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1.
Sci Adv ; 6(31)2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32937590

RESUMO

The outbreak of the highly contagious and deadly severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), also known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has posed a serious threat to public health across the globe, calling for the development of effective diagnostic markers and therapeutics. Here, we report a highly reliable severity diagnostic biomarker, acetylated 676th lysine transforming growth factor-beta-induced protein (TGFBIp K676Ac). TGFBIp K676Ac was consistently elevated in the blood of patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia (n = 113), especially in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) compared to non-ICU patients. Patients' blood samples showed increased cytokines and lymphopenia, which are exemplary indicators of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Treatment with TGFBIp neutralizing antibodies suppressed the cytokine storm. The increased level of TGFBIp K676Ac in ICU patients suggests the promise of this protein as a reliable severity diagnostic biomarker for severe SARS-CoV-2 disease.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/diagnóstico , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Insuficiência Respiratória/diagnóstico , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/imunologia , Acetilação , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/sangue , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/patologia , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Contagem de Leucócitos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/patologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia , Pulmão/irrigação sanguínea , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Lisina/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Cultura Primária de Células , Prognóstico , Insuficiência Respiratória/sangue , Insuficiência Respiratória/imunologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/patologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(30): e21324, 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To systematically evaluate whether the expression level of long non-coding RNA activated by transforming growth factor-ß (lncRNA-ATB) is correlated with the prognosis of digestive system cancer (DSC) patients. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Springerlink, Nature, and Karger databases were searched up to April 20, 2019 by 2 experienced researchers independently. The quality of studies was assessed with the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. The Review Manager 5.2 and STATA 12.0 software were used for this meta-analysis. RESULT: Eleven studies with 1227 DSC patients were included in the meta-analysis. Except for pancreatic cancer, high expression of lncRNA-ATB was associated with lymph node metastasis (risk ratio (RR) = 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.12-1.42, P < .001), advanced clinical staging (RR = 1.44, 95%CI: 1.23-1.69, P < .001), reduced overall survival rate (OS) (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.33, 95%CI: 1.22-4.50, P = .01), and recurrence-free survival (RFS) (HR = 2.61, 95%CI: 1.46-4.65, P = .001) compared with low lncRNA-ATB expression in DSCs. CONCLUSIONS: High expression of lncRNA-ATB was significantly correlated with poor prognosis for most DSCs. The expression level of lncRNA-ATB could be a promising prognostic biomarker for DSC patients.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Sistema Digestório/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias do Sistema Digestório/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Sistema Digestório/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Sistema Digestório/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Metástase Linfática/genética , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida
3.
PLoS Genet ; 16(8): e1008505, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776934

RESUMO

Dynamic gene expression in neurons shapes fundamental processes in the nervous systems of animals. However, how neuronal activation by different stimuli can lead to distinct transcriptional responses is not well understood. We have been studying how microbial metabolites modulate gene expression in chemosensory neurons of Caenorhabditis elegans. Considering the diverse environmental stimuli that can activate chemosensory neurons of C. elegans, we sought to understand how specific transcriptional responses can be generated in these neurons in response to distinct cues. We have focused on the mechanism of rapid (<6 min) and selective transcriptional induction of daf-7, a gene encoding a TGF-ß ligand, in the ASJ chemosensory neurons in response to the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. DAF-7 is required for the protective behavioral avoidance of P. aeruginosa by C. elegans. Here, we define the involvement of two distinct cyclic GMP (cGMP)-dependent pathways that are required for daf-7 expression in the ASJ neuron pair in response to P. aeruginosa. We show that a calcium-independent pathway dependent on the cGMP-dependent protein kinase G (PKG) EGL-4, and a canonical calcium-dependent signaling pathway dependent on the activity of a cyclic nucleotide-gated channel subunit CNG-2, function in parallel to activate rapid, selective transcription of daf-7 in response to P. aeruginosa metabolites. Our data suggest that fast, selective early transcription of neuronal genes require PKG in shaping responses to distinct microbial stimuli in a pair of C. elegans chemosensory neurons.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Células Quimiorreceptoras/metabolismo , GMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Sinalização do Cálcio , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de GMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Canais de Cátion Regulados por Nucleotídeos Cíclicos/metabolismo , Ativação Transcricional , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
4.
Anticancer Res ; 40(7): 3713-3722, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620610

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). We aimed to investigate miRNAs and their relation to cancer-related signaling pathways in site-specific CRC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used a total of 24 left- and right-sided Finnish CRC samples (discovery cohort) and The Cancer Genome Atlas public mature miRSeq dataset of 201 CRC samples (validation cohort). MiRNA differential expression and biological pathway analyses were performed using DESeq2 and the DIANA/mirPath tool, respectively. RESULTS: We found 17 significantly differentially up-regulated [false discovery rate (FDR) <0.05] miRNAs in left-sided CRC ("left miRNAs"), and 15 in right-sided CRC ("right miRNAs"). The left miRNAs participate in the mTor, Wnt, PI3K-Akt signaling pathways (FDR<0.05). The right miRNAs participate in the TGF-ß signaling pathway. We also observed that both cohorts share six miRNAs. One of these (hsa-miR-196b-5p) was significantly (FDR<0.05) up-regulated in left-sided CRC. The rest of them (hsa-miR-625-3p, hsa-miR-155-5p, hsa-miR-625-5p, hsa-miR-31-5p and hsa-miR-330-5p) showed significant (FDR<0.05) up-regulation in right-sided CRC. CONCLUSION: Left and right miRNAs are associated with predominant biological pathways of left- and right-sided CRC, respectively. Our results may be beneficial for classifying CRC and for future biomarker studies of site-specific CRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Regulação para Cima/genética
5.
Chem Biol Interact ; 329: 109210, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726580

RESUMO

Cigarette smoke is a complex mixture capable of triggering inflammation and oxidative damage in animals at pulmonary and systemic levels. Tempol (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl) reduces tissue injury associated with inflammation in vivo by mechanisms that are not completely understood. Here we evaluated the effect of tempol on inflammation and oxidative damage induced by acute exposure to cigarette smoke in vivo. Male C57BL/6 mice (n = 32) were divided into 4 groups (n = 8 each): 1) control group exposed to ambient air (GC), 2) animals exposed to cigarette smoke for 5 days (CSG), mice treated 3) prior or 4) concomitantly with tempol (50 mg/kg/day) and exposed to cigarette smoke for 5 days. The results showed that the total number of leukocytes and neutrophils increased in the respiratory tract and lung parenchyma of mice exposed to cigarette smoke. Likewise, MPO levels and activity as well as lipid peroxidation and lung protein nitration and carbonylation also increased. Administration of tempol before or during exposure to cigarette smoke inhibited all the above parameters. Tempol also reduced the pulmonary expression of the inflammatory cytokines Il-6, Il-1ß and Il-17 to basal levels and of Tnf-α by approximately 50%. In contrast, tempol restored Il-10 and Tgf-ß levels and enhanced the expression of Nrf2-associated genes, such as Ho-1 and Gpx2. Accordingly, total GPx activity increased in lung homogenates of tempol-treated animals. Taken together, our results show that tempol protects mouse lungs from inflammation and oxidative damage resulting from exposure to cigarette smoke, likely through reduction of leukocyte infiltration and increased transcription of some of the Nrf2-controlled genes.


Assuntos
Óxidos N-Cíclicos/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Infiltração de Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Animais , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Interleucina-10/genética , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Nitritos/análise , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Carbonilação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Marcadores de Spin , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
6.
Cell Prolif ; 53(7): e12836, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32537856

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Integrin beta-like 1 (ITGBL1) is involved in the migration and invasion of several cancers; however, its roles in the development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain largely unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemistry staining was used to investigate the expression pattern of ITGBL1 and its prognostic values in HCC patients. The transwell, wound-healing assays, xenograft and orthotopic mouse models were employed to determine the effects of ITGBL1 on HCC cell migration and invasion in vitro and in vivo. The biological mechanisms involved in cell migration and invasion caused by ITGBL1 were determined with Western blotting and RT-PCR methods. RESULTS: ITGBL1 expression was significantly increased in HCC tissues compared to adjacent normal tissues. Patients with higher ITGBL1 expression were associated with more reduced overall survival. ITGBL1 overexpression promoted migration and invasion in SMMC-7721 and HepG2 cells in vitro and in vivo, whereas knockdown or knockout ITGBL1 in CSQT-2 cells significantly reduced cell migration and invasion abilities. In SMMC-7721 cells, ITGBL1 overexpression stimulated TGF-ß/Smads signalling pathway, along with the KRT17 and genes involved in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In contrast, ITGBL1 knockout inhibited the TGF-ß/Smads signalling pathway in CSQT-2 cells. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggested that ITGBL1 promoted migration and invasion in HCC cells by stimulating the TGF-ß/Smads signalling pathway. ITGBL1 could be a promising prognostic biomarker, as well as a potential therapeutic target in HCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Movimento Celular/genética , Integrina beta1/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Regulação para Cima/genética
7.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233767, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531779

RESUMO

Functional and anatomical connection between the liver and the spleen is most clearly manifested in various pathological conditions of the liver (cirrhosis, hepatitis). The mechanisms of the interaction between the two organs are still poorly understood, as there have been practically no studies on the influence exerted by the spleen on the normal liver. Mature male Sprague-Dawley rats of 250-260 g body weight, 3 months old, were splenectomized. The highest numbers of Ki67+ hepatocytes in the liver of splenectomized rats were observed at 24 h after the surgery, simultaneously with the highest index of Ki67-positive hepatocytes. After surgical removal of the spleen, expression of certain genes in the liver tissues increased. A number of genes were upregulated in the liver at a single time point of 24 h, including Ccne1, Egf, Tnfa, Il6, Hgf, Met, Tgfb1r2 and Nos2. The expression of Ccnd1, Tgfb1, Tgfb1r1 and Il10 in the liver was upregulated over the course of 3 days after splenectomy. Monitoring of the liver macrophage populations in splenectomized animals revealed a statistically significant increase in the proportion of CD68-positive cells in the liver (as compared with sham-operated controls) detectable at 24 h and 48 h after the surgery. The difference in the liver content of CD68-positive cells between splenectomized and sham-operated animals evened out by day 3 after the surgery. No alterations in the liver content of CD163-positive cells were observed in the experiments. A decrease in the proportion of CD206-positive liver macrophages was observed at 48 h after splenectomy. The splenectomy-induced hepatocyte proliferation is described by us for the first time. Mechanistically, the effect is apparently induced by the removal of spleen as a major source of Tgfb1 (hepatocyte growth inhibitor) and subsequently supported by activation of proliferation factor-encoding genes in the liver.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Esplenectomia/efeitos adversos , Animais , Hepatócitos/fisiologia , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Masculino , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transcriptoma , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
8.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol ; 319(2): C277-C287, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32432932

RESUMO

Severe burn injury induces a myriad of deleterious effects to skeletal muscle, resulting in impaired function and delayed recovery. Following burn, catabolic signaling and myofiber atrophy are key fiber-intrinsic determinants of weakness; less well understood are alterations in the interstitial environment surrounding myofibers. Muscle quality, specifically alterations in the extracellular matrix (ECM), modulates force transmission and strength. We sought to determine the impact of severe thermal injury on adaptation to the muscle ECM and quantify muscle fibrotic burden. After a 30% total body surface area dorsal burn, spinotrapezius muscle was harvested from mice at 7 (7d, n = 5), 14 (14d, n = 4), and 21 days (21d, n = 4), and a sham control group was also examined (Sham, n = 4). Expression of transforming growth factor-ß (TGFß), myostatin, and downstream effectors and proteases involved in fibrosis and collagen remodeling were measured by immunoblotting, and immunohistochemical and biochemical analyses assessed fibrogenic cell abundance and collagen deposition. Myostatin signaling increased progressively through 21 days postburn alongside fibrogenic/adipogenic progenitor cell expansion, with abundance peaking at 14 days postburn. Postburn, elevated expression of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 1 supported collagen remodeling resulting in a net accumulation of muscle collagen content. Collagen accumulation peaked at 14 days postburn but remained elevated through 21 days postburn, demonstrating minimal resolution of burn-induced fibrosis. These findings highlight a progressive upregulation of fibrogenic processes following burn injury, eliciting a fibrotic muscle phenotype that hinders regenerative capacity and is not resolved with 21 days of recovery.


Assuntos
Queimaduras/genética , Fibrose/genética , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Miostatina/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Animais , Queimaduras/metabolismo , Queimaduras/patologia , Proliferação de Células/genética , Colágeno/genética , Matriz Extracelular/genética , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Fibrose/metabolismo , Fibrose/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/metabolismo , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/patologia , Músculo Esquelético/lesões , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética
9.
DNA Cell Biol ; 39(7): 1096-1103, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32343913

RESUMO

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has been regarded as one of the most malignant tumor types. Chemotherapy (such as sorafenib) is used as common strategy for treating RCC. To date, whether long noncoding RNA KIF9-AS1 is involved in RCC progression and drug resistance remains unknown. In this investigation, we detected gene expression levels by western blot and RT-qPCR. MTT and TUNEL experiments were used to show cell viability and apoptosis, respectively. KIF9-AS1 overexpression led to enhanced cell viability, increased IC50 value of sorafenib, and decreased apoptosis. miR-497-5p acted as key interaction factor for KIF9-AS1 in RCC. More importantly, we found that transforming growth factor-ß and autophagy signaling pathways were both critical effectors for mediating KIF9-AS1/miR-497-5p axis-induced drug resistance phenotypes (cell viability, IC50, apoptosis) of RCC. In conclusion, our study revealed that KIF9-AS1 played a positive role in drug resistance of RCC cells to sorafenib, potentially driving the development of targeted diagnostic and therapeutical approaches.


Assuntos
Autofagia/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Cinesina/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Sequência de Bases , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais/genética
10.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 395: 114980, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234516

RESUMO

Toluene can be intentionally misused by adolescents to experience psychoactive effects. Toluene has a complex mechanism of action and broad behavioral effects, among which memory impairment is reported consistently. We have previously reported that repeated toluene inhalation (8000 ppm) increases layer 5 prelimbic pyramidal cells' excitability in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of adolescent rats. Toluene also produces reactive oxygen species (ROS), which activate glial cells. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the anti-inflammatory agent minocycline would decrease toluene's effects because it inhibits NF-κB (nuclear factor enhancer of the kappa light chains of activated B cells) and reduces pro-inflammatory cytokine and ROS production. Our results show that minocycline (50 mg/kg, ip, for 10 days) prevents the hyperexcitability of mPFC neurons observed after repeated 8000 ppm toluene exposure (30 min/day, 2×/day for 10 days). Minocycline prevents toluene-induced hyperexcitability by a mechanism that averts the loss of the slow calcium-dependent potassium current, and normalizes mPFC neurons' firing frequency. These effects are accompanied by significant decreased expression of astrocytes and activated microglia in the mPFC, reduced NLRP3 inflammasome activation and mRNA expression levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß), as well as increased mRNA expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine transforming growth factor ß (TGF-ß). Minocycline also prevents toluene-induced memory impairment in adolescent rats in the passive avoidance task and the temporal order memory test in which the mPFC plays a central role. These results show that neuroinflammation produces several effects of repeated toluene administration at high concentrations, and minocycline can significantly prevent them.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Transtornos da Memória/prevenção & controle , Minociclina/administração & dosagem , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Tolueno/toxicidade , Administração por Inalação , Animais , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Abuso de Inalantes , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/induzido quimicamente , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/patologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/antagonistas & inibidores , Tolueno/administração & dosagem , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética
11.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol ; 319(2): C392-C401, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348176

RESUMO

This study was conducted to define the underlying molecular mechanism of tripartite motif (TRIM) 59-induced invasion of ectopic endometrial stromal cells in endometriosis. Primary endometriosis ectopic endometrial stromal cells and normal endometrial cells were isolated and purified. Western blot was used to detect the expression of TRIM59, protein phosphatase Mg2+/Mn2+-dependent 1A (PPM1A), smad2/3, and phosphorylated (p)-smad2/3. Lentiviral vector-mediated TRIM59 interference and overexpression were established. Cell Counting Kit-8 assay was used to detect cell proliferation, and the Transwell migration assay was used to detect cell invasion. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2), MMP9, smad2/3, and p-smad2/3 expressions were also detected using Western blot analysis; degradation of PPM1A was verified to be through ubiquitination. We found that TRIM59 expression levels in the endometriosis group was significantly higher compared with the normal group (P < 0.05), whereas the expression levels of PPM1A in the endometriosis group were significantly lower (P < 0.05). Endometriosis did not alter smad2/3 (P > 0.05) expression. However, after activating smad2/3 by phosphorylation, the expression of p-smad2/3 in the endometriosis group was significantly higher compared with the normal group (P < 0.05). The content of PPM1A in the TRIM59 overexpression group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P < 0.001), whereas the content of PPM1A in the siTRIM59 group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P < 0.001). In addition, there were no significant differences in the mRNA levels of PPM1A among the five groups, indicating that TRIM59 affects the expression of PPM1A at the posttranslational level (P < 0.05). Overexpression of TRIM59 significantly promoted the ubiquitination of PPM1A. We conclude that TRIM59 inhibits PPM1A through ubiquitination and activates the transforming growth factor-ß/Smad pathway to promote the invasion of ectopic endometrial stromal cells in endometriosis.


Assuntos
Endometriose/genética , Endométrio/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Proteína Fosfatase 2C/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Proteínas com Motivo Tripartido/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Expressão Ectópica do Gene/genética , Endometriose/patologia , Endométrio/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Cultura Primária de Células , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Proteína Smad2/genética , Células Estromais/metabolismo , Células Estromais/patologia , Ubiquitinação/genética
12.
Anticancer Res ; 40(4): 1915-1920, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: New anticancer drugs are usually tested on cancer cells in culture in a standard medium. We stimulated immune polynuclear cells by lipopolysaccharides to obtain an enriched medium (EM) containing inflammatory cytokines more closely reflecting the tumor microenvironment and tested a rhenium-diselenium (Re-diSe) drug in this new model. Concentrations of cytokines were compared with a control medium (CM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human-derived breast cancer cells were grown in culture either in CM or EM with or without Re-diSe. Assays of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interleukin 6 (IL6), intereukin 1 beta (IL1ß), transforming growth factor-beta (TGFß), insulin growth factor 1 (IGF1) and vascular epidermal growth factor A (VEGFA) were performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was determined by 2,7-dichlorofluorescein test. The cell growth was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide tests. RESULTS: Concentrations of TNFα, IL6 and Il1ß were observed to be significantly higher in EM than in CM. There was no difference for TGFß, IGF1 and VEGFA. The cells were sensitive to Re-diSe, with reduced concentrations of TGFß, IGF1, VEGFA and ROS, but the half-maximal inhibitory concentration was significantly higher in EM than in CM. CONCLUSION: The efficacy of the Re-diSe drug was confirmed in this model of aggressive cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Rênio/farmacologia , Selênio/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-6/genética , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Cultura Primária de Células , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética
13.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e920943, 2020 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32248202

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are widely involved in cancer development. However, a wealth of conflicting data raises the question of whether BMPs serve as oncogenes or as cancer suppressors. MATERIAL AND METHODS By integrating multi-omics data across cancers, we comprehensively analyzed the genomic and pharmacogenomic landscape of BMP genes across cancers. RESULTS Surprisingly, our data indicate that BMPs are globally downregulated in cancers. Further genetics and epigenetics analyses show that this abnormal expression is driven by copy number variations, especially heterozygous amplification. We next assessed the BMP-associated pathways and demonstrated that they suppress cell cycle and estrogen hormone pathways. Bone morphogenetic protein interacts with 58 compounds, and their dysfunction can induce drug sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS Our results define the landscape of the BMP family at a systems level and open potential therapeutic opportunities for cancer patients.


Assuntos
Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/genética , Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/metabolismo , Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/fisiologia , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/fisiologia
14.
Cancer Res ; 80(9): 1819-1832, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32127355

RESUMO

RING-finger E3 ligases are instrumental in the regulation of inflammatory cascades, apoptosis, and cancer. However, their roles are relatively unknown in TGFß/SMAD signaling. SMAD3 and its adaptors, such as ß2SP, are important mediators of TGFß signaling and regulate gene expression to suppress stem cell-like phenotypes in diverse cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, PJA1, an E3 ligase, promoted ubiquitination and degradation of phosphorylated SMAD3 and impaired a SMAD3/ß2SP-dependent tumor-suppressing pathway in multiple HCC cell lines. In mice deficient for SMAD3 (Smad3 +/-), PJA1 overexpression promoted the transformation of liver stem cells. Analysis of genes regulated by PJA1 knockdown and TGFß1 signaling revealed 1,584 co-upregulated genes and 1,280 co-downregulated genes, including many implicated in cancer. The E3 ligase inhibitor RTA405 enhanced SMAD3-regulated gene expression and reduced growth of HCC cells in culture and xenografts of HCC tumors, suggesting that inhibition of PJA1 may be beneficial in treating HCC or preventing HCC development in at-risk patients.Significance: These findings provide a novel mechanism regulating the tumor suppressor function of TGFß in liver carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/patologia , Regulação para Baixo , Deleção de Genes , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Inativação Gênica , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas , Ácido Oleanólico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Oleanólico/farmacologia , Fosforilação , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo , Proteína Smad2/metabolismo , Proteína Smad3/deficiência , Proteína Smad3/genética , Espectrina/genética , Espectrina/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/patologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/antagonistas & inibidores , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitinação , Regulação para Cima , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
15.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(4): e78-e86, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208998

RESUMO

Aortic structure and function are controlled by the coordinated actions of different aortic cells and the extracellular matrix. Several pathways have been identified that control the aortic wall in a cell-type-specific manner and play diverse roles in various phases of aortic injury, repair, and remodeling. This complexity of signaling in the aortic wall poses challenges to the development of therapeutic strategies for treating aortic aneurysms and dissections. Here, in part II of this Recent Highlights series on aortic aneurysms and dissections, we will summarize recent studies published in Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology that have contributed to our knowledge of the signaling pathway-related mechanisms of aortic aneurysms and dissections.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Dissecante/metabolismo , Aneurisma Aórtico/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Aneurisma Dissecante/tratamento farmacológico , Aneurisma Aórtico/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Mutação , Receptores de Angiotensina/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
16.
EMBO Rep ; 21(5): e50246, 2020 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32189449

RESUMO

Members of the transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) family play key roles in embryogenesis and in maintaining tissue homeostasis, and their perturbation can result in a broad range of diseases. One way TGF-ß family signaling pathways are kept in check is by reversible (de)phosphorylation of intracellular Smad effectors. In this issue of EMBO Reports, Park et al [1] identify the phosphatase wild-type p53-induced phosphatase 1 (Wip1) as a negative regulator of TGF-ß family signaling. Mechanistically, Wip1 constrains TGF-ß family signaling through direct dephosphorylation of Thr277, an activating MAP kinase phosphorylation site located in the linker region of the common mediator Smad4.


Assuntos
Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento Transformadores beta/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
17.
J Biomed Sci ; 27(1): 39, 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114978

RESUMO

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important process triggered during cancer metastasis. Regulation of EMT is mostly initiated by outside signalling, including TGF-ß, growth factors, Notch ligand, Wnt, and hypoxia. Many signalling pathways have been delineated to explain the molecular mechanisms of EMT. In this review, we will focus on the epigenetic regulation of two critical EMT signalling pathways: hypoxia and TGF-ß. For hypoxia, hypoxia-induced EMT is mediated by the interplay between chromatin modifiers histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) and WDR5 coupled with the presence of histone 3 lysine 4 acetylation (H3K4Ac) mark that labels the promoter regions of various traditional EMT marker genes (e.g. CDH1, VIM). Recently identified new hypoxia-induced EMT markers belong to transcription factors (e.g. SMO, GLI1) that mediate EMT themselves. For TGF-ß-induced ΕΜΤ, global chromatin changes, removal of a histone variant (H2A.Z), and new chromatin modifiers (e.g. UTX, Rad21, PRMT5, RbBP5, etc) are identified to be crucial for the regulation of both EMT transcription factors (EMT-TFs) and EMT markers (EMT-Ms). The epigenetic mechanisms utilized in these two pathways may serve as good model systems for other signalling pathways and also provide new potential therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Hipóxia/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
18.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 72(7): 1160-1169, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134204

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Genome-wide gene expression studies implicate macrophages as mediators of fibrosis in systemic sclerosis (SSc), but little is known about how these cells contribute to fibrotic activation in SSc. We undertook this study to characterize the activation profile of SSc monocyte-derived macrophages and assessed their interaction with SSc fibroblasts. METHODS: Plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained from whole blood from SSc patients (n = 24) and age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n = 12). Monocytes were cultured with autologous or allogeneic plasma to differentiate cells into macrophages. For reciprocal activation studies, macrophages were cocultured with fibroblasts using Transwell plates. RESULTS: The gene expression signature associated with blood-derived human SSc macrophages was enriched in SSc skin in an independent cohort and correlated with skin fibrosis. SSc macrophages expressed surface markers associated with activation and released CCL2, interleukin-6, and transforming growth factor ß under basal conditions (n = 8) (P < 0.05). Differentiation of healthy donor monocytes in plasma from SSc patients conferred the immunophenotype of SSc macrophages (n = 13) (P < 0.05). Transwell experiments demonstrated that coculture of SSc macrophages with SSc fibroblasts induced fibroblast activation (n = 3) (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate that the activation profile of SSc macrophages is profibrotic. SSc macrophages are activated under basal conditions and release mediators and express surface markers associated with both alternative and inflammatory macrophage activation. These findings also suggest that activation of SSc macrophages arises from soluble factors in local microenvironments. These studies implicate macrophages as likely drivers of fibrosis in SSc and suggest that therapeutic targeting of these cells may be beneficial in ameliorating disease in SSc patients.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/imunologia , Escleroderma Sistêmico/genética , Pele/metabolismo , Adulto , Antígenos CD/imunologia , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/imunologia , Diferenciação Celular , Quimiocina CCL2/genética , Quimiocina CCL2/imunologia , Técnicas de Cocultura , Feminino , Fibrose/genética , Fibrose/imunologia , Fibrose/metabolismo , Antígenos HLA-DR/imunologia , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Lectinas Tipo C/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Ativação de Macrófagos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Lectinas de Ligação a Manose/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/metabolismo , Fosforilação , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Receptor do Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta Tipo I/genética , Receptor do Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta Tipo I/imunologia , Receptor do Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta Tipo II/genética , Receptor do Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta Tipo II/imunologia , Receptores de Superfície Celular/imunologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Escleroderma Sistêmico/imunologia , Escleroderma Sistêmico/metabolismo , Pele/patologia , Transcriptoma , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/imunologia
19.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res ; 1867(7): 118703, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32179057

RESUMO

The heart contains an abundant fibroblast population that may play a role in homeostasis, by maintaining the extracellular matrix (ECM) network, by regulating electrical impulse conduction, and by supporting survival and function of cardiomyocytes and vascular cells. Despite an explosion in our understanding of the role of fibroblasts in cardiac injury, the homeostatic functions of resident fibroblasts in adult hearts remain understudied. TGF-ß-mediated signaling through the receptor-activated Smads, Smad2 and Smad3 critically regulates fibroblast function. We hypothesized that baseline expression of Smad2/3 in fibroblasts may play an important role in cardiac homeostasis. Smad2 and Smad3 were constitutively expressed in normal mouse hearts and in cardiac fibroblasts. In cultured cardiac fibroblasts, Smad2 and Smad3 played distinct roles in regulation of baseline ECM gene synthesis. Smad3 knockdown attenuated collagen I, collagen IV and fibronectin mRNA synthesis and reduced expression of the matricellular protein thrombospondin-1. Smad2 knockdown on the other hand attenuated expression of collagen V mRNA and reduced synthesis of fibronectin, periostin and versican. In vivo, inducible fibroblast-specific Smad2 knockout mice and fibroblast-specific Smad3 knockout mice had normal heart rate, preserved cardiac geometry, ventricular systolic and diastolic function, and normal myocardial structure. Fibroblast-specific Smad3, but not Smad2 loss modestly but significantly reduced collagen content. Our findings suggest that fibroblast-specific Smad3, but not Smad2, may play a role in regulation of baseline collagen synthesis in adult hearts. However, at least short term, these changes do not have any impact on homeostatic cardiac function.


Assuntos
Matriz Extracelular/genética , Proteína Smad2/genética , Proteína Smad3/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Animais , Colágeno/biossíntese , Colágeno/genética , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/genética , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Frequência Cardíaca/genética , Homeostase/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética
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