, but no such therapeutic strategy is available. Built upon our recent demonstration that the protection against oxygen-induced retinopathy by adenosine A2A receptor (A2A R) antagonists is most effective when administered at the hyperoxia (not hypoxic) phase, we here uncovered the cellular mechanism underlying the A2A R-mediated protection against early hyperoxia-induced retinal vascular loss by reversing the inhibition of cellular proliferation via possibly multiple signaling pathways. Specifically, we revealed two distinct stages of the hyperoxia phase with greater cellular proliferation and apoptosis activities and upregulation of adenosine signaling at postnatal 9 day (P9) but reduced cellular activities and adenosine-A2A R signaling at P12. Importantly, the A2A R-mediated protection at P9 was associated with the reversal of hyperoxia-induced inhibition of progenitor cells at the peripheral retina at P9 and of retinal endothelial proliferation at P9 and P12. The critical role of cellular proliferation in the hyperoxia-induced retinal vascular loss was validated by the increased avascular areas by siRNA knockdown of the multiple signaling molecules involved in modulation of cellular proliferation, including activin receptor-like kinase 1, DNA-binding protein inhibitor 1, and vascular endothelial growth factor-A.


Assuntos
Antagonistas do Receptor A2 de Adenosina/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Hiperóxia/metabolismo , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Receptor A2A de Adenosina/metabolismo , Neovascularização Retiniana , Vasos Retinianos/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Activinas Tipo II/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína 1 Inibidora de Diferenciação/metabolismo , Camundongos , Neovascularização Patológica , Oxigênio/efeitos adversos , Retina/citologia , Retina/efeitos dos fármacos , Retina/patologia , Vasos Retinianos/citologia , Vasos Retinianos/metabolismo , Vasos Retinianos/patologia , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/metabolismo , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta2/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360685

RESUMO

The therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSC) for treating cardiac ischemia strongly depends on their paracrine-mediated effects and their engraftment capacity in a hostile environment such as the infarcted myocardium. Adipose tissue-derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells are a mixed population composed mainly of MSC and vascular cells, well known for their high angiogenic potential. A previous study showed that the angiogenic potential of SVF cells was further increased following their in vitro organization in an engineered tissue (patch) after perfusion-based bioreactor culture. This study aimed to investigate the possible changes in the cellular SVF composition, in vivo angiogenic potential, as well as engraftment capability upon in vitro culture in harsh hypoxia conditions. This mimics the possible delayed vascularization of the patch upon implantation in a low perfused myocardium. To this purpose, human SVF cells were seeded on a collagen sponge, cultured for 5 days in a perfusion-based bioreactor under normoxia or hypoxia (21% and <1% of oxygen tension, respectively) and subcutaneously implanted in nude rats for 3 and 28 days. Compared to ambient condition culture, hypoxic tension did not alter the SVF composition in vitro, showing similar numbers of MSC as well as endothelial and mural cells. Nevertheless, in vitro hypoxic culture significantly increased the release of vascular endothelial growth factor (p < 0.001) and the number of proliferating cells (p < 0.00001). Moreover, compared to ambient oxygen culture, exposure to hypoxia significantly enhanced the vessel length density in the engineered tissues following 28 days of implantation. The number of human cells and human proliferating cells in hypoxia-cultured constructs was also significantly increased after 3 and 28 days in vivo, compared to normoxia. These findings show that a possible in vivo delay in oxygen supply might not impair the vascularization potential of SVF- patches, which qualifies them for evaluation in a myocardial ischemia model.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Diferenciação Celular , Hipóxia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/fisiologia , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
7.
FASEB J ; 35(9): e21824, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34370353

RESUMO

Crosstalk between multiple components underlies the formation of mature vessels. Although the players involved in angiogenesis have been identified, mechanisms underlying the crosstalk between them are still unclear. Using the ex vivo aortic ring assay, we set out to dissect the interactions between two key angiogenic signaling pathways, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and transforming growth factor ß (TGFß), with members of the lysyl oxidase (LOX) family of matrix modifying enzymes. We find an interplay between VEGF, TGFß, and the LOXs is essential for the formation of mature vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMC)-coated vessels. RNA sequencing analysis further identified an interaction with the endothelin-1 pathway. Our work implicates endothelin-1 downstream of TGFß in vascular maturation and demonstrate the complexity of processes involved in generating vSMC-coated vessels.


Assuntos
Endotelina-1/metabolismo , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Proteína-Lisina 6-Oxidase/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Morfogênese/fisiologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
8.
Biomolecules ; 11(7)2021 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34356612

RESUMO

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a major therapeutic target for blood-retina barrier (BRB) breakdown in diabetic retinopathy (DR), age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and other hypoxic retinal vascular disorders. To determine whether VEGF is a direct regulator of retinal neuronal function and its potential role in altering vision during the progression of DR, we examined the immediate impact of recombinant VEGF (rVEGF) on photoreceptor function with electroretinography in C57BL6 background wild-type (WT) and Akita spontaneous diabetic mice. Shortly after intravitreal injections, rVEGF caused a significant reduction of scotopic ERG a-wave and b-wave amplitudes and photopic ERG b-wave amplitudes in a dose-dependent manner in dark-adapted 1.5-mo-old WT mice. Compared with WT controls, 5-mo-old Akita spontaneous diabetic mice demonstrated a significant reduction in scotopic ERG a-wave and b-wave amplitudes and photopic ERG b-wave amplitudes. However, the effect of rVEGF altered photoreceptor function in WT controls was diminished in 5-mo-old Akita spontaneous diabetic mice. In conclusion, our results suggest that VEGF is a direct functional regulator of photoreceptors and VEGF up-regulation in DR is a contributing factor to diabetes-induced alteration of photoreceptor function. This information is critical to the understanding of the therapeutic effect and to the care of anti-VEGF drug-treated patients for BRB breakdown in DR, AMD, and other hypoxic retinal vascular disorders.


Assuntos
Barreira Hematorretiniana/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Retinopatia Diabética/metabolismo , Células Fotorreceptoras de Vertebrados/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Animais , Barreira Hematorretiniana/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Retinopatia Diabética/patologia , Camundongos , Células Fotorreceptoras de Vertebrados/patologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/farmacologia
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360750

RESUMO

Tissue regeneration depends on the complex processes of angiogenesis, inflammation and wound healing. Regarding muscle tissue, glucocorticoids (GCs) inhibit pro-inflammatory signalling and angiogenesis and lead to muscle atrophy. Our hypothesis is that the synthetic GC dexamethasone (dex) impairs angiogenesis leading to muscle atrophy or inhibited muscle regeneration. Therefore, this study aims to elucidate the effect of dexamethasone on HUVECs under different conditions in mono- and co-culture with myoblasts to evaluate growth behavior and dex impact with regard to muscle atrophy and muscle regeneration. Viability assays, qPCR, immunofluorescence as well as ELISAs were performed on HUVECs, and human primary myoblasts seeded under different culture conditions. Our results show that dex had a higher impact on the tube formation when HUVECs were maintained with VEGF. Gene expression was not influenced by dex and was independent of cells growing in a 2D or 3D matrix. In co-culture CD31 expression was suppressed after incubation with dex and gene expression analysis revealed that dex enhanced expression of myogenic transcription factors, but repressed angiogenic factors. Moreover, dex inhibited the VEGF mediated pro angiogenic effect of myoblasts and inhibited expression of angiogenic inducers in the co-culture model. This is the first study describing a co-culture of human primary myoblast and HUVECs maintained under different conditions. Our results indicate that dex affects angiogenesis via inhibition of VEGF release at least in myoblasts, which could be responsible not only for the development of muscle atrophy after dex administration, but also for inhibition of muscle regeneration after vascular damage.


Assuntos
Dexametasona/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Mioblastos Esqueléticos/metabolismo , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cocultura , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/citologia , Humanos , Mioblastos Esqueléticos/citologia
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445248

RESUMO

The functional neural circuits are partially repaired after an ischemic stroke in the central nervous system (CNS). In the CNS, neurovascular units, including neurons, endothelial cells, astrocytes, pericytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes maintain homeostasis; however, these cellular networks are damaged after an ischemic stroke. The present review discusses the repair potential of stem cells (i.e., mesenchymal stem cells, endothelial precursor cells, and neural stem cells) and gaseous molecules (i.e., nitric oxide and carbon monoxide) with respect to neuroprotection in the acute phase and regeneration in the late phase after an ischemic stroke. Commonly shared molecular mechanisms in the neurovascular unit are associated with the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its related factors. Stem cells and gaseous molecules may exert therapeutic effects by diminishing VEGF-mediated vascular leakage and facilitating VEGF-mediated regenerative capacity. This review presents an in-depth discussion of the regeneration ability by which endogenous neural stem cells and endothelial cells produce neurons and vessels capable of replacing injured neurons and vessels in the CNS.


Assuntos
Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , AVC Isquêmico/metabolismo , Neuroglia/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Animais , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Humanos , AVC Isquêmico/patologia , Neuroglia/patologia , Neurônios/patologia , Células-Tronco/patologia
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204341

RESUMO

Regular physical activity in cyclic sports can influence the so-called "angiogenic switch", which is considered as an imbalance between proangiogenic and anti-angiogenic molecules. Disruption of the synthesis of angiogenic molecules can be caused by local changes in tissues under the influence of excessive physical exertion and its consequences, such as chronic oxidative stress and associated hypoxia, metabolic acidosis, sports injuries, etc. A review of publications on signaling pathways that activate and inhibit angiogenesis in skeletal muscles, myocardium, lung, and nervous tissue under the influence of intense physical activity in cyclic sports. Materials: We searched PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Clinical keys, and e-LIBRARY databases for full-text articles published from 2000 to 2020, using keywords and their combinations. Results: An important aspect of adaptation to training loads in cyclic sports is an increase in the number of capillaries in muscle fibers, which improves the metabolism of skeletal muscles and myocardium, as well as nervous and lung tissue. Recent studies have shown that myocardial endothelial cells not only respond to hemodynamic forces and paracrine signals from neighboring cells, but also take an active part in heart remodeling processes, stimulating the growth and contractility of cardiomyocytes or the production of extracellular matrix proteins in myofibroblasts. As myocardial vascularization plays a central role in the transition from adaptive heart hypertrophy to heart failure, further study of the signaling mechanisms involved in the regulation of angiogenesis in the myocardium is important in sports practice. The study of the "angiogenic switch" problem in the cerebrovascular and cardiovascular systems allows us to claim that the formation of new vessels is mediated by a complex interaction of all growth factors. Although the lungs are one of the limiting systems of the body in cyclic sports, their response to high-intensity loads and other environmental stresses is often overlooked. Airway epithelial cells are the predominant source of several growth factors throughout lung organogenesis and appear to be critical for normal alveolarization, rapid alveolar proliferation, and normal vascular development. There are many controversial questions about the role of growth factors in the physiology and pathology of the lungs. The presented review has demonstrated that when doing sports, it is necessary to give a careful consideration to the possible positive and negative effects of growth factors on muscles, myocardium, lung tissue, and brain. Primarily, the "angiogenic switch" is important in aerobic sports (long distance running). Conclusions: Angiogenesis is a physiological process of the formation of new blood capillaries, which play an important role in the functioning of skeletal muscles, myocardium, lung, and nervous tissue in athletes. Violation of the "angiogenic switch" as a balance between proangiogenic and anti-angiogenic molecules can lead to a decrease in the functional resources of the nervous, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems in athletes and, as a consequence, to a decrease in sports performance.


Assuntos
Atletas , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Esportes/fisiologia , Biomarcadores , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Exercício Físico , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
12.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 665134, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34248841

RESUMO

Introduction: Neuropilin-1(NRP1) is a cofactor that enhances SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus cell infectivity when co-expressed with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2(ACE2). The Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) is activated in type 2 diabetes (T2D); therefore, the aim of this study was to determine if hypoglycaemia-induced stress in T2D would potentiate serum NRP1(sNRP1) levels, reflecting an increased risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: A case-control study of aged-matched T2D (n = 23) and control (n = 23) subjects who underwent a hyperinsulinemic clamp over 1-hour to hypoglycemia(<40mg/dl) with subsequent timecourse of 4-hours and 24-hours. Slow Off-rate Modified Aptamer (SOMA)-scan plasma protein measurement determined RAS-related proteins: renin (REN), angiotensinogen (AGT), ACE2, soluble NRP1(sNRP1), NRP1 ligands (Vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGF and Class 3 Semaphorins, SEM3A) and NRP1 proteolytic enzyme (A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase 9, ADAM9). Results: Baseline RAS overactivity was present with REN elevated and AGT decreased in T2D (p<0.05); ACE2 was unchanged. Baseline sNRP1, VEGF and ADAM9 did not differ between T2D and controls and remained unchanged in response to hypoglycaemia. However, 4-hours post-hypoglycemia, sNRP1, VEGF and ADAM9 were elevated in T2D(p<0.05). SEMA3A was not different at baseline; at hypoglycemia, SEMA3A decreased in controls only. Post-hypoglycemia, SEMA3A levels were higher in T2D versus controls. sNRP1 did not correlate with ACE2, REN or AGT. T2D subjects stratified according to ACE inhibitor (ACEi) therapies showed no difference in sNRP1 levels at either glucose normalization or hypoglycaemia. Conclusion: Hypoglycemia potentiated both plasma sNRP1 level elevation and its ligands VEGF and SEMA3A, likely through an ADAM9-mediated mechanism that was not associated with RAS overactivity or ACEi therapy; however, whether this is protective or promotes increased risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection in T2D is unclear. Clinical Trial Registration: https://clinicaltrials.gov, identifier NCT03102801.


Assuntos
Proteínas ADAM/metabolismo , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Hipoglicemia/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Neuropilina-1/metabolismo , Semaforina-3A/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Idoso , Angiotensinas/metabolismo , COVID-19 , Feminino , Técnica Clamp de Glucose , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Proteção , Renina/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 171(3): 399-403, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34292445

RESUMO

A comparative morphological study was carried out to analyze the number of syncytial knots and VEGF expression in placental villi in parturient women with COVID-19 categorized by the disease severity. The number of syncytial knots was assessed on specimens stained with hematoxylin and eosin. VEGF expression was determined by immunohistochemical analysis in syncytiotrophoblast and villous endothelial cells. Morphological study of the placenta tissue of parturient women with COVID-19 showed increased numbers of syncytial knots in the villi, indicating the development of preplacental hypoxia. High VEGF expression in syncytiotrophoblast and vascular endotheliocytes reflects a stereotyped response to hypoxia and can underlie the development of a preeclampsia-like syndrome. The number of syncytial knots and VEGF expression in placental villi in parturient women with COVID-19 depended on the disease severity.


Assuntos
COVID-19/metabolismo , COVID-19/patologia , Vilosidades Coriônicas/metabolismo , Placenta/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Gravidez , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade
14.
Mol Med Rep ; 23(5)2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34240225

RESUMO

Tracheal stenosis following injury cannot be effectively treated. The current study compared the protective effects of different anti­inflammatory drugs on tracheal stenosis and investigated their possible mechanisms. Rabbit tracheal stenosis models following injury were constructed and confirmed using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. A total of 30 rabbits were divided into the control (CON), penicillin (PEN), erythromycin (ERY), budesonide (BUD) and PEN + ERY + BUD groups (n=6). Stenotic tracheal tissue, serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected 10 days after continuous treatment. Pathological changes in the tracheas were observed by H&E staining. Histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) expression in tracheal tissues was detected by immunofluorescence. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect collagen I (Col­I) and collagen III (Col­III) levels in tracheal tissues. Transforming growth factor ß1 (TGF­ß1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and interleukin 8 (IL­8) levels in serum and BALF samples were determined using ELISA kits. Western blotting detected HDAC2, IL­8, TGF­ß1 and VEGF levels in tracheal tissues. H&E staining demonstrated that tracheal epithelial hyperplasia and fibroblast proliferation in the ERY and PEN + ERY + BUD groups markedly improved compared with the CON group. Furthermore, in tracheal tissues, HDAC2 expression was significantly increased and IL­8, TGF­ß1, VEGF, Col­I and Col­III levels were significantly decreased in the ERY and PEN + ERY + BUD groups compared with the CON group. Additionally, the results for the PEN + ERY + BUD were more significant compared with the ERY group. In serum and BALF samples, IL­8, TGF­ß1 and VEGF levels in the ERY and PEN + ERY + BUD groups were significantly lower compared with the CON group, with the results of the PEN + ERY + BUD group being more significant compared with the ERY group. There were no significant differences between the PEN, BUD and CON groups. ERY inhibited tracheal granulation tissue proliferation and improved tracheal stenosis following injury and synergistic effects with PEN and BUD further enhanced these protective effects. The mechanism may involve HDAC2 upregulation and inhibition of local airway and systemic inflammatory responses.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Budesonida/uso terapêutico , Eritromicina/uso terapêutico , Penicilinas/uso terapêutico , Substâncias Protetoras/uso terapêutico , Estenose Traqueal/metabolismo , Estenose Traqueal/prevenção & controle , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Budesonida/farmacologia , Colágeno/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eritromicina/farmacologia , Tecido de Granulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Histona Desacetilase 2/genética , Histona Desacetilase 2/metabolismo , Hiperplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperplasia/metabolismo , Interleucina-8/sangue , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Penicilinas/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Coelhos , Traqueia/lesões , Traqueia/patologia , Estenose Traqueal/etiologia , Estenose Traqueal/patologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/sangue , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/sangue , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
15.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 321(3): R377-R384, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34318705

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate if the cardiovascular system is important for ammonia excretion in the early life stages of zebrafish. Morpholino knockdowns of cardiac troponin T (TNNT2) or vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) provided morphants with nonfunctional circulation. At the embryonic stage [30-36 h postfertilization (hpf)], ammonia excretion was not constrained by a lack of cardiovascular function. At 2 days postfertilization (dpf) and 4 dpf, morpholino knockdowns of TNNT2 or VEGFA significantly reduced ammonia excretion in all morphants. Expression of rhag, rhbg, and rhcgb showed no significant changes but the mRNA levels of the urea transporter (ut) were upregulated in the 4 dpf morphants. Taken together, rhag, rhbg, rhcgb, and ut gene expression and an unchanged tissue ammonia concentration but an increased tissue urea concentration, suggest that impaired ammonia excretion led to increased urea synthesis. However, in larvae anesthetized with tricaine or clove oil, ammonia excretion was not reduced in the 4 dpf morphants compared with controls. Furthermore, oxygen consumption was reduced in morphants regardless of anesthesia. These results suggest that cardiovascular function is not directly involved in ammonia excretion, but rather reduced activity and external convection may explain reduced ammonia excretion and compensatory urea accumulation in morphants with reduced cardiovascular function.


Assuntos
Sistema Cardiovascular/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Ureia/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Brânquias/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
16.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(7): 708, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267179

RESUMO

The dysregulated microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in diabetic retinopathy progression. Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell permeability are important events in diabetic retinopathy. However, the function and mechanism of miR-195 in EMT and cell permeability in diabetic retinopathy remain largely unclear. Diabetic retinopathy models were established using streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice and high glucose (HG)-stimulated ARPE-19 cells. Retina injury was investigated by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. EMT and cell permeability were analyzed by western blotting, immunofluorescence, wound healing, and FITC-dextran assays. MiR-195 expression was detected via qRT-PCR. YY1, VEGFA, Snail1, and Smurf2 levels were detected via western blotting. The interaction relationship was analyzed via ChIP, Co-IP, or dual-luciferase reporter assay. The retina injury, EMT, and cell permeability were induced in STZ-induced diabetic mice. HG induced EMT and cell permeability in ARPE-19 cells. MiR-195, YY1, VEGFA, and Snail1 levels were enhanced, but Smurf2 abundance was reduced in STZ-induced diabetic mice and HG-stimulated ARPE-19 cells. VEGFA knockdown decreased Snail1 expression and attenuated HG-induced EMT and cell permeability. YY1 silence reduced VEGFA and Snail1 expression, and mitigated HG-induced EMT and cell permeability. YY1 could bind with VEGFA and Snail1, and it was degraded via Smurf2-mediated ubiquitination. MiR-195 knockdown upregulated Smurf2 to decrease YY1 expression and inhibited HG-induced EMT and cell permeability. MiR-195 targeted Smurf2, increased expression of YY1, VEGFA, and Snail1, and promoted HG-induced EMT and cell permeability. MiR-195 promotes EMT and cell permeability of HG-stimulated ARPE-19 cells by increasing VEGFA/Snail1 via inhibiting the Smurf2-mediated ubiquitination of YY1.


Assuntos
Retinopatia Diabética/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição YY1/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Retinopatia Diabética/genética , Retinopatia Diabética/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , MicroRNAs/genética , Permeabilidade , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Proteólise , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Transcrição da Família Snail/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitinação , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição YY1/genética
17.
Anticancer Res ; 41(7): 3535-3542, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230149

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: No biomarkers that predict the benefit from anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibodies have been identified. It is necessary to discover biomarkers that can identify patients who are more likely to benefit from bevacizumab-containing treatment, especially those who are more likely to benefit from treatment with bevacizumab beyond progression (BBP). Levels of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), reported to be an indirect marker of hypoxia and angiogenesis, may be a useful marker for monitoring the efficacy of suppression of angiogenesis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The clinical data of 91 patients with unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer who were treated with bevacizumab-containing chemotherapy as first-line treatment were collected and studied. RESULTS: In the second-line treatment, the bevacizumab plus chemotherapy group showed significantly better progression-free survival (PFS) in comparison to the chemotherapy-alone group in patients with low post-first-line-treatment serum LDH levels. On the other hand, no significant differences in the PFS rate were observed between the two groups in patients with high post-first-line-treatment serum LDH levels. CONCLUSION: The post-first-line-treatment serum LDH levels may, therefore, be useful marker for predicting the efficacy of treatment with BBP.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neovascularização Patológica/tratamento farmacológico , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
18.
Science ; 373(6554)2021 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326210

RESUMO

Aging is an established risk factor for vascular diseases, but vascular aging itself may contribute to the progressive deterioration of organ function. Here, we show in aged mice that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling insufficiency, which is caused by increased production of decoy receptors, may drive physiological aging across multiple organ systems. Increasing VEGF signaling prevented age-associated capillary loss, improved organ perfusion and function, and extended life span. Healthier aging was evidenced by favorable metabolism and body composition and amelioration of aging-associated pathologies including hepatic steatosis, sarcopenia, osteoporosis, "inflammaging" (age-related multiorgan chronic inflammation), and increased tumor burden. These results indicate that VEGF signaling insufficiency affects organ aging in mice and suggest that modulating this pathway may result in increased mammalian life span and improved overall health.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Envelhecimento Saudável , Longevidade , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo , Animais , Vasos Sanguíneos/fisiologia , Composição Corporal , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Carcinogênese , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Feminino , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Densidade Microvascular , Microvasos/fisiologia , Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Consumo de Oxigênio , Sarcopenia/prevenção & controle , Transdução de Sinais , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/sangue
19.
Science ; 373(6550)2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210853

RESUMO

The mechanisms by which macrophages regulate energy storage remain poorly understood. We identify in a genetic screen a platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)/vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-family ortholog, Pvf3, that is produced by macrophages and is required for lipid storage in fat-body cells of Drosophila larvae. Genetic and pharmacological experiments indicate that the mouse Pvf3 ortholog PDGFcc, produced by adipose tissue-resident macrophages, controls lipid storage in adipocytes in a leptin receptor- and C-C chemokine receptor type 2-independent manner. PDGFcc production is regulated by diet and acts in a paracrine manner to control lipid storage in adipose tissues of newborn and adult mice. At the organismal level upon PDGFcc blockade, excess lipids are redirected toward thermogenesis in brown fat. These data identify a macrophage-dependent mechanism, conducive to the design of pharmacological interventions, that controls energy storage in metazoans.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/imunologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Linfocinas/metabolismo , Macrófagos/imunologia , Obesidade/imunologia , Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/metabolismo , Termogênese , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/imunologia , Animais , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster , Feminino , Hemócitos/imunologia , Fígado/imunologia , Linfocinas/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/genética , Receptores CCR2/genética , Receptores CCR2/metabolismo , Receptores de Fator Estimulador das Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/genética , Receptores de Fator Estimulador das Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208383

RESUMO

Hereditary retinal degenerations like retinitis pigmentosa (RP) are among the leading causes of blindness in younger patients. To enable in vivo investigation of cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for photoreceptor cell death and to allow testing of therapeutic strategies that could prevent retinal degeneration, animal models have been created. In this study, we deeply characterized the transcriptional profile of mice carrying the transgene rhodopsin V20G/P23H/P27L (VPP), which is a model for autosomal dominant RP. We examined the degree of photoreceptor degeneration and studied the impact of the VPP transgene-induced retinal degeneration on the transcriptome level of the retina using next generation RNA sequencing (RNASeq) analyses followed by weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA). We furthermore identified cellular subpopulations responsible for some of the observed dysregulations using in situ hybridizations, immunofluorescence staining, and 3D reconstruction. Using RNASeq analysis, we identified 9256 dysregulated genes and six significantly associated gene modules in the subsequently performed WGCNA. Gene ontology enrichment showed, among others, dysregulation of genes involved in TGF-ß regulated extracellular matrix organization, the (ocular) immune system/response, and cellular homeostasis. Moreover, heatmaps confirmed clustering of significantly dysregulated genes coding for components of the TGF-ß, G-protein activated, and VEGF signaling pathway. 3D reconstructions of immunostained/in situ hybridized sections revealed retinal neurons and Müller cells as the major cellular population expressing representative components of these signaling pathways. The predominant effect of VPP-induced photoreceptor degeneration pointed towards induction of neuroinflammation and the upregulation of neuroprotective pathways like TGF-ß, G-protein activated, and VEGF signaling. Thus, modulation of these processes and signaling pathways might represent new therapeutic options to delay the degeneration of photoreceptors in diseases like RP.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Neuroproteção/genética , Retinite Pigmentosa/genética , Transcrição Genética , Regulação para Cima/genética , Animais , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Feminino , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neuroglia/metabolismo , Degeneração Retiniana/complicações , Degeneração Retiniana/patologia , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Bastonetes/metabolismo , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Bastonetes/patologia , Rodopsina/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
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