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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445772

RESUMO

In this review we described the interactions between ghrelin and the growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) axis in children and adults with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). A possible involvement of these interactions in the pathogenesis of unexplained cases of GHD was suggested. Current research provides more and more details to the knowledge on the circadian rhythm of ghrelin. We gathered reports on the decreasing effect of Helicobacter pylori-related chronic gastritis on the number of ghrelin immunopositive cells and the consequent decrease in ghrelin serum concentration. The gastrointestinal tract microflora modification of the ghrelin action, by the mechanism of molecular mimicry, was also stressed. Moreover, the mutual relationships between ghrelin and the TSH-FT4/FT3 axis in growth and metabolic processes are described. It is to be recalled that FT4 and FT3 exert a permissive impact on IGF-1 action and, in turn, GH, in reaction mediated by IGF-1, enhances the monodeiodination of FT4 to FT3. Finally, we discussed the latest attempts to use the GH secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) analogues for possible diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.


Assuntos
Grelina/metabolismo , Hormônio do Crescimento/deficiência , Hormônio do Crescimento/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Receptores de Grelina/metabolismo
2.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 394, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34381538

RESUMO

Acromegaly is, in most cases, caused by growth hormone secreting pituitary adenomas. Those patients often develop different pathologies of the thyroid gland, however, the occurrence of Grave´s disease is quite a rare situation. We report a case of a 64-year-old female patient who presented with signs of hyperthyroidism and imbalance of her diabetes mellitus. On physical examination, she had facial features of acromegaly. Biochemical testing confirmed the suspicion of acromegaly and Grave´s disease, with an elevated insulin-like growth factor-1 and a suppressed thyroid stimulation hormone (TSH) with positive TSH-receptor antibodies. A pituitary Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was performed, revealing a macro-adenoma and an empty sella. The patient successfully underwent a transsphenoidal surgery and obtained a remission of her hyperthyroidism under anti-thyroid drugs.


Assuntos
Acromegalia/diagnóstico , Síndrome da Sela Vazia/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Graves/diagnóstico por imagem , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de Hormônio do Crescimento/diagnóstico por imagem , Antitireóideos/administração & dosagem , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de Hormônio do Crescimento/cirurgia , Humanos , Hipertireoidismo/diagnóstico , Hipertireoidismo/tratamento farmacológico , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tireotropina/metabolismo
3.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371877

RESUMO

Pathological mechanisms underlining diabetic bone defects include oxidative damage and insulin/IGF-1 imbalance. Morin is a bioflavonoid with antioxidant and anti-diabetic effects. This study evaluates morin's protective effects against altered bone histomorphometry in diabetic rats through assessing insulin/IGF-1 pathway as a potential mechanism. Diabetic animals were administered two morin doses (15 and 30 mg/kg) for 5 weeks. Different serum hepatic and renal functions tests were assessed. Bone density and histomorphometry in cortical and trabecular tissues were evaluated histologically. The expressions of insulin, c-peptide and IGF-1 were estimated. In addition, the enzymatic activities of the major antioxidant enzymes were determined. Diabetic-associated alterations in serum glucose, aminotransferases, urea and creatinine were attenuated by morin. Diabetic bone cortical and trabecular histomorphometry were impaired with increased fibrosis, osteoclastic functions, osteoid formation and reduced mineralization, which was reversed by morin; particularly the 30 mg/kg dose. Insulin/IGF-1 levels were diminished in diabetic animals, while morin treatment enhanced their levels significantly. Diabetes also triggered systemic oxidative stress noticeably. The higher dose (30 mg/kg) of morin corrected the endogenous antioxidant enzymatic activities in diabetic rats. Findings indicate the potential value of morin supplementation against hyperglycemia-induced skeletal impairments. Activation of insulin/IGF-1 signaling could be the underlining mechanism behind these effects.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Fêmur/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Insulina/sangue , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/patologia , Fêmur/metabolismo , Fêmur/patologia , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais , Estreptozocina
4.
Klin Lab Diagn ; 66(8): 459-464, 2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388315

RESUMO

The analysis of long-term results of treatment of 88 primary patients with colon adenocarcinoma at various stages of tumor process is presented, taking into account the TNM system criteria, and serum IGF-1, IGF-2, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2, IGFBP-3, VEGF, and MMP-7 levels. The overall survival rate assessed by Kaplan-Meier method and Cox multivariate regression model was used as the criterion of prognosis. It was established that IGF-1, IGFBP-2 and VEGF serum levels along with the stage of colorectal cancer might be considered as statistically significant independent predictors of overall survival in patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Metaloproteinase 7 da Matriz , Proteínas de Transporte , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360740

RESUMO

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) is a genetic neurodegenerative disease for which a cure is still needed. Growth hormone (GH) therapy has shown positive effects on the exercise behavior of mice with cerebellar atrophy, retains more Purkinje cells, and exhibits less DNA damage after GH intervention. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is the downstream mediator of GH that participates in signaling and metabolic regulation for cell growth and modulation pathways, including SCA3-affected pathways. However, the underlying therapeutic mechanisms of GH or IGF-1 in SCA3 are not fully understood. In the present study, tissue-specific genome-scale metabolic network models for SCA3 transgenic mice were proposed based on RNA-seq. An integrative transcriptomic and metabolic network analysis of a SCA3 transgenic mouse model revealed that metabolic signaling pathways were activated to compensate for the metabolic remodeling caused by SCA3 genetic modifications. The effect of IGF-1 intervention on the pathology and balance of SCA3 disease was also explored. IGF-1 has been shown to invoke signaling pathways and improve mitochondrial function and glycolysis pathways to restore cellular functions. As one of the downregulated factors in SCA3 transgenic mice, IGF-1 could be a potential biomarker and therapeutic target.


Assuntos
Reprogramação Celular , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Doença de Machado-Joseph/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Ataxina-3/genética , Ataxina-3/metabolismo , Hormônio do Crescimento/genética , Hormônio do Crescimento/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Doença de Machado-Joseph/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360913

RESUMO

Deficiency of the placental hormone chorionic somatomammotropin (CSH) can lead to the development of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). To gain insight into the physiological consequences of CSH RNA interference (RNAi), the trophectoderm of hatched blastocysts (nine days of gestational age; dGA) was infected with a lentivirus expressing either a scrambled control or CSH-specific shRNA, prior to transfer into synchronized recipient sheep. At 90 dGA, umbilical hemodynamics and fetal measurements were assessed by Doppler ultrasonography. At 120 dGA, pregnancies were fitted with vascular catheters to undergo steady-state metabolic studies with the 3H2O transplacental diffusion technique at 130 dGA. Nutrient uptake rates were determined and tissues were subsequently harvested at necropsy. CSH RNAi reduced (p ≤ 0.05) both fetal and uterine weights as well as umbilical blood flow (mL/min). This ultimately resulted in reduced (p ≤ 0.01) umbilical IGF1 concentrations, as well as reduced umbilical nutrient uptakes (p ≤ 0.05) in CSH RNAi pregnancies. CSH RNAi also reduced (p ≤ 0.05) uterine nutrient uptakes as well as uteroplacental glucose utilization. These data suggest that CSH is necessary to facilitate adequate blood flow for the uptake of oxygen, oxidative substrates, and hormones essential to support fetal and uterine growth.


Assuntos
Sangue Fetal/metabolismo , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/genética , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/metabolismo , Hemodinâmica/genética , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Lactogênio Placentário/deficiência , Lactogênio Placentário/genética , Interferência de RNA , Ovinos/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Animais , Blastocisto/metabolismo , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/diagnóstico por imagem , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/diagnóstico por imagem , Feto/metabolismo , Idade Gestacional , Glucose/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Masculino , Placenta/metabolismo , Gravidez , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Ultrassonografia Doppler/métodos , Útero/metabolismo
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4568, 2021 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315882

RESUMO

Insulin/IGF-1 Signaling (IIS) is known to constrain longevity by inhibiting the transcription factor FOXO. How phosphorylation mediated by IIS kinases regulates lifespan beyond FOXO remains unclear. Here, we profile IIS-dependent phosphorylation changes in a large-scale quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of wild-type and three IIS mutant Caenorhabditis elegans strains. We quantify more than 15,000 phosphosites and find that 476 of these are differentially phosphorylated in the long-lived daf-2/insulin receptor mutant. We develop a machine learning-based method to prioritize 25 potential lifespan-related phosphosites. We perform validations to show that AKT-1 pT492 inhibits DAF-16/FOXO and compensates the loss of daf-2 function, that EIF-2α pS49 potently inhibits protein synthesis and daf-2 longevity, and that reduced phosphorylation of multiple germline proteins apparently transmits reduced DAF-2 signaling to the soma. In addition, an analysis of kinases with enriched substrates detects that casein kinase 2 (CK2) subunits negatively regulate lifespan. Our study reveals detailed functional insights into longevity.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Insulina/metabolismo , Longevidade/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais , Algoritmos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/química , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Mutação/genética , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteômica
8.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209137

RESUMO

D-Pinitol (DPIN) is a natural occurring inositol capable of activating the insulin pathway in peripheral tissues, whereas this has not been thoroughly studied in the central nervous system. The present study assessed the potential regulatory effects of DPIN on the hypothalamic insulin signaling pathway. To this end we investigated the Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Protein Kinase B (Akt) signaling cascade in a rat model following oral administration of DPIN. The PI3K/Akt-associated proteins were quantified by Western blot in terms of phosphorylation and total expression. Results indicate that the acute administration of DPIN induced time-dependent phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt and its related substrates within the hypothalamus, indicating an activation of the insulin signaling pathway. This profile is consistent with DPIN as an insulin sensitizer since we also found a decrease in the circulating concentration of this hormone. Overall, the present study shows the pharmacological action of DPIN in the hypothalamus through the PI3K/Akt pathway when giving in fasted animals. These findings suggest that DPIN might be a candidate to treat brain insulin-resistance associated disorders by activating insulin response beyond the insulin receptor.


Assuntos
Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Inositol/análogos & derivados , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Administração Oral , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucagon/sangue , Homeostase , Hipotálamo/efeitos dos fármacos , Inositol/administração & dosagem , Inositol/sangue , Inositol/química , Inositol/farmacologia , Insulina/sangue , Insulina/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Masculino , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205470

RESUMO

In cases of patients with rapidly progressive diabetes mellitus (DM), autologous stem cell transplantation is considered as one of the regenerative treatments. However, whether the effects of autonomous stem cell transplantation on DM patients are equivalent to transplantation of stem cells derived from healthy persons is unclear. This study revealed that adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSC) derived from type II DM patients had lower transplantation efficiency, proliferation potency, and stemness than those derived from healthy persons, leading to a tendency to induce apoptotic cell death. To address this issue, we conducted a cyclopedic mRNA analysis using a next-generation sequencer and identified G6PC3 and IGF1, genes related to the FoxO signaling pathway, as the genes responsible for lower performance. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the lower transplantation efficiency of ADSCs derived from type II DM patients might be improved by knocking down both G6PC3 and IGF1 genes. This study clarified the difference in transplantation efficiency between ADSCs derived from type II DM patients and those derived from healthy persons and the genes responsible for the lower performance of the former. These results can provide a new strategy for stabilizing the quality of stem cells and improving the therapeutic effects of regenerative treatments on autonomous stem cell transplantation in patients with DM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Glucose-6-Fosfatase/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais , Transplante Autólogo
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208601

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common aggressive carcinoma types worldwide, characterized by unfavorable curative effect and poor prognosis. Epidemiological data re-vealed that CRC risk is increased in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its serum components (e.g., hyperglycemia). High glycemic index diets, which chronically raise post-prandial blood glucose, may at least in part increase colon cancer risk via the insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling pathway. However, the underlying mechanisms linking IGF-1 and MetS are still poorly understood. Hyperactivated glucose uptake and aerobic glycolysis (the Warburg effect) are considered as a one of six hallmarks of cancer, including CRC. However, the role of insulin/IGF-1 signaling during the acquisition of the Warburg metabolic phenotypes by CRC cells is still poorly understood. It most likely results from the interaction of multiple processes, directly or indirectly regulated by IGF-1, such as activation of PI3K/Akt/mTORC, and Raf/MAPK signaling pathways, activation of glucose transporters (e.g., GLUT1), activation of key glycolytic enzymes (e.g., LDHA, LDH5, HK II, and PFKFB3), aberrant expression of the oncogenes (e.g., MYC, and KRAS) and/or overexpression of signaling proteins (e.g., HIF-1, TGF-ß1, PI3K, ERK, Akt, and mTOR). This review describes the role of IGF-1 in glucose metabolism in physiology and colorectal carcinogenesis, including the role of the insulin/IGF system in the Warburg effect. Furthermore, current therapeutic strategies aimed at repairing impaired glucose metabolism in CRC are indicated.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores , Neoplasias Colorretais/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209299

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD)-associated neurodegeneration is triggered by different fragments of amyloid beta (Aß). Among them, Aß (25-35) fragment plays a critical role in the development of neurodegeneration-it reduces synaptic integrity by disruption of excitatory/inhibitory ratio across networks and alters the growth factors synthesis. Thus, in this study, we aimed to identify the involvement of neurotrophic factors-the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and nerve growth factor (NGF)-of AD-like neurodegeneration induced by Aß (25-35). Taking into account our previous findings on the neuroprotective effects of the mix of proteoglycans of embryonic genesis (PEG), it was suggested to test its regulatory effect on IGF-1 and NGF levels. To evaluate the progress of neurodegeneration, in vivo electrophysiological investigation of synaptic activity disruption of the entorhinal cortex-hippocampus circuit at AD was performed and the potential recovery effects of PEG with relative structural changes were provided. To reveal the direct effects of PEG on brain functional activity, the electrophysiological pattern of the single cells from nucleus supraopticus, sensomotor cortex and hippocampus after acute injection of PEG was examined. Our results demonstrated that after i.c.v. injection of Aß (25-35), the level of NGF decreased in cerebral cortex and hypothalamus, and, in contrast, increased in hippocampus, prompting its multidirectional role in case of brain damage. The concentration of IGF-1 significantly increased in all investigated brain structures. The administration of PEG balanced the growth factor levels accompanied by substantial restoration of neural tissue architecture and synaptic activity. Acute injection of PEG activated the hypothalamic nucleus supraopticus and hippocampal neurons. IGF-1 and NGF levels were found to be elevated in animals receiving PEG in an absence of amyloid exposure. We suggest that IGF-1 and NGF play a critical role in the development of AD. At the same time, it becomes clear that the neuroprotective effects of PEG are likely mediated via the regulation of neurotrophins.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Encéfalo , Eletrocardiografia , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Neural/metabolismo , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
12.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 644055, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34220703

RESUMO

Objective: We aimed to measure insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and growth hormone (GH) in critically and non-critically ill patients with Covid-19 and assess them vis-a-vis clinical and laboratory parameters and prognostic tools. Subjects and Methods: We included patients who were admitted to the wards or the ICU of the largest Covid-19 referral hospital in Greece; patients with non-Covid-19 pneumonia served as controls. Apart from the routine laboratory work-up for Covid-19 we measured GH and IGF1 (and calculated normalized IGF-1 values as standard deviation scores; SDS), after blood sampling upon admission to the wards or the ICU. Results: We studied 209 critically and non-critically ill patients with Covid-19 and 39 control patients. Patients with Covid-19 who were ICU non-survivors were older and presented with a worse hematological/biochemical profile (including white blood cell count, troponin, glucose, aminotransferases and lactate dehydrogenase) compared to ICU survivors or Covid-19 survivors in the wards. Overall, IGF-1 SDS was higher in Covid-19 survivors compared to non-survivors (-0.96 ± 1.89 vs -2.05 ± 2.48, respectively, p=0.030). No significant differences were noted in GH between the groups. Nevertheless, in critically ill patients with Covid-19, the prognostic value of IGF-1 (raw data), IGF-1 (SDS) and GH for survival/non-survival was on a par with that of APACHE II and SOFA (with a marginal difference between GH and SOFA). Conclusion: In conclusion, our findings suggest that there might be an association between low IGF1 (and possibly GH) and poor outcome in patients with Covid-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/metabolismo , COVID-19/patologia , Estado Terminal , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/mortalidade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Sobreviventes/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 16(1): 194, 2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34233689

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: C-erbB-2 has been confirmed to be an oncogene that participates in cell growth, differentiation and division of tumors. We are wondered if its silenced expression can exert an anti-tumor effect. Therefore, this study is conducted to investigate the mechanism of C-erbB-2 silencing and IGF-1 pathway on esophageal carcinoma (EC) cell biological behaviors. METHODS: The objects of study were 84 EC patients from Heping Hospital Affiliated to Changzhi Medical College, with the collection of EC tissue and adjacent normal tissue (> 5 cm away from cancer tissue). C-erbB-2 protein expression in EC tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry. Human EC cell line Eca-109 was purchased from Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Based on different transfection protocols, EC cells with logarithmic growth phase of 3-5 passages were divided into blank control group, oe-C-erbB-2 NC group, siRNA C-erbB-2 NC group, oe-C-erbB-2 group, siRNA C-erbB-2 group, OSI-906 group, Rg5 group, Rg5 + siRNA C-erbB-2 NC group and Rg5 + siRNA C-erbB-2 group. Cell proliferation was detected by MTT assay; cell cycle distribution and apoptosis by flow cytometry; C-erbB-2, IGF-1, IGF-1R and Akt mRNA and protein expressions by qRT-PCR and western blot; and cell invasion and migration by Transwell assay and scratch test. Tumor growth was observed in male BALB/c nude mice (Shanghai Experimental Animal Center) based on Eca109 cell implantation, raising, and measurement. RESULTS: C-erbB-2, IGF-1, IGF-1R and Akt expression were higher in EC tissues than those in adjacent tissues (all P < 0.05). Compared with blank control group, both si-C-erbB-2 and OSI-906 groups had decreased IGF-1, IGF-1R and Akt mRNA and protein expressions, decreased cell proliferation, migration and invasion, prolonged G0/G1 phase, shortened S phase, increased cell apoptosis, and inhibited tumor growth (all P < 0.05); while opposite trends were detected in C-erbB-2 vector and Rg5 groups (all P < 0.05), without statistical differences in siRNA C-erbB-2 + Rg5 group (all P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Silencing C-erbB-2 expression may inhibit EC cell proliferation, promote cell apoptosis and block cell cycle progression by inhibiting IGF-1 pathway activation. The beneficial effect of silencing C-erbB-2 expression can be reversed by promoting the activation of IGF-1 pathway. Findings in our study may provide potential reference for understanding the molecular mechanism of EC and supply possible axis for preventing the development of EC from the perspective of molecular biology.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Neoplasias Esofágicas/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Inativação Gênica/fisiologia , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Neoplasias Esofágicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transplante de Neoplasias , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Receptor IGF Tipo 1 , Transfecção
14.
Exp Gerontol ; 152: 111435, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical activity prevents cancer and improves cancer outcomes. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling plays a significant role in cancer development and progression. However, there are heterogeneous results regarding physical activity and its effect on the IGF system. This study meta-analyzed the results of randomized clinical trials which evaluated the effects of physical exercise on the changes of physiologic markers to identify the role of physical exercise in modulating the IGF system in women with breast cancer. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, CENTRAL, and SPORTDiscus were systematically searched until October 2020. Eligibility criteria included randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effects of physical exercise on the insulin-like growth factor system among women with breast cancer. RESULTS: Twelve randomized controlled studies involving 736 participants were analyzed. Physical exercise significantly reduced levels of serum insulin (MD -1.24 µIU/mL, 95% CI -2.12 to -0.36, p = 0.006), IGF-II (MD -54.21 ng/mL, 95% CI -61.41 to -47.00, p < 0.00001), IGFBP-1 (MD -2.90 ng/mL, 95% CI -3.91 to -1.90, p < 0.00001), and HOMA score (MD -0.47, 95% CI -0.87 to -0.06, p = 0.02). In addition, serum glucose (MD -0.71 mg/dL, 95% CI -2.57 to 1.15; p = 0.45) and IGF-I levels (MD -5.23 ng/mL, 95% CI -13.00 to 2.53; p = 0.19) were decreased after physical exercise although they did not show a statistical significance. CONCLUSION: Physical exercise had a positive effect on the IGF system in women with breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Exercício Físico , Biomarcadores , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Proteína 1 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
15.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 185(2): 289-297, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34081617

RESUMO

Objective: High insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and unsuppressed growth hormone (GH) levels after glucose load confirm the diagnosis of acromegaly. Management of patients with conflicting results could be challenging. Our aim was to evaluate the clinical and hormonal evolution over a long follow-up in patients with high IGF-1 but normal GH nadir (GHn < 0.4 µg/L according to the latest guidelines). Design: Retrospective cohort study. Methods: We enrolled 53 patients presenting high IGF-1 and GHn < 0.4 µg/L, assessed because of clinical suspicion of acromegaly or in other endocrinological contexts (e.g. pituitary incidentaloma). Clinical and hormonal data collected at the first and last visit were analyzed. Results: At the first evaluation, the mean age was 54.1 ± 15.4 years, 34/53 were females, median IGF-1 and GHn were +3.1 SDS and 0.06 µg/L, respectively. In the whole group, over a median time of 6 years, IGF-1 and GHn levels did not significantly change (IGF-1 mean of differences: -0.58, P = 0.15; GHn +0.03, P = 0.29). In patients with clinical features of acromegaly, the prevalence of acromegalic comorbidities was higher than in the others (median of 3 vs 1 comorbidities per patient, P = 0.005), especially malignancies (36% vs 6%, P = 0.03), and the clinical worsening overtime was more pronounced (4 vs 1 comorbidities at the last visit). Conclusions: In patients presenting high IGF-1 but GHn < 0.4 µg/L, a hormonal progression is improbable, likely excluding classical acromegaly in its early stage. However, despite persistently low GH nadir values, patients with acromegalic features present more acromegalic comorbidities whose rate increases over time. Close clinical surveillance of this group is advised.


Assuntos
Acromegalia/diagnóstico , Glucose/administração & dosagem , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/sangue , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Acromegalia/sangue , Acromegalia/metabolismo , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Endócrino , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Glucose/efeitos adversos , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Hormônios/sangue , Hormônios/metabolismo , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 185(2): 313-321, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085950

RESUMO

Objectives: We aimed to investigate the clinical, biochemical, histological and radiological characteristics as well as the response to somatostatin analogs (SSA) in a large cohort of acromegaly patients with a paradoxical GH response (PR) to oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Design: Retrospective study. Methods: Of 110 patients with acromegaly included in our study, 30 (PR+; 27%) had a paradoxical GH increase of more than 25% relative to basal GH levels during OGTT. Results: At diagnosis, PR+ patients were older than PR- patients (52 ± 16 years vs 44 ± 14 years, P < 0.05) and had smaller pituitary tumors (40% microadenomas vs 19%, P < 0.05), which were less often invasive (17% vs 35%, P < 0.05), overall more secreting (insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)/tumoral surface: 2.35 ULN/cm2 (0.28-9.06) vs 1.08 (0.17-7.87), P = 0.011), and more often hypointense on T2-weighted MRI (92% vs 48%, P = 0.001). While the rate of remission after surgery was similar in the two groups (69%), a better response to SSA treatment was observed in PR+ patients, either before (IGF-1 reduction of > 50% after 3-6 months in 77% vs 49%, P = 0.023) or after surgery (normalization of IGF-1 in 100% vs 44%, P = 0.011). Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that in acromegaly, a paradoxical GH increase during OGTT is associated with particular features of somatotroph adenomas and with a better prognosis in terms of response to SSA.


Assuntos
Acromegalia/diagnóstico , Acromegalia/terapia , Glucose/administração & dosagem , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/sangue , Acromegalia/sangue , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Glucose/efeitos adversos , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063554

RESUMO

Acute lung injury (ALI) afflicts approximately 200,000 patients annually and has a 40% mortality rate. The COVID-19 pandemic has massively increased the rate of ALI incidence. The pathogenesis of ALI involves tissue damage from invading microbes and, in severe cases, the overexpression of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß). This study aimed to develop a therapy to normalize the excess production of inflammatory cytokines and promote tissue repair in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI. Based on our previous studies, we tested the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and BTP-2 therapies. IGF-I was selected, because we and others have shown that elevated inflammatory cytokines suppress the expression of growth hormone receptors in the liver, leading to a decrease in the circulating IGF-I. IGF-I is a growth factor that increases vascular protection, enhances tissue repair, and decreases pro-inflammatory cytokines. It is also required to produce anti-inflammatory 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. BTP-2, an inhibitor of cytosolic calcium, was used to suppress the LPS-induced increase in cytosolic calcium, which otherwise leads to an increase in proinflammatory cytokines. We showed that LPS increased the expression of the primary inflammatory mediators such as toll like receptor-4 (TLR-4), IL-1ß, interleukin-17 (IL-17), TNF-α, and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), which were normalized by the IGF-I + BTP-2 dual therapy in the lungs, along with improved vascular gene expression markers. The histologic lung injury score was markedly elevated by LPS and reduced to normal by the combination therapy. In conclusion, the LPS-induced increases in inflammatory cytokines, vascular injuries, and lung injuries were all improved by IGF-I + BTP-2 combination therapy.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/metabolismo , Anilidas/farmacologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/farmacologia , Tiadiazóis/farmacologia , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/patologia , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/virologia , Anilidas/uso terapêutico , Animais , COVID-19/complicações , Cálcio/metabolismo , Canais de Cálcio/metabolismo , Citocinas/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Imuno-Histoquímica , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/uso terapêutico , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-17/genética , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Tiadiazóis/uso terapêutico , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
18.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(5): e2111398, 2021 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34032853

RESUMO

Importance: Male sex is a risk factor for developing severe COVID-19 illness. It is not known whether sex hormones contribute to this predisposition. Objective: To investigate the association of concentrations of serum testosterone, estradiol, and insulinlike growth factor 1 (IGF-1, concentrations of which are regulated by sex hormone signaling) with COVID-19 severity. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study was conducted using serum samples collected from consecutive patients who presented from March through May 2020 to the Barnes Jewish Hospital in St Louis, Missouri, with COVID-19 (diagnosed using nasopharyngeal swabs). Exposures: Testosterone, estradiol, and IGF-1 concentrations were measured at the time of presentation (ie, day 0) and at days 3, 7, 14, and 28 after admission (if the patient remained hospitalized). Main Outcomes and Measures: Baseline hormone concentrations were compared among patients who had severe COVID-19 vs those with milder COVID-19 illness. RNA sequencing was performed on circulating mononuclear cells to understand the mechanistic association of altered circulating hormone concentrations with cellular signaling pathways. Results: Among 152 patients (90 [59.2%] men; 62 [40.8%] women; mean [SD] age, 63 [16] years), 143 patients (94.1%) were hospitalized. Among 66 men with severe COVID-19, median [interquartile range] testosterone concentrations were lower at day 0 (53 [18 to 114] ng/dL vs 151 [95 to 217] ng/dL; P = .01) and day 3 (19 [6 to 68] ng/dL vs 111 [49 to 274] ng/dL; P = .006) compared with 24 men with milder disease. Testosterone concentrations were inversely associated with concentrations of interleukin 6 (ß = -0.43; 95% CI, -0.52 to -0.17; P < .001), C-reactive protein (ß = -0.38; 95% CI, -0.78 to -0.16; P = .004), interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (ß = -0.29; 95% CI, -0.64 to -0.06; P = .02), hepatocyte growth factor (ß = -0.46; 95% CI, -0.69 to -0.25; P < .001), and interferon γ-inducible protein 10 (ß = -0.32; 95% CI, -0.62 to -0.10; P = .007). Estradiol and IGF-1 concentrations were not associated with COVID-19 severity in men. Testosterone, estradiol, and IGF-1 concentrations were similar in women with and without severe COVID-19. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed upregulated hormone signaling pathways in CD14+CD16- (ie, classical) monocytes and CD14-CD16+ (ie, nonclassical) monocytes in male patients with COVID-19 who needed intensive care unit treatment vs those who did not. Conclusions and Relevance: In this single-center cohort study of patients with COVID-19, lower testosterone concentrations during hospitalization were associated with increased disease severity and inflammation in men. Hormone signaling pathways in monocytes did not parallel serum hormone concentrations, and further investigation is required to understand their pathophysiologic association with COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/sangue , Hospitalização , Inflamação/etiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Testosterona/sangue , Idoso , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/patologia , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Hospitais , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Missouri , SARS-CoV-2 , Fatores Sexuais
19.
Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am ; 48(2): 247-266, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972064

RESUMO

Placental regulation of fetal growth involves the integration of multiple signaling pathways that modulate an array of placental functions, including nutrient transport. As a result, the flux of oxygen and nutrients to the fetus is altered, leading to changes in placental and fetal growth. Placental insulin/insulinlike growth factor-1 and mechanistic target of rapamycin signaling and amino acid transport capacity are inhibited in fetal growth restriction and activated in fetal overgrowth, implicating these placental functions in driving fetal growth. With novel approaches to specifically target the placenta, clinical interventions to modulate placental function in high-risk pregnancies can be developed.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Fetal , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/metabolismo , Macrossomia Fetal/metabolismo , Placenta/metabolismo , Adiponectina/metabolismo , Animais , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Troca Materno-Fetal , Gravidez , Proteínas da Gravidez/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Trofoblastos/metabolismo
20.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol ; 321(1): C82-C93, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34038245

RESUMO

The resolution of inflammation is closely linked with tissue repair. Recent studies have revealed that macrophages suppress inflammatory reactions by producing lipid mediators, called specialized proresolving mediators (SPMs); however, the biological significance of SPMs in tissue repair remains to be fully elucidated in the heart. In this study, we focused on maresin-1 (MaR1) and examined the reparative effects of MaR1 in cardiomyocytes. The treatment with MaR1 increased cell size in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Since the expression of fetal cardiac genes was unchanged by MaR1, physiological hypertrophy was induced by MaR1. SR3335, an inhibitor of retinoic acid-related orphan receptor α (RORα), mitigated MaR1-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, consistent with the recent report that RORα is one of MaR1 receptors. Importantly, in response to MaR1, cardiomyocytes produced IGF-1 via RORα. Moreover, MaR1 activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway and wortmannin, a PI3K inhibitor, or triciribine, an Akt inhibitor, abrogated MaR1-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Finally, the blockade of IGF-1 receptor by NVP-AEW541 inhibited MaR-1-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy as well as the activation of PI3K/Akt pathway. These data indicate that MaR1 induces cardiomyocyte hypertrophy through RORα/IGF-1/PI3K/Akt pathway. Considering that MaR1 is a potent resolving factor, MaR1 could be a key mediator that orchestrates the resolution of inflammation with myocardial repair.


Assuntos
Cardiomegalia/genética , Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/efeitos adversos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Infarto do Miocárdio/genética , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Comunicação Parácrina/genética , Animais , Cardiomegalia/induzido quimicamente , Cardiomegalia/patologia , Cardiomegalia/prevenção & controle , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/antagonistas & inibidores , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Infarto do Miocárdio/induzido quimicamente , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Membro 1 do Grupo F da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/antagonistas & inibidores , Membro 1 do Grupo F da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/genética , Membro 1 do Grupo F da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/metabolismo , Comunicação Parácrina/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Cultura Primária de Células , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Pirróis/farmacologia , Ratos , Ribonucleosídeos/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Tiofenos/farmacologia , Wortmanina/farmacologia
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