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1.
J Cell Sci ; 136(1)2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36602106

RESUMO

Branched epithelial networks are generated through an iterative process of elongation and bifurcation. We sought to understand bifurcation of the mammary epithelium. To visualize this process, we utilized three-dimensional (3D) organotypic culture and time-lapse confocal microscopy. We tracked cell migration during bifurcation and observed local reductions in cell speed at the nascent bifurcation cleft. This effect was proximity dependent, as individual cells approaching the cleft reduced speed, whereas cells exiting the cleft increased speed. As the cells slow down, they orient both migration and protrusions towards the nascent cleft, while cells in the adjacent branches orient towards the elongating tips. We next tested the hypothesis that TGF-ß signaling controls mammary branching by regulating cell migration. We first validated that addition of TGF-ß1 (TGFB1) protein increased cleft number, whereas inhibition of TGF-ß signaling reduced cleft number. Then, consistent with our hypothesis, we observed that pharmacological inhibition of TGF-ß1 signaling acutely decreased epithelial migration speed. Our data suggest a model for mammary epithelial bifurcation in which TGF-ß signaling regulates cell migration to determine the local sites of bifurcation and the global pattern of the tubular network.


Assuntos
Glândulas Mamárias Animais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1 , Animais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/farmacologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Morfogênese , Epitélio/metabolismo , Movimento Celular , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo
2.
Respir Res ; 24(1): 8, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36627645

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung fibroblast activation is associated with airway remodeling during asthma progression. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) plays an important role in the response of fibroblasts to growth factors. This study aimed to explore the effects of SCD1 on fibroblast activation induced by transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1) and the role of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-AKT serine-threonine protein kinase-mechanistic target of rapamycin (PI3K-Akt-mTOR) pathway on the regulation of SCD1 expression in airway remodeling. METHODS: Female C57BL/6 mice were sensitized and challenged with house dust mites to generate a chronic asthma model. The inhibitor of SCD1 was injected i.g. before each challenge. The airway hyper-responsiveness to methacholine was evaluated, and airway remodeling and airway inflammation were assessed by histology. The effects of SCD1 on fibroblast activation were evaluated in vitro using an SCD1 inhibitor and oleic acid and via the knockdown of SCD1. The involvement of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR-sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1) pathway in lung fibroblasts was investigated using relevant inhibitors. RESULTS: The expression of SCD1 was increased in fibroblasts exposed to TGF-ß1. The inhibition of SCD1 markedly ameliorated airway remodeling and lung fibroblast activation in peripheral airways. The knockdown or inhibition of SCD1 resulted in significantly reduced extracellular matrix production in TGF-ß1-treated fibroblasts, but this effect was reversed by the addition of exogenous oleic acid. The PI3K-Akt-mTOR-SREBP1 pathway was found to be involved in the regulation of SCD1 expression and lung fibroblast activation. CONCLUSIONS: The data obtained in this study indicate that SCD1 expression contributes to fibroblast activation and airway remodeling and that the inhibition of SCD1 may be a therapeutic strategy for airway remodeling in asthma.


Assuntos
Asma , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt , Animais , Camundongos , Feminino , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/farmacologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Ácido Oleico/farmacologia , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/genética , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/metabolismo , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/farmacologia , Remodelação das Vias Aéreas , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Transdução de Sinais , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , Asma/patologia , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Sirolimo/farmacologia , Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase/genética , Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase/metabolismo
3.
Pulm Pharmacol Ther ; 78: 102183, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36481301

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In most asthma patients, symptoms are controlled by treatment with glucocorticoid, but long-term or high-dose use can produce adverse effects. Therefore, it is crucial to find new therapeutic strategies. ß-sitosterol could suppress type Ⅱ inflammation in ovalbumin (OVA)-induced mice, but its mechanisms have remained unclear. METHODS: A binding activity of ß-sitosterol with glucocorticoid receptor (GR) was analyzed by molecular docking. Human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) and human bronchial smooth muscle cells (HBSMC) were treated with different concentrations (0, 1, 5, 10, 20, and 50 µg/mL) of ß-sitosterol for suitable concentration selection. In transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß1 treated BEAS-2B and HBSMC, cells were treated with 20 µg/mL ß-sitosterol or dexamethasone (Dex) to analyze its possible mechanism. In OVA-induced mice, 2.5 mg/kg ß-sitosterol or Dex administration was performed to analyze the therapeutic mechanism of ß-sitosterol. A GR antagonist RU486 was used to confirm the mechanism of ß-sitosterol in the treatment of asthma. RESULTS: A good binding of ß-sitosterol to GR (score = -8.2 kcal/mol) was found, and the GR expression was upregulated with ß-sitosterol dose increase in BEAS-2B and HBSMC. Interleukin (IL)-25 and IL-33 secretion was significantly decreased by ß-sitosterol in the TGF-ß1-induced BEAS-2B, and the levels of collagen 1A and α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) were reduced in the TGF-ß1-induced HBSMC. In the OVA-challenged mice, ß-sitosterol treatment improved airway inflammation and remodeling through suppressing type Ⅱ immune response and collagen deposition. The therapeutic effects of ß-sitosterol were similar to Dex treatment in vitro and in vivo. RU486 treatment clearly hampered the therapeutic effects of ß-sitosterol in the TGF-ß1-induced cells and OVA-induced mice. CONCLUSION: This study identified that ß-sitosterol binds GR to perform its functions in asthma treatment. ß-sitosterol represent a potential therapeutic drug for allergic asthma.


Assuntos
Asma , Receptores de Glucocorticoides , Sitosteroides , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Remodelação das Vias Aéreas , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/metabolismo , Colágeno/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Pulmão , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mifepristona/farmacologia , Mifepristona/uso terapêutico , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Ovalbumina , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/farmacologia , Sitosteroides/farmacologia
4.
Metabolism ; 138: 155337, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36273649

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is an active and cellular-driven fibrocalcific process characterised by differentiation of valve interstitial cells (VICs) towards an osteogenic-like phenotype. A recently identified lncRNA, lncTSI, has been reported to inhibit fibrogenesis through transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß/Smad3 pathway. Here, the present study aimed to investigate the role of lncTSI in CAVD. METHODS: The effect of TGF-ß1 on lncTSI of VICs was measured. TGF-ß1, RUNX2 and collagen I expression between calcified aortic valve tissue and normal samples by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Human VICs were cultured and treated with TGF-ß1. SiRNA and pcDNA3.1-lncTSI plasmid transfection were used to silence and overexpress lncTSI in VICs for 48 h, Smads phosphorylation, RUNX2 and collagen I expression were then verified by western blotting. In ApoE-/- mice fed with 0.25 % high-cholesterol diet, AAV2-lncTSI were injected intravenously to observe their effect on the formation of aortic valve calcification. RESULTS: lncTSI was highly expressed in VICs treated with TGF-ß1. lncTSI was transcriptionally regulated by Smad3 and reversely inhibited TGF-ß1-induced Smad3 phosphorylation and downregulated profibrotic gene expression. Silencing lncTSI increased TGF-ß1-induced Smad3 phosphorylation, and subsequently, upregulated RUNX2 and collagen I expressions in VICs. While overexpression of lncTSI reversed the production of RUNX2 and collagen I in VICs. In a mouse CAVD model of 24 week 0.25 % high-cholesterol diet feeding, overexpression of lncTSI significantly reduced calcium deposition, RUNX2, pSmad3, and collagen I expression in aortic valve leaflets, with less aortic valve stenosis. CONCLUSIONS: The novel findings of present study suggested that lncTSI alleviated aortic valve calcification through negative regulation of the TGF-ß/Smad3 pathway. The results may help elucidate new diagnostic and therapeutic targets to prevent CAVD progression.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Valva Aórtica , RNA Longo não Codificante , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Valva Aórtica/metabolismo , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/genética , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Colesterol/metabolismo , Colágeno/metabolismo , Subunidade alfa 1 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/genética , Subunidade alfa 1 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/metabolismo , Osteogênese , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/farmacologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética
5.
Life Sci ; 314: 121279, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36526043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute lung injury (ALI) is associated with high morbidity and mortality and is partly driven promoted by ferroptosis. Proanthocyanidins (PAs) is a natural bioactive flavonoid with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. PAs can also significantly protect against acute lung inflammation and ferroptosis in alveolar epithelial cells. However, it is unclear whether PAs can alleviate ALI by reducing ferroptosis. This study aimed to evaluate the protective effects of PAs and the potential mechanisms against Influenza A virus (IAV)-induced ALI. METHODS: Mice were inoculated nasally with IAV to induce ALI. IAV-induced pulmonary inflammation and ferroptosis was tested by measuring the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4), solute carrier family 7 member 11 (SLC7A11) and acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member (ACSL4) in lung tissue. The potential targets that PAs protect against IAV-induced ALI were determined via a systemic pharmacological analysis. The molecular mechanism of PAs in ALI treatment was investigated by assessing the level of inflammation and ferroptosis markers using Western Blot and quantitative real-time PCR. RESULTS: Systemic pharmacological analysis suggested that PAs protect against IAV-induced pneumonia thorough TGF-ß1 and its relative signaling pathway. PAs effectively alleviated histopathological lung injury, reduced inflammatory cytokines and chemokines secretion, which were increased in IAV-infected mice. Meanwhile, PAs further prevented mouse airway inflammation in ALI, concomitant with the decreased expression TGF-ß1, smad2/3, p-Smad2, p-Smad3 and ferroptosis mediator IFN-γ. Furthermore,IFN-γ promotes cell lipid peroxidation and ferroptosis,PAs significantly reduced MDA and ACSL4 levels and upregulated GSH, GPX4, and SLC7A11. CONCLUSION: Overall, PAs can attenuate ferroptosis against IAV-induced ALI via the TGF-ß1/Smad2/3 pathway and is a promising novel therapeutic candidate for ALI.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda , Ferroptose , Vírus da Influenza A , Influenza Humana , Proantocianidinas , Camundongos , Animais , Humanos , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/farmacologia , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/etiologia , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/prevenção & controle , Interferon gama/farmacologia , Inflamação
6.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2593: 83-92, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36513925

RESUMO

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that exhibit two main characteristics which define stem cells: self-renewal and differentiation. MSCs can migrate to sites of injury, inflammation, and tumor. Moreover, MSCs undergo myofibroblast-like differentiation, including increased production of α-SMA in response to transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß), a growth factor commonly secreted by tumor cells to evade immune surveillance. Based on our previous findings, hMSCs become activated and resemble carcinoma-associated myofibroblasts upon prolonged exposure to a conditioned medium from MDAMB231 human breast cancer cells. In this section, we show using immunofluorescence that keratinocyte-conditioned medium (KCM) induces differentiation of MSCs to resemble dermal myofibroblast-like cells with punctate vinculin staining and F-actin filaments.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Miofibroblastos , Humanos , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/farmacologia , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/farmacologia
7.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0277646, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36508413

RESUMO

Drug repurposing has been shown to bring safe medications to new patient populations, as recently evidenced by the COVID-19 pandemic. We investigated whether we could use phenotypic screening to repurpose drugs for the treatment of Peyronie's disease (PD). PD is a fibrotic disease characterised by continued myofibroblast presence and activity leading to formation of a plaque in the penile tunica albuginea (TA) that can cause pain during erection, erectile dysfunction, and penile deformity. PD affects 3-9% of men with treatment options limited to surgery or injection of collagenase which can only be utilised at late stages after the plaque is formed. Currently there are no approved medications that can be offered to patients presenting with early disease before the formation of the plaque. Drug repurposing may therefore be the ideal strategy to identify medical treatments to address this unmet medical need in early PD. We used primary human fibroblasts from PD patients in a phenotypic screening assay that measures TGF-ß1-induced myofibroblast transformation which is the main cellular phenotype that drives the pathology in early PD. A library of FDA-approved 1,953 drugs was screened in duplicate wells at a single concentration (10 µM) in presence of TGF-ß1. The myofibroblast marker α-SMA was quantified after 72h incubation. A positive control of SB-505124 (TGF-ß1 receptor antagonist) was included on each plate. Hits were defined as showing >80% inhibition, whilst retaining >80% cell viability. 26 hits (1.3%) were identified which were divided into the following main groups: anti-cancer drugs, anti-inflammation, neurology, endocrinology, and imaging agents. Five of the top-ten drugs that increase myofibroblast-transformation appear to act on VEGFR. This is the first phenotypic screening of FDA-approved drugs for PD and our results suggest that it is a viable method to predict drugs with potential for repurposing to treat early PD.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Induração Peniana , Masculino , Humanos , Induração Peniana/tratamento farmacológico , Induração Peniana/patologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/farmacologia , Pandemias , COVID-19/patologia , Pênis/patologia
8.
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 54(6): 1141-1150, 2022 Dec 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36533346

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the role of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)-related hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice were used to establish T2DM model by high-fat diet feeding combined with intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Then, the mice with hyperglycemia were still fed with high-fat diet for nine weeks, and treated with or without 5-HT2A receptor (5-HT2AR) antagonist sarpogrelate hydrochloride (SH) and 5-HT synthesis inhibitor carbidopa (CDP) (alone or in combination). To observe the role of 5-HT in the myofibroblastization of hepa-tic stellate cells (HSCs), human HSCs LX-2 were exposed to high glucose, and were treated with or without SH, CDP or monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) inhibitor clorgiline (CGL). Hematoxylin & eosin and Masson staining were used to detect the pathological lesions of liver tissue section, immunohistochemistry and Western blot were used to analyze protein expression, biochemical indicators were measured by ELISA or enzyme kits, and levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected by fluorescent probe. RESULTS: There were up-regulated expressions of 5-HT2AR, 5-HT synthases and MAO-A, and elevated levels of 5-HT in the liver of the T2DM mice. In addition to reduction of the hepatic 5-HT levels and MAO-A expression, treatment with SH and CDP could effectively ameliorate liver lesions in the T2DM mice, both of which could ameliorate hepatic injury and steatosis, significantly inhibit the increase of hepatic ROS (H2O2) levels to alleviate oxidative stress, and markedly suppress the production of transforming growth factor ß1 (TGF-ß1) and the development of inflammation and fibrosis in liver. More importantly, there was a synergistic effect between SH and CDP. Studies on LX-2 cells showed that high glucose could induce up-regulation of 5-HT2AR, 5-HT synthases and MAO-A expression, increase intracellular 5-HT level, increase the production of ROS, and lead to myofibroblastization of LX-2, resulting in the increase of TGF-ß1 synthesis and production of inflammatory and fibrosis factors. The effects of high glucose could be significantly inhibited by 5-HT2AR antagonist SH or be markedly abolished by mitochondrial 5-HT degradation inhibitor CGL. In addition, SH significantly suppressed the up-regulation of 5-HT synthases and MAO-A induced by high glucose in LX-2. CONCLUSION: Hyperglycemia-induced myofibroblastization and TGF-ß1 production of HSCs, which leads to hepatic inflammation and fibrosis in T2DM mice, is probably due to the up-regulation of 5-HT2AR expression and increase of 5-HT synthesis and degradation, resulting in the increase of ROS production in mitochondria. Among them, 5-HT2AR is involved in the regulation of 5-HT synthases and MAO-A expression.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hiperglicemia , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Glucose/metabolismo , Células Estreladas do Fígado/metabolismo , Células Estreladas do Fígado/patologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/efeitos adversos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Hiperglicemia/patologia , Inflamação , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Monoaminoxidase/efeitos adversos , Monoaminoxidase/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/efeitos adversos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Serotonina/efeitos adversos , Serotonina/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/farmacologia
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(24)2022 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36555512

RESUMO

GEP-NETs are heterogeneous tumors originating from the pancreas (panNET) or the intestinal tract. Only a few patients with NETs are amenable to curative tumor resection, and for most patients, only palliative treatments to successfully control the disease or manage symptoms remain, such as with synthetic somatostatin (SST) analogs (SSAs), such as octreotide (OCT) or lanreotide (LAN). However, even cells expressing low levels of SST receptors (SSTRs) may exhibit significant responses to OCT, which suggests the possibility that SSAs signal through alternative mechanisms, e.g., transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß. This signaling mode has been demonstrated in the established panNET line BON but not yet in other permanent (i.e., QGP) or primary (i.e., NT-3) panNET-derived cells. Here, we performed qPCR, immunoblot analyses, and cell counting assays to assess the effects of SST, OCT, LAN, and TGF-ß1 on neuroendocrine marker expression and cell proliferation in NT-3, QGP, and BON cells. SST and SSAs were found to regulate a set of neuroendocrine genes in all three cell lines, with the effects of SST, mainly LAN, often differing from those of OCT. However, unlike NT-3 cells, BON cells failed to respond to OCT with growth arrest but paradoxically exhibited a growth-stimulatory effect after treatment with LAN. As previously shown for BON, NT-3 cells responded to TGF-ß1 treatment with induction of expression of SST and SSTR2/5. Of note, the ability of NT-3 cells to respond to TGF-ß1 with upregulation of the established TGF-ß target gene SERPINE1 depended on cellular adherence to a collagen-coated matrix. Moreover, when applied to NT-3 cells for an extended period, i.e., 14 days, TGF-ß1 induced growth suppression as shown earlier for BON cells. Finally, next-generation sequencing-based identification of microRNAs (miRNAs) in BON and NT-3 revealed that SST and OCT impact positively or negatively on the regulation of specific miRNAs. Our results suggest that primary panNET cells, such as NT-3, respond similarly as BON cells to SST, SSA, and TGF-ß treatment and thus provide circumstantial evidence that crosstalk of SST and TGF-ß signaling is not confined to BON cells but is a general feature of panNETs.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Humanos , Octreotida/farmacologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/farmacologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/farmacologia , Somatostatina/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Diferenciação Celular , MicroRNAs/farmacologia
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(23)2022 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36499651

RESUMO

Corneal transparency, necessary for vision and depending on the high organization of stromal extracellular matrix, is maintained by keratocytes. Severe or continuous corneal injuries determine exaggerated healing responses resulting in the formation of irreversible fibrotic scars and vision impairment. Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) stimulation demonstrated antifibrotic effects in both experimental fibrosis and human lung and skin fibroblasts. Here, we assessed whether sGC stimulation with BAY 41-2272 could attenuate transforming growth factor ß1 (TGFß1)-induced myofibroblast differentiation of human corneal keratocytes. Cells were challenged with TGFß1, with/without BAY 41-2272 preincubation, and subsequently assessed for viability, proliferation, migration, chemoinvasion, as well for the expression of myofibroblast/fibroblast activation markers and contractile abilities. Treatment with BAY 41-2272 did not affect keratocyte viability, while preincubation of cells with the sGC stimulator was able to inhibit TGFß1-induced proliferation, wound healing capacity, and invasiveness. BAY 41-2272 was also able to attenuate TGFß1-induced myofibroblast-like profibrotic phenotype of keratocytes, as demonstrated by the significant decrease in ACTA2, COL1A1, COL1A2, FN1 and PDPN gene expression, as well as in α-smooth muscle actin, α-1 chain of type I collagen, podoplanin, vimentin and N-cadherin protein expression. Finally, BAY 41-2272 significantly counteracted the TGFß1-induced myofibroblast-like ability of keratocytes to contract collagen gels, reduced phosphorylated Smad3 protein levels, and attenuated gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Collectively, our data show for the first time that BAY 41-2272 is effective in counteracting keratocyte-to-myofibroblast transition, thus providing the rationale for the development of sGC stimulators as novel promising modulators of corneal scarring and fibrosis.


Assuntos
Lesões da Córnea , Ceratócitos da Córnea , Humanos , Ceratócitos da Córnea/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/farmacologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Guanilil Ciclase Solúvel/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Miofibroblastos/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Actinas/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Lesões da Córnea/metabolismo , Fibrose
11.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 381, 2022 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36578010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Airway fibrosis is one of the pathological characteristics of severe asthma. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß has been known to promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition formation and to play a role in the progression of tissue fibrosis. Cellular communication network factor 2 (CCN2) and fibronectin (FN) are well-known markers of EMT and fibrosis. However, whether AREG is involved in TGF-ß-induced CCN2 and FN expression in human lung epithelial cells is unknown. METHODS: AREG and FN were analyzed by immunofluorescence staining on ovalbumin-challenged mice. CCN2 and FN expression were evaluated in human lung epithelial (A459) cells following TGF or AREG treatment for the indicated times. Secreted AREG from A549 cells was detected by ELISA. Cell migration was observed by a wound healing assay. Chromatin immunoprecipitation was used to detect the c-Jun binding to the CCN2 promoter. RESULTS: AREG and FN expression colocalized in lung tissues from mice with ovalbumin-induced asthma by immunofluorescence staining. Moreover, TGF-ß caused the release of AREG from A549 cells into the medium. Smad3 siRNA down-regulated AREG expression. AREG also stimulated CCN2 and FN expression, JNK and c-Jun phosphorylation, and cell migration in A549 cells. AREG small interfering (si) RNA inhibited TGF-ß-induced expression of CCN2, FN, and cell migration. Furthermore, AREG-induced CCN2 and FN expression were inhibited by EGFR siRNA, a JNK inhibitor (SP600125), and an activator protein-1 (AP-1) inhibitor (curcumin). EGFR siRNA attenuated AREG-induced JNK and c-Jun phosphorylation. Moreover, SP600125 downregulated AREG-induced c-Jun phosphorylation. CONCLUSION: These results suggested that AREG mediates the TGF-ß-induced EMT in human lung epithelial cells through EGFR/JNK/AP-1 activation. Understanding the role of AREG in the EMT could foster the development of therapeutic strategies for airway remodeling in severe asthma.


Assuntos
Asma , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Anfirregulina/genética , Anfirregulina/metabolismo , Fibronectinas/metabolismo , Ovalbumina/toxicidade , Fator de Transcrição AP-1/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Asma/metabolismo , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Fibrose , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/farmacologia
12.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 34(11): 1161-1166, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36567559

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of digoxin on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice, and investigate its possible mechanism through in vitro and in vivo experiments. METHODS: (1) In vivo experiment: 60 C57/BL6J mice were randomly divided into control group, pulmonary fibrosis model group (model group), pirfenidone (300 mg/kg) group, digoxin 1.0 mg/kg and 0.2 mg/kg groups, with 12 mice in each group. The pulmonary fibrosis model of mice was reproduced by single intratracheal infusion of bleomycin (5 mg/kg). The control group was given the same amount of sterile normal saline. From the next day after modeling, each group was received corresponding drugs by intragastric administration once a day for 28 days. Control group and model group were given the same amount of normal saline. The mice were sacrificed and the lung tissue was collected to detect the lung coefficient. After hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and Masson staining, the lung tissue morphology and collagen changes were observed under light microscope. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the positive expressions of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and extracellular matrix (ECM) collagen (COL-I and COL-III) in lung tissue. The protein expressions of ECM fibronectin (FN), transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) and phosphorylation of Smad3 (p-Smad3) in lung tissue were detected by Western blotting. (2) In vitro experiment: human embryonic lung fibroblast-1 (HFL-1) cells were cultured and divided into blank control group, fibroblast activation model group (model group), pirfenidone (2.5 mmol/L) group and digoxin 100 nmol/L and 50 nmol/L groups when cell density reached 70%-90%. After 3-hour treatment with corresponding drugs, except blank control group, the other groups were treated with TGF-ß for 48 hours to establish fibroblast activation model. The expressions of α-SMA, FN and p-Smad3 proteins and the phosphorylations of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway proteins PI3K and Akt (p-PI3K, p-Akt) were detected by Western blotting. RESULTS: (1) In vivo, compared with the control group, the alveolar structure of mice in the model group was significantly damaged, a large number of inflammatory cells infiltrated, collagen deposition in the lung interstitium was increased, the deposition of ECM in the lung tissue was also increased, and the expressions of α-SMA, FN, TGF-ß and p-Smad3 protein were increased, indicating that the model of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice was successfully prepared. Compared with the model group, digoxin significantly inhibited airway inflammation and collagen fiber deposition, reduced ECM deposition, and decreased the protein expressions of α-SMA, FN, TGF-ß and p-Smad3, while the effect was better than that of the pirfenidone group, and the digoxin 1.0 mg/kg group had a better effect except FN [α-SMA (A value): 5.37±1.10 vs. 9.51±1.66, TGF-ß protein (TGF-ß/GAPDH): 0.09±0.04 vs. 0.33±0.23, p-Smad3 protein (p-Smad3/GAPDH): 0.05±0.01 vs. 0.20±0.07, all P < 0.01]. (2) In vitro, compared with the blank control group, the expressions of FN, α-SMA, p-Smad3 and PI3K/Akt signaling proteins in the model group were increased, indicating that the fibroblast activation model induced by TGF-ß was successfully reproduced. Compared with the model group, digoxin significantly inhibited fibroblast activation, and decreased the expressions of FN, α-SMA, p-Smad3, and PI3K/Akt pathway proteins, moreover, the effect was better than that of the pirfenidone group, and decreased FN, SMA and p-Akt protein expressions were more obvious in digoxin 100 nmol/L group [FN protein (FN/GAPDH): 0.21±0.15 vs. 0.88±0.22, α-SMA protein (α-SMA/GAPDH): 0.20±0.01 vs. 0.50±0.08, p-Akt protein (p-Akt/GAPDH): 0.30±0.01 vs. 0.65±0.10, all P < 0.01]. CONCLUSIONS: Digoxin could suppress the pulmonary fibrosis in mice induced by bleomycin, which might be associated with the regulation of fibroblast activation via suppressing PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in a dose-dependent manner.


Assuntos
Fibrose Pulmonar , Camundongos , Humanos , Animais , Fibrose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrose Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Proteína Smad3/farmacologia , Digoxina/metabolismo , Digoxina/farmacologia , Digoxina/uso terapêutico , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Solução Salina/uso terapêutico , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/farmacologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/uso terapêutico , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Bleomicina/metabolismo , Bleomicina/farmacologia , Bleomicina/uso terapêutico , Colágeno/metabolismo , Colágeno/farmacologia , Colágeno/uso terapêutico , Fosfatidilinositóis/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositóis/farmacologia , Fosfatidilinositóis/uso terapêutico , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/farmacologia
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36374958

RESUMO

Inactivation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) slows down liver cirrhosis (LC) advancement. The role of circular RNAs (circRNAs) in LC is largely undiscovered. Here, we clarified the effect of circCHD2 on HSCs. LX-2 cells were stimulated with TGF-ß1 to establish a cell model. The circCHD2, miR-200b-3p, and HLF were inspected using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Cell counting kit-8, 5-Ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine, together with colony formation assays were all conducted to analyze cell proliferation. α-SMA and Col1A1 were evaluated by qPCR and Western blot. The targets of circCHD2 and miR-200b-3p were verified by luciferase reporter assay. We found the circCHD2 was upregulated in the patients with LC and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-ß1)-stimulated LX-2 cells. Interfering of circCHD2 inhibited the proliferation induced by TGF-ß1, downregulated α-SMA, and Col1A1. CircCHD2 served as a miR-200b-3p sponge, which directly targeted downstream HLF. Downregulated miR-200b-3p abrogated suppression on the cellular process, α-SMA and Col1A1 levels induced by knockdown of circCHD2. Enforced HLF reversed the effect induced by miR-200b-3p overexpression. Taken together, a loss of circCHD2/miR-200b-3p/HLF axis contributed to alleviate LC progression. The findings suggested that circCHD2 may have potential to be a therapeutic target of LC.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica , Cirrose Hepática , MicroRNAs , RNA Circular , Humanos , Proliferação de Células/genética , Células Estreladas do Fígado/metabolismo , Células Estreladas do Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/genética , Cirrose Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/farmacologia , RNA Circular/genética , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/genética
14.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(46): 51669-51682, 2022 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36367478

RESUMO

Repeated mechanical and chemical insults cause an irreversible alteration of extracellular matrix (ECM) composition and properties, giving rise to vocal fold scarring that is refractory to treatment. Although it is well known that fibroblast activation to myofibroblast is the key to the development of the pathology, the lack of a physiologically relevant in vitro model of vocal folds impedes mechanistic investigations on how ECM cues promote myofibroblast differentiation. Herein, we describe a bio-orthogonally cross-linked hydrogel platform that recapitulates the alteration of matrix adhesiveness due to enhanced fibronectin deposition when vocal fold wound healing is initiated. The synthetic ECM (sECM) was established via the cycloaddition reaction of tetrazine (Tz) with slow (norbornene, Nb)- and fast (trans-cyclooctene, TCO)-reacting dienophiles. The relatively slow Tz-Nb ligation allowed the establishment of the covalent hydrogel network for 3D cell encapsulation, while the rapid and efficient Tz-TCO reaction enabled precise conjugation of the cell-adhesive RGDSP peptide in the hydrogel network. To mimic the dynamic changes of ECM composition during wound healing, RGDSP was conjugated to cell-laden hydrogel constructs via a diffusion-controlled bioorthognal ligation method 3 days post encapsulation. At a low RGDSP concentration (0.2 mM), fibroblasts residing in the hydrogel remained quiescent when maintained in transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-ß1)-conditioned media. However, at a high concentration (2 mM), RGDSP potentiated TGF-ß1-induced myofibroblast differentiation, as evidenced by the formation of an actin cytoskeleton network, including F-actin and alpha-smooth muscle actin. The RGDSP-driven fibroblast activation to myofibroblast was accompanied with an increase in the expression of wound healing-related genes, the secretion of profibrotic cytokines, and matrix contraction required for tissue remodeling. This work represents the first step toward the establishment of a 3D hydrogel-based cellular model for studying myofibroblast differentiation in a defined niche associated with vocal fold scarring.


Assuntos
Miofibroblastos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1 , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/farmacologia , Prega Vocal/metabolismo , Hidrogéis/farmacologia , Hidrogéis/metabolismo , Cicatriz/metabolismo , Adesividade , Fibroblastos
15.
Exp Cell Res ; 421(2): 113410, 2022 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36336027

RESUMO

Benign tracheobronchial stenosis (BTS) is a fatal and incurable disease. Epithelial repair and matrix reconstruction play an important role in the wound repair process. If the interstitial context is not restored and stabilized in time, it can lead to pathological fibrosis. Here we attempted to identify cytokines that are involved in promoting wound repair. Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is a cytokine secreted by tracheal epithelial cells, which is indispensable for the growth of epithelial cells and inhibits the overgrowth of fibroblasts. GDF15 can counteract transforming growth factor-ß (TGFß1) stimulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in tracheal epithelial cells and inhibit fibroblast activation via the TGFß1-SMAD2/3 pathway. In a rat model of tracheal stenosis, GDF15 supplementation alleviated the degree of tracheal stenosis. These results suggest that GDF15 prevents fibroblast hyperactivation and promotes epithelial repair in injured trachea. GDF15 may be a potential therapy to improve benign tracheobronchial stenosis.


Assuntos
Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Estenose Traqueal , Animais , Ratos , Constrição Patológica/metabolismo , Constrição Patológica/patologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fator 15 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/genética , Fator 15 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/metabolismo , Estenose Traqueal/metabolismo , Estenose Traqueal/patologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/farmacologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo
16.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 913979, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36325441

RESUMO

In the adult skeleton, the bone remodeling process involves a dynamic coordination between osteoblasts and osteoclasts, which is disrupted in diseases with high bone turnover rates and dysregulated transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-ß1). However, little is known about how TGF-ß1 signaling mediates bone resorption. Here, we described a pedigree with a heterozygous variant in TGF-ß1 (R218C) that resulted in aberrant activation of TGF-ß1 through an activating mechanism that caused Camurati-Engelmann disease (CED). We showed that CED patients have high levels of active Rho GTPases and the migration-related proteins Integrin ß1 and Integrin ß3 in their peripheral blood. HEK293T cells transfected with a plasmid encoding this mutant expressed high levels of TGF-ß1 and active Rho GTPases. Furthermore, activation of Rho by TGF-ß1 increased osteoclast formation and bone resorption, with increased migration of pre-osteoclasts, as well as cytoskeletal remodeling of pre-osteoclasts and mature osteoclasts. Importantly, pharmacological inhibition of Rho GTPases effectively rescued hyperactive TGF-ß1-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro. Overall, we propose that Rho GTPases mediate TGF-ß1-induced osteoclastogenesis and suggest that Rho-TGF-ß1 crosstalk is associated with high bone turnover in CED.


Assuntos
Reabsorção Óssea , Síndrome de Camurati-Engelmann , Adulto , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/farmacologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Proteínas rho de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Proteínas rho de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Remodelação Óssea
17.
Exp Eye Res ; 225: 109300, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36328302

RESUMO

The purpose of the study was to investigate the role of Prolactin-Induced Protein (PIP) in corneal wound healing, in vivo and in vitro. In C57BL/6J mice, corneal epithelia was removed using an ocular burr. Phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or PIP (0.5 and 1.0 µg/mL) was applied topically or subconjunctivally injected. PIP accelerated wound closure as early as 24 h. PIP treatment promoted corneal wound healing and epithelial integrity and thickness. Integrin α6, integrin ß4, Thrombospondin-1, and TGF-ß1 expressions were all downregulated by PIP after wound closure. In vitro, scratch assays were performed using primary human epithelial cells (HCECs) and human corneal fibroblasts (HCFs), stimulated with PIP at various dosages. PIP treatment promoted both HCECs and HCFs migration. PIP upregulated expression of integrin α6, integrin ß4, and Thrombospondin-1 in HCECs. Expression of TGF-ß1 in HCECs and expression of smooth muscle actin (SMA) and Type III Collagen (Col III) in HCFs were significantly downregulated at 150 ng/mL PIP. PIP exhibits noteworthy anti-fibrotic potentiality. While the mechanism of how PIP is impactful on the corneal wound healing cascade is unknown, our findings are novel and further studies are warranted in order to unravel any therapeutic potential.


Assuntos
Lesões da Córnea , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1 , Camundongos , Animais , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/farmacologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Prolactina/farmacologia , Integrina alfa6 , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Cicatrização/fisiologia , Trombospondinas
18.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0275748, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36288391

RESUMO

Negative air ions (NAIs) being bioactive and negative charged molecules may confer antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. We assessed the effect of NAIs on two inflammatory diseases in animal models including lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced acute lung injury (ALI) and wound healing in diabetic rats. We used intra-tracheal infusion of LPS to induce ALI and made a full-thickness cutaneous wound in streptozotocin-induced diabetic female Wistar rats. We evaluated NAIs effects on reactive oxygen species amount, leukocyte infiltration, wound healing rate, western blot, and immunohistochemistry in the lungs of ALI and skin sections of wounds. Our data found NAIs exposed saline displayed higher antioxidant activity vs. non-exposed saline. NAIs exposure did not significantly affect arterial blood pressure and respiratory frequency in control and LPS treated groups. LPS increased leukocyte infiltration, caspase 3/Poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase-mediated apoptosis formation and decreased Beclin-1/LC3-II-mediated autophagy in lungs. NAIs exposure conferred pulmonary protection by depressed leukocyte infiltration and caspase 3/Poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase mediated apoptosis and enhanced LC3-II-mediated autophagy in LPS induced ALI. NAIs treatment resulted in a significantly accelerated wound closure rate, decreased erythrocyte accumulation and leukocyte infiltration mediated oxidative stress and inflammation, and upregulated expression of skin collagen, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) and factor transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-ß1) vs non-treated group. Based on these results, it is suggested that NAIs conferred a protection through the upregulating LC3-II-dependent autophagy mechanism and downregulating leukocyte infiltration mediated inflammation and caspase 3/Poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase signaling in the LPS-treated ALI and promoted diabetic wound healing through the enhancing skin collagen synthesis, VEGFR-2 and TGF-ß1 pathways.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Ratos , Feminino , Animais , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Caspase 3 , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/farmacologia , Proteína Beclina-1 , Estreptozocina/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/farmacologia , Ratos Wistar , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Cicatrização , Inflamação/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Íons , Fatores de Crescimento Transformadores , Adenosina Difosfato Ribose/farmacologia
19.
Arch Oral Biol ; 144: 105554, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36209542

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Gingival biotype refers to the clinical classification of gingiva based on the thickness of the tissue, with thick gingival tissues more resistant to trauma and recession than the thin variant. However, to date there has never been an analysis of whether fibroblasts isolated from different biotypes possess inherent phenotypic differences. We hypothesized that gingival fibroblasts from thick and thin biotype would exhibit differences in migration, contraction and gene expression in vitro in the presence of either transforming growth factor beta one (TGF-ß1) or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), two major cytokines involved in wound repair. DESIGN: Migration was quantified using closure of scratch wound assays, contraction was assessed using attached and detached collagen lattices and extracellular matrix related gene expression using Taqman Realtime polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Human gingival fibroblasts isolated from both biotypes showed similar rates of closure of scratch wounds, which was not influenced by the addition of TGF-ß1 or TNFα. Fibroblasts from both biotypes contracted detached, but not attached, collagen gels to 50 % of their original weight although this contraction was not associated with incorporation of α-smooth muscle actin into stressfibres under any tested culture condition. Analysis of gene expression showed that POSTN, and ACTA2 mRNA levels did not significantly change, but CCN2 and COL1A2 mRNA levels were significantly higher in thick compared to thin fibroblasts in response to TGF-ß1. CONCLUSION: While supra-cellular factors influence the healing, esthetic outcomes and recession in thin gingival biotypes, differences in gingival fibroblast gene expression in response to growth factors may also play a role and warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Gengiva , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1 , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/farmacologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Colágeno/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica
20.
Nanomedicine (Lond) ; 17(20): 1449-1461, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36205091

RESUMO

Aim: To formulate an injectable thermosensitive micelle-hydrogel hybrid system loaded with celastrol (celastrol-loaded micelle hydrogel: CMG) to prevent posterior capsule opacification (PCO). Materials & methods: Celastrol-loaded micelles were embedded in a thermosensitive hydrogel matrix to enable controlled on-demand celastrol delivery into the residual capsule. The efficacy and mechanisms of the system for eliminating PCO were evaluated in rabbits. Results: Celastrol-loaded micelles inhibited the migration and proliferation of lens epithelial cells induced by TGF-ß1. Celastrol prevents epithelial-mesenchymal transition in lens epithelial cells induced by TGF-ß1 through the TGF-ß1/Smad2/3/TEAD1 signaling pathway. In vivo efficiency evaluations showed that CMG demonstrated an excellent inhibitory effect on PCO in rabbits and had no obvious tissue toxicity. Conclusion: Injectable CMG may represent a promising ophthalmic platform for preventing PCO. This versatile injectable micelle-hydrogel hybrid represents a clinically relevant platform to achieve localized therapy and controlled release of drugs in other disease therapies.


Assuntos
Opacificação da Cápsula , Animais , Coelhos , Opacificação da Cápsula/tratamento farmacológico , Opacificação da Cápsula/prevenção & controle , Opacificação da Cápsula/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/farmacologia , Micelas , Hidrogéis/farmacologia , Nanomedicina , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo
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