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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445415

RESUMO

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cells are effective in the treatment of hematologic malignancies but have shown limited efficacy against solid tumors. Here, we demonstrated an approach to inhibit recurrence of B cell lymphoma by co-expressing both a human anti-CD19-specific single-chain variable fragment (scFv) CAR (CD19 CAR) and a TGF-ß/IL-7 chimeric switch receptor (tTRII-I7R) in T cells (CD19 CAR-tTRII-I7R-T cells). The tTRII-I7R was designed to convert immunosuppressive TGF-ß signaling into immune-activating IL-7 signaling. The effect of TGF-ß on CD19 CAR-tTRII-I7R-T cells was assessed by western blotting. Target-specific killing by CD19 CAR-tTRII-I7R-T cells was evaluated by Eu-TDA assay. Daudi tumor-bearing NSG (NOD/SCID/IL2Rγ-/-) mice were treated with CD19 CAR-tTRII-I7R-T cells to analyze the in vivo anti-tumor effect. In vitro, CD19 CAR-tTRII-I7R-T cells had a lower level of phosphorylated SMAD2 and a higher level of target-specific cytotoxicity than controls in the presence of rhTGF-ß1. In the animal model, the overall survival and recurrence-free survival of mice that received CD19 CAR-tTRII-I7R-T cells were significantly longer than in control mice. These findings strongly suggest that CD19 CAR-tTRII-I7R-T cell therapy provides a new strategy for long-lasting, TGF-ß-resistant anti-tumor effects against B cell lymphoma, which may lead ultimately to increased clinical efficacy.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD19/imunologia , Interleucina-7/genética , Linfoma de Células B/terapia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/terapia , Anticorpos de Cadeia Única/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia Adotiva , Interleucina-7/metabolismo , Células K562 , Linfoma de Células B/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
2.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 4451-4470, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34234436

RESUMO

Background: Liver fibrosis is a chronic liver disease with excessive production of extracellular matrix proteins, leading to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and death. Purpose: This study aimed at the development of a novel derivative of polyethyleneimine (PEI) that can effectively deliver transforming growth factor ß (TGFß) siRNA and inhibit chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) for TGFß silencing and CXCR4 Inhibition, respectively, to treat CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in a mouse model. Methods: Cyclam-modified PEI (PEI-Cyclam) was synthesized by incorporating cyclam moiety into PEI by nucleophilic substitution reaction. Gel electrophoresis confirmed the PEI-Cyclam polyplex formation and stability against RNAase and serum degradation. Transmission electron microscopy and zeta sizer were employed for the morphology, particle size, and zeta potential, respectively. The gene silencing and CXCR4 targeting abilities of PEI-Cyclam polyplex were evaluated by luciferase and CXCR4 redistribution assays, respectively. The histological and immunohistochemical staining determined the anti-fibrotic activity of PEI-Cyclam polyplex. The TGFß silencing of PEI-Cyclam polyplex was authenticated by Western blotting. Results: The 1H NMR of PEI-Cyclam exhibited successful incorporation of cyclam content onto PEI. The PEI-Cyclam polyplex displayed spherical morphology, positive surface charge, and stability against RNAse and serum degradation. Cyclam modification decreased the cytotoxicity and demonstrated CXCR4 antagonistic and luciferase gene silencing efficiency. PEI-Cyclam/siTGFß polyplexes decreased inflammation, collagen deposition, apoptosis, and cell proliferation, thus ameliorating liver fibrosis. Also, PEI-Cyclam/siTGFß polyplex significantly downregulated α-smooth muscle actin, TGFß, and collagen type III. Conclusion: Our findings validate the feasibility of using PEI-Cyclam as a siRNA delivery vector for simultaneous TGFß siRNA delivery and CXCR4 inhibition for the combined anti-fibrotic effects in a setting of CCl4-induced liver fibrosis.


Assuntos
Tetracloreto de Carbono/efeitos adversos , Compostos Heterocíclicos/química , Cirrose Hepática/genética , Polietilenoimina/química , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Inativação Gênica , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Camundongos , Tamanho da Partícula , RNA Interferente Pequeno/química , Receptores CXCR4/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/deficiência
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198949

RESUMO

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and fatal interstitial lung disease. During the past decade, novel pathogenic mechanisms of IPF have been elucidated that have shifted the concept of IPF from an inflammatory-driven to an epithelial-driven disease. Dysregulated repair responses induced by recurrent epithelial cell damage and excessive extracellular matrix accumulation result in pulmonary fibrosis. Although there is currently no curative therapy for IPF, two medications, pirfenidone and nintedanib, have been introduced based on understanding the pathogenesis of the disease. In this review, we discuss advances in understanding IPF pathogenesis, highlighting epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and endothelial cells. TGF-ß is a central regulator involved in EMT and pulmonary fibrosis. HECT-, RING finger-, and U-box-type E3 ubiquitin ligases regulate TGF-ß-Smad pathway-mediated EMT via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. p27 degradation mediated by the SCF-type E3 ligase, Skp2, contributes to the progression of pulmonary fibrosis by promotion of either mesenchymal fibroblast proliferation, EMT, or both. In addition to fibroblasts as key effector cells in myofibroblast differentiation and extracellular matrix deposition, endothelial cells also play a role in the processes of IPF. Endothelial cells can transform into myofibroblasts; therefore, endothelial-mesenchymal transition can be another source of myofibroblasts.


Assuntos
Fibrose Pulmonar/genética , Proteínas Quinases Associadas a Fase S/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Ubiquitina/genética , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Humanos , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação/genética , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética
4.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 21(1): 284, 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34247571

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma (GIAD) has caused a serious disease burden globally. Targeted therapy for the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-ß) signaling pathway is becoming a reality. However, the molecular characterization of TGF-ß associated signatures in GIAD requires further exploration. METHODS: Multi-omics data were collected from TCGA and GEO database. A pivotal unsupervised clustering for TGF-ß level was performed by distinguish status of TGF-ß associated genes. We analyzed differential mRNAs, miRNAs, proteins gene mutations and copy number variations in both clusters for comparison. Enrichment of pathways and gene sets were identified in each type of GIAD. Then we performed differential mRNA related drug response by collecting data from GDSC. At last, a summarized deep neural network for TGF-ß status and GIADs was constracted. RESULTS: The TGF-ßhigh group had a worse prognosis in overall GIAD patients, and had a worse prognosis trend in gastric cancer and colon cancer specifically. Signatures (including mRNA and proteins) of the TGF-ßhigh group is highly correlated with EMT. According to miRNA analysis, miR-215-3p, miR-378a-5p, and miR-194-3p may block the effect of TGF-ß. Further genomic analysis showed that TGF-ßlow group had more genomic changes in gastric cancer, such as TP53 mutation, EGFR amplification, and SMAD4 deletion. And drug response dataset revealed tumor-sensitive or tumor-resistant drugs corresponding to TGF-ß associated mRNAs. Finally, the DNN model showed an excellent predictive effect in predicting TGF-ß status in different GIAD datasets. CONCLUSIONS: We provide molecular signatures associated with different levels of TGF-ß to deepen the understanding of the role of TGF-ß in GIAD and provide potential drug possibilities for therapeutic targets in different levels of TGF-ß in GIAD.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , MicroRNAs , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética
5.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209455

RESUMO

Glucose-based solutions remain the most used osmotic agents in peritoneal dialysis (PD), but unavoidably they contribute to the loss of peritoneal filtration capacity. Here, we evaluated at a molecular level the effects of XyloCore, a new PD solution with a low glucose content, in mesothelial and endothelial cells. Cell viability, integrity of mesothelial and endothelial cell membrane, activation of mesothelial and endothelial to mesenchymal transition programs, inflammation, and angiogenesis were evaluated by several techniques. Results showed that XyloCore preserves mesothelial and endothelial cell viability and membrane integrity. Moreover XyloCore, unlike glucose-based solutions, does not exert pro-fibrotic, -inflammatory, and -angiogenic effects. Overall, the in vitro evidence suggests that XyloCore could represent a potential biocompatible solution promising better outcomes in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Soluções para Diálise/farmacologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Epitélio/metabolismo , Glucose/farmacologia , Inflamação/patologia , Mesoderma/metabolismo , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Diálise Peritoneal , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Forma Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdiferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Impedância Elétrica , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Epitélio/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/citologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Mesoderma/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Permeabilidade , Fatores de Transcrição da Família Snail/genética , Fatores de Transcrição da Família Snail/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281266

RESUMO

Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are multipotent cells which can differentiate into chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and fat cells. Under pathological stress, reduced bone formation in favour of fat formation in the bone marrow has been observed through a switch in the differentiation of BMSCs. The bone/fat switch causes bone growth defects and disordered bone metabolism in bone marrow, for which the mechanisms remain unclear, and treatments are lacking. Studies suggest that small non-coding RNAs (microRNAs) could participate in regulating BMSC differentiation by disrupting the post-transcription of target genes, leading to bone/fat formation changes. This review presents an emerging concept of microRNA regulation in the bone/fat formation switch in bone marrow, the evidence for which is assembled mainly from in vivo and in vitro human or animal models. Characterization of changes to microRNAs reveals novel networks that mediate signalling and factors in regulating bone/fat switch and homeostasis. Recent advances in our understanding of microRNAs in their control in BMSC differentiation have provided valuable insights into underlying mechanisms and may have significant potential in development of new therapeutics.


Assuntos
Adipogenia/genética , Adipogenia/fisiologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Osteogênese/genética , Osteogênese/fisiologia , Animais , Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/genética , Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/metabolismo , Sinalização do Cálcio/genética , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Marcadores Genéticos , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Proteínas Smad/genética , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Via de Sinalização Wnt/genética
7.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 41(9): e440-e452, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162229

RESUMO

Objective: We investigated the effect of a potent TGFß (transforming growth factor ß) inhibitor peptide (P144) from the betaglycan/TGFß receptor III on aortic aneurysm development in a Marfan syndrome mouse model. Approach and Results: We used a chimeric gene encoding the P144 peptide linked to apolipoprotein A-I via a flexible linker expressed by a hepatotropic adeno-associated vector. Two experimental approaches were performed: (1) a preventive treatment where the vector was injected before the onset of the aortic aneurysm (aged 4 weeks) and followed-up for 4 and 20 weeks and (2) a palliative treatment where the vector was injected once the aneurysm was formed (8 weeks old) and followed-up for 16 weeks. We evaluated the aortic root diameter by echocardiography, the aortic wall architecture and TGFß signaling downstream effector expression of pSMAD2 and pERK1/2 by immunohistomorphometry, and Tgfß1 and Tgfß2 mRNA expression levels by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Marfan syndrome mice subjected to the preventive approach showed no aortic dilation in contrast to untreated Marfan syndrome mice, which at the same end point age already presented the aneurysm. In contrast, the palliative treatment with P144 did not halt aneurysm progression. In all cases, P144 improved elastic fiber morphology and normalized pERK1/2-mediated TGFß signaling. Unlike the palliative treatment, the preventive treatment reduced Tgfß1 and Tgfß2 mRNA levels. Conclusions: P144 prevents the onset of aortic aneurysm but not its progression. Results indicate the importance of reducing the excess of active TGFß signaling during the early stages of aortic disease progression.


Assuntos
Aorta/metabolismo , Aneurisma Aórtico/prevenção & controle , Técnicas de Transferência de Genes , Terapia Genética , Síndrome de Marfan/complicações , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Proteoglicanas/metabolismo , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento Transformadores beta/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Animais , Aorta/patologia , Aneurisma Aórtico/genética , Aneurisma Aórtico/metabolismo , Aneurisma Aórtico/patologia , Dependovirus/genética , Dilatação Patológica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Fibrilina-1/genética , Vetores Genéticos , Masculino , Síndrome de Marfan/genética , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/genética , Proteoglicanas/genética , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento Transformadores beta/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética
8.
Environ Pollut ; 285: 117472, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082367

RESUMO

Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-production-volume monomer for the manufacture of a wide variety of polycarbonate plastics and resins. Evidence suggests BPA can induce carcinogenesis, reproductive toxicity, abnormal inflammatory or immune response, and developmental disorders of the brain or nervous system. However, whether BPA affects the very same basic molecular processes in all the in vivo and in vitro systems employed to exert its molecular mechanisms of toxicity remains to be clarified. In this study, we collected multi-source global transcriptomics datasets for BPA-exposed organisms and cells, and evaluated the adverse effects of BPA by using data integration and gene functional enrichment analyses. We found that BPA may affect basic cellular processes, such as cell growth, survival, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, independent of species and specific in vivo or in vitro systems. Mechanistically, BPA could regulate cell-extra cellular matrix interactions via challenging TGF-beta signaling pathways. Furthermore, we compared our in vitro BPA-dependent mouse embryoid body (EB) global differentiation transcriptomics with all the other datasets. We verified the EB-based toxicological system could recapitulate several in vivo and other in vitro findings very efficiently, and in a less time- and resource-consuming fashion. Taken together, this study emphasizes the utility of meta-analyses to understand common molecular mechanisms of toxicity of synthetic chemicals.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos , Transcriptoma , Animais , Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Camundongos , Fenóis/toxicidade , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética
9.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 3889-3905, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34135583

RESUMO

Introduction: Delayed wound healing represents a common health hazard. Traditional herbal products have been often utilized to promote wound contraction. The current study aimed at assessing the wound healing activity of Opuntia ficus-indica seed oil (OFI) and its self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (OFI-SNEDDS) formula in a rat model of full-thickness skin excision. Methods: Based on droplet size, an optimized OFI-SNEDDS formula was prepared and used for subsequent evaluation. Wound healing activity of OFI and OFI-SNEDDS was studied in vivo. Results: The optimized OFI-SNEDDS formula droplet size was 50.02 nm. The formula exhibited superior healing activities as compared to regular OFI seed oil-treated rats at day 14 of wounding. This effect was further confirmed by histopathological examinations of H&E and Masson's Trichrome-stained skin sections. Moreover, OFI-SNEDDS showed the highest antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities as compared to OFI seed oil-treated animals. Both OFI and OFI-SNEDDS significantly enhanced hydroxyproline skin content and upregulated Col1A1 mRNA expression, accompanied by enhanced expression of transforming factor-beta (TGF-ß). Further, OFI-SNEDDS improved angiogenesis as evidenced by increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Conclusion: OFI possesses wound healing properties that are enhanced by self-emulsification of the oil into nano-droplets. The observed activity can be attributed, at least partly, to its anti-inflammatory, pro-collagen and angiogenic properties.


Assuntos
Emulsões/química , Opuntia/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Colágeno Tipo I/genética , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Emulsões/farmacologia , Hidroxiprolina/metabolismo , Masculino , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Ratos Wistar , Sementes/química , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/farmacologia , Cicatrização/genética
10.
Life Sci ; 279: 119697, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34102194

RESUMO

AIMS: Vitamin D and rosuvastatin are well-known drugs that mediate beneficial effects in treating type-2 diabetes (T2D) complications; however, their anti-neuropathic potential is debatable. Hence, our study investigates their neurotherapeutic potential and the possible underlying mechanisms using a T2D-associated neuropathy rat model. MAIN METHODS: Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) was induced with 8 weeks of administration of a high fat fructose diet followed by a single i.p. injection of streptozotocin (35 mg/kg). Six weeks later, DPN developed and rats were divided into five groups; viz., control, untreated DPN, DPN treated with vitamin D (cholecalciferol, 3500 IU/kg/week), DPN treated with rosuvastatin (10 mg/kg/day), or DPN treated with combination vitamin D and rosuvastatin. We determined their anti-neuropathic effects on small nerves (tail flick test); large nerves (electrophysiological and histological examination); neuronal inflammation (TNF-α and IL-18); apoptosis (caspase-3 activity and Bcl-2); mitochondrial function (NRF-1, TFAM, mtDNA, and ATP); and NICD1, Wnt-10α/ß-catenin, and TGF-ß/Smad-7 pathways. KEY FINDINGS: Two-month treatment with vitamin D and/or rosuvastatin regenerated neuronal function and architecture and abated neuronal inflammation and apoptosis. This was verified by the inhibition of the neuronal content of TNF-α, IL-18, and caspase-3 activity, while augmenting Bcl-2 content in the sciatic nerve. These treatments inhibited the protein expressions of NICD1, Wnt-10α, ß-catenin, and TGF-ß; increased the sciatic nerve content of Smad-7; and enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis and function. SIGNIFICANCE: Vitamin D and/or rosuvastatin alleviated diabetes-induced neuropathy by suppressing Notch1 and Wnt-10α/ß-catenin; modulating TGF-ß/Smad-7 signaling pathways; and enhancing mitochondrial function, which lessened neuronal degeneration, demyelination, and fibrosis.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Neuropatias Diabéticas/prevenção & controle , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Rosuvastatina Cálcica/farmacologia , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Animais , Anticolesterolemiantes/farmacologia , Neuropatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Neuropatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Neuropatias Diabéticas/patologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Masculino , Fator 1 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 1 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Receptor Notch1/genética , Receptor Notch1/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Wnt/genética , Proteínas Wnt/metabolismo
11.
FASEB J ; 35(7): e21693, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34109683

RESUMO

Drug-induced gingival overgrowth (DIGO) is a side effect of cyclosporine A (CsA), nifedipine (NIF), and phenytoin (PHT). Nuclear receptor 4A1 (NR4A1) plays a role in fibrosis in multiple organs. However, the relationship between NR4A1 and DIGO remains unclear. We herein investigated the involvement of NR4A1 in DIGO. In the DIGO mouse model, CsA inhibited the up-regulation of Nr4a1 expression induced by periodontal disease (PD) in gingival tissue, but not that of Col1a1 and Pai1. We detected gingival overgrowth (GO) in Nr4a1 knock out (KO) mice with PD. A NR4A1 agonist inhibited the development of GO in DIGO model mice. TGF-ß increased Col1a1 and Pai1 expression levels in KO mouse gingival fibroblasts (mGF) than in wild-type mice, while the overexpression of NR4A1 in KO mGF suppressed the levels. NR4A1 expression levels in gingival tissue were significantly lower in DIGO patients than in PD patients. We also investigated the relationship between nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) and NR4A1. NFATc3 siRNA suppressed the TGF-ß-induced up-regulation of NR4A1 mRNA expression in human gingival fibroblasts (hGF). CsA suppressed the TGF-ß-induced translocation of NFATc3 into the nuclei of hGF. Furthermore, NIF and PHT also decreased NR4A1 mRNA expression levels and suppressed the translocation of NFATc3 in hGF. We confirmed that CsA, NIF, and PHT reduced cytosolic calcium levels increased by TGF-ß, while CaCl2 enhanced the TGF-ß-up-regulated NR4A1 expression. We propose that the suppression of the calcium-NFATc3-NR4A1 cascade by these three drugs plays a role in the development of DIGO.


Assuntos
Cálcio/metabolismo , Ciclosporina/toxicidade , Gengiva/patologia , Imunossupressores/toxicidade , Membro 1 do Grupo A da Subfamília 4 de Receptores Nucleares/fisiologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Gengiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Gengiva/metabolismo , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068783

RESUMO

Hydrocephalus is a common complication of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) and reportedly contributes to poor neurological outcomes. In this review, we summarize the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of hydrocephalus following aSAH and summarize its treatment strategies. Various mechanisms have been implicated for the development of chronic hydrocephalus following aSAH, including alterations in cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) dynamics, obstruction of the arachnoid granulations by blood products, and adhesions within the ventricular system. Regarding molecular mechanisms that cause chronic hydrocephalus following aSAH, we carried out an extensive review of animal studies and clinical trials about the transforming growth factor-ß/SMAD signaling pathway, upregulation of tenascin-C, inflammation-dependent hypersecretion of CSF, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, and immune dysregulation. To identify the ideal treatment strategy, we discuss the predictive factors of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus between surgical clipping and endovascular coiling groups. The efficacy and safety of other surgical interventions including the endoscopic removal of an intraventricular hemorrhage, placement of an external ventricular drain, the use of intraventricular or cisternal fibrinolysis, and an endoscopic third ventriculostomy on shunt dependency following aSAH were also assessed. However, the optimal treatment is still controversial, and it necessitates further investigations. A better understanding of the pathogenesis of acute and chronic hydrocephalus following aSAH would facilitate the development of treatments and improve the outcome.


Assuntos
Hidrocefalia/epidemiologia , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hidrocefalia/etiologia , Hidrocefalia/genética , Hidrocefalia/terapia , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/patologia , Inflamação/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Proteínas Smad/genética , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/complicações , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/genética , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/terapia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072833

RESUMO

We developed two models of chemically induced chronic lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis in mice (intratracheally administered hydrochloric acid (HCl) and intratracheally administered nitrogen mustard (NM)) and investigated male-female differences. Female mice exhibited higher 30-day survival and less weight loss than male mice. Thirty days after the instillation of either HCl or NM, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid displayed a persistent, mild inflammatory response, but with higher white blood cell numbers and total protein content in males vs. females. Furthermore, females exhibited less collagen deposition, milder pulmonary fibrosis, and lower Ashcroft scores. After instillation of either HCl or NM, all animals displayed increased values of phosphorylated (activated) Heat Shock Protein 90, which plays a crucial role in the alveolar wound-healing processes; however, females presented lower activation of both transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) signaling pathways: ERK and SMAD. We propose that female mice are protected from chronic complications of a single exposure to either HCl or NM through a lesser activation of TGF-ß and downstream signaling. The understanding of the molecular mechanisms that confer a protective effect in females could help develop new, gender-specific therapeutics for IPF.


Assuntos
Colágeno/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/genética , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Animais , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Ácido Clorídrico/toxicidade , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/induzido quimicamente , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/patologia , Pulmão/patologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/genética , Masculino , Mecloretamina/toxicidade , Camundongos , Proteínas Smad/genética
14.
J Biol Chem ; 297(1): 100858, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097874

RESUMO

Protein aggregation in the outermost layers of the cornea, which can lead to cloudy vision and in severe cases blindness, is linked to mutations in the extracellular matrix protein transforming growth factor-ß-induced protein (TGFBIp). Among the most frequent pathogenic mutations are R124H and R555W, both associated with granular corneal dystrophy (GCD) characterized by the early-onset formation of amorphous aggregates. The molecular mechanisms of protein aggregation in GCD are largely unknown. In this study, we determined the crystal structures of R124H, R555W, and the lattice corneal dystrophy-associated A546T. Although there were no changes in the monomeric TGFBIp structure of any mutant that would explain their propensity to aggregate, R124H and R555W demonstrated a new dimer interface in the crystal packing, which is not present in wildtype TGFBIp or A546T. This interface, as seen in both the R124H and R555W structures, involves residue 124 of the first TGFBIp molecule and 555 in the second. The interface is not permitted by the Arg124 and Arg555 residues of wildtype TGFBIp and may play a central role in the aggregation exhibited by R124H and R555W in vivo. Using cross-linking mass spectrometry and in-line size exclusion chromatography-small-angle X-ray scattering, we characterized a dimer formed by wildtype and mutant TGFBIps in solution. Dimerization in solution also involves interactions between the N- and C-terminal domains of two TGFBIp molecules but was not identical to the crystal packing dimerization. TGFBIp-targeted interventions that disrupt the R124H/R555W crystal packing dimer interface might offer new therapeutic opportunities to treat patients with GCD.


Assuntos
Córnea/ultraestrutura , Distrofias Hereditárias da Córnea/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Agregados Proteicos/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Amiloide/genética , Amiloide/ultraestrutura , Córnea/metabolismo , Distrofias Hereditárias da Córnea/patologia , Cristalografia por Raios X , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Multimerização Proteica/genética
15.
Anticancer Res ; 41(5): 2383-2395, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33952463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: This study aimed to investigate the effect of the new ciprofloxacin chalcone [7-(4-(N-substituted carbamoyl methyl) piperazin-1 yl)] on the proliferation, migration, and metastasis of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell viability, colony formation and cell migration abilities were analysed. Cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were examined by flow cytometry. The molecular mechanism underlying chalcone's activity was investigated using qRT-PCR and western blotting. RESULTS: This new ciprofloxacin chalcone significantly inhibited proliferation, colony formation, and cell migration abilities of both cancer cell lines. Furthermore, it initiated apoptosis and caused cell cycle arrest at G2/M and S phase in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines, respectively. In addition, it up-regulated the expression of pro-apoptotic factors, p53, PUMA and NOXA, and down-regulated the expression of anti-apoptotic factors, MDM2 and MDM4. At the same time, it inhibited epithelial-mesenchymal transition by increasing the expression of E-cadherin and decreasing the expression of TGF-ß1, SNAI1, TWIST1, MMP2, and MMP9. CONCLUSION: This new ciprofloxacin chalcone exhibited promising apoptotic and anti-metastatic activities against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines, and, therefore, is an attractive molecule for drug development in the treatment of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Chalcona/farmacologia , Ciprofloxacina/farmacologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Caderinas/genética , Caderinas/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/genética , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Chalcona/química , Ciprofloxacina/química , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Estrutura Molecular , Proteínas/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Fatores de Transcrição da Família Snail/genética , Fatores de Transcrição da Família Snail/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Proteína 1 Relacionada a Twist/genética , Proteína 1 Relacionada a Twist/metabolismo
16.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(5)2021 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946816

RESUMO

Preclinical studies conducted to date suggest that depression could be elicited by the elevated expression of proinflammatory molecules: these play a key role in the mediation of neurochemical, neuroendocrine and behavioral changes. Thus, this study investigates the effect of chronic mild stress (CMS) and administration of venlafaxine (SSRI) on the expression and methylation status of new target inflammatory genes: TGFA, TGFB, IRF1, PTGS2 and IKBKB, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBCs) and in selected brain structures of rats. Adult male Wistar rats were subjected to the CMS and further divided into matched subgroups to receive vehicle or venlafaxine. TaqMan gene expression assay and methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting (MS-HRM) were used to evaluate the expression of the genes and the methylation status of their promoters, respectively. Our results indicate that both CMS and chronic treatment with venlafaxine were associated with changes in expression of the studied genes and their promoter methylation status in PMBCs and the brain. Moreover, the effect of antidepressant administration clearly differed between brain structures. Summarizing, our results confirm at least a partial association between TGFA, TGFB, IRF1, PTGS2 and IKBKB and depressive disorders.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Inibidores da Recaptação de Serotonina e Norepinefrina/farmacologia , Estresse Psicológico/genética , Transcriptoma , Cloridrato de Venlafaxina/farmacologia , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Quinase I-kappa B/genética , Quinase I-kappa B/metabolismo , Fator Regulador 1 de Interferon/genética , Fator Regulador 1 de Interferon/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Inibidores da Recaptação de Serotonina e Norepinefrina/uso terapêutico , Estresse Psicológico/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Cloridrato de Venlafaxina/uso terapêutico
17.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 116: 12-18, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965526

RESUMO

Triploid induction is a promising biotechnique that could be used to enhance aquaculture yields in the near future. However, studies conducted with several fish species have demonstrated that the presence of an extra set of chromosomes may result in deleterious health effects. Furthermore, studies of fish immune responses still need to be conducted before these specimens can be readily commercialized. In the study presented herein, we evaluated the effects of triploid induction on hematology, erythrocyte morphometry and morphology, phagocytosis, and the expression levels of IL-1ß and TGF-ß using specimens of the Neotropical species, Astyanax altiparanae. In general, the cell counts of erythrocytes, leukocytes, and neutrophils in triploid fish were lower than those in diploid fish. The erythrocytes of triploid fish were larger than those found in diploid fish, but also demonstrated considerably higher frequencies of cellular and nuclear abnormalities. Although not statistically significant, triploid induction resulted in a phagocytic capacity (PC) 20% lower than that found with diploid fish. No notable differences were observed in phagocytic index (PI). Gene expression levels for the cytokine IL-1 were lower in tissues from the head kidney, liver, and spleen of triploid fish with respect to diploid fish. Gene expression levels of TGF-ß were lower only in the spleen of triploids compared to diploids. In conclusion, triploid induction resulted in A. altiparanae specimens with immune impairments and potentially lower resistances to disease and low-quality environments.


Assuntos
Characidae , Imunidade Inata , Triploidia , Animais , Characidae/sangue , Characidae/genética , Characidae/imunologia , Eritrócitos , Feminino , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Testes Hematológicos , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Leucócitos/imunologia , Masculino , Fagocitose , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética
18.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(6): 1126-1137, 2021 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34010604

RESUMO

Dysregulated transforming growth factor TGF-ß signaling underlies the pathogenesis of genetic disorders affecting the connective tissue such as Loeys-Dietz syndrome. Here, we report 12 individuals with bi-allelic loss-of-function variants in IPO8 who presented with a syndromic association characterized by cardio-vascular anomalies, joint hyperlaxity, and various degree of dysmorphic features and developmental delay as well as immune dysregulation; the individuals were from nine unrelated families. Importin 8 belongs to the karyopherin family of nuclear transport receptors and was previously shown to mediate TGF-ß-dependent SMADs trafficking to the nucleus in vitro. The important in vivo role of IPO8 in pSMAD nuclear translocation was demonstrated by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated inactivation in zebrafish. Consistent with IPO8's role in BMP/TGF-ß signaling, ipo8-/- zebrafish presented mild to severe dorso-ventral patterning defects during early embryonic development. Moreover, ipo8-/- zebrafish displayed severe cardiovascular and skeletal defects that mirrored the human phenotype. Our work thus provides evidence that IPO8 plays a critical and non-redundant role in TGF-ß signaling during development and reinforces the existing link between TGF-ß signaling and connective tissue defects.


Assuntos
Doenças Ósseas/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/etiologia , Imunidade Celular/imunologia , Mutação com Perda de Função , Perda de Heterozigosidade , beta Carioferinas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Doenças Ósseas/patologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Criança , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem , Peixe-Zebra , beta Carioferinas/metabolismo
19.
Phytomedicine ; 87: 153552, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33994251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The naturally occurring flavonol fisetin (3,3',4',7-tetrahydroxyflavone), widely dispersed in fruits, vegetables and nuts, has been reported to exert anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-angiogenic effects. Our previous study indicated fisetin ameliorated inflammation and apoptosis in septic kidneys. However, the potential nephroprotective effect of fisetin in hyperuricemic mice remains unknown. PURPOSE: The current study was designed to investigate the effect of fisetin on hyperuricemic nephropathy (HN) and explore the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: The HN was induced in mice by mixing of potassium oxonate (2400 mg/kg) and adenine (160 mg/kg) in male C57BL/6J mice. Fisetin (50 or 100 mg/kg) was orally administrated either simultaneously with the establishment of HN or after HN was induced. As a positive control, allopurinol of 10 mg/kg was included. Uric acid levels in the serum and urine as well as renal function parameters were measured. Renal histological changes were measured by periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and Masson's trichrome stainings. The expression of gene/protein in relation to inflammation, fibrosis, and uric acid excretion in the kidneys of HN mice or uric acid-treated mouse tubular epithelial (TCMK-1) cells were measured by RNA-seq, RT-PCR, western blot and immunohistochemical analysis. RESULTS: Treatment with fisetin, regardless of administration regimen, dose-dependently attenuated hyperuricemia-induced kidney injury as indicated by the improved renal function, preserved tissue architecture, and decreased urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio. Additionally, fisetin lowered uricemia by modulating the expression of kidney urate transporters including urate transporter 1(URAT1), organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1), organic anion transporter 3 (OAT3) and ATP binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2). Moreover, hyperuricemia-induced secretions of proinflammatory factors including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1(MCP-1) in HN mice and uric acid-stimulated TCMK-1 cells were mitigated by fisetin treatment. Meanwhile, fisetin attenuated kidney fibrosis in HN mice with restored expressions of alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), collagen I and fibronectin. Mechanistically, fisetin regulated the aberrant activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) signaling and transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) signaling in the HN kidneys and uric acid-stimulated TCMK-1 cells. CONCLUSION: Fisetin lowered uricemia, suppressed renal inflammatory response, and improved kidney fibrosis to protect against hyperuricemic nephropathy via modulation of STAT3 and TGF-ß signaling pathways. The results highlighted that fisetin might represent a potential therapeutic strategy against hyperuricemic nephropathy.


Assuntos
Flavonóis/farmacologia , Hiperuricemia/tratamento farmacológico , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Nefropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Administração Oral , Animais , Fibrose , Flavonóis/administração & dosagem , Flavonóis/uso terapêutico , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hiperuricemia/patologia , Interleucina-6/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-6/genética , Janus Quinase 2/antagonistas & inibidores , Janus Quinase 2/genética , Janus Quinase 2/metabolismo , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/patologia , Nefropatias/sangue , Nefropatias/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Proteína Smad3/genética , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Ácido Úrico/urina
20.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(6): 1115-1125, 2021 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34010605

RESUMO

Importin 8, encoded by IPO8, is a ubiquitously expressed member of the importin-ß protein family that translocates cargo molecules such as proteins, RNAs, and ribonucleoprotein complexes into the nucleus in a RanGTP-dependent manner. Current knowledge of the cargoes of importin 8 is limited, but TGF-ß signaling components such as SMAD1-4 have been suggested to be among them. Here, we report that bi-allelic loss-of-function variants in IPO8 cause a syndromic form of thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) with clinical overlap with Loeys-Dietz and Shprintzen-Goldberg syndromes. Seven individuals from six unrelated families showed a consistent phenotype with early-onset TAA, motor developmental delay, connective tissue findings, and craniofacial dysmorphic features. A C57BL/6N Ipo8 knockout mouse model recapitulates TAA development from 8-12 weeks onward in both sexes but most prominently shows ascending aorta dilatation with a propensity for dissection in males. Compliance assays suggest augmented passive stiffness of the ascending aorta in male Ipo8-/- mice throughout life. Immunohistological investigation of mutant aortic walls reveals elastic fiber disorganization and fragmentation along with a signature of increased TGF-ß signaling, as evidenced by nuclear pSmad2 accumulation. RT-qPCR assays of the aortic wall in male Ipo8-/- mice demonstrate decreased Smad6/7 and increased Mmp2 and Ccn2 (Ctgf) expression, reinforcing a role for dysregulation of the TGF-ß signaling pathway in TAA development. Because importin 8 is the most downstream TGF-ß-related effector implicated in TAA pathogenesis so far, it offers opportunities for future mechanistic studies and represents a candidate drug target for TAA.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/etiologia , Mutação com Perda de Função , Perda de Heterozigosidade , Fenótipo , beta Carioferinas/genética , Adulto , Animais , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/metabolismo , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Linhagem , Transdução de Sinais , Síndrome , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem , beta Carioferinas/metabolismo
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